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The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles

and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart. The biggest bone in the body is the femur in the thigh, and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle ear. In an adult, the skeleton comprises around 30-40% of the total body weight,[1]and half of this weight is water. Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: there are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each other. The hyoid bone, which is located in the neck and serves as the point of attachment for the tongue, does not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and ligaments. Sitting, standing,walking,picking up a pencil and taking a breath all involve the skeletal system, we have no rigid framework to support the soft tissues of the body and no system of joints an levers so critical for movement. Skeleton is derived from a Greek word meaning dried. Despite of this concept of the skeleton as dry and nonliving, the skeletal system actually consists of dynamic, living tissues that are capable of growth, detect pain stimuli, adapt to stress and undergo repair after injury.

1. Functions of The Skeleton

The skeleton serves six major functions.

The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The pelvis and associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the ribs, costal cartilages, and the intercostal muscles, the lungs would collapse. Cartilage provides a firm yet flexible support within certain structures such a s the nose, external ear, thoracic cage and trachea. Ligaments are strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to bones and hold them together.

The joints between bones permit movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement, all coordinated by the nervous system. Skeletal muscles are attach to bones by tendons, which are strong bands of connective tissues. Contraction of the skeletal muscles moves the bones producing body movements.

The skeleton protects many vital organs:

The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord. The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels. The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder. The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip. The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively. The carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively.

Blood cell production

The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, which takes place in red bone marrow. Marrow is found in the center of long bones that gives rise to blood cells and platelets.

Bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store ironin ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not entirely made of calcium,but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone.

Endocrine regulation
Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar(glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat

2.Types of Bones *Compact bone

compact bone, also called cortical bone,

dense bone in which the bony matrix is solidly filled

with organic ground substance and inorganic salts, leaving only tiny spaces (lacunae) that contain the osteocytes, or bone cells. Compact bone makes up 80 percent of the human skeleton; the remainder is cancellous bone, which has a spongelike appearance with numerous large spaces and is found in the marrow space (medullary cavity) of a bone. Both types are found in most bones. Compact bone forms a shell around cancellous bone and is the primary component of the long bones of the arm and leg and other bones, where its greater strength and rigidity are needed. Mature compact bone is lamellar, or layered, in structure. It is permeated by an elaborate system of interconnecting vascular canals, the haversian systems, which contain the blood supply for the osteocytes; the bone is arranged in concentric layers around these canals, forming structural units called osteons. Immature compact bone does not contain osteons and has a woven structure. It forms around a framework of collagen fibres and is eventually replaced by mature bone in a remodeling process of bone resorption and new bone formation that creates the osteons.

osteocyte ( s t - -s t )
n. A branched cell embedded in the matrix of bone tissue.

the basic unit of structure of compact bone, comprising a haversian canal and its concentrically arranged lamellae. Called also haversian system.


Long bone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Parts of a long bone

The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with anepiphysis at the ends of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with a hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result ofendochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone(GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The long bones include the femurs, tibias, and fibulas of the legs, the humeri, radii, and ulnas of the arms, metacarpals andmetatarsals of the hands and feet, and the phalanges of the fingers and toes. The long bones of the human leg comprise nearly half of adult height. The other primary skeletal component of height is the spine and skull. The outside of the bone consists of a layer of connective tissue called the periosteum. Additionally, the outer shell of the long bone is compact bone, then a deeper layer of cancellous bone(spongy bone) which contains red bone marrow. The interior part of the long bone is the medullary cavity with the inner core of the bone cavity being composed of (in adults) of yellow marrow.

Short bones
Definition Short bones in the human body are cubelike -- the length, width, and height measurements are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones (hands, wrist) and tarsal bones (feet, ankles).

Flat bone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flat bones are those bones which are found where the principal requirement is either extensive protection or the provision of broad surfaces for muscular attachment. These bones are expanded into broad, flat plates,[1] as in the cranium (skull), the ilium (pelvis), sternum, rib cage, the sacrum and the scapula. These bones are composed of two thin layers of compact bone enclosing between them a variable quantity of cancellous bone,[1] which is the location of red bone marrow. In an adult, most red blood cells are formed in flat bones. In the cranial bones, the layers of compact tissue are familiarly known as the tables of the skull; the outer one is thick and tough; the inner is thin, dense, and brittle, and hence is termed the vitreous table.[1] The intervening cancellous tissue is called the diplo, and this, in certain regions of the skull, becomes absorbed so as to leave spaces filled with air (air-sinuses) between the two tables.[1] The flat bones are: the occipital, parietal, frontal, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, scapula, os cox (hip bone),sternum, and ribs.[1]

Irregular bone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The irregular bones are bones which, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long bone, short bone, flat bone or sesamoid bone. Irregular bones serve various purposes in the body, such as protection of nervous tissue (such as the vertebrae protect the spinal cord), affording multiple anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment (as with the sacrum), and maintainingpharynx and trachea support, and tongue attachment (such as the hyoid bone). They consist ofcancellous tissue enclosed within a thin layer of compact bone. The irregular bones are: the vertebr, sacrum, coccyx, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic,maxilla, mandible, palatine, inferior nasal concha, and hyoid.

Sesamoid bone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. Sesamoids are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint, such as the hand, knee, and foot. Functionally, they act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect. The presence of the sesamoid bone holds the tendon slightly farther away from the center of the joint and thus increases itsmoment arm. Sesamoid bones also prevent the tendon from flattening into the joint as tension increases and therefore also maintain a more consistent moment arm through a variety of possible tendon loads. This differs from menisci, which are made of cartilage and rather act to disperse the weight of the body on joints and reduce friction during movement.

sutural bone variable and irregularly shaped bones in the sutures between the bones of the skull

1. The human skeleton is made of 206 bones and divided in to axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton

Axial skeleton (80 bones)

(i) Cranial bones - 8 flattened bones, which are tightly inter locked forming a

brain box or cranium. Brain is protected in it.

8 Cranial Bones: 1 x Ethmoid Bone 1 x Frontal Bone 1 x Occipital Bone 2 x Parietal Bones 1 x Sphenoid Bone 2 x Temporal Bones

(ii) Facial bones -14 bones from the front part of the skull (Nose, hard palate and lower jaw).

14 Facial Bones: 2 x Inferior Nasal Conchae 2 x Lacrimal Bones 1 x Mandible 2 x Maxillae (pl.); Maxilla (sing.) 2 x Nasal Bones 2 x Palatine Bones 1 x Vomer 2 x Zygomatic Bones

(iii) Hyoid bone - 1 bone placed at the floor of the buccal cavity. (iv)Middle car bones - 3 pairs (malleus, incus, stapes) located in the mid{dle}

ear of both sides.

Bones of the Cranium Ethmoid Floor of the cranium, inferior to the frontal bone and anterior to the sphenoid. Non-technically: Centre of the face, behind the nose. Forehead, extending down to form the Forms part of the nasal cavity and the orbits. Main support structure of the nasal cavity


upper surfaces of the orbits. Anterior roof of the skull. Occipital Back and base of the cranium, forms the back of the skull. Non-technically: Lower back of the head. The occipital condyles (rounded surfaces at the base of the occipital bone) articulate with the atlas (first vertebra of the spine), enabling movement of the head relative to the spine. Has a large opening called the Foramen Magnus which the spinal cord passes through.

Parietal Sphenoid

Top and sides of the cranium, posterior roof of the skull. Anterior to the temporal bones and Articulates with the frontal, parietal and forms the base of cranium - behind the temporal bones. orbitals. Consists of a body, two "wings" and two "pterygoid processes" (not labelled on diagrams) that project downwards. Sides of the skull, below the parietal bones, and above and behind the ears


Bones of the Face Hyoid In the neck, below the tongue (held in place by ligaments and muscles between it and the styloid process of the temporal bone). Supports the tongue, providing attachment sites for some tongue muscles, and also some muscles of the neck and pharynx. (Commonly fractured during strangulation, so studied in autopsies if strangulation suspected.) Contain foramina for the nasolacrimal ducts (tear ducts). Bone into which the lower teeth are attached. The only moveable facial bone; motion of this bone is necessary for chewing food (the first stage of the digestion process). Each side of the mandible has a condyle and a coronoid process. The condyle articulates with the temporal bone to form the temporomandibular joint. Bone into which the upper teeth are attached. Each maxilla contains a maxillary sinus that drains fluid into the nasal cavity.


Behind and lateral to the nasal bone, also contribute to the orbits. (Smallest bones in the face.) Known as the lower jaw bone. Also forms the chin and sides of the face. (Largest, strongest facial bone.)



Upper jaw bone, which also forms the lower parts of the orbits.

Nasal Palatine

Pair of small oblong bones that form the bridge and roof of the nose. Back of the roof of the mouth (hence not Form the bottom of the orbitals and illustrated above). Small "L-shaped" nasal cavities, and also the roof of the bones. mouth.

Turbinator Also known as Turbinate Form the nasal cavities. Bone and Nasal Concha. These terms refer to any of three thin bones that form the sides of the nasal cavity (not illustrated in the diagrams above). Vomer Thin roughly triangular plate of bone on Separates the nasal cavities into left and the floor of the nasal cavity and part of right sides. the nasal septum. Articulates with the frontal, maxilla, sphenoid and temporal bones.

Zygomatic Also known as Zygoma and Malar Bone. Commonly (non-medically) referred to as the Cheek Bone because it forms the prominent part of the cheeks. Also contributes to the orbits.

Vertebral column
It is situated on the mid-dorsal line and forms an axis to which all other parts of the skeleton remain attached. It is made of 26 small bones called vertebrae. They are grouped in to five types: Atlas is the first vertebra and the skull rests on it Axis is the second vertebra. The skull and Atlas together rotates on the axis.

Cervical-Consists of 7 vertebrae of the neck region. Thoracic-Consists of 12 vertebrae of the thoracic region. Lumbar-consists of 5 vertebrae of abdominal region.

Sacral - consists of 1 vertebra of the hip region (5 vertebrae fused to form one piece). Coccyx-consists of 1 vertebra and represents a vestigial tail (4 vertebrae fused to form one piece).

It is also called as the breast bone and is a flat and narrow bone of approximately 15cms in length. It is situated along the mid{dle} line of the thorax (chest).


Ribs have two facets, which articulate ventrally to the sternum and dorsally to the thoracic vertebrae. 12 pairs of ribs are classified as follows: 1-7 pairs: True ribs as they are directly attached to the sternum. 8-10 Pairs: False ribs as they are not directly attached to the sternum but through the true ribs. 11-12 Pairs: Floating ribs as they are very short and are not connected to the sternum The thoracic vertebrae, ribs and sternum together form the 'rib cage' and provide protection to the heart and lungs

The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Composed of two bones

Claviclecollarbone Scapulashoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

Pectoral girdle
Each half of the pectoral girdle consists of a clavicle and a scapula, clavicle is a long bone with two curves. Scapula forms the shoulder blade. There is a ridge called spine is present diagonally across the triangular body of the scapula with a process called acromion It articulates with the clavicle. Below acromion process is a depression called glenoid cavity, which articulates with the head of the humerus.

Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)

It consists of fore limbs, hind limbs, pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle. Each fore-limb has 30 bones (fig 5.6). Humerus (upper arm) = 1 Radius & ulna (lower arm) = 2 Carpals (wrist) = 8 Metacarpals (Palm) = 5 Phalanges (fingers) = 14 Each hind-limb has 30 bones (fig 5.7) Femur (thigh bone-longest bone of the body) = 1 Tibia & fibula (shank) = 2 Patella (knee cap) = 1 Tarsal (ankle) = 7

Metatarsals (foot) = 5 Phalanges (toes) = 14

The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the pectoral girdles (4), the upper limbs (60), the pelvic girdle (2), and the lower limbs (60). Their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of locomotion, digestion, excretion, and reproduction

Girdle bones provide a connection between the axial skeleton and limbs. Each girdle is formed of two halves.

Pelvic girdle
Each half of the pelvic girdle consists of ileum, ischium and pubis. Ileum is the largest where as pubis and ischium are inferior and are situated anteriorly and

posteriorly. Acetabulum is a cavity formed at the point of fusion of the three bones. The head of femur articulates with acetabulum. The pubis of the two sides articulate at the median line to form the pubic symphysis. Between the pubis and ischium is an opening for the passage of blood vessels and nerves called obturator foramen.

Conditions & Disorders of the Skeletal System

1. Types of Fractures (and their causes) A fracture is breakage of a bone, this breakage may be complete or incomplete. 1. Simple A clean break of the bone with little or no break in the overlying skin. 2. Greenstick An incomplete break of the bone in which part of the outer shell (cortex) remains intact. This occurs particularly in children, who have more flexible bones than adults. 3. Compound (also known as "Open") A broken bone that pierces the overlying skin. 4. Comminuted A fracture in which the bone is broken into more than two pieces. A crushing force is usually responsible and there is extensive injury to surrounding soft tissues is common. 5. Impacted A fracture in which the bones involved are driven into each other. 6. Complicated A broken bone that also involves damage to other organs - in addition to broken Bone(s) and possibly also broken skin. An example is a broken rib that punctures a lung. 2. Postural Deformities (in Vertebral Column) 1. Kyphosis Excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing hunching of the back. 2. Lordosis Inward curvature of the spine. Some lordosis in the lumbar and cervical regions of the spine is normal. Exaggerated lordosis may occur in adolescence - possibly as a result of faulty posture, or due to disease affecting the vertebrae and spinal muscles. 3. Scoliosis Lateral (sideways) deviation of the spine. Scoliosis may be caused by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the vertebrae, muscles, and/or nerves. Treatment may involve the use of spinal braces and, in cases of severe deformity. surgical correction by fusion or osteotomy.

3. Other Skeletal Conditions (and their causes and effects) Condition Arthritis Cause Over 200 diseases may cause arthritis, including: Effect Swelling, warmth, redness of the overlying skin, pain, restriction of

Inflammation of one or more joints

osteoarthritis motion. rheumatoid arthritis gout tuberculosis, and other infections. Osteo Osteo-arthritis is due to wear of The joints are painful and stiff with Arthritis the articulatory cartilage, and may restricted movement. Degenerative lead to secondary changes in the joint disease underlying bone..

Rheumatoid Arthritis (The second most common form of arthritis, after osteo arthritis)

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease of the synovial lining of joints: The joints are initially painful, swollen, and stiff and are usually affected symmetrically.

As the disease progresses the ligaments supporting the joints are damaged and there is erosion of the bone, leading to deformity of the joints. Tendon sheaths can be affected, leading to tendon rupture.

Bone Cancer


Osteoporosis Loss of bone tissue.

Bone cancer may occur as a secondary cancer from, for example, prostate cancer Gout is caused by a defect in uric acid balance in the metabolism resulting in an excess of the acid and its salts (urates) which then accumulate in the bloodstream and joints, respectively. Infection, injury and synovitis can cause localized osteoporosis of adjacent bone.

Damage to stem cells (the cause of leukaemia). Gout can result in attacks of acute gouty arthritis, chronic destruction of the joints, and deposits of urates (tophi) in the skin and cartilage especially of the ears. Bones that are brittle and liable to fracture.

Rickets Childhood disease

Rickets is a childhood condition caused by insufficient vitamin D and Calcium

Bow legs.


1. Growth and development


Is a condition of abnormally increased size that usually involves excessive endochondral growth at the epiphyseal plates of long bones

1.2Dwarfism The condition in which a person is abnormally small, may result from improper growth in the epiphyseal plates

1.3Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteo bone Genesis production

A group of genetic disorders producing very brittle bones that are easily fractured occurs because insufficient collagen is formed.

Collagen normally strengthens bones and makes them flexible.

In severe cases, prenatal fractures of the limbs often occur in the fetus. These fractures usually heal in poor alignment, causing the limbs to appear bent and shortened. In less severe cases the disease first becomes apparent during childhood.

1.4Rickets ( to twist, bones become twisted) Is a condition involving growth retardation resulting from nutritional deficiencies either in minerals (calcium and phosphate) necessary for normal ossification or in vitamin D, which is necessary for calcium and phosphate absorption. The condition results in bones that are soft , weak, and easily broken.

Rickets most often occurs in children who receive inadequate amounts of sunlight. (Necessary for vitamin D production by the body) and whose diets are deficient in vitamin D.

2. Bacterial Infections

2.1Osteomyelitis Osteo bone Myelos marrow It is inflammation

Is bone inflammation that often results from bacterial infection and it can lead to complete destruction of the bone

Staphylococcus Staphyle a bunch of grapes

Kokkos a berry

These describe the organization and shape of the bacterium

Staphylococcus is introduced into the body through wounds

2.2Tuberculosis is primarily a lung disease, but it can also affect bones

3. Decalcification 3.1Osteomalacia ( adult rickets) Osteo bone Malakia softness

This is the softening of bones, results from calcium depletion from bones.

If the bod has an unusual need if calcium (e.g pregnancy when fetal growth requires large amounts of calcium) , it may be removed from the mothers bones, which consequently soften and weaken. this can result from vitamin D deficiency.

3.2Osteoporosis Osteo bone Poros pore Osis condition

Result from the reduction in the overall quantity of bone tissue

4. Tumors

There are many types of bone tumors with a wide range of resultant bone defects Tumors maybe benign or malignant.

Malignant may metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body or may result from metastasizing tumors elsewhere