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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GUINDY CAMPUS ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI CHENNAI 600 025

ABSTRACT
Degree Branch Month and year of submission Title : BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING : MECHANICAL ENGINEERING : NOVEMBER 2009 : DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR PLACING DIVIDER CONES

Name and Register No of Students : P.ANAND

(20061208) (20061214) (20061228) (20061250)

E.ARUN JEFFERSON J.K.DEVA RAMKUMAR S.KUMARAVADIVEL

Name and Designation of Project Guide : Dr.M.PRADEEP KUMAR

Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engg,


Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai-600 025

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Traffic congestion is a serious problem in most Indian metros. Public transport systems are overloaded, and there is a limit on how much additional infrastructure such as roads and rail lines a city can add. To handle this situation most of the flyovers in Chennai which are meant for one way traffic are switched to two way mode to regulate heavy traffic during peak hours. One such flyover is located in front of Anna University Chennai. During peak hours from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. the flyover in front of Anna University Chennai is converted to two way traffic from one way traffic. This conversion is done manually by police personnel. The police personnel stop any three or four wheeler that is moving on the road and he puts all the divider cones behind the vehicle. As the vehicles moves on the road he drops the divider cones on the markings made on the road. The cones are not properly placed at the centre. This causes disturbance to traffic. The project focus on development of an automated system that will place the divider cones accurately at the desired position. The sequence is automated by a pick and place robotic arm controlled by a microcontroller 89c52. It takes less than a minute to place the 10-12 divider cones automatically. It reduces the work of the police personnel making them to concentrate more on traffic control. The automated system is fool proof even a layman can operate. It plays an important role in regulating traffic. This system can also be used in placing barricades at desired position and also on normal roads to regulate proper movement of vehicle reducing traffic congestion.

PLACE: CHENNAI DATE: P.ANAND E.ARUN JEFFERSON

J.K.DEVA RAMKUMAR

S.KUMARAVADIVEL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful to Dr.M.PRADEEP KUMAR , Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering and our project guide for having rendered excellent and adroit guidance, lucid suggestions and encouragement from the very inception to the successful completion of this project work.

We sincerely thank Dr.S.SAMPATHKUMAR, Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering for allowing us to use laboratory facilities.

It is our privilege to thank Dr.L.KARUNAMOORTHY, Professor and Head, Central Workshop, Department of Mechanical Engineering for extending all support and facilities.

We also thank Dr.LATHA NAGENDRAN, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering for his extended support to complete this project.

We also gratefully acknowledge Dr.E.NATARAJAN, Project coordinator, Department of Mechanical Engineering for his committed efforts in all possible ways and guidance during this project work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CHAPTER

TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS

PAGE NO iii ix x xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. THE GROWTH OF INDIAN ECONOMY IMPACT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ON URBAN TRAFFIC REASON FOR TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN INDIA STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE CONGESTION PROBLEMS IN THE EXISTING SYSTEM OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 3 4 1 1 2 2

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3 DESIGN OF ROBOTIC ARM 3.1 DESIGN OF CROSS SECTION OF BEAM 3.1.1 DESIGN FOR STRENGTH 3.1.2 DESIGN FOR STIFFNESS 3.1.3 CHECK FOR INDUCED STRESS 3.2 3.3 CENTRE MOTOR CALCULATION DESIGN OF SHAFT 3.3.1 DESIGN OF BASE MOTOR

5 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 11

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3.3.2 CHECK FOR INDUCED STRESS 3.4 2D VIEW OF THE PICK AND PLACE ROBOTIC ARM

11 12

4 CONTROL MODULE 4.1 CONTROLLER CIRCUIT 4.1.1 MICROCONTROLLER 89c52 4.1.2 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 4.1.3 RELAY 20

16 16 17 19 20

4.2 EXTERNAL POWER CIRCUIT

5 FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE 5.1 PROTOTYPING THE ARM 5.2 PROTOTYPING THE GRIPPER 5.3 FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE 5.4 WORKING OF PROTOTYPE 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 7 CONCLUSION 8 REFERENCES ANNEXURE AUTOMATION PROGRAMME

22 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO

3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2

DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR BEAM DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR SHAFT COMPONENTS IN CONTROLLER CIRCUIT PIN CONFIGURATION OF 89C52 COMPONENTS IN EXTERNAL POWER CIRCUIT SPEDIFICATIONS OF THE ARM SPECIFICATIONS OF THE GRIPPER

7 11 17 18 21 22 23

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO

1.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.1 5.2 6.1

PRESENT METHOD CROSS SECTION LINE DIAGRAM BEAM SHAFT CONE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR CONTROLLER CIRCUIT PIN DIAGRAM OF 89C52 PIN DIAGRAM OF ULN2004 RELAY CONTACTS BRIDGE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT GRIPPER PROTOTYPE PLACING OF CONE BY ROBOTIC ARM

3 8 12 13 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 22 23 27

LIST OF SYMBOLS

E y Z I b k i steel

Youngs Modulus of Aluminium Yield stress of Aluminium Specific weight of AluminiumNmm-3 Section Modulus Area Moment of Inertia Allowable bending stress Deflection Stiffness Induced stress Shear stress of Steel C60 Co-efficient of friction No unit

Nmm-2 Nmm-2 mm3 mm4 Nmm-2 mm Nmm-1 Nmm-2 Nmm-2