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EFFECTS OF FLOODS Floods destroy drainage systems in cities, causing raw sewage to spill out into bodies of water.

Also, in cases of severe floods, buildings can be significantly damaged and even destroyed. This can lead to catastrophic effects on the environment as many toxic materials such as paint, pesticide and gasoline can be released into the rivers, lakes, bays, and ocean, killing maritime life. Floods may also cause millions of dollars worth of damage to a city, both evicting people from their homes and ruining businesses. Floods cause significant amounts of erosion to coasts, leading to more frequent flooding if not repaired. However, floods do make a slight positive impact on the environment. Floods spread sediment containing beneficial nutrients to topsoil that might never arrive there otherwise Effects of Volcanoes Volcanoes are hazardous to wildlife and humans alike. Ash Fall Mount St. Helens eruption in 1980 caused a heavy ash fall, crushing building and covering fields, electronics, and machinery. Wind carried it 22,000 square miles from the volcano itself, creating a huge problem for all Americans in the west.

Volcanic Gases Mount Pinatubo's devastating explosion on June 15, 1991 resulted in an incredible surge of sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere where it combined with water to form sulfuric acid. The new aerosol deteriorated the Earth's

ozone layer by altering the chlorine and nitrogen compounds, and it also lowered the Earth's surface temperature. But even when a volcano isn't erupting, it emits gases from fumaroles, cracks or openings from the ground. Most of these gases is water vapor which combines with carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and fluorine to produce harmful gases such as acid rain. As a result of this dry acid deposition, damages to forests and soils, animals, plants, human health are prominent, along with visibility reduction. The extra carbon dioxide in the air will result in animal and human deaths and the fluorine will poison wildlife and contaminate water supplies. Landslides Landslides are also very common with volcanoes. The terrible shaking of an eruption causes the loose debris on the side of the mountain to rapidly fall down its steep flank. However, debris avalanches may also be caused by earthquakes or heavy rainfall. Mount St. Helens eruption caused the largest volcano landslide in recorded history, while Mount Rainier have had at least five large avalanches within the past 6,00 years. Such massive landslides result in a complete burial of surrounding cities and the obliteration of wildlife and such.

Lahars However, of all the effects of volcanoes, mudflows or lahars are the deadliest. Debris flows of mud, rock, and water travel down the flank and into valleys and streams at velocities of 20 mph to 40 mph. Some of the most extreme cases

have lahars with a consistency of wet concrete flowing up to 50 miles. They destroy houses, trees, and huge boulders like a flood.