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Gurung 11 Chemistry HL


Prathamesh Aher 11 A Partner: Pranay Meghchiani

Identity of gas investigation

Aim To identify and validate that the gas produced when Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate react, is Carbon Dioxide. Introduction The identity of any gas can be obtained by determining its relative molar mass. The relative molar mass is basically the sum of all the atomic mass of all elements in a compound. In theory, there are a number of ways to find the identity of gas. However, in this experiment, the ideal gas equation will be used to identify the gas. The equation is as follows:-

Where, P is the pressure of the gas in Pascals (Nm-2) V is the volume in m3, N is the number of moles of the gas, R is the gas constant, which is 8.314JK-1mol-1 , and T is the temperature of the gas. Once the values of 3 of the variables are found, the rest can be calculated through mathematical deduction. In this case, n (the number of moles) will be calculated by mathematical deduction. This is because it will directly help in calculating the molar mass of the gas, thus identify its identity. ( Thus, )
( )

, ( )

In theory we know that when Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate react, water, Calcium Chloride and Carbon Dioxide are produced. This experiment will test how much CO2 is produced, and whether it is actually carbon dioxide. This equation and the reaction are given by:-

CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Mr. Gurung 11 Chemistry HL



Prathamesh Aher 11 A Partner: Pranay Meghchiani

Weighing Scale Calcium Carbonate powder (250g) Hydrochloric Acid (500ml) 100 cm3 Conical Flask Gas Syringe Gas Tube Pressure and Temperature Sensor
Procedure Firstly, we will need to make the reaction take place. This is done by putting Calcium Carbonate powder (fixed amount), in a conical flask, and then pouring Hydrochloric Acid (200 ml) in it, or vice versa. Then quickly put the bunk on the mouth of the flask to avoid any gas from escaping. Make sure the reaction has taken place fully. After it appears that the reaction has stopped, stir the flask anyways to make sure the reactants have completely reacted. Record the reading on the syringe, as it will be the volume of the gas. Wait for about 30 seconds, and then remove the tube from the syringe and seal the opening. The syringe will move outwards, as the pressure inside, will equal to the pressure outside. This means that the gas will be at atmospheric pressure. Remove the seal and then insert the pressure sensor from the opening and record the pressure. Then insert the temperature sensor and record the temperature of the gas (inside the syringe). Lastly, weigh the syringe after the experiment, and then release the gas from the syringe and weigh the syringe. The difference between the two masses will give us the mass of the gas. And as previously mentioned we can calculate the molar mass of the gas using the equations mentioned beforehand. Repeat the experiment for varying masses of Calcium Carbonate with 200 ml of Hydrochloric acid.

Mr. Gurung 11 Chemistry HL Data Collection * Mass of CaCO3 (Grams) +/- 0.005 1 2 3 4 25 50 75 100


Prathamesh Aher 11 A Partner: Pranay Meghchiani

Volume (dm3) +/- 0.005

Pressure (Pascal) +/- 0.005

Temperature (Kelvin) +/- 0.005

Trial Number

Mass of gas (Mass of syringe after Mass of syringe before) (Grams) +/- 0.005 10.99 21.98 32.97 43.96

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

6138 12274 18412 24550

295.7 295.7 295.7 295.7

Mass of gas (Mass of syringe after Mass of syringe before) Moles of Calculated (Grams)+/- 0.005 CO2 R.A.M 10.99 0.2498 43.99 21.98 0.4995 44.004 32.97 0.7493 44.001 43.96 0.9991 43.99

Average Calculated R.A.M =

+/- 0.011

*The data presented in the data collection is solely based on assumptions, and theory. This is because the equipment in the laboratory and time were not sufficient to actually carry out the experiment. However, these calculations and assumptions were made taking into perspective experimental errors and can still be evaluated to find out the identity of the gas. Qualitative Observations When CaCO3 powder was added to HCl in the flask, the ingredients bubbled suggesting the release of gas. After the reaction had taken place, it stopped to bubbled, and the gas was collected in the gas syringe which was connected to the top of the flask. The syringe moved back suggesting that gas had entered the syringe. White colored solution was left in the flask.

Mr. Gurung 11 Chemistry HL Data Processing Sample calculation 1. Calculating the number of moles (n)


Prathamesh Aher 11 A Partner: Pranay Meghchiani

2. Calculating the Relative Atomic Mass ( ) ( )

Calculated R.A.M compared to actual R.A.M


Calculated R.A.M






43.5 1 2 Trial Number 3 4

Mr. Gurung 11 Chemistry HL


Prathamesh Aher 11 A Partner: Pranay Meghchiani

Conclusion and Evaluation After analyzing the data, it can be confirmed that the gas released during the reaction between HCl and CaCO3 was CO2. This is because, the average molar mass of the gas that was collected in the syringe was calculated to be approximately 43.995, and the molar mass of CO2 is also 44.

CO2 R.A.M = 14 + (2 X 16.0) = 44

The values of the R.A.Ms extremely close, and are concrete enough for us to hypothesize and validate that the gas released by the reaction of Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate produced CO2 gas.

The graph of the number of calculated R.A.M replicated a plateau, which shows that a consistent value for R.A.M was found throughout all the trials. Since, the experiment wasnt actually carried out, there were no uncertainties appearing from systematic or random error. However, if the experiment was actually done in a lab, there would be a number of sources for errors. Some of them include:

Instrumental Error - Fault in the calibration of the weighing scale. - The syringe is not allowed to move freely, thereby affecting the pressure reading. - The gas pipe leaks/ is not fixed properly resulting in a loss of CO2 gas, which directly affects the results. Systematic Error - Fault in the method of using instruments. E.g. not fully inserting the pressure sensor inside the syringe, thereby affecting the reading. - The syringe is not fully pushed inside and adjusted to show the reading of 0cm3 before carrying out the experiment.

If the data were to be collected, the precision level and the accuracy of the instruments would vary greatly. This is because of all the errors will influence the precision level as mentioned before. This is because it is very hard to measure any quality of a gas. Especially the mass, it is because gas is very hard to contain, and can flow out of the smallest gaps which might reduce the amount of CO2 being measured. Gas also happens to be extremely light in nature compared to solids and liquids and most of the scales are not precise enough to measure the change in mass of a syringe with gas and without gas.

Mr. Gurung 11 Chemistry HL


Prathamesh Aher 11 A Partner: Pranay Meghchiani

And given that this experiment will be done in a school laboratory, the equipment will not be of such standards that the results will be unquestionable, and reliable. To further improve the precision level and the reliability of the data. The experiment should be conducted in a gas cupboard, just to make sure that the environment is more controlled. The air inside the flask must first be sucked out using a vacuum to make sure there is no air adding to the mass or volume of our reading. The Calcium Carbonate powder should not be impure to make sure that the reactants react fully.