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10/9/2008

MBA Master of Business Administration Crash Course “To reach our greatest potential, we must set
MBA
Master of Business Administration
Crash Course
“To reach our greatest potential, we
must set our sights clearly and
embrace the unknown confidently”
TheNational Organization of Certified PublicAccountants
Riyadh Chapter, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
An association of institutional, professionals, and OFWs
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

THOUGHTS

WITH GOD’s BLESSINGS

I will…

Be too calm for worry, Too noble for anger, And too strong to defeat, I will believe anything is possible, I will walk through fear without hesitation, I will stand for something and,

today

I WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE

“I am committed to treating everyone with courtesy and respect, cultivating relationships by sowing seeds of goodwill and understanding. With attention and care, I will help create an environment where everyone can flourish and grow."

SSIIXX MMAAJJOORR DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTTSS OOFF PPEERRSSOONN’’SS LLIIFFEE FINANCE WORK S SELF HOME & &
SSIIXX MMAAJJOORR DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTTSS OOFF PPEERRSSOONN’’SS LLIIFFEE
FINANCE
WORK
S
SELF
HOME
&
&
KNOWLEDGE
FAMILY
SPIRITUALITY ROMANCE
&
FRIENDSHIP

10/9/2008

SSIIXX MMAAJJOORR DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTTSS OOFF PPEERRSSOONN’’SS LLIIFFEE CIRCLE OF INFLUENCE
SSIIXX MMAAJJOORR DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTTSS OOFF PPEERRSSOONN’’SS LLIIFFEE
CIRCLE OF
INFLUENCE
SSIIXX MMAAJJOORR DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTT OOFF PPEERRSSOONN’’SS LLIIFFEE CIRCLE OF CONCERN
SSIIXX MMAAJJOORR DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTT OOFF PPEERRSSOONN’’SS LLIIFFEE
CIRCLE OF
CONCERN
THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF A PERSON’S NATURE

THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF A PERSON’S NATURE

10/9/2008

FOURFOUR DIMENSIONSDIMENSIONS SOCIAL PHYSICAL Service, Empathy Exercise, Nutrition Synergy Stress Management
FOURFOUR DIMENSIONSDIMENSIONS
SOCIAL
PHYSICAL
Service, Empathy
Exercise, Nutrition
Synergy
Stress Management
Intrinsic Security
SPIRITUAL
MENTAL
Reading, Visualizing
Value Clarification
& Commitment
Study & Meditation
Planning, Writing

THOUGHTS

WITH GOD’s BLESSINGS

I will…

Be too calm for worry, Too noble for anger, And too strong to defeat, I will believe anything is possible, I will walk through fear without hesitation, I will stand for something and,

today

I WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE

“I am committed to treating everyone with courtesy and respect, cultivating relationships by sowing seeds of goodwill and understanding. With attention and care, I will help create an environment where everyone can flourish and grow."

MBA CRASH COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1 – MODULE 1 UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING ORGANIZATIONS DAY 2
MBA CRASH COURSE OUTLINE
DAY 1 – MODULE 1
UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING ORGANIZATIONS
DAY 2 - MODULE 2
HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
DAY 3 - MODULE 3
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
DAY 4 - MODULE 4
MARKETING MANAGEMENT
DAY 5 - MODULE 5
MANAGEMENT CONTROL AND DECISION MAKING
DAY 6
MCDM PRESENTATION AND WRAP UP

10/9/2008

COURSE METHODOLOGY LECTURE & THEORIES CASE ANALYSIS CASE PRESENTATION
COURSE METHODOLOGY
LECTURE & THEORIES
CASE ANALYSIS
CASE PRESENTATION
10/9/2008 COURSE METHODOLOGY LECTURE & THEORIES CASE ANALYSIS CASE PRESENTATION KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT 4
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

KNOWLEDGE

MANAGEMENT

10/9/2008

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

TECHNO CENTRIC
TECHNO
CENTRIC
ORGANI- ZATIO- NAL
ORGANI-
ZATIO-
NAL
ECOLOGI- CAL
ECOLOGI-
CAL
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT DRI VERS Gaining competitive advantage Increasing effectiveness New knowledge creation.
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT DRI VERS
Gaining competitive advantage
Increasing effectiveness
New knowledge creation.
Greater innovation
Better experiences
Consistency in good practices
What is MBA?
What
is
MBA?

10/9/2008

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFIDENCE COMPETENCE COMPETITIVENESS PROFESSIONALISM CAREER MANAGERIAL
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
CONFIDENCE
COMPETENCE
COMPETITIVENESS
PROFESSIONALISM
CAREER
MANAGERIAL
F
U
T
U
RE
DEVELOPMENT
KNOW-HOW
EXISTING
RE-
COMPETITIVENESS
WORK
PROFESSIONAL
INTEG
GROWTH
ENTREPRENEURIAL
PREPARATION
RATION
ADVANCEMENT
RE-INTEGRATION
COMPETITIVE EDGE
MBA PROGRAM Designed to develop individual’s skills: Quantitative Leadership Communication Optimize performance in the

MBA PROGRAM Designed to develop individual’s skills:

Quantitative

Leadership

Communication

Optimize performance in the business world.

to develop individual’s skills: Quantitative Leadership Communication Optimize performance in the business world.

MBA EXPERIENCE

MBA EXPERIENCE

Enhance decision making ability by strengthening:

while being able to negotiate issues

di

Technical
Technical
Analytical
Analytical
Strategic
Strategic

aptitude

regar ng ethical business practices.
regar
ng
ethical business
practices.
regar ng ethical business practices.

10/9/2008

COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE

COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE

COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE Academic Achievement Ability to contribute solutions to organizational problems
COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE Academic Achievement Ability to contribute solutions to organizational problems
COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE Academic Achievement Ability to contribute solutions to organizational problems

Academic Achievement

Ability to contribute solutions to organizational problems contribute solutions to organizational problems

Ability to evaluate and exploit business opportunities evaluate and exploit business opportunities

COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE

COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE

COMMON SKILLS GAINED FROM MBA DEGREE Ability to make decisions with imperfect information Better leadership skills

Ability to make decisions with imperfect information

Better leadership skills and methods to encourage and motivate a team

Better leadership skills and methods to encourage and motivate a team leadership skills and methods to encourage and motivate a team

Better leadership skills and methods to encourage and motivate a team
Clearly and effectively communicate (speaking, writing, using body language)

Clearly and effectively communicate (speaking, writing, using body language) (speaking, writing, using body language)

Clearly and effectively communicate (speaking, writing, using body language)

CAREERS AND SALARIES

MIT (Sloan Management)

Consulting/Strategic Planning

$82,000 - 140,000

Finance (total)

70,000

- 150,000

Finance/

95,000

- 110,000

Investment Banking

 

Finance/Investment

70,000

- 150,000

Management

 

Finance/ Sales & Trading

95,000

- 120,000

Finance/Research

85,000

-

101,076

Finance/Other²

75,000

-

110,000

Operations/Project Management

42,000

-

125,000

Marketing/Sales

60,000

-

132,000

General Management/Leadership

65,000

-

150,000

Development Program

 

Product Management/Development

50,000

-

165,000

Business Development

80,000

-

140,000

Information Technology

Insufficient data

Other

73,500

-

125,000

10/9/2008

CAREERS AND SALARIES

Harvard

Business Development

$ 96,250

108,500

Consulting

116,000

120,000

Finance – Corporate

95,000

100,000

 

Gen. Finance

92,750

97,500

General Management

95,000

110,000

Manufacturing Management

110,000

115,000

Project Management

107,500

110,000

M

ar

k

i

et ng

89,500

1

00,000

Brand/Product Management

90,000

100,000

General Marketing

85,000

100,000

Sales

 

88,500

 

92,000

Strategic Planning

90,000

100,000

Other

 

85,000

102,500

CAREERS AND SALARIES

Maryland Robert Smith School of Business

Compensation Packages:

 

Mean

Median

High

 

Base Salary (US Citizens)

$84,239

$83,000

$110,000

Base Salary (Foreign Nationals) $81,313

$82,000 $115,000

Function

Median

Hi

 

Mean

g

h

Consulting

$93,850

$97,500

$115,000

Finance/Accounting

$81,670

$84,500

$100,000

General Management

$81,909

$84,000

$95,000

Marketing/Sales

$79,286

$80,000

$105,000

MIS

$78,666

$78,000

$83,000

Operations/Production

$78,000

$77,500

$82,000

CAREERS AND SALARIES

AS OF YEAR 2007 CAREER MANAGEMENT CENTER

U.S. Citizens

 
 

Particulars

Mean ($)

Median ($)

High ($)

Low ($)

Base Salary

85,000

88,000

107,000

40,000

Signing Bonus

15,305

12,500

45,000

5,000

Other Guaranteed Comp

15 694

8 000

180 000

889

TOTAL

,

115,999

,

108,500

,

332,000

45,889

Foreign Nationals

 

Particulars

Mean ($)

Median ($)

High ($)

Low ($)

Base Salary

87,030

86,400

97,500

75,000

Signing Bonus

15,450

13,750

45,000

5,000

Other Guaranteed Comp

7,250

7,750

10,000

3,000

TOTAL

109,730

107,900

152,500

83,000

10/9/2008

CAREERS AND SALARIES

AS OF YEAR 2007 CAREER MANAGEMENT CENTER

By Function

 

% Accepting

Mean ($)

Median ($)

High ($)

Low ($)

Particulars

New Jobs

Consulting

6.90%

87,860

90,000

95,000

82,000

Finance/Accounting

12.50%

84,857

80,000

95,000

78,000

Gen. Management

9.70%

78,166

76,000

95,000

60,000

Marketing/Sales

20.80%

81,312

80,750

102,000

45,000

IS Management

5.60%

86,666

85,000

95,000

80,000

Operations/Supply Chain

38.90%

88,867

89,500

107,000

75,000

Others

5.60%

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

MBA Tracks
MBA
Tracks
Two major Units Research Methods Project and Dissertation MBA STAGE Managing Organizations Approaches to Strategic
Two major Units
Research Methods
Project and Dissertation
MBA STAGE
Managing Organizations
Approaches to Strategic Mgt
Change Management
Managing Change
3 Electives
POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA PGD Stage
Nature of Management
Systems Realization
Financial Accounting
Marketing
Enabling Technologies
Management Accounting and
Decision Making
Understanding Organizations
POST GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PGC Stage

10/9/2008

FIRST YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER BA 201Economic Analysis BA 211Management Science BA 220Managerial Accounting and Control

FIRST YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER

BA 201Economic Analysis BA 211Management Science BA 220Managerial Accounting and Control I BA 251Organizational Behavior

SECOND TRIMESTER

BA 221Managerial Accounting and Control II BA 230Marketing Management BA 240Operations Management BA 280.1Fundamentals of Financial Management

THIRD TRIMESTER

BA 243Management of Innovation BA 280.2Corporate Finance and Financial Markets BA 286Management of Information Technology BA 290General Management Elective # 1

SECOND YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER

BA 291.1Strategic Management I Elective # 2 Elective # 3 Elective # 4

SECOND TRIMESTER

BA 291.2Strategic Management II Elective # 5 Elective # 6 Elective # 7

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

SECOND TRIMESTER BA 291.2Strategic Management II Elective # 5 Elective # 6 Elective # 7 COMPREHENSIVE
A. PRE-MBA COURSES (10 units) Applied Mathematic Business Communication Financial Accounting Managerial Statistics
A. PRE-MBA COURSES (10 units)
Applied Mathematic
Business Communication
Financial Accounting
Managerial Statistics
Research for Managements
C. INTEGRATING COURSES (6 units)
Economics for Managers
Strategic Management
D. ELECTIVES & EMPHASIS AREAS (6 units)
a. HUMAN RESOURCE
B. CORE COURSES (30 units)
Business Ethics
Managerial Accounting & Control
IT for Managers
Leadership Effectiveness
Principles & Dynamics of Management
Applied Management Science
Human Resource Management
Financial Management
Operations Management
Marketing Management
b. FINANCE & BANKING
c. OPERATIONS & MANUFACTURING
d. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
e. MARKETING
f. INDUSTRY SECTORS
YEAR 1 Management Control (MC) Human Behavior in Organizations (HBO) Management Communication (MC) Economics
YEAR 1
Management Control (MC)
Human Behavior in Organizations (HBO)
Management Communication (MC)
Economics
Marketing Management (MM)
Operations Management (OM)
General Management (GM)
Development of Enterprise (DE)
Quantitative Analysis (QA)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Language of Business (LOB)
Management Accounting (MA)
Financial Management (FM)
YEAR 2
General Management II (GM)
Development of Enterprise II (DE)
Development Management (DM)
Management Issues in Globalization (MIG)
Asian Business Systems (ABS)
Electives I
Electives II
Human Behavior in Organizations
Action Consultancy (AC)
Management Research Report (MRR)

10/9/2008

TERM 1 Finance 1 Financial reporting and Control Leadership and Organizational Behavior Marketing Technology and
TERM 1 Finance 1 Financial reporting and Control Leadership and Organizational Behavior Marketing Technology and

TERM 1

Finance 1 Financial reporting and Control Leadership and Organizational Behavior Marketing Technology and Operational Management

TERM 2

Business Government and International Economy Strategy The Entrepreneurial Manager Negotiation Finance II Leadership & Corporate Accountability

BBUUSSII NNEESSSS BASI CS BASI CS
BBUUSSII NNEESSSS
BASI CS
BASI CS
ESTABLISHING A BUSINES – MAJOR FRAMEWORKS Defined Infrastructure Organization Structure Job Descriptions Financial
ESTABLISHING A BUSINES – MAJOR FRAMEWORKS
Defined Infrastructure
Organization Structure
Job Descriptions
Financial Operating
Human & Other
Budget
Assets
`
Skills Inventory
Financial Resources
Facilities/Fixed Assets
Financial Controls

10/9/2008

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUSINESS Set Strategies to satisfy key stakeholders STAKEHOLDERS Improved critical business
HIGH PERFORMANCE BUSINESS
Set Strategies
to satisfy key
stakeholders
STAKEHOLDERS
Improved
critical business
processes
PROCESSES
Align
resources
and
RESOURCES
ORGANIZATION
organizations
BEST MANAGED COMPANIES STRUCTURE SYSTEMS STRATEGY SHARED VALUES SKILLS STYLE STAFF
BEST MANAGED COMPANIES
STRUCTURE
SYSTEMS
STRATEGY
SHARED
VALUES
SKILLS
STYLE
STAFF
7 ELEMENTS OF HI GH PERFORMANCE Good Enough is not Enough PEOPLE Acc entuate Creating
7 ELEMENTS OF HI GH PERFORMANCE
Good Enough
is not Enough
PEOPLE
Acc entuate
Creating
the Positive
Emotional
Connections
Aligne d
Purpose, V alues,
and Go als

10/9/2008

Module 1 UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING ORGANIZATION
Module 1
UNDERSTANDING
AND
MANAGING
ORGANIZATION
LEARNING OUTCOMES Organizational histories. Different theories and schools of thoughts Organizational metaphors in
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Organizational histories.
Different theories and schools of
thoughts
Organizational metaphors in
organizational analysis.
Structural types and
configurations of organizations.
Organizational Design
ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW Greek Word – “Organon” – Tool/Instrument Structure or Skeleton Capture and direct
ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW
Greek Word – “Organon” – Tool/Instrument
Structure or Skeleton
Capture and direct system flows
Interrelationships among different parts
Shared values
Shared beliefs
Culture
STRUCTURES – POLICIES –CORPORATE CULTURE

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW Organization stable, formal social structure Inputs Outputs from to Environment Environment
ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW
Organization
stable, formal social structure
Inputs
Outputs
from
to
Environment
Environment
Production Process
HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY Taylorism (scientific mgt) Human relations Neo-human relations System
HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY
Taylorism (scientific mgt)
Human relations
Neo-human relations
System Theory
Contingency theory

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Taylorism (scientific management)

Taylorism (scientific management)

Frederick the Great of Russia – 1740 to 1746

Frederick Taylor – American Engineer (1915)

“Enemy of working man”

Principles of Scientific Management

10/9/2008

 

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

   
Taylorism (scientific management)

Taylorism (scientific management)

  Shift all the responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the
  Shift all the responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the
 

Shift all the responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager.

Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work.

Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work.

Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work.
Select the best person to perform the job designed.
Select the best person to perform the job designed.

Select the best person to perform the job designed.

Train the worker to do the work efficiently.

Train the worker to do the work efficiently.

Train the worker to do the work efficiently.
Train the worker to do the work efficiently.
 
  Monitor work performance - appropriate work procedures are followed - appropriate results are achieved .

Monitor work performance - appropriate work procedures are followed - appropriate results are achieved.

 

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

 
 
  Taylorism (scientific management)  

Taylorism (scientific management)

 

CLEAR DELINEATION OF AUTHORITY    Taylorism (scientific management)   RESPONSIBILITY SEPARATION OF PLANNING FROM OPERATIONS

RESPONSIBILITYmanagement)   CLEAR DELINEATION OF AUTHORITY SEPARATION OF PLANNING FROM OPERATIONS INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR

SEPARATION OF PLANNING FROM OPERATIONS  CLEAR DELINEATION OF AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR WORKERS   TASK SPECIALIZATION

INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR WORKERS 

 

TASK SPECIALIZATIONDELINEATION OF AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY SEPARATION OF PLANNING FROM OPERATIONS INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR WORKERS  

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Human Relations/Neo-Human RelationsTASK SPECIALIZATION HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY Hawthorne Studies - 1920 Hawthorne Plant of

Hawthorne Studies - 1920 Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago

Elton Mayo

RELATIONS BETWEEN CONDITIONS OF WORK, AND BOREDOM AMONG EMPLOYEES

THEORY OF MOTIVATION

10/9/2008

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Systems Theory
Systems Theory

Developed in 1950s and 60s in the Atlantic

Ludwig Von Bertalanffy Theoritical Biologist

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Human Relations/Neo-Human Relations

Human Relations/Neo-Human Relations

Employees are people with complex needs - must be satisfied perform effectively in the workplace,

Employees are people with complex needs - must be satisfied perform effectively in the workplace,

Employees work best when motivated by the tasks - motivation hinges on allowing people to achieve rewards that satisfy their personal needs.

when motivated by the tasks - motivation hinges on allowing people to achieve rewards that satisfy
Human being - psychological organism struggling to satisfy its needs in a quest for full

Human being - psychological organism struggling to satisfy its needs in a quest for full growth and development.

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Systems Theory
Systems Theory

Virtually anything can be defined as a system by drawing a boundary.HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY Systems Theory Complex organisms exist in continuous exchange with

Complex organisms exist in continuous exchange with their environment sustaining life and form.

Complex organisms exist in continuous exchange with their environment sustaining life and form.

Homeostasis – self regulation and ability to maintain a steady state.by drawing a boundary. Complex organisms exist in continuous exchange with their environment sustaining life and

10/9/2008

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY Systems Theory SYSTEMS VIEW OF ORGANIZATION ENVIRONMENT INPUT
HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY
Systems Theory
SYSTEMS VIEW OF ORGANIZATION
ENVIRONMENT
INPUT
OUTPUT
Organization System
Information
Employee
Resources
Satisfaction
TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
Products
Management/Production
Services
Technology
Financial
Profit/
Resources
Losses
FEEDBACK
ENVIRONMENT

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Contingency Theory
Contingency Theory

Organization – Adapt to the environment

British Researchers Tom Burns – G.M. Stalker

HI STORY OF ORGANI ZATI ONAL THEORY

Contingency Theory
Contingency Theory
There is no one best way of organizing . The appropriate form depends on the

There is no one best way of organizing. The appropriate form depends on the kind of task or environment with which one is dealing.

Management must be concerned, above all else, with achieving alignments and “good fits”

Management must be concerned, above all else, with achieving alignments and “good fits”
Different approaches to management maybe necessary to perform different tasks within the same organization.

Different approaches to management maybe necessary to perform different tasks within the same organization.

Different types or species of organizations are needed in different types of environments.

Different types or species of organizations are needed in different types of environments.

10/9/2008

KEY ORGANI ZATI ONAL METAPHORS MACHINE METAPHOR ORGANISM METAPHOR BRAIN METAPHOR POLITICAL METAPHOR CULTURAL
KEY ORGANI ZATI ONAL METAPHORS
MACHINE METAPHOR
ORGANISM METAPHOR
BRAIN METAPHOR
POLITICAL METAPHOR
CULTURAL METAPHOR
FLUX AND TRANSFORMATION
METAPHOR
KEY ORGANI ZATI ONAL METAPHORS IMPLICIT IMAGE WAY OF THINKING METAPHOR WAY OF SEEING GENERAL
KEY ORGANI ZATI ONAL METAPHORS
IMPLICIT IMAGE
WAY OF THINKING
METAPHOR
WAY OF SEEING
GENERAL
UNDERSTANDING

KEY ORGANI ZATI ONAL METAPHORS

METAPHOR INVITES US TO SEE SIMILARITIES

KEY ORGANI ZATI ONAL METAPHORS METAPHOR INVITES US TO SEE SIMILARITIES STRETCHES IMAGINATION – CREATE POWERFUL

STRETCHES IMAGINATION – CREATE POWERFUL INSIGHTS

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS MACHINE ORGANIZATION AS MACHINES - TAYLORISM Organization - instruments to achieve other ends/goals.
ORGANIZATION AS MACHINE
ORGANIZATION AS MACHINES - TAYLORISM
Organization - instruments to achieve other ends/goals.
Now called “BUREAUCRACIES”
Bureaucratic form of organization routinizes the process of
administration as machine routinizes production.
Franchising – form of
mechanistic organization
ORGANIZATION AS MACHINE STRENGTHS Works well under conditions where machines work well. Straightforward task to
ORGANIZATION AS MACHINE
STRENGTHS
Works well under conditions where machines work well.
Straightforward task to perform
Stable environment
Production of the same product time and time again.
Precision is at premium
Human-machine parts are
compliant.
ORGANIZATION AS MACHINE LIMITATIONS Adapting to changing circumstances Results in mindless and questioning
ORGANIZATION AS MACHINE
LIMITATIONS
Adapting to changing circumstances
Results in mindless and questioning bureaucracy.
Undesirable and unanticipated consequences.
De-humanizing effects.

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS

AS ORGANISMS ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS Individuals and groups , like biological organisms, operate
AS ORGANISMS ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS Individuals and groups , like biological organisms, operate
AS ORGANISMS ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS Individuals and groups , like biological organisms, operate

Individuals and groups , like biological organisms, operate most effectively only when their needs are satisfied.AS ORGANISMS ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Like organism –

Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.operate most effectively only when their needs are satisfied. Like organism – conceived as set of

Like organism – conceived as set of interacting subsystemsbiological organisms, operate most effectively only when their needs are satisfied. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISM – HUMAN RELATIONS

 

Self

Encouragement/employee commitment

 

Actualization

Actualization

Job – expressive dimension of employee’s life

 
  Achievement, autonomy, responsibility
  Achievement, autonomy, responsibility

Achievement, autonomy, responsibility

 

Ego

  Ego Enhancing personal identity

Enhancing personal identity

Recognition, awards

Recognition, awards

Work organization-interaction with co-workers

Work organization-interaction with co-workers

Social and sports facilities

Social and sports facilities

Company outings/parties

Company outings/parties

Pension/healthcare plans  

Pension/healthcare plans

 
Job Tenure  

Job Tenure

 

Emphasis on career paths within the organization

Social

Security

Physio-

logical

Salaries and wagesSafe and pleasant working conditions

Safe and pleasant working conditionsSalaries and wages

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS ORGANIZATIONAL SUBSYSTEMS Environment Strategic Technological Subsystem Subsystem ORGANI-
ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS
ORGANIZATIONAL SUBSYSTEMS
Environment
Strategic
Technological
Subsystem
Subsystem
ORGANI-
O
R
G
ANI
-
Managerial
ZATIONAL
ZATIONAL
Subsystem
OUTPUT
INPUT
Human- Structural
Cultural
Subsystem

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS STRENGTHS Understanding of relations between organizations and their environment. Systematic
ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS
STRENGTHS
Understanding of relations between
organizations and their environment.
Systematic attention to the needs in
order to survive .
With different species – alert that
organizations have several options.
Impact to inter-organizational processes.
ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS LIMITATIONS Difficulty of collaborating/cooperating due to several sub-systems. Organization
ORGANIZATION AS ORGANISMS
LIMITATIONS
Difficulty of collaborating/cooperating due
to several sub-systems.
Organization is not functionally unified as
organisms .
Takes a number of forms – not ideal.
ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN Organizations are information systems. Organizations are communication systems .
ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN
Organizations are information systems.
Organizations are communication
systems .
Organizations are decision-making
systems

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN Brain organizations innovate and evolve and skilled at: Systematic problem solving
ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN
Brain organizations innovate and evolve and skilled at:
Systematic problem solving
Experimentation with new approaches.
Learn from experiences and practices of
others
Learn from own experiences and past
history.
Transfer knowledge effectively and quickly
throughout the organization.

ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN

Organization as Holographic Brain

ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN Organization as Holographic Brain Principle 5: Learn to learn Principle 1: Build the

Principle 5:

Learn to learn

Principle 1:

Build the “whole” into the “parts”

Scan and anticipatePrinciple 1: Build the “whole” into the “parts” HOLOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION environmental changes Principle 4:

HOLOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION
HOLOGRAPHIC
ORGANIZATION

environmental changes

Principle 4:

Minimum Specs

Define no more than is absolutely necessary

Double loop learning4: Minimum Specs Define no more than is absolutely necessary Emergent design P r i n

Emergent designno more than is absolutely necessary Double loop learning P r i n c i p

Principle 2:

Importance of

redundancy

In information processing In skills and the design of work

Principle 3: Requisite Variety

Internal complexity – matches the environmentskills and the design of work Principle 3: Requisite Variety Visions, values, and culture as corporate

Visions, values, and culture as

corporate DNA

Networked Intelligence

Structures that reproduces

themselves Holistic teams; diversified roles

ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN STRENGTHS Ability to create Learning Organizations Identify organizational requirements, bring
ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN
STRENGTHS
Ability to create Learning Organizations
Identify organizational requirements,
bring them together and move forward.
Powerful way of thinking about
technology.
Re-thinking of key management principles
and lays new theory of management.

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN LIMITATIONS Problem of self reference – looking of other metaphors to make
ORGANIZATION AS BRAIN
LIMITATIONS
Problem of self reference – looking of other
metaphors to make sense of what we see.
Overlooking important conflicts arising
between learning and self organization.
ORGANIZATION AS POLITICAL SYSTEM Political Issues : Power, authority, superior- subordinate relations . Creation of
ORGANIZATION AS POLITICAL SYSTEM
Political Issues : Power, authority, superior-
subordinate relations .
Creation of order and attention .
Organization – like government employs system of
rule.
Autocracy
Bureaucracy
Technocracy
Codetermination
Representative Democracy
Direct Democracy
ORGANIZATION AS POLITICAL SYSTEM STRENGTHS Contributes to the creation of social order. Explode myth of
ORGANIZATION AS POLITICAL SYSTEM
STRENGTHS
Contributes to the creation of social order.
Explode myth of organizational rationality – importance
of rational, efficient and effective management.
Overcome limitations of organizations as functionally
integrated system.
Understanding of human behavior in an organization – the
political way.
Recognition of socio-political
implications of different kinds
of organization and roles in the
society.

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS POLITICAL SYSTEM LIMITATION We tend to behave politically in relation to what we
ORGANIZATION AS POLITICAL SYSTEM
LIMITATION
We tend to behave politically in relation to what
we see.
Cynicism and mistrust.
Analysis of conflicts, interest and power –
interpretation that everyone tries to maneuver and
outwit the other.
Assumption of pluralism – the
need for groupings, coalition
for power.
ORGANIZATION AS FLUX & TRANSFORMATION

ORGANIZATION AS FLUX & TRANSFORMATION

Greater flexibility and general skills required for organizations in turbulent environment.

Greater flexibility and general skills required for organizations in turbulent environment.ORGANIZATION AS FLUX & TRANSFORMATION Change must become a norm for managers Managers are change agents

Change must become a norm for managers

Change must become a norm for managersand general skills required for organizations in turbulent environment. Managers are change agents for the future.

organizations in turbulent environment. Change must become a norm for managers Managers are change agents for

Managers are change agents for the future.

ORGANIZATION AS FLUX & TRANSFORMATION

ORGANIZATION AS FLUX & TRANSFORMATION

APPROACHES TO CHANGE

APPROACHES TO CHANGE

DESCRIPTIVE APPROACH – Mechanistic for stable environment and organic for unstable environment.

DESCRIPTIVE APPROACH – Mechanistic for stable environment and organic for unstable environment. – Mechanistic for stable environment and organic for unstable environment.

PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH – a planned process:

PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH – a planned process: – a planned process:

environment. PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH – a planned process: Diagnosis of the Problem Planning for Change Launching

Diagnosis of the Problemenvironment. PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH – a planned process: Planning for Change Launching Change Follow-up CULTURAL

Planning for ChangeAPPROACH – a planned process: Diagnosis of the Problem Launching Change Follow-up CULTURAL APPROACH – culture

Launching Changeprocess: Diagnosis of the Problem Planning for Change Follow-up CULTURAL APPROACH – culture is the key

Follow-upof the Problem Planning for Change Launching Change CULTURAL APPROACH – culture is the key to

CULTURAL APPROACH – culture is the key to managerial control, worker commitment and organizational effectiveness. – culture is the key to managerial control, worker commitment and organizational effectiveness.

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES WHAT IS CULTURE?
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES
WHAT
IS
CULTURE?
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitude, experiences, beliefs
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES
Organizational culture,
or
corporate culture,
comprises the attitude,
experiences, beliefs and
values of an
organization.
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES Pattern of development reflected in a society’s system of knowledge, ideology, values,
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES
Pattern of development reflected in a
society’s system of knowledge, ideology,
values, laws, and day-to-day ritual .
Set of assumptions invented and learned by
a group, proven successful – taught to new
members to adopt .
Beliefs and expectations shared by
members.
Habitual ways of feeling, thinking, reacting
applicable at certain point of time.

10/9/2008

ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES FOUR MAIN TYPES OF CULTURE POWER CULTURE – depends on central power
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES
FOUR MAIN TYPES OF CULTURE
POWER CULTURE – depends on central
power source – spreading out to groups.
ROLE CULTURE – role, job descriptions,
more important than the individuals who
fills it.
TASK CULTURE – Job or project orientated –
project teams, task force, formed for
specific purpose.
PERSON CULTURE – Individual is central
point.
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES STRENGTHS Directs attention to the symbolic significance of every aspect of the
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES
STRENGTHS
Directs attention to the symbolic significance
of every aspect of the organization.
Shared systems of meaning – values, beliefs,
language, norms, practices.
Encourage seeing the relations between
organization and its environment.
Contribution to understanding of
organizational change.
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES LIMITATION Changing culture is difficult and takes time – re-inventing and re-positioning.
ORGANIZATION AS CULTURES
LIMITATION
Changing culture is difficult and takes time –
re-inventing and re-positioning.

10/9/2008

EXERCISE WHAT KIND OF ORGANIZATION DO YOU BELONG? YOU WANT TO BELONG TO?
EXERCISE
WHAT KIND OF ORGANIZATION
DO YOU BELONG?
YOU WANT TO BELONG TO?

EXERCISE

Rank each statement in the order of salience.DO YOU BELONG? YOU WANT TO BELONG TO? EXERCISE Count all 1’s for each item (a,

Count all 1’s for each item (a, b, c, d)TO? EXERCISE Rank each statement in the order of salience. WHAT KIND OF ORGANIZATION Write total

WHAT KIND OF ORGANIZATION

Write total numbers on the table.1’s for each item (a, b, c, d) WHAT KIND OF ORGANIZATION EXERCISE The highest score

EXERCISE

The highest score is the dominant culture of the organization

A. POWER

B. ROLE

C. TASK

D. PERSON

10/9/2008

STRUCTURAL TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS

SIMPLE STRUCTURE

10/9/2008 STRUCTURAL TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS SIMPLE STRUCTURE Type of organization common in small businesses Run by

Type of organization common in small businesses10/9/2008 STRUCTURAL TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS SIMPLE STRUCTURE Run by personal control of an individual Owner takes

Run by personal control of an individualSTRUCTURE Type of organization common in small businesses Owner takes most of responsibilities of management If

Owner takes most of responsibilities of managementin small businesses Run by personal control of an individual If with partner – no or

If with partner – no or little clear definition of responsibilitiesOwner takes most of responsibilities of management LIMITATION: Can operate effectively up to a certain size

– no or little clear definition of responsibilities LIMITATION: Can operate effectively up to a certain

LIMITATION:

Can operate effectively up to a certain size

SIMPLE STRUCTURE

Owners Husband-Wife Secretary/ Admin/Accountant
Owners
Husband-Wife
Secretary/
Admin/Accountant
certain size SIMPLE STRUCTURE Owners Husband-Wife Secretary/ Admin/Accountant Sales People/Production Workers, etc. 28

Sales People/Production Workers, etc.

10/9/2008

FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

CHIEF EXECUTIVE PRODUCTION SALES AND FINANCE AND PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT MARKETING ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT
CHIEF
EXECUTIVE
PRODUCTION
SALES AND
FINANCE AND
PERSONNEL
DEPARTMENT
MARKETING
ACCOUNTING
DEPARTMENT

Based on primary activities of the organization

ADVANTAGES

Chief Exec in touch with all operationBased on primary activities of the organization ADVANTAGES Reduces/simplifies control mechanism Clear definition of

Reduces/simplifies control mechanismADVANTAGES Chief Exec in touch with all operation Clear definition of responsibilities Specialist at senior

Clear definition of responsibilitieswith all operation Reduces/simplifies control mechanism Specialist at senior & middle mgt level DISADVANTAGES

Specialist at senior & middle mgt levelcontrol mechanism Clear definition of responsibilities DISADVANTAGES Senior Managers overburdened with routine

DISADVANTAGES

Senior Managers overburdened with routine mattersSpecialist at senior & middle mgt level DISADVANTAGES Senior Managers neglect strategic issues Difficult to cope

Senior Managers neglect strategic issuesSenior Managers overburdened with routine matters Difficult to cope with diversity Coordination between

Difficult to cope with diversitywith routine matters Senior Managers neglect strategic issues Coordination between functions-difficult Failure to adapt

Coordination between functions-difficultwith routine matters Senior Managers neglect strategic issues Difficult to cope with diversity Failure to adapt

Failure to adaptmatters Senior Managers neglect strategic issues Difficult to cope with diversity Coordination between functions-difficult

MULTI-DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE

HEAD OFFICE CENTRAL SERVCS (Fin. HR, etc) Division A Division B Division C Division D
HEAD OFFICE
CENTRAL SERVCS
(Fin. HR, etc)
Division A
Division B
Division C
Division D
Division E
FUNCTIONS
FUNCTIONS
FUNCTIONS
FUNCTIONS
FUNCTIONS

Subdivided into units on basis of: products, services, areas

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Concentration on business area (e.g. product/market)Possible confusion over locus of responsibility.

Possible confusion over locus of responsibility.Concentration on business area (e.g. product/market)

Facilitates measurement of unit performanceConflict between divisions

Conflict between divisionsFacilitates measurement of unit performance

Basis of inter tradingof unit performance Conflict between divisions Ease of addition and divestment of units   Costly

Ease of addition and divestment of unitsConflict between divisions Basis of inter trading   Costly Facilitates senior management attention to

 

Costly 

Facilitates senior management attention to strategyDivision grow too large

Division grow too largeFacilitates senior management attention to strategy

Encourages general management development.Complexity of cooperation-too many divisions.

Complexity of cooperation-too many divisions.Encourages general management development.

HOLDING COMPANY STRUCTURE

PARENT COMPANY Company A Company B Company C Company D Company E
PARENT COMPANY
Company A
Company B
Company C
Company D
Company E

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Low Central OverheadsRisk of individual Business

Risk of individual BusinessLow Central Overheads

Offsetting of Individual Business LossesUnavailability of skills at group level

Unavailability of skills at group levelOffsetting of Individual Business Losses

Cheaper Finance for Individual BusinessesLack of synergy

Lack of synergyCheaper Finance for Individual Businesses

Difficulties of centralized contolCheaper Finance for Individual Businesses Lack of synergy Spreading of risk Ease of divestment Facilitates Devolution

Spreading of riskfor Individual Businesses Lack of synergy Difficulties of centralized contol Ease of divestment Facilitates Devolution

Ease of divestmentfor Individual Businesses Lack of synergy Difficulties of centralized contol Spreading of risk Facilitates Devolution

Facilitates Devolutionfor Individual Businesses Lack of synergy Difficulties of centralized contol Spreading of risk Ease of divestment

10/9/2008

MATRIX STRUCTURE

CHIEF EXECUTIVE Merchandise Trading Finance Marketing Director Director Director Director Trading Companies
CHIEF
EXECUTIVE
Merchandise
Trading
Finance
Marketing
Director
Director
Director
Director
Trading Companies
Europe
USA
Far East
The
Operations

Product Group A

Product Group B

Product Group C

The

Board

Combination of structures taking the form of product and geographical divisions or functional and divisional structures operating in tandem.

ADVANTAGES

Quality of decision making where interests conflictand divisional structures operating in tandem. ADVANTAGES Direct contact replace bureaucracy. Increases managerial

Direct contact replace bureaucracy.Quality of decision making where interests conflict Increases managerial motivation. DISADVANTAGES Length of

Increases managerial motivation.where interests conflict Direct contact replace bureaucracy. DISADVANTAGES Length of time to take decisions. Unclear job

DISADVANTAGES

Length of time to take decisions.bureaucracy. Increases managerial motivation. DISADVANTAGES Unclear job and task responsibilities. Unclear cost and

Unclear job and task responsibilities.motivation. DISADVANTAGES Length of time to take decisions. Unclear cost and profit responsibilities.   High

Unclear cost and profit responsibilities.to take decisions. Unclear job and task responsibilities.   High degree of conflict Development of managers

 

High degree of conflict 

Development of managers through increased involvement in decisions.Dilution of priorities.

Dilution of priorities.Development of managers through increased involvement in decisions.

Creeping bureaucracyHigh degree of conflict Development of managers through increased involvement in decisions. Dilution of priorities.

INTERMEDIATE STRUCTURES Blending of formal structures to a new type of structure to meet environmental
INTERMEDIATE STRUCTURES
Blending of formal structures to a
new type of structure to meet
environmental requirements.
No specific format – creation of
sections, divisions, and other units
depend on strategy to adapt to
environment and resolution of
conflicts.
Example : moving from functional
to divisional depending on
allocation of resources and control.
NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS

NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS

NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS Drive for organizations to become flatter. Organizations managed to be less dependent on
NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS Drive for organizations to become flatter. Organizations managed to be less dependent on

Drive for organizations to become flatter.NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS Organizations managed to be less dependent on particular place of work. By partnership and

Organizations managed to be less dependent on particular place of work.By partnership and collaboration. Operation through linkages

By partnership and collaboration.Organizations managed to be less dependent on particular place of work. Operation through linkages

Operation through linkagesOrganizations managed to be less dependent on particular place of work. By partnership and collaboration.

10/9/2008

NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS APPROACHES CLIENT SERVICE A SERVICE B SERVICE C CLIENT ONE-STOP SHOP : Complete
NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS
APPROACHES
CLIENT
SERVICE A
SERVICE B
SERVICE C
CLIENT
ONE-STOP SHOP : Complete package offering
SERVICE A
SERVICE B
SERVICE C
ONE-START SHOP : Diagnosing client requirements
and referring to appropriate provider
CLIENT
SERVICE A
SERVICE B
SERVICE C
SERVICE NETWORK : Client access all services

MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

Local

Independence

and

Responsiveness

GLOBAL

COORDINATION

 

Low

High

Low

International Divisions
International
Divisions
Global Product Companies
Global
Product
Companies

High

International Subsidiaries
International
Subsidiaries
Transnational Corporations
Transnational
Corporations
ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
ELEMENTS OF
ORGANIZATIONAL
DESIGN

10/9/2008

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

WHAT IS ORGANIZATION DESIGN?

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN FORMAL GUIDED PROCESS FOR INTEGRATING INFORMATION PEOPLE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
FORMAL GUIDED PROCESS FOR INTEGRATING
INFORMATION
PEOPLE
PROCESS
TECHNOLOGY
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN CENTRALIZATION VS. DEVOLUTION ORGANIZATIONAL CONFIGURATION RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND CONTROL
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
CENTRALIZATION VS.
DEVOLUTION
ORGANIZATIONAL
CONFIGURATION
RESOURCE ALLOCATION
AND CONTROL PROCESSES

10/9/2008

CENTRALIZATION VS. DEVOLUTION

CENTRALIZATION VS. DEVOLUTION

MANAGEMENT STYLE – deciding where within structure responsibility for operational and strategic decision making should
MANAGEMENT STYLE – deciding where within structure responsibility for operational and strategic decision making should

MANAGEMENT STYLE – deciding where within structure responsibility for operational and strategic decision making should lie.

DEVOLUTION – Extent to which the center of organization delegates decision making to unit and managers lower down the hierarchy

– Extent to which the center of organization delegates decision making to unit and managers lower

CENTRALIZATION VS. DEVOLUTION

STRATEGIC PLANNING CENTER (Master Planner) Detailed Infrastruc Establishment Budget tures Capital Procedures
STRATEGIC PLANNING
CENTER
(Master Planner)
Detailed
Infrastruc
Establishment
Budget
tures
Capital
Procedures
Allocation
Bargaining
(item by item)
Systems
DIVISION/DEPARTMENT

CENTRALIZATION VS. DEVOLUTION

FINANCIAL CONTROL CENTER (Shareholder/Banker) Performance Targets C ap it a l Bid s Appraisal
FINANCIAL CONTROL
CENTER
(Shareholder/Banker)
Performance
Targets
C
ap
it
a
l Bid
s
Appraisal
DIVISION/DEPARTMENT

10/9/2008

CENTRALIZATION VS. DEVOLUTION

STRATEGIC CONTROL

CENTER

(Strategic Shaper)

Optional Agreed Svcs & Policies Business Infrastruc Plan tures Overall Short Strategy Performance Term
Optional
Agreed
Svcs &
Policies
Business
Infrastruc
Plan
tures
Overall
Short
Strategy
Performance
Term
Capital
Constraints
Balance
Assessment
Allocation

DIVISION/DEPARTMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL CONFIGURATION CONFIGURATION – Detailed Design consisting of building blocks and coordinating mechanisms
ORGANIZATIONAL CONFIGURATION
CONFIGURATION – Detailed Design consisting of building blocks
and coordinating mechanisms
STRATEGIC APEX
MIDDLE LINE
OPERATING CORE
IDIOLOGY (Culture)

FACTORS AFFECTING CONFIGURATION

MUTUAL ADJUSTMENT – informal contact between people in the operating core. – informal contact between people in the operating core.

DIRECT SUPERVISION – degree of control of strategic apex through middle line to the operating core. – degree of control of strategic apex through middle line to the operating core.

STANDARDI ZATI ON OF WORK PROCESSES - how work should be done – analysts role in Techno structure. - how work should be done – analysts role in Techno structure.

STANDARDI ZATI ON OF OUTPUTS – products and services – Service Level Agreements. – products and services – Service Level Agreements.

STANDARDI ZATI ON OF SKI LLS – knowledge and competences in the organization. – knowledge and competences in the organization.

STANDARDI ZATI ON OF NORMS – Organization’s culture. – Organization’s culture.

10/9/2008

FROM TO R E A S O N EXAMPLE CHANGING CONFIGURATIONS - EXAMPLE
FROM TO R E A S O N EXAMPLE CHANGING CONFIGURATIONS - EXAMPLE

FROM

TO

REASON

FROM TO R E A S O N EXAMPLE CHANGING CONFIGURATIONS - EXAMPLE
FROM TO R E A S O N EXAMPLE CHANGING CONFIGURATIONS - EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

CHANGING CONFIGURATIONS - EXAMPLE

Simple Machine Bureaucracy Professional Bureaucracy Machine B u r e a u c r a
Simple Machine Bureaucracy Professional Bureaucracy Machine B u r e a u c r a

Simple

Simple Machine Bureaucracy Professional Bureaucracy Machine B u r e a u c r a c

Machine

Bureaucracy

Simple Machine Bureaucracy Professional Bureaucracy Machine B u r e a u c r a c

Professional

Bureaucracy

Simple Machine Bureaucracy Professional Bureaucracy Machine B u r e a u c r a c

Machine

Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy Machine B u r e a u c r a c y Divisionalized Adhocracy Professional

Divisionalized

Machine B u r e a u c r a c y Divisionalized Adhocracy Professional Network

Adhocracy

Professional

Network

Bureaucracy

Organization

Growth

Growth &

Diversity

Changing

Environments

Dynamic

Environment

Manufacturing

Many Companies

Service

Organizations

Professional

Service Org

RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND CONTROL

PLANNING SYSTEMS – administrative control achieved through systems – administrative control achieved through systems

DIRECT SUPERVISION – control of resource by one or more individuals. – control of resource by one or more individuals.

PERFORMANCE TARGETS - measurement of outputs and performance indicators. - measurement of outputs and performance indicators.

SOCIAL CULTURAL CONTROL – concerned with standardization of norms (culture). – concerned with standardization of norms (culture).

MARKET MECHANISMS – formalized bidding or contracting of resources – formalized bidding or contracting of resources

SELF CONTROL AND PERSONAL MOTIVATION – Importance of individuals in the performance of the organization. – Importance of individuals in the performance of the organization.

JOB DESIGN
JOB DESIGN

10/9/2008

Chief Beer Officer
Chief Beer Officer
JOB DESIGN JOB DESIGN – involves managerial actions and decisions that specify objective job depth,
JOB DESIGN
JOB DESIGN – involves managerial actions
and decisions that specify objective job
depth, range and relations to satisfy
ORGANIZATION REQUIREMENTS
IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
CLOSE GAPS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
JOB CHARACTERISTICS SKILL VARIETY – degree of personal competencies and abilities to carry out the
JOB CHARACTERISTICS
SKILL VARIETY – degree of personal
competencies and abilities to carry out the
job.
TASK IDENTITY – completeness of the job
from beginning to end with visible outcome
TASK SIGNIFICANCE – deegreeee too whichw c
employees perceives the job as having
significant impact on people’s lives.
AUTONOMY – degree to which job provides
freedom, independence and discretion
JOB FEEDBACK – clear and direct
information about effectiveness of
performance – appraisal.

10/9/2008

JOB MODEL CONTENT Job Title Job Title Department Department Reporting Responsibility Reporting Responsibility
JOB MODEL CONTENT
Job Title
Job Title
Department
Department
Reporting Responsibility
Reporting Responsibility
Subordinates
Subordinates
Job Summary
Job Summary
Tasks
Tasks
Knowledge
Knowledge
Skills
Skills
Abilities
Abilities
Work Activities
Work Activities
Education
Education
Minimum Experience in Previous Job(s)
Minimum Experience in Previous Job(s)
Physical Demand
Physical Demand
Environmental Condition
Environmental Condition
Tools and Technology
Tools and Technology
Core Competencies
Core Competencies

JOB MODEL CONTENT

Job

Job

title

title

Reports to

Reports to

Supervises

Supervises

: FI NANCI AL MANAGER

: FI NANCI AL MANAGER

: Group Finance Director

: Group Finance Director

: Asst. Accounts Manager

: Asst. Accounts Manager

Secretary

Secretary

JOB SUMMARY

Direct financial activities, such as planning, procurement, and investments for all or part of an organization.

JOB MODEL CONTENT

TASKS

1. Plan, organize, coordinate, direct and control all functions of finance and account sections

2. Prepare and file annual ZAKAT or prepare financial information in this regard

3. Prepare or direct preparation of financial statements, business activity reports, financial position forecasts, annual budgets, and/or reports required by regulatory agencies.

4. Direct employees performing financial reporting, accounting, billing, collections, payroll, and budgeting duties.

5. Delegate authority for the receipt, disbursement, banking, protection, and custody of funds, securities, and financial instruments.

10/9/2008

JOB MODEL CONTENT

KNOWLEDGE

English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.

Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.

JOB MODEL CONTENT

SKILLS

Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.

Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.

Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.

Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.

JOB MODEL CONTENT

ABILITIES

Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.

Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely

to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is

a problem.

Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.

Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

10/9/2008

JOB MODEL CONTENT

WORK ACTIVITIES

Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.

Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. compile data for financial reports

Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. Analyze financial data. Make revenue forecasts

 

JOB MODEL CONTENT

EDUCATION

Must have at least a Bachelor Degree in Accounting or Finance, preferrably with additional higher specialized certificates in Finance or Management / Cost Accounting, such as CMA, CFM, CPA

MI NI MUM EXPERI ENCE I N PREVI OUS JOB(S)

2

years in the job of Accountant

2

years in the job of Senior Accountant

2

years in the job of chief Accountant or Assistant Accounts Manager

2

years in the job of Accounts Manager

JOB MODEL CONTENT

PHYSICAL DEMAND

Sitting 80% Standing 10% Walking 10% Lift small & low weight objects

ENVI RONMENTAL CONDI TI ON

Normal Office condition

Rare outoor acrtivities

10/9/2008

JOB MODEL CONTENT

TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY

TOOLS USED IN THIS OCCUPATION:

Adding machines — 10-key calculators Desktop computers Notebook computers Personal computers Personal digital assistant (PDA)s or organizers Table computers

TECHNOLOGY USED IN THIS OCCUPATION:

Accounting software Data base user interface and query software Electronic mail software Enterprise resource planning ERP software; SAP software Financial analysis software Office suite software Spreadsheet software Word processing software

JOB MODEL CONTENT

   

LEVELS

 

1

2

3

4

5

Managing Performance

     
Managing Performance        
 

Oral Communication

   
Oral Communication        
   

Diagnostic Information Gathering

   
Diagnostic Information Gathering        
   

Analytical Thinking

     
Analytical Thinking        
 

Written communication

     
Written communication        
 

Technical Expertise

     
Technical Expertise        
 

Descriptions of Levels

Level 5 : Expert Level 4 : Advanced Level 3 : Upper Intermediate Level 2 : Intermediate Level 1 : Basic

JOB DESIGN EXERCISE Describe Your Job
JOB DESIGN
EXERCISE
Describe Your Job

10/9/2008

JOB DESIGN Indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree in each statement. 1
JOB DESIGN
Indicate the extent to which you
agree or disagree in each
statement.
1 – Strongly Disagree
2 – Disagree
3 – Uncertain
4 – Agree
5 – Strongly Agree
JOB DESIGN Sum the points for items 1, 7, 11 Sum the points for items
JOB DESIGN
Sum the points for items 1, 7, 11
Sum the points for items 3, 12, 14
Sum the points for items 5, 9, 15
Sum the points for items 2, 6, 10
Sum the points for items 4, 8, 13
Add up the total scores
JOB DESIGN 1, 7, 11 – Skill Variety 3, 12, 14 - Task Identity 5,
JOB DESIGN
1, 7, 11
– Skill Variety
3, 12, 14 - Task Identity
5, 9, 15
- Task Significance
2, 6, 10
- Autonomy
4, 8, 13
- Job Feedback
60 -75
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE
DESIRABLE PERSONAL & WORK OUTCOMES

10/9/2008

SUMMARY
SUMMARY
SUMMARY Managers and professionals must become skilled in the art of reading situations to become
SUMMARY
Managers and professionals must become
skilled in the art of reading situations to
become effective managers.
Organization is the skeleton of the business –
framework for high performance and best
management.
SUMMARY
Structure is a means to an end (improved
performance – Inappropriate choice of
structure can impede success
There are many type of structures – it is
important to understand their strengths and
weaknesses
Key issue of organizational design is
centralization/devolution decision
Organization design needs attention at
detailed level – building block and
coordinating mechanisms.
CASE STUDY
CASE STUDY

10/9/2008

RATING METHOD LITERATURE /THEORY - 30% ANALYSIS - 30% SUMMARY DELIVERY - 25% PRES.MATERIAL -
RATING METHOD
LITERATURE /THEORY
- 30%
ANALYSIS
- 30%
SUMMARY
DELIVERY
- 25%
PRES.MATERIAL
-
15%
TOTAL SCORE
- 100%
Time is deducted from delivery!
- 15% TOTAL SCORE - 100% Time is deducted from delivery! ANALYZING A CASE SOME TIPS

ANALYZING A CASE

SOME TIPS

SUMMARY

STUDY

WHAT IS

SUMMARY

A

SCORE - 100% Time is deducted from delivery! ANALYZING A CASE SOME TIPS SUMMARY STUDY WHAT

CASE STUDY?

10/9/2008

WHAT IS A CASE STUDY

A description of a situation that has existed or exists within an organisation. SUMMARY

A description of a situation that has existed or exists within an organisation.

SUMMARY

Stories about things that have happened in business.

Stories about things that have happened in business.

Stories about things that have happened in business. WHY SUMMARY A CASE STUDY? WHY A CASE

WHY

SUMMARY

A

CASE STUDY?

WHY A CASE STUDY TO TEST PARTICIPANT’S KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND ABILITY knowledge of the theoretical
WHY A CASE STUDY
TO TEST PARTICIPANT’S
KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND
ABILITY
knowledge of the theoretical
SUMMARY
underpinnings relevant to the question /
case study
understanding of how the theoretical
underpinnings would help solve a
question or problem
ability to formulate specific conclusions
or recommendations of practical
managerial value

10/9/2008

IMPLICATION OF CASE STUDIES

10/9/2008 IMPLICATION OF CASE STUDIES SUMMARY TO MANAGERIAL PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Management is not often about the

SUMMARY

TO

MANAGERIAL

PRACTICE

IMPLICATIONS Management is not often about the solution of clear, focused, simple problems. Management is
IMPLICATIONS
Management is not often about the solution
of clear, focused, simple problems.
Management is more about the untangling
of a complex problem to identify the
SUMMARY
underlying issues.
Identification of appropriate methods of
solving these underlying issues.
Distinguish between symptoms- often the
most visible and immediate signs of
problems- and underlying causes.

THE HOW TO’s OF A CASE STUDY

SUMMARY

the most visible and immediate signs of problems- and underlying causes. THE HOW TO’s OF A
the most visible and immediate signs of problems- and underlying causes. THE HOW TO’s OF A

10/9/2008

HOW TO’s

1. READ THROUGH – DEVOTE TIME TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CASE

Which organisations and industries does it relate to? SUMMARY how has it p erformed in

Which organisations and industries does it relate to?

SUMMARY

how has it

p

erformed in the

ast?

p

Is the organisation doing well or badly now, and

Is it a company that has an unbroken record of success? Or a successful company that has fallen on hard times?

What are the main issues and choices confronting the company?

Is it in an expanding industry, or a maturing one?Or a successful company that has fallen on hard times? What are the main issues and

HOW TO’s

1. READ THROUGH – DEVOTE TIME TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CASE

Who are the customers? Are customer needs changing? SUMMARY Or is there a p Does

Who are the customers? Are customer needs changing?

SUMMARY

Or is there a

p

Does the firm confront a variety of opportunities?

articular business decision that the

case is oriented towards?

What information is there in the case, as tables and annexes?

Allow the case to ‘speak to you’- carefully consider the questions posed, rather than impose your views on the case.

 

HOW TO’s

2.

UNDERTAKE A MORE RIGOROUS STUDY OF THE CASE

 
Make notes of the issues to be addressed and the underlying theory that is involved

Make notes of the issues to be addressed and the underlying theory that is involved

 
SUMMARY time – successes - failures Look at the development of the organization over Use

SUMMARY

time – successes - failures

Look at the development of the organization over

Use tools and techniques of management theories?SUMMARY time – successes - failures Look at the development of the organization over

 

Analyze data and available information. 

Use SWOT Analysisthe organization over Use tools and techniques of management theories?   Analyze data and available information.

10/9/2008

HOW TO’s

3.

RELATE THE ANALYSIS TO SPECIFIC SETS OF QUESTIONS

 

What elements of the strategic

 
SUMMARY th e t as k , an d h ow d o th analysis

SUMMARY

th

e

t

as

k

, an

d h

ow

d

o

th

analysis do you require to carry out

l

t

t

o

it?

ey re a e

Is there further information or analysis that you need?

 

HOW TO’s

4.

BE LOGICAL AND CRITICAL

Think hard about your conclusions and recommendations.
Think hard about your conclusions and recommendations.

Think hard about your conclusions and recommendations.

SUMMARY

Have you really demonstrated them,

backing up your reasoning with evidence

(events and results) from the case study?

Have you allowed yourself to be swayed by the opinions of the organisation’s own managers?

Have you allowed yourself to be swayed by the opinions of the organisation’s own managers? They have a vested interest in showing their actions in the best possible light. You do not have to agree. Do the facts support their claims of success, or their excuses for failure?

HOW TO’s

4. BE LOGICAL AND CRITICAL

excuses for failure? HOW TO’s 4. BE LOGICAL AND CRITICAL Have you distinguished symptoms from causes?

Have you distinguished symptoms from causes?

CRITICAL Have you distinguished symptoms from causes? ’ SUMMARY Use theory to analyse the manager’s explanations.

SUMMARY

CRITICAL Have you distinguished symptoms from causes? ’ SUMMARY Use theory to analyse the manager’s explanations.

Use theory to analyse the manager’s

explanations.

10/9/2008

HOW TO’s

4. MAKE SURE TO BE CLEAR WHAT YOU ARE RECOMMENDING

In developing recommendations

WHAT YOU ARE RECOMMENDING In developing recommendations Consider alternatives SUMMARY Make clear why the

Consider alternatives

SUMMARY

Make clear why the recommendations you have made is the best.

Look at the downside of the proposal – not to cause failure or easily copied by competitors.

HOW TO’s Bear in mind that there may be more than one acceptable answer. The
HOW TO’s
Bear in mind that there may be more than
one acceptable answer.
The fact that your answer might differ
from someone else’s (or, even, everyone
SUMMARY
else’s) does not mean that they are right
and you are wrong (or vice versa).
If everyone’s answer is based on proper
study, appropriate theory, proper analysis
and logical conclusions, then everyone
might be right, even if they have different
answers.
proper analysis and logical conclusions, then everyone might be right, even if they have different answers.
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
proper analysis and logical conclusions, then everyone might be right, even if they have different answers.