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# Designing an electrical

installation

Beginner Guide

Designing an electrical installation (Beginner Guide)
Romanian Electro Trade, Engineering & Consulting

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SUMMARY

1. Consumers list....5

1.1. Definition of voltage ranges..5
1.2. Installed power loads - characteristics....6
1.2.1. Induction motors......6
1.2.2. Resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps
(conventional or halogen)...8

2. Power balance..12

2.1.1. Installed power (kW).12
2.1.2. Installed apparent power (kVA)....13
2.1.3. Estimation of actual maximum kVA demand...13
2.1.4. Example of application of factors k
u
and k
s
...16
2.1.5. Diversity factor..17
2.2. Choice of transformer rating..17
2.3. Example....18

3. Single line diagram......19

4. Study of each electrical section...21

4.1. Determination of the rated current of the protective devices.....21
4.2. Determination of the sections of cables.22
4.2.1. Determination of conductor size for unburied circuits..23
4.2.2. Determination of conductor size for buried circuits......27
4.2.3. Sizing the neutral conductor..31
4.2.3.1. Influence of the earthing system....31
4.2.3.2. Influence of harmonic currents...31
4.2.3.3. Protection of the neutral conductor....33
4.2.3.4. Breaking of the neutral conductor......34
4.2.3.5. Isolating of the neutral conductor...35
4.2.4. Sizing the protective earthing conductor (PE)..35
4.2.4.1. Connection..35
4.2.4.2. Type of materials....36
4.2.4.3. Conductor sizing.37
4.2.5. Calculation of L
max.
for a TN-earthed system, using the
conventional method.39
4.2.6. Rules fore marine electrical cables according Bureau Veritas..40
4.3. Determination of the voltage drop.46
4.3.1. Maximum voltage drop limit.....46
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Romanian Electro Trade, Engineering & Consulting

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4.3.3. Examples.......49
4.4. Determination of the short-circuit currents......51
4.4.1. Calculation of maximum short-circuit currents in electrical ship mains
according GERMANISCHER LLOYD SCC363.EXE.51
4.4.1.1. Principles of the calculation...52
4.4.1.2. Structure of the Ship Mains to be calculated..54
4.4.1.3. Asymmetric short circuit55
4.4.1.4. Remarks on input data and components.55
4.4.1.5. Simplified calculation.59
4.4.1.6. Selection of switch gear.60
4.4.4.7. The documentation.60
4.4.2. Short-circuit current calculation according BUREAU VERITAS61
4.4.2.1. Main methods.61
4.4.2.2. Theoretical considerations..62
4.4.2.3. Formulas.67
4.4.2.4. Selection of protective devices...69
4.5. Worked example of cable calculation....71
4.6. Choice of the protective devices.....74
4.6.1. The basic functions of LV switchgear.......74
4.6.2. Elementary switching devices.......72
4.6.2.1. Disconnector (or isolator)...78
4.6.2.3. Bistable switch (tlrupteur)..79
4.6.2.4. Contactor80
4.6.2.5. Fuses...84
4.6.2.5. Circuit breaker87
4.6.3. Combined switchgear elements.93
4.6.3.1. Switch and fuse combinations94
4.6.3.2. Fuse - disconnector + discontactor,
Fuse - switch-disconnector + discontactor.95
4.6.3.3. Circuit-breaker + contactor circuit-breaker + discontactor96
4.6.4. Selection of a circuit breaker.96
4.6.4.1. Choice of a circuit breaker..96
4.6.4.2. The selection of main and principal circuit-breakers..99
4.6.5. Protection of circuits according GL102
4.6.6. Protection of circuits according Bureau Veritas..102
4.7. Selectivity of the protections.....103
4.7.2. Discriminative tripping (selectivity)...103

5. Electrical machines........109

5.1. Induction motors....109
5.1.1. The basic functions of the motor-starters....109
5.1.2. The motor start solutions.....110
5.1.2.1. D.O.L. solutions...110
5.1.2.2. Star-delta solution.114
5.1.2.3. Star-double star solution (Dahlander connection)116
5.1.3. Variable speed drives for asynchronous motors (Altivar 38)..116
Designing an electrical installation (Beginner Guide)
Romanian Electro Trade, Engineering & Consulting

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5.1.3.1. Applications..116
5.1.3.2. Functions..117
5.1.3.3. Options.....117
5.1.3.4. Characteristics..118
5.1.3.5. Special uses..118
5.1.3.6. Connection diagrams....120
5.2. Connection diagrams for synchronous generators....126
5.3. Connection diagrams for DC- Motors.....127
5.4. Protection of motors according Bureau Veritas.....128
5.5. Protection of generators....129
5.6. Transformers.132
5.6.1. Basic principals.......132
5.6.2. Circuit symbols....133
5.6.3. Transformers types......133
5.6.4. Vectors-groups of transformers...135
5.6.5. Important equations.........138
5.6.6. Protection of transformers according Bureau Veritas.....139

6. Technical information...140

6.1. Degrees of protection provided by enclosures....140
6.2. Degrees of protection against mechanical impact......142
6.3. Minimum required degrees of protection on ships (Bureau Veritas)...143

Lexicon145

Bibliography...150

Designing an electrical installation (Beginner Guide)
Romanian Electro Trade, Engineering & Consulting

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CHAPTER
1

1. Consumers list

The first step for the designing of an electrical installation, whatever will be, involve
the knowledge en detail of whole consumers which utilize her. In general the minimum of
information required per consumer are:
the type end the value of the power supply (alternative three-phase electrical
voltage, D.C. voltage etc.);
the electrical power of the consumer;
the rated current of the consumer;
the number of consumers of the same type.

In ships the principal consumers, supplied directly from the main switchboard, are:
lighting equipment,
power equipment,
heating equipment,
control & signaling,
warming equipment,
fire pumps,
bilge pumps,
steering gear,
lateral thruster,
sprinkler equipment,
variable pitch propeller systems,
CO
2
system,
auxiliary services for main engine,
panels for ship and engine control.

1.1. Definition of voltage ranges

IEC voltage standards and recommendations

The nominal voltage of existing 220/380 V and 240/415 V systems shall evolve
toward the recommended value of 230/400 V. The transition period should be as short as
possible and should not exceed the year 2008. During this period, as a first step, the
electricity supply authorities of countries having 220/380 V systems should bring the
voltage within the range 230/400 V +6 %, -10 % and those of countries having 240/415 V
systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +10 %, -6 %. At the end of
this transition period, the tolerance of 230/400 V 10 % should have been achieved; after
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this the reduction of this range will be considered. All the above considerations apply also
to the present 380/660 V value with respect to the recommended value 400/690 V.

Fig. 1.1. Standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V

1.2. Installed power loads - characteristics

The examination of actual values of apparent-power required by each load enables the
establishment of:
a declared power demand which determines the source for the supply of energy;
the rating of the HV/LV transformer, where applicable (allowing for expected
levels of load current at each distribution board.

1.2.1. Induction motors

Current demand
a
supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae:
3-phase motor:
cos 3
000 , 1

U
P
I
n
a
;
1-phase motor:
cos
000 , 1

U
P
I
n
a
where
I
a
- current demand (in amps);
P
n
- nominal power (in kW of active power);
U - voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals for
single-phase motors (in volts). A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to-neutral
or phase-to-phase;
- per-unit efficiency, i.e. (output kW)/( input kW);
cos - power factor, i.e. (kW input)/( kVA input).

Subtransient current and protection setting
Subtransient current peak value can be very high; typical value is about 12 to 15 times
the RMS rated value I
nm
. Sometimes this value can reach 25 times I
nm
.
Merlin Gerin circuit-breakers, Telemecanique contactors and thermal relays are
designed to withstand motor starts with very high subtransient current (subtransient peak
value can be up to 19 RMS rated value I
nm
).
If unexpected tripping of the overcurrent protection occurs during starting, this means
the starting current exceeds the normal limits. As a result, some maximum switchgears
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withstands can be reach, life time can be reduce and even some devices can be destroyed.
In order to avoid such a situation, oversizing of the switchgear must be considered.
Merlin Gerin and Telemecanique switchgears are designed to ensure the protection of
motor starters against short circuits. According to the risk, tables show the combination of
circuit breaker, contactor and thermal relay to obtain type 1 or type 2 coordination.

Motor starting current
Although high efficiency motors can be find on the market, in practice their starting
currents are roughly the same as some of standard motors.
The use of start-delta starter, static soft start unit or speed drive converter allows to
reduce the value of the starting current (Example: 4I
a
a
).

Compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors
It is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the current
supplied to induction motors. This can be achieved by using capacitors without affecting
the power output of the motors.
The application of this principle to the operation of induction motors is generally
referred to as power-factor improvement or power-factor correction.
The apparent power (kVA) supplied to an induction motor can be significantly
reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. Reduction of input kVA means a
corresponding reduction of input current (since the voltage remains constant).

Fig. 1.2. Rated operational power and currents
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Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate for
long periods at reduced power.
As noted above cos = (kW input)/(kVA input) so that a kVA input reduction in kVA
input will increase (i.e. improve) the value of cos.
The current supplied to the motor, after power-factor correction, is given by:
' cos / cos
a
I where cos is the power factor before compensation and cos is the
power factor after compensation, I
a
being the original current.
It should be noted that speed drive converter provides reactive energy compensation.
Figure 1.2. below shows, in function of motor rated power, standard motor current values
for several voltage supplies.

1.2.2. Resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps
(conventional or halogen)

The current demand of a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is easily obtained
from the nominal power P
n
quoted by the manufacturer (i.e. cos = 1) (see Fig. 1.3.).

Fig. 1.3. Current demands of resistive heating and incandescent
lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances

The currents are given by:
3-phase case:
U
P
I
n
a

3

1-phase case:
U
P
I
n
a

where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment.
For an incandescent lamp, the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated light
source. The light output is increased and the lifetime of the lamp is doubled.
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Note: At the instant of switching on, the cold filament gives rise to a very brief but
intense peak of current.
Fluorescent lamps and related equipment
The power P
n
(watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the
power dissipated in the ballast.
The current is given by:
cos
+

U
P P
I
n ballast
a

If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast, a figure of 25% of P
n
may be used.

Standard tubular fluorescent lamps
The power P
n
(watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the
power dissipated in the ballast.
The current taken by the complete circuit is given by:
cos
+

U
P P
I
n ballast
a

where U is the voltage applied to the lamp, complete with its related equipment.
With (unless otherwise indicated):
cos = 0.6 with no power factor (PF) correction ( capacitor);
cos = 0.86 with PF correction (single or twin tubes);
cos = 0.96 for electronic ballast.

Fig. 1.4. Current demands and power consumption
of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 230 V-50 Hz)

Fig. 1.5. Current demands and power consumption of compact
fluorescent lamps (at 230 V - 50 Hz)

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If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast, a figure of 25% of P
n
may be used.
Figure 1.4. gives these values for different arrangements of ballast.

Compact fluorescent lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps have the same characteristics of economy and long life as
classical tubes. They are commonly used in public places which are permanently
illuminated (for example: corridors, hallways, bars, etc.) and can be mounted in situations
otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps (see Fig. 1.5.).

Discharge lamps
The power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the
power dissipated in the ballast. Figure 1.6. gives the current taken by a complete unit,
including all associated ancillary equipment.
These lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour of a
metallic compound, which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at a
pre-determined pressure. These lamps have a long start-up time, during which the current
I
a
is greater than the nominal current I
n
. Power and current demands are given for
different types of lamp (typical average values which may differ slightly from one
manufacturer to another).

Fig. 1.6. Current demands of discharge lamps

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Note:
These lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. They extinguish if the voltage falls to
less than 50% of their nominal voltage, and will not re-ignite before cooling for
approximately 4 minutes.
Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is
superior to that of all other sources. However, use of these lamps is restricted by
the fact the tallow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically
impossible.

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Romanian Electro Trade, Engineering & Consulting

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CHAPTER
2

2. Power balance

The power balance consist in the determination, for every consumer, of the followings
parameters: electrical power installed, load factor, time factor end the power required by
the consumer in the normal work regime.
The settlement of this balance is very serious for the dimension end the correct choice
of the electrical lines, of the electrical cables, of the transformers end the main generator.
In general the electrical power installed must to be smaller than the electrical power of
the generator.

In order to design an installation, the actual maximum load demand likely to be
imposed on the power-supply system must be assessed.
To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in the
installation would be extravagantly uneconomical, and bad engineering practice.
The aim of this chapter is to show how some factors taking into account the diversity
(nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e.g. an
electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability, etc.) of all existing and
projected loads can be assessed. The values given are based on experience and on records
taken from actual installations. In addition to providing basic installation-design data on
individual circuits, the results will provide a global value for the installation, from which
the requirements of a supply system (distribution network, HV/LV transformer, or
generating set) can be specified.

2.1.1. Installed power (kW)

The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consuming devices
in the installation. But this is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.
Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal power
rating (P
n
). This is the case for electric motors, where the power rating refers to the output
power at its driving shaft. The input power consumption will evidently be greater.
Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts are other cases in
which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the
lamp and its ballast.
The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating set or
battery, and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. For a power
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supply from a LV supply network, or through a HV/LV transformer, the significant
quantity is the apparent power in kVA.

2.1.2. Installed apparent power (kVA)

The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the
kVA of individual loads. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not
equal to the total installed kVA.
The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) is obtained
from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary, as noted above for motors, etc.)
and the application of the following coefficients:
= the per-unit efficiency = output kW / input kW
cos = the power factor = kW / kVA
The apparent-power kVA demand of the load:
P
a
= P
n
/( cos)
From this value, the full-load current I
a
taken by the load will be:
I
a
= (P
a
10
3
)/V
) 3 /( ) 10 (
3
V P I
a a

for three-phase balanced load where: V - phase-to-neutral voltage (volts); U - phase-to-
phase voltage (volts).
It may be noted that, strictly speaking, the total kVA of apparent power is not the
arithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loads are at
the same power factor).
It is common practice however, to make a simple arithmetical summation, the result
of which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable design
margin.
When some or all of the load characteristics are not known, the estimation of the
values of installed apparent power may be used to give a very approximate estimate of
VA demands.

2.1.3. Estimation of actual maximum kVA demand

All individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor
necessarily at the same time. Factors k
u
and k
s
allow the determination of the maximum
power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation.

Factor of maximum utilization (k
u
In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less
than that indicated as its nominal power rating, a fairly common occurrence that justifies
the application of an utilization factor (k
u
) in the estimation of realistic values.
This factor must be applied to each individual load, with particular attention to
electric motors, which are very rarely operated at full load.
In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0.75 for
motors.
For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor always equals 1.
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For socket-outlet circuits, the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being
supplied from the sockets concerned.

Factor of simultaneity (k
s
- time factor)
It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed
loads of a given installation never occurs in practice, i.e. there is always some degree of
diversity and this fact is taken into account for estimating purposes by the use of a
simultaneity factor (k
s
).
The factor k
s
is applied to each group of loads (e.g. being supplied from a distribution
or sub-distribution board).
The determination of these factors is the responsibility of the designer, since it
requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in which the
individual circuits are to be exploited. For this reason, it is not possible to give precise
values for general application.
Example: Factor of simultaneity for an apartment block
Some typical values for this case are given in Figure 2.1., and are applicable to
domestic consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). In the case of consumers
using electrical heat-storage units for space heating, a factor of 0.8 is recommended,
regardless of the number of consumers.

Fig. 2.1. Simultaneity factors in an apartment block

Example (see fig. 2.2.):
Five storeys apartment building with 25 consumers, each having 6 kVA of installed
load. The total installed load for the building is: 36 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 24 = 150 kVA. The
apparent-power supply required for the building is: 1500.46 = 69 kVA
From figure 2.2., it is possible to determine the magnitude of currents in different
sections of the common main feeder supplying all floors. For vertical rising mains fed at
ground level, the cross-sectional area of the conductors can evidently be progressively
reduced from the lower floors towards the upper floors. These changes of conductor size
are conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor intervals.
In the example, the current entering the rising main at ground level is:
A 100
3 400
10 46 . 0 150
3

the current entering the third floor is:
A 55
3 400
10 63 . 0 ) 42 36 (
3

+

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Fig. 2.2. Application of the factor of simultaneity (k
S
)
to an apartment block of 5 storeys

Example: Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards
Figure 2.3. shows hypothetical values of k
S
for a distribution board supplying a
number of circuits for which there is no indication of the manner in which the total load
divides between them.
If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads, it is prudent to adopt k
S
values close to
unity.

Fig. 2.3. Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards

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Example: Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function
K
s
factors which may be used for circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads, are
shown in figure 2.4.

Fig. 2.4. Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function

2.1.4 Example of application of factors k
u
and k
s

An example in the estimation of actual maximum kVA demands at all levels of an
installation, from each load position to the point of supply (see Fig. 2.5.).

Fig. 2.5. An example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation
(the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only)

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In this example, the total installed apparent power is 126.6 kVA, which corresponds
to an actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals of the HV/LV transformer of
65 kVA only.
Note: in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an installation, the
current I (in amps) through a circuit is determined from the equation:
3
10
3

U
kVA
I
where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on the diagram
for the circuit concerned, and U is the phase-to-phase voltage (in volts).

2.1.5. Diversity factor

The term diversity factor, as defined in IEC standards, is identical to the factor of
simultaneity (k
s
) used in this guide. In some English-speaking countries however (at the
time of writing) diversity factor is the inverse of k
s
i.e. it is always 1.

2.2. Choice of transformer rating

When an installation is to be supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer and the
rating for the transformer can be decided, taking into account of the following
considerations (see Fig. 2.6.):
the possibility of improving the power factor of the installation;
anticipated extensions to the installation;
installation constraints (temperature...) standard transformer ratings.

Fig. 2.6. Standard apparent powers for HV/LV
transformers and related nominal currents

n
on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by:
3
10
3

U
P
I
a
n

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where:
P
a
- kVA rating of the transformer
U - phase-to-phase voltage at no-load in volts (237 V or 410 V)
I
n
is in amperes.
For a single-phase transformer:
V
P
I
a
n
3
10

where:
V - voltage between LV terminals at no-load (in volts);
I
n
= kVA1.4 - simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load).

2.3. Example

Consumer Electrical power
Installed
KW
%
Time factor
%
Power required
KW
anchor winch 16.5 0 0 0
crane 3.0 0 0 0
starting air
compressor 1
7.5 80 20 1.2
starting air
compressor 2
7.5 0 0 0
cargo hold
ventilation stb.
3.6 80 100 2.9
engine room
ventilation stb.
4.0 85 100 3.4
stearing gear 1 7.5 60 100 4.5
stearing gear 2 7.5 0 0 0
hfo separator 1 4.0 65 100 2.6
hfo separator 2 4.0 65 100 2.6
hfo heater 1 36.0 50 100 18.0
hfo heater 2 24.0 50 100 12.0
seawater cooling
pump
18.5 80 100 14.8
fuel pump 1 1.1 85 100 0.9
fuel pump 2 1.1 0 0 0
fuel transf. pump 4.0 80 10 0.3
compressor
aircond. plant
31.0 65 100 20.2
lighting 22.0 40 100 8.8
electric stove 11.7 50 40 2.3
container ( 50 pcs,
10KW each)
500 80 70 280
all others 166 99.5

880.5
without container 194
with container 474
required electrical power at maneuvering area without container and
bow thruster
209.3

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Romanian Electro Trade, Engineering & Consulting

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CHAPTER
3

3. Single line diagram

A very important step in the designing of an electric installation is the realization of
the one line diagram.

Fig. 3.1. Single line diagram example

The one line diagram is the drawing of the simplified general electrical diagram. For
example, for a three-phase electrical network the system wires are represented through a
single line which shall be marked by three little parallel lines. In the case of a three-phase
system with four wires, with a neutral conductor, in the one line diagram shall appear a
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single line marked by four little parallel lines; same times the 4th little line, the neutral
line, present on the end a little circle.
In general in the one line diagram the consumer are groupated and bounded the in
blocks and sections depending on the type and the value of the electrical supply and on
the consumers types.

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CHAPTER
4

4. Study of each electrical section

The study of each electrical installation must be maked methodically while respecting
the following most important stages:
determination of the rated current, I
n
, of the protective devices,
determination of the sections of cables,
determination of the tension drop,
determination of the short-circuit currents,
choice of the protective devices,
selectivity of the protections,
verification of the protection of people.

4.1. Determination of the rated current of the
protective devices

The determination of the rated current, I
n
, of each protected device is based on the
B
.

Fig. 4.1. Calculation of maximum load current I
B

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At the final circuits level, this current corresponds to the rated kVA of the load. In the
case of motor-starting, or other loads which take an initially-high current, particularly
where frequent starting is concerned (e.g. lift motors, resistance-type spot welding, and so
on) the cumulative thermal effects of the overcurrents must be taken into account. Both
cables and thermal type relays are affected.
At all upstream circuit levels this current corresponds to the kVA to be supplied,
which takes account of the factors of simultaneity (diversity) and utilization, k
s
and k
u

respectively, as shown in figure 4.1.
The full-load currents calculation for the most used loads is described in the first
chapter of this document at the paragraph 1.2.
In conclusion the rated current I
n
of the protective devices must be equal to or greater
than the maximum load current I
B
(fig. 4.2.).
B n
I I

Fig. 4.2. Determination of the rated current I
n
of protective devices

4.2. Determination of the sections of cables

The first step is to determine the size of the phase conductors. In this clause the
following cases are considered:
unburied conductors,
buried conductors.
The tables in this clause permit the determination of the size of phase conductors for a
circuit of given current magnitude.
The procedure is as follows:
determine an appropriate code-letter reference which takes into account:
- the type of circuit (single-phase; three-phase, etc.);
- the kind of installation.
determine the factor K of the circuit considered, which covers the following
influences:
- installation method;
- circuit grouping;
- ambient temperature.

IMPORTANT NOTES:
This procedure is a combination of IEC 60364-5-52 requirements and Schneider
Electric recommendations (fig. 4.3.).
This procedure is also presented as a principle for the determination of the
sections of cables. For different manufacturers of cables the principle rests the
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same with the specifics variations depending of the application type, of the
environment temperature and the necessaries protections.
For example for the electrical marine applications is utilized only copper cables
because of the superior electric properties of the copper and because the cross-
sectional area of the aluminiun cables is bigger than the cross-sectional area of
copper cables. The marine cables are also to be protected against the corrosion
because the marine environment is very wet and very corrosive.

Fig. 4.3. Logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit

4.2.1. Determination of conductor size for unburied circuits

Determination of the code-letter reference
The size of a phase conductor is given in tables which relate:
the code letter symbolizing the method of installation, and
the factor of influence K.
These tables distinguish unburied circuits from buried circuits.
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The letter of reference (A to G) depends on the type of conductor used and its method
of installation. The possible methods of installation are numerous, but the most common
of them have been grouped according to four classes of similar environmental conditions,
as shown below in figure 4.4.

Fig. 4.4. G12 Code-letter reference, depending on type of conductor and method of installation

Determination of the factor K
For circuits which are not buried, factor K characteristizes the conditions of
installation, and is given by: K = K
1
K
2
K
3
. The three component factors depending on
different features of the installation. The values of these factors are given in figures 4.5.
to 4.7. below.

Correction factor K
1
(see Fig. 4.5.)
Factor K
1
is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.

Fig. 4.5. Factor K
1
according to method of circuit installation
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Correction factor K
2
(see Fig. 4.6.)
Factor K
2
is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close
proximity. Two circuits are considered to be in close proximity when L, the distance
between two cables, is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables.

Fig. 4.6. Correction factor K
2
for a group of conductors in a single layer

When cables are installed in more than one layer a further factor, by which K
2
must be
multiplied, will have the following values:
2 layers: 0.80
3 layers: 0.73
4 or 5 layers: 0.70
Note: IEC 60364-5-52 recommends using a correction factor when cables are
installed in more than one layer but no values are given.

Correction factor K
3
(see Fig. 4.7.)
Factor K
3
is a measure of the influence of the temperature, according to the type of
insulation.

Fig. 4.7. Correction factor K
3
for ambient temperature other than 30
0
C

Example
A 3-phase 3-core XLPE cable is laid on a perforated cable-tray in close proximity to
three other circuits, consisting of:
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a 3-phase 3-core cable (circuit no. 1);
three single-core cables (circuit no. 2);
six single-core cables (circuit no. 3).
Circuit no. 2 and no. 3 are 3-phase circuits, the latter comprising 2 cables per phase.
There are, therefore, effectively 5 3-phase circuits to be considered, as shown in
figure 4.8. The ambient temperature is 40
0
C. The code letter indicated in figure 4.4. is E.

K
1
= 1, given by figure 4.5.
K
2
= 0.75, given by figure 4.6.
K
3
= 0.91, given by figure 4.7.
K = K
1
K
2
K
3
= 10.750.91 = 0.68

Fig. 4.8. Example in the determination of factors K
1
, K
2
and K
3

Determination of the minimum cross-sectional area of a conductor
The current I
z
when divided by K gives a fictitious current I
z
. Values of I
z
are given
in figure 4.9., together with corresponding cable sizes for different types of insulation and
core material (copper or aluminium).

Example
The example shown in figure 4.8. for determining the value of K, will also be used to
illustrate the way in which the minimum cross-sectional-area of conductors may be
found, by using figure 4.9. The XLPE cable to be installed will carry 23 amps per phase.
Previous examples show that:
the appropriate code letter is E
the factor K = 0.68

Determination of the cross-sectional areas
A standard value of I
n
nearest to, but higher than 23 A is required. Two solutions are
possible, one based on protection by a circuit breaker and the second on protection by
fuses.
Circuit breaker: - I
n
= 25 A
- permissible: current I
z
= 25 A
- fictitious current: I
z
= 25 / 0.68 = 36.8 A
- cross-sectional-area of conductors is found as follows:
1. In the column XLPE3 corresponding to code letter E the value of 42 A (the nearest
value greater than 36.8 A) is shown to require a copper conductor c.s.a. of 4 mm
2
.
2. For an aluminium conductor the corresponding values are 42 A and 6 mm
2
.
Fuses: - I
n
= 25 A
- permissible current I
z
= K
3
I
n
= 1.2125 = 30.3 A
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- the fictitious current I
z
= 30.3 / 0.68 = 40.6 A
- the cross-sectional-areas, of copper or aluminium conductors are (in this
case) found to be the same as those noted above for a circuit-breaker
protected circuit.

Fig. 4.9. Case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size derived from the code
letter; conductor material; insulation material and the fictitious current I
z

4.2.2. Determination of conductor size for buried circuits

In the case of buried circuits the determination of minimum conductor sizes,
necessitates the establishement of a factor K. A code letter corresponding to a method of
installation is not necessary.

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Determination of factor K
Factor K summarizes the global influence of different conditions of installation, and is
obtained by multiplying together correction factors K
4
, K
5
, K
6
and K
7
. The values of these
several factors are given in figures 4.10. to 4.13.

Correction factor K
4

Factor K
4
is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.

Fig. 4.10. Correction factor K
4
related to the method of installation

Correction factor K
5

Factor K
5
is a measure of the mutual influence of circuits placed side-by-side in close
proximity. Cables are in close proximity when the distance L separating them is less than
double the diameter of the larger of the two cables concerned. When cables are laid in
several layers, multiply K
5
by 0.8 for 2 layers, 0.73 for 3 layers, 0.7 for 4 layers or 5
layers.

Fig. 4.11. Correction factor K
5
for the grouping of several circuits in one layer

Correction factor K
6

This factor takes into account the nature and condition of the soil in which a cable (or
cables) is (are) buried; notably its thermal conductivity.

Fig. 4.12. Correction factor K
6
for the nature of the soil

Correction factor K
7

This factor takes into account the influence of soil temperature if it differs from 20
0
C.

Example (see figure 4.15.)
A single-phase 230 V circuit is included with four other loaded circuits in a buried
conduit. The soil temperature is 20
0
C. The conductors are PVC insulated and supply a
5 kW lighting load. The circuit is protected by a circuit breaker.
K
4
= 0.8, from figure 4.10.
K
5
= 0.6, from figure 4.11.
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K
6
= 1.0, from figure 4.12.
K
7
= 1.0, from figure 4.13.
K = K
4
K
5
K
6
K
7
= 0.48

Determination of the smallest cross-sectional-area of a conductor, for buried circuits
Knowing I
z
and K, the corresponding cross-sectional-areas are given in figure 4.14.

Fig. 4.13. Correction factor K
7
for soil temperatures different than 20
0
C

Example
This is a continuation of the previous example, for which the factors K
4
, K
5
, K
6
and K
7

were determined, and the factor K was found to be 0.48.

A I
b
22
230
000 , 5

Fig. 4.15. Example for the determination of K
4
, K
5
, K
6
and K
7

Selection of protection: a circuit-breaker rated at 25 A would be appropriate.

Maximum permanent current permitted (i.e. the circuit-breaker rating I
n
):

I
z
= 25 A

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Fictitious current:
A
K
I
I
Z
Z
1 . 52
48 . 0
25
'

C.s.a. of circuit conductors: In the column PVC, 2 conductors, a current of 54 A
corresponds to a 10 mm
2
copper conductor. In the case where the circuit conductors are in
aluminium, the same fictitious current (52 A) would require the choice of 16 mm
2

corresponding to a fictitious current value (for aluminium) of 62 A.

Fig. 4.14. Case of a buried circuit: minimum c.s.a. in terms of type of conductor; type of
insulation; and value of fictitious current I
z
(I
z
= I
z
/ K)

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4.2.3. Sizing the neutral conductor

The c.s.a. and the protection of the neutral conductor, apart from its current-carrying
requirement, depend on several factors, namely:
the type of earthing system, TT, TN, etc.
the harmonic currents,
the method of protection against indirect contact hazards according to the methods
described below.
The color of the neutral conductor is statutorily blue. PEN conductor, when insulated,
shall be marked by one of the following methods:
green-and-yellow throughout their length with, in addition, light blue markings at
the terminations, or
light blue throughout their length with, in addition, green-and-yellow markings at
the terminations.

4.2.3.1. Influence of the type of earthing system

TT, TN-S and IT schemes
Single-phase circuits or those of c.s.a. 16 mm
2
(copper) 25 mm
2
(aluminium):
the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor must be equal to that of the phases.
Three-phase circuits of c.s.a. > 16 mm
2
copper or 25 mm
2
aluminium: the c.s.a. of
the neutral may be chosen to be equal to that of the phase conductors, or smaller,
on condition that:
- the current likely to flow through the neutral in normal conditions is less than the
permitted value I
z
. The influence of the 3rd and multiples of the 3rd harmonic must be
given particular consideration or
- the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit.

TN-C scheme
The same conditions apply in theory as those mentioned above, but in practice, the
neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since it constitutes
a PE as well as a neutral conductor.

IT scheme
In general, it is not recommended to distribute the neutral conductor, i.e. a 3-phase
3-wire scheme is preferred. When a 3-phase 4-wire installation is necessary, however, the
conditions described above for TT and TN-S schemes are applicable.

4.2.3.2. Influence of harmonic currents

Effects of order 3 and multiple of 3 harmonics
Harmonics are generated by the non-linear loads of the installation (computers, ballast
lighting, rectifiers, power electronic choppers) and can produce high currents in the
neutral. In particular order 3 or multiple of 3 harmonics of the three phases have a
tendency to cumulate in the neutral as:
fundamental currents are out-of-phase by 2/3 so that their sum is zero
on the other hand, order 3 harmonics of the three phases are always positioned in
the same manner with respect to their own fundamental, and are in phase with
each (see Fig. 4.16.).

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Fig. 4.16. Order 3 harmonics are in phase and cumulate in the neutral

Figure 4.17. shows the load rate of the neutral conductor in function of the percentage
of harmonic 3. In practice, this maximum load rate cannot exceed 3 .

Fig. 4.17. Load rate of the neutral conductor vs the percentage of harmonic 3

Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables with four
cores carrying current

The basic calculation of a cable concerns only cables with three loaded conductors i.e
there is no current in the neutral conductor. Because of the third harmonic current, there is
a current in the neutral. As a result, this neutral current creates an hot environment for the
3 phase conductors and for this reason, a reduction factor for phase conductors is
necessary (see Fig. 4.18.).
Reduction factors, applied to the current-carrying capacity of a cable with three
loaded conductors, give the current-carrying capacity of a cable with four loaded
conductors where the current in the fourth conductor is due to harmonics. The reduction
factors also take the heating effect of the harmonic current in the phase conductors into
account.
Where the neutral current is expected to be higher than the phase current then the
cable size should be selected on the basis of the neutral current.
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Where the cable size selection is based on a neutral current which is not
significantly higher than the phase current it is necessary to reduce the tabulated
current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors.
If the neutral current is more than 135% of the phase current and the cable size is
selected on the basis of the neutral current then the three phase conductors will not
be fully loaded. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets
the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary to
apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded
conductors.

Fig. 4.18. Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables
(according to IEC 60364)

Examples
Consider a three-phase circuit with a design load of 37 A to be installed using four-
core PVC insulated cable clipped to a wall, installation method C. From figure 4.14., a 6
mm
2
cable with copper conductors has a current-carrying capacity of 40 A and hence is
suitable if harmonics are not present in the circuit.
If 20 % third harmonic is present, then a reduction factor of 0.86 is applied and
thedesign load becomes: 37/0.86 = 43 A. For this load a 10 mm
2
cable is
necessary.
If 40 % third harmonic is present, the cable size selection is based on the neutral
current which is: 370.43 = 44.4 A and a reduction factor of 0.86 is applied,
2
cable is
suitable.
If 50 % third harmonic is present, the cable size is again selected on the basis of
the neutral current, which is: 370.53 = 55.5 A .In this case the rating factor is 1
and a 16 mm
2
cable is required.

4.2.3.3. Protection of the neutral conductor (see Fig. 4.19.)

If the neutral conductor is correctly sized (including harmonics), no specific
protection of the neutral conductor is required because it is protected by the phase
protection.
However, in practice, if the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor is lower than the phase
c.s.a, a neutral overload protection must be installed.

Protection against short circuit
If the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor is lower than the c.s.a. of the phase conductor, the
neutral conductor must be protected against short-circuit.
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If the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor is equal or greater than the c.s.a. of the phase
conductor, no specific protection of the neutral conductor is required because it is
protected by the phase protection.

Fig. 4.19. The various situations in which the neutral conductor may appear

4.2.3.4. Breaking of the neutral conductor (see Fig. 4.19.)

The need to break or not the neutral conductor is related to the protection against
indirect contact

In TN-C scheme
The neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since it
constitutes a PE as well as a neutral conductor.

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In TT, TN-S and IT schemes
In the event of a fault, the circuit breaker will open all poles, including the neutral
pole, i.e. the circuit breaker is omnipolar.
The action can only be achieved with fuses in an indirect way, in which the operation
of one or more fuses provokes a mechanical trip-out of all poles of an associated series-

4.2.3.5. Isolation of the neutral conductor (see Fig. 4.19.)

It is considered to be the good practice that every circuit be provided with the means
for its isolation.

4.2.4. Sizing the protective earthing conductor (PE)

Protective (PE) conductors provide the bonding connection between all exposed and
extraneous conductive parts of an installation, to create the main equipotential bonding
system. These conductors conduct fault current due to insulation failure (between a phase
conductor and an exposed conductive part) to the earthed neutral of the source. P.E.
conductors are connected to the main earthing terminal of the installation.
PE conductors must be:
insulated and coloured yellow and green (stripes),
be protected against mechanical and chemical damage.

4.2.4.1. Connection

PE conductors must:
not include any means of breaking the continuity of the circuit (such as a switch,
connect exposed conductive parts individually to the main PE conductor, i.e. in
parallel, not in series,
have an individual terminal on common earthing bars in distribution boards.

TT scheme
The PE conductor need not necessarily be installed in close proximity to the live
conductors of the corresponding circuit, since high values of earth-fault current are not
needed to operate the RCD-type of protection used in TT installations.

Fig. 4.20. Direct connection of the PEN conductor to the earth
terminal of an appliance

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IT and TN schemes
The PE or PEN conductor, as previously noted, must be installed as close by as
possible to the corresponding live conductors of the circuit and no ferro-magnetic
material must be interposed between them. A PEN conductor must always be connected
directly to the earth terminal of an appliance, with a looped connection from the earth
terminal to the neutral terminal of the appliance (see Fig. 4.20.).

TN-C scheme (the neutral and PE conductor are one and the same, referred to as a
PEN conductor)
The protective function of a PEN conductor has priority, so that all rules governing
PE conductors apply strictly to PEN conductors.
TN-C to TN-S transition
The PE conductor for the installlation is connected to the PEN terminal or bar (see
Fig. 4.21.) generally at the origin of the installation. Downstream of the point of
separation, no PE conductor can be connected to the neutral conductor.

Fig. 4.21. The TN-C-S scheme

4.2.4.2. Types of materials

Materials of the kinds mentioned below in figure 4.22. can be used for PE conductors,
provided that the conditions mentioned in the last column are satisfied.

Fig. 4.22. Choice of protective conductors (PE)

(1) In schemes TN and IT, fault clearance is generally effected by overcurrent devices (fuses or circuit
breakers) so that the impedance of the fault-current loop must be sufficiently low to assure positive
protective device operation. The surest means of achieving a low loop impedance is to use a supplementary
core in the same cable as the circuit conductors (or taking the same route as the circuit conductors). This
stratagem minimizes the inductive reactance and therefore the impedance of the loop.
(2) The PEN conductor is a neutral conductor that is also used as a protective earth conductor. This
means that a current may be flowing through it at any time (in the absence of an earth fault). For this reason
an insulated conductor is recommended for PEN operation.
(3) The manufacturer provides the necessary values of R and X components of the impedances
(phase/PE, phase/PEN) to include in the calculation of the earth-fault loop impedance.
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(4) Possible, but not recomended, since the impedance of the earth-fault loop cannot be known at the
design stage. Measurements on the completed installation are the only practical means of assuring adequate
protection for persons.
(5) It must allow the connection of other PE conductors.
Note: these elements must carry an indivual green/yellow striped visual indication, 15 to 100 mm long
(or the letters PE at less than 15 cm from each extremity).
(6) These elements must be demountable only if other means have been provided to ensure
uninterrupted continuity of protection.
(7) With the agreement of the appropriate water authorities.
(8) In the prefabricated pre-wired trunking and similar elements, the metallic housing may be used as a
PEN conductor, in parallel with the corresponding bar, or other PE conductor in the housing.
(9) Forbidden in some countries only-universally allowed to be used for supplementary equipotential
conductors.

4.2.4.3. Conductor sizing

Adiabatic method(which corresponds with that described in IEC 60724)
This method, while being economical and assuring protection of the conductor against
overheating, leads to small c.s.a.s compared to those of the corresponding circuit phase
conductors. The result is sometimes incompatible with the necessity in IT and TN
schemes to minimize the impedance of the circuit earth-fault loop, to ensure positive
operation by instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. This method is used in practice,
therefore, for TT installations, and for dimensioning an earthing conductor.

For any size of the phase conductor:
- for a period of 5 seconds or less, the relationship
2 2 2
S k t I characterizes the time in
seconds during which a conductor of c.s.a. S (in mm
2
) can be allowed to carry a current I
amps, before its temperature reaches a level which would damage the surrounding
insulation.

2 2 2
S k t I
) 1 (
k
t I
S
PE

The c.s.a. of earthing conductor between the installation earth electrode and the main
earth terminal:
when protected against mechanical damage:
k
t I
S
PE

without mechanical protection, but protected against corrosion by impermeable
cable sheath. Minimum 16 mm
2
for copper or galvanized steel.
without either of the above protections; min. of 25 mm
2
for bare copper and 50
mm
2
for bare galvanized steel.
(1) When the PE conductor is separated from the circuit phase conductors, the following
minimum values must be respected:
- 2.5 mm
2
if the PE is mechanically protected,
- 4 mm
2
if the PE is not mechanically protected.

Simplified method
This method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those of the
corresponding circuit phase conductors, assuming that the same conductor material is
used in each case.

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ph PE ph
S S mm S
2
16
2 2 2
16 35 16 mm S mm S mm
PE ph
<
2
35
2 ph
PE ph
S
S mm S >

Note: when, in a TT scheme, the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of
influence of the source earthing electrode, the c.s.a. of the PE conductor can be limited to
25 mm
2
(for copper) or 35 mm
2
(for aluminium).
The neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c.s.a. is equal to or larger
than 10 mm
2
(copper) or 16 mm
2
(aluminium).
Moreover, a PEN conductor is not allowed in a flexible cable. Since a PEN conductor
functions also as a neutral conductor, its c.s.a. cannot, in any case, be less than that
necessary for the neutral.
This c.s.a. cannot be less than that of the phase conductors unless:
the kVA rating of single-phase loads is less than 10% of the total kVA load, and
I
max
likely to pass through the neutral in normal circumstances, is less than the
current permitted for the cable size selected.
Furthermore, protection of the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective
devices provided for phase-conductor.

Values of factor k to be used in the formulae
These values are identical in several national standards, and the temperature rise
ranges, together with factor k values and the upper temperature limits for the different
classes of insulation, correspond with those published in IEC 60724 (1984).
The data presented in figure 4.23. are those most commonly needed for LV
installation design.

Fig. 4.23. k factor values for LV PE conductors, commonly used in national
standards and complying with IEC 60724

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4.2.5. Calculation of L
max.
for a TN-earthed system, using the
conventional method

The maximum length of a circuit in a TN-earthed installation is given by the formula:

a
ph
I m
S U
L
+

) 1 (
8 . 0
0
max

where:
L
max
- maximum length in metres,
U
0
- phase volts, 230 V for a 230/400 V system,
- resistivity at normal working temperature in ohm-mm
2
/metre (22.510
-3
for
copper; 3610
-3
for aluminium),
I
a
- trip current setting for the instantaneous operation of a circuit breaker, or
I
a
- the current which assures operation of the protective fuse concerned, in the
specified time,

Fig. 4.24. Calculation of L max. for a TN-earthed system, using
the conventional method
m = S
ph
/ S
PE
S
ph
- cross-sectional area of the phase conductors of the circuit concerned in mm
2
,
S
PE
- cross-sectional area of the protective conductor concerned in mm
2
.

Tables

The tables give maximum circuit lengths, beyond which the ohmic resistance of the
conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that
required to trip the circuit-breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit, with
sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact.

Correction factor m
Figure 4.25. indicates the correction factor to apply to the values given in figures
4.26., according to the ratio Sph/SPE, the type of circuit, and the conductor materials.
The tables take into account:
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the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses,
operating-current settings,
cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors,
type of system earthing,
type of circuit breaker (i.e. B, C or D).
Equivalent tables for protection by Compact and Multi 9 circuit breakers (Merlin
Gerin) are included in the relevant catalogues.

Fig. 4.25. Correction factor to apply to the lengths given for
TN systems (may be used for 230/400 V systems)

Fig. 4.26. Maximum circuit lengths (in metres) for different sizes of copper conductor and
instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers
in 230/240 V TN system with m = 1

4.2.6. Rules for marine electrical cables according Bureau Veritas

General

1. All electrical cables and wiring external to equipment shall be at least of a flame-
retardant type, in accordance with IEC Publication 60332-1.
2. When cables are laid in bunches, cable types are to be chosen in appliance with IEC
Publication 60332-3 Category A, or over means are to be provided such as not to impair
their original flame-retarding properties.
3. Where necessary for specific applications such as radio frequency or digital
communications systems, which require the use of particular types of cables, the Society
may permit the use of cables with do not comply with the provisions of 1 and 2.
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4. Cables which are required to have fire-resisting characteristics are to comply with
the requirements stipulated in IEC Publications 60331.

Choice of insulation
1. The maximum rated operating temperature of the insulating material is to be at
least 10
0
C higher than the maximum ambient temperature liable to occur or to be
produced in the space where the cable is installed.
2. The maximum rated conductor temperature for normal and short-circuit operation,
for the type of insulating compounds normally used for shipboard cables, is not to exceed
the values stated in Tab 1. Special consideration will be given to other insulating
materials.
3. PVC insulated cables are not to be used either in refrigerated spaces, or on decks
exposed to the weather of ships classed for unrestricted service.

Table 1: Maximum rated conductor temperature

Maximum rated conductor
temperature (
0
C)

Type of insulating compound
Abbreviated
designation
Normal
operation
Short-circuit
a)Thermoplastic:
- based upon polyvinyl chloride or copolymer of vinyl
chloride and vinyl acetate

PVC/A

60

180
b) Elastomeric or thermosetting:
- based upon ethylene-propylene rubber or similar (EPM
or EPDM)
- based upon high modulus or hardgrade ethylene-
propylene rubber
- based upon rubber silicon
- based upon ethylene-propylene rubber or similar (EPM
or EPDM) halogen free
- based upon high modulus or hardgrade halogen free
ethylene propylene rubber
- based upon cross-linked polyethylene halogen free
- based upon rubber silicon halogen free
- based upon cross-linked polyolefin material for halogen
free cable (1)

EPR

HEPR

XLPE
S 95
HF EPR

HF HEPR

HF XLPE
HF S 95
HF 85

85

85

85
95
85

85

85
95
85

250

250

250
250
250

250

250
350
250
(1) Used on sheathed cable only

Choice of protective covering

1. The conductor insulating materials are to be enclosed in an impervious sheath of
material appropriate to the expected ambient conditions where cables are installed in the
following locations:
- on decks exposed to the weather,
- in damp or wet spaces (e.g. in bathrooms),
- in refrigerated spaces,
- in machinery spaces and, in general,
- where condensation water or harmful vapour may be present.
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2. Where cables are provided with armour or metallic braid (e.g. for cables installed in
hazardous areas), an overall impervious sheath means to protect the metallic elements
against corrosion is to be provided.
3. An impervious sheath is not required for single-core cables installed in tubes or
ducts inside accommodation spaces, in circuits with maximum system voltage 250 V.
4. In choosing different types of protective coverings, due considerations is to be
given to the mechanical action to which cable may be subjected during installation and in
service.
If the mechanical strength of the protective covering is considered insufficient, the
cables are to be mechanically protected (e.g. by an armour or by installation inside pipes
or conduits).
5. Single-core cables for a.c. circuits with rated current exceeding 20 A are to be
either non-armoured or armoured with non-magnetic material.

Cables in refrigerated spaces

1. Cables installed in refrigerated spaces are to have a watertight or impervious sheat
and are to be protected against mechanical damage. If an armour is applied on the sheath,
the armour is to be protected against corrosion by a further moisture-resisting covering.

Cables in circuits fore fire alarm, fire detection and fire-extinguishing

1. In general, in circuits intended for fire alarm and detection, emergency fire-
extinguishing service, fire telecommunication (e.g. communication between the
navigating bridge and the main fire control station), remote stopping and similar control
circuits for safety purposes, cables are to be of a fire-resistant type unless:
- the systems are of self-monitoring type or failing to safety,
- the systems are duplicated.
2. Cables for services that are required to maintain operation of equipment during a
fire (e.g. cables for the general emergency alarm, the public address system when it is the
only system to provide the general emergency alarm, the fire- extinguishing medium
alarm and their power supplies) are to be of a fire-resistant type.
3. Cables connecting fire pumps to the emergency switchboard shall be of fire-
resistant type where they pass through fire risk areas.

Cables fore submerged bilge pumps

1. Cables and their connections to such pumps are to be capable of operating under a
head of water equal to their distance below the bulkhead deck. The cable is to be
impervious-sheathed and armoured, is to be installed in continuous lengths from above
the bulkhead to the motor terminals and is to enter the air bell from the bottom.

Internal wiring of switchboard and other enclosures for equipment

1. For installations in switchboards and other enclosures for equipment, single-core
cables may be used without further protection (sheath).
Other types of flame-retardant switchboards wiring may be accepted.

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Current carrying capacity of cables

1. The current carrying capacity for continuous service of cables given in Tab 2 to
Tab 6 is based on the maximum permissible service temperature of the conductor also
indicated therein and on an ambient temperature of 45
0
C.
Table 2: Current carrying capacity, in A,
in continuous service for cables based on
maximum conductor operating temperature of
60
0
C (ambient temperature 45
0
C)

Number of conductors Nominal section
mm
2
1 2 3 or 4
1 8 7 6
1.5 12 10 8
2.5 17 14 12
4 22 19 15
6 29 25 20
10 40 34 28
16 54 46 38
25 71 60 50
35 87 74 61
50 105 89 74
70 135 115 95
95 165 140 116
120 190 162 133
150 220 187 154
185 250 213 175
240 290 247 203
300 335 285 235

Table 3: Current carrying capacity, in A,
in continuous service for cables based on
maximum conductor operating temperature of
75
0
C (ambient temperature 45
0
C)

Number of conductors Nominal section
mm
2
1 2 3 or 4
1 13 11 9
1.5 17 14 12
2.5 24 20 17
4 32 27 22
6 41 35 29
10 57 48 40
16 76 65 53
25 100 85 70
35 125 106 88
50 150 128 105
70 190 162 133
95 230 196 161
120 270 230 189
150 310 264 217
185 350 298 245
240 415 353 291
300 475 404 333

Table 4: Current carrying capacity, in A,
in continuous service for cables based on
maximum conductor operating temperature of
80
0
C (ambient temperature 45
0
C)

Number of conductors Nominal section
mm
2
1 2 3 or 4
1 15 13 11
1.5 19 16 13
2.5 26 22 18
4 35 30 25
6 45 38 32
10 63 54 44
16 84 71 59
25 110 94 77
35 140 119 98
50 165 140 116
70 260 221 182
95 215 183 151
120 300 255 210
150 340 289 238
185 390 332 273
240 460 391 322
300 530 450 371

Table 5: Current carrying capacity, in A,
in continuous service for cables based on
maximum conductor operating temperature of
85
0
C (ambient temperature 45
0
C)

Number of conductors Nominal section
mm
2
1 2 3 or 4
1 16 14 11
1.5 20 17 14
2.5 28 24 20
4 38 32 27
6 48 41 34
10 67 57 47
16 90 77 63
25 120 102 84
35 145 123 102
50 180 153 126
70 225 191 158
95 275 234 193
120 320 272 224
150 365 310 256
185 415 353 291
240 490 417 343
300 560 476 392

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2. The current carrying capacity is applicable, with rough approximation, to all types
of protective covering (e.g. both armoured and non-armoured cables).
3. Values other then those shown in Tab 2 to Tab 6 may be accepted provided they
are determined on the basis of calculation methods or experimental values approved by
the Society.
4. When the actual ambient temperature obviously differs from 45
0
C, the correction
factors shown in Tab 7 may be applied to the current carrying capacity in Tab 2 to Tab 6.
5. Where more than six cables are bunched together in such a way that is an absence
of free air circulating around them, and the cables can be expected to be under full load
simultaneously, a correction factor of 0.85 is to be applied.

7. For supply cables to single services for intermittent loads (e.g. cargo winches or
machinery space cranes), the current carrying capacity obtained from Tab 2 to Tab 6 may
be increased by applying the correction factors given in Tab 9.
The correction factors are calculated with rough approximation for periods of 10
minutes, of witch 4 minutes with a constant load and 6 minutes without load.

Minimum nominal cross-sectional area of conductors

1. In general the minimum allowable conductor cross-sectional areas are those given
in tables above.
2. The nominal cross-sectional area of the neutral conductor in three-phase
distribution systems is to be equal to at least 50% of the cross-sectional areas of the
phases, unless the latter is less than or equal to 16 mm
2
. In such case the cross-sectional
of the neutral conductor is to be equal to that of the phase.

Table 6: Current carrying capacity, in A,
in continuous service for cables based on
maximum conductor operating temperature of
95
0
C (ambient temperature 45
0
C)

Number of conductors Nominal section
mm
2
1 2 3 or 4
1 20 17 14
1.5 24 20 17
2.5 32 27 22
4 42 36 29
6 55 47 39
10 75 64 53
16 100 85 70
25 135 115 95
35 165 140 116
50 200 170 140
70 255 217 179
95 310 264 217
120 360 306 252
150 410 349 287
185 470 400 329
240 570 485 399
300 660 560 462

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Table7: Correction factors for various ambient air temperatures

Correction factors for ambient air temperature of: Maximum
conductor
temperature
0
C
35
0
C 40
0
C 45
0
C 50
0
C 55
0
C 60
0
C 65
0
C 70
0
C 75
0
C 80
0
C 85
0
C
60 1.29 1.15 1.00 0.82 - - - - - - -
75 1.15 1.08 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.71 0.58 - - - -
80 1.13 1.07 1.00 0.93 0.85 0.76 0.65 0.53 - - -
85 1.12 1.06 1.00 0.94 0.87 0.79 0.71 0.61 0.50 - -
95 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.77 0.71 0.63 0.55 0.45

Choice of cables

1. Rated voltage of any cable is to be not lower than the nominal voltage of the circuit
which it is used.
2. The nominal cross-sectional area of each cable is to be sufficient to satisfy the
following conditions with reference to the maximum anticipated ambient temperature:
the current carrying capacity is to be not less than the highest continuous load
carried by the cable,
the voltage drop in the circuit, by full load on this circuit, is not to exceed the
specified limits,
the cross-sectional area calculated on the basis of the above is to be such that the
temperature increases which may be caused by overcurrents or starting transients
do not damage the insulation.

Table 8: Corrections factors for short-time loads

- hour service 1 hour service
Sum of nominal cross-sectional areas of all
conductors in mm
2

Sum of nominal
cross-sectional areas
of all conductors in
mm
2

Cable
with
metallic
sheath
and
armoured
cables
Cable with non-metallic sheath and non-
armoured cables
Cable
with
metallic
sheath
and
armoured
cables
Cable
with
non-
metallic
sheath
and non-
armoured
cables

Correction
factor
up to 20 up to 75 up to 80 up to 230 1.06
21 - 41 76-125 81-170 231-400 1.10
41 - 65 126-180 171-250 401-600 1.15
66 95 181-250 251-430 601-800 1.20
96-135 251-320 431-600 - 1.25
136-180 321-400 6001-800 - 1.30
181-235 401-500 - - 1.35
236-285 501-600 - - 1.40
286-350 - - - 1.45

3. The highest continuous load carried by a cable is to be calculated on the basis of the
power requirements and of diversity factor of the loads and machines supplied through
that cable.
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4. When conductors are carrying the maximum nominal service current, the voltage
drop from the main or emergency switchboard busbars to any point in the installation is
not to exceed 6% of the nominal voltage.
For battery circuits with supply voltage less than 55 V, this value may be increased to
10%.
For circuits of navigation lights, the voltage drop is not to exceed 5% of the rated
voltage under normal conditions.

Table 9: Correction factors for intermittent service

Sum of nominal cross-sectional areas of all
conductors in mm
2

Cable with metallic
sheath and armoured
cables
Cable with metallic
sheath and non-armoured
cables

Correction
factor
- S 5 1.10
- 5 < S 8 1.15
- 8 < S 16 1.20
S 4 16 < S 25 1.25
4 < S 7 25 < S 42 1.30
7 < S 17 42 < S 72 1.35
17 < S 42 72 < S 140 1.40
42 <S 110 140 < S 1.45
110 < S - 1.50

4.3. Determination of voltage drop

The impedance of circuit conductors is low but not negligible. When carrying load
current there is a fall in voltage between the origin of the circuit and the load terminals.
The correct operation of an item of load (a motor; lighting circuit; etc.) depends on the
voltage at its terminals being maintained at a value close to its rated value. It is necessary
therefore to dimension the circuit conductors such, that at full load current, the load
terminal voltage is maintained within the limits required for correct performance.
This section deals with methods of determining voltage drops, in order to check that:
they conform to the particular standards and regulations in force;
they can be tolerated by the load;
they satisfy the essential operational requirements.

4.3.1. Maximum voltage drop limit

Maximum allowable voltage-drop limits vary from one country to another. Typical
values for low-voltage installations are given below in figure 4.27.

Fig. 4.27. Maximum voltage-drop between the service-connection
point and the point of utilization
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These voltage-drop limits refer to normal steady-state operating conditions and do not
apply at times of motor starting; simultaneous switching (by chance) of several loads, etc.
When voltage drops exceed the values shown in figure 4.27. larger cables (wires)
must be used to correct the condition.

Fig. 4.28. Maximum voltage drop

The value of 8%, while permitted, can lead to problems for motor loads; for example:
in general, satisfactory motor performance requires a voltage within 5% of its
rated nominal value in steady-state operation,
starting current of a motor can be 5 to 7 times its full-load value (or even higher).
If 8% voltage drop occurs at full-load current, then a drop of 40% or more will occur
during start-up. In such conditions the motor will either:
- still (i.e. remain stationary due to insufficient torque to overcome the load torque)
with consequent over-heating and eventual trip-out,
- or accelerate very slowly, so that the heavy current loading (with possibly
undesirable low-voltage effects on other equipment) will continue beyond the normal
start-up period,
- finally an 8% voltage drop represents a continuous (E
2
/R watts) of power loss,
which, for continuous loads will be a significant waste of (metered) energy.
For these reasons it is recommended that the maximum value of 8% in steady
operating conditions should not be reached on circuits which are sensitive to under-
voltage problems (see Fig. 4.28.).

Use of formulae
Figure 4.29. below gives formulae commonly used to calculate voltage drop in a
given circuit per kilometer of length.
If:
I
B
- the full load current in amps;
L - length of the cable in kilometers;
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R - resistance of the cable conductor in /km;
) . . . (
/ 5 . 22
2
2
mm in a s c S
km mm
R

for copper
) . . . (
/ 36
2
2
mm in a s c S
km mm
R

for aluminium

X - inductive reactance of a conductor in /km;
- phase angle between voltage and current in the circuit considered, generally:
- lighting: cos = 1
- motor power: - at start-up: cos = 0.35
- in normal service: cos = 0.8
U
n
- phase-to-phase voltage;
V
n
- phase-to-neutral voltage.

Fig. 4.29. Voltage-drop formulae

Fig. 4.30. Phase-to-phase voltage drop U for a circuit, in volts per ampere per km

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Note: R is negligible above a c.s.a. of 500 mm
2
; X is negligible for conductors of c.s.a.
less than 50 mm
2
. In the absence of any other information, take X as being equal to 0.08
/km.

For prefabricated pre-wired ducts and bustrunking, resistance and inductive
reactance values are given by the manufacturer.

Simplified table
Calculations may be avoided by using figure 4.30., which gives, with an adequate
approximation, the phase-to-phase voltage drop per km of cable per ampere, in terms of:
kinds of circuit use: motor circuits with cos close to 0.8, or lighting with a cos
in the neighborhood of unity,
type of cable; single-phase or 3-phase.
Voltage drop in a cable is then given by:
K I
B
L
K - is given by the table,
I
B
- is the full-load current in amps,
L - is the length of cable in km.
The column motor power cos = 0.35 of Figure 4 may be used to compute the
voltage drop occurring during the start-up period of a motor (see example no.1).

4.3.3. Examples

Example 1
A three-phase 35 mm
2
copper cable 50 meters long supplies a 400 V motor taking:
100 A at a cos = 0.8 on normal permanent load,
500 A (5I
n
) at a cos = 0.35 during start-up.
The voltage drop at the origin of the motor cable in normal circumstances (i.e. with
the distribution board of Figure 5 distributing a total of 1000 A) is 10 V phase-to-phase.
What is the volt drop at the motor terminals:
In normal service?
During start-up?

Fig. 4.31. Example 1

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Solution:
Voltage drop in normal service conditions:
n
U
U
U

100 %
Figure 4.30. shows 1V/A/km so that:
U = 11000.05 = 5V for the cable
% 75 . 3 100
400
15
15 5 10 + V U
total

This value is less than that authorized (8%) and is satisfactory.

Voltage drop during motor start-up:
U cable = 0.525000.05 = 13 V

Owing to the additional current taken by the motor when starting, the volt drop at the
distribution board will exceed 10 Volts. Supposing that the infeed to the distribution
board during motor starting is 900 + 500 = 1400 A then the volt-drop at the distribution
board will increase approximately pro rata, i.e.

V 14
000 , 1
400 , 1 10

U = 14 V for the distribution board
U = 13 V for the motor cable
% 75 . 6 100
400
27
27 14 13 + V U
total

a value which is satisfactory during motor starting.

Example 2
A 3-phase 4-wire copper line of 70 mm
2
c.s.a. and a length of 50 m passes a current
of 150 A. The line supplies, among other loads, 3 single-phase lighting circuits, each of
2.5 mm
2
c.s.a. copper 20 m long, and each passing 20 A.
It is assumed that the currents in the 70 mm
2
line are balanced and that the three
lighting circuits are all connected to it at the same point.
What is the voltage drop at the end of the lighting circuits?

Solution:
Voltage drop in the 4-wire line:
n
U
U
U

100 %
Figure 4.30. shows 0.55 V/A/km
U line = 0.551500.05 = 4.125 V phase-to-phase
which:
V 38 . 2
3
125 4

phase to neutral.
Voltage drop in any one of the lighting single-phase circuits:
U for a single-phase circuit = 18200.02 = 7.2 V
The total volt-drop is therefore:
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7.2 + 2.38 = 9.6 V = % 2 . 4 100
230
6 . 9

V
V

This value is satisfactory, being less than the maximum permitted voltage drop of 6%.

Fig. 4.32. Example 2

4.4. Determination of the short circuit currents

4.4.1. Calculation of maximum short-circuit currents in electrical ship
mains according GERMANISCHER LLOYD SCC363.EXE

The program is capable of calculating short-circuit currents according to IEC
Publication 61363-1 in electrical installations of ships and offshore units.
The electrical mains must have a standard, unmeshed configuration with one main
distribution board. All generators, electric consumers and distribution boards are
connected to the said main distribution.
The calculation program may be used on electrical system as specified below:
low or medium voltage level,
three-phase alternating current,
50Hz or 60Hz,
different voltage levels downstream of the main distribution,
up to 20 main generators, connected directly to the main distribution,
up to 20 single motors, connected to the main distribution with or without
transformer,
1 equivalent motor (substituting the small motors),
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up to 50 distribution boards, connected to the main distribution with or without
transformer,
up to 5 subdistribution boards, connected to each distribution board, with or
without transformer (i.e. 250 is the max. number of subdistribution boards).

Important remarks:

Please note that the results of this program have to be checked by another,
different computer program, a simplified calculation or another suited method, in
order to avoid failures in the selection of electrical switch gear.
It is important to observe that only the maximum values of the short-circuit
currents will be calculated by this program. The attenuation of short-circuit
currents by electric arcs or other physical phenomena are not part of this
calculation.
The calculation of the peak value of the short-circuit current depends, among
other factors, on the time constants, which are part of the input data. If the time
constants of generators especially for the dc-component and the subtransient
component are small, a low peak value of the short-circuit current will be
calculated. For a rough estimation of short-circuits at the main distribution, please
observe that the following relation between I
k
and Ip is realistic for most
applications:
"
2
k p
I k I
k = 1.5 1.8

p
I - peak value of the short-circuit current;

"
k
I - subtransient short-circuits current.

4.4.1.1. Principles of the calculation

In case of short-circuit the active components of a ship mains, which are the
generators and the motors, will feed electric currents into the faulty point. Having the first
and highest maximum some milliseconds (= T/2) after the beginning of the short-circuit
condition the current will decrease until reaching a constant level after some hundred
milliseconds. (T is the length of a period of the mains frequency.)
The short-circuit current of a typical synchronous generator, for marine applications,
is to be divided into the following different components: dc current, subtransient current,
transient current and steady state current. The short-circuit current of an asynchronous
motor is comprised of an ac component and a dc component decaying typically faster that
the current of a generator. Asynchronous motors do not supply a steady short circuit
current.
The decreasing of the short circuit-current of both generators and motors may be
expressed mathematically by means of exponential functions as carried out by this
program, to calculate the upper envelope of the current marked by the maximal values.
Non-active components of a ship mains are cables, transformers and motors, witch
attenuate the short currents and change the time constants of motors and generators.
The short-circuit calculations of the program described by this paper are performed in
the following steps:
1. First, the program checks if the input data are complete and reasonable. If data are
missing and there are not internal values the calculation will be disabled and F (failure) is
placed in the main menu and also on the data input pages. If data are not reasonable (e.g.
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voltage and frequency have been obviously interchanged e.g. 60V /440Hz) a warning will
be written on the monitor. Despite of a warning the calculation may be started giving
twice the calculation command from main menu level.
A warning will be displayed in following cases:
voltage at main bus U < 360 V or U > 460 V
mains frequency f < 45 Hz or f > 65 Hz
resistance of a generator r
a
> 30 % of the subtransient reactance x
d

subtransient time constant of a generator T
d
< 10 ms
internal resistance R
traf
of a transformer is larger than the internal impedance Z
traf
.
2. After performing the check routine the program starts the calculation of the time
dependent ac end dc current of generators, single motors and the equivalent motor. The ac
and dc current are calculated for t = 0 and t = T/2.
3. Next, the equivalent generators are calculated at the points of common connection,
i.e. at the main distribution as described in the following:
3.1. Calculation of the equivalent generator, comprising all active components,
generators, single motors and equivalent motor.
3.2. Calculation of a number of equivalent generators in a program sequence (loop).
These generators comprise all active components but neglecting one single motor in each
sequence, beginning with motor no.1 and ending with motor no.20, if provided. The
number, of this equivalent generators, to be calculated equals the number of single
motors.
4. Finally the short circuit currents at the various fault points of the ship mains will be
calculated as follows:
4.1. Calculation of the fault currents at main bus, generator breakers and breakers
of single motors is based mainly on the results described by the above mentioned item
2 = currents of active components. The power factor in case of a short circuit at main bus
is calculated using the data of the equivalent generator, which is comprised of all active
components, as described by 3.1., see above.
4.2. Calculation of the time dependent short circuit currents at distributions and
subdistributions using as active component the equivalent generator described by 3.1., see
above.
4.3. Calculation of the time dependent short circuit currents at the terminals of the
single motors using as active component the equivalent generators described by 3.2., see
above.
5. After performing the calculation data are written into an ASCII-file and afterwards
displayed on the monitor. The said file contains the following data:
5.1. All input data
5.2. The root mean square value of the ac component at the beginning of the short
circuit I
k
at t = 0 or t = T/2.
5.3. The peak value Ip of the current calculated at time t = T/2.
5.4. The power factor
The calculation carried out by this program is based on the following assumptions in
compliance with the IEC Paper:
The short circuit occurs at the same time between all phases.
The calculation is carried out, neglecting the time dependent characteristic of the
voltage regulators, which are part of the generators. These regulators start to
increase the interval voltage and hence the currents of the generator about 100 ms
after the drop of the voltage caused by a short circuit. The calculation is
performed, assuming that the continuous short circuit current is three times higher
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than the nominal current of a generator if there are no input data (I
kd
/I
n
= 0). I
kd
is
the steady state current and I
n
is the nominal current.
Low ohmic short circuit is applied to all phases. Therefore, the impedance of the
faulty point (i.e. the connection from phase to phase) is neglected by the
calculation.
System capacitances are neglected.
Generators running in parallel have the same power factor (i.e. equal proportion
Harmonic distortions of the currents are neglected.

4.4.1.2. Structure of the Ship Mains to be calculated

The program is capable of calculating short-circuits in a ship mains constructed as
follows:
Equivalent motor - sum of small motors;
G - generator;
FP - fault point;
M - motor;
TR - transformer;

Notes on the system structure:
the installation of transformers is optional in any case;
a max number of 5 subdistributions may be connected to each distribution board.
Description of the fault points:
FP.1. short circuit at main distribution (worst case),
FP.2. short circuit at the generator breaker (generator side),
FP.3. short circuit at distribution board,
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FP.4. short circuit at subdistribution board,
FP.5. short circuit at breaker of single motor (motor side),
FP.6. short circuit at terminals of single motor.

4.4.1.3. Asymmetric short circuit

1. Unearthed system

A large number of electrical systems installed in vessels is operated with the neutral
point insulated from the ships hull. In such system, the most critical condition
concerning short-circuit is an insulation fault between all phases as calculated by this
program.

2. Earthed systems

If the neutral point is connected directly to the ships hull, higher currents than
calculated by this program may be produced if one or two phases are in contact with the
ships hull. Asymmetric failures are not calculated by this program. If a separate detailed
calculation will not be carried out it is recommended to multiply the symmetric fault
currents of the generators and synchronous motors by a factor of 1.5.
In case of an asymmetric short circuit asynchronous motors supply currents only if
two phases are connected to the ships hull because the neutral points of these motors are
operated unearthed in most applications. The asymmetric currents of motors may be
derived from the symmetric currents using a factor of 0.866 (=square root of three divided
by two).

4.4.1.4. Remarks on input data and components

1. Generators

Definitions:

"
d
x [%] - subtransient reactance of a synchronous machine in the d-axis,

'
d
x [%] - transient reactance of a synchronous machine in the d-axis,

d
x [%] - reactance in the d-axis,

a
r [%] - stator resistance,

"
d
t [ms] - subtransient time constant,

'
d
t [ms] - transient time constant,

dc
t [ms] - dc time constant.
To convert percent values (e.g.
a
r of a generator) into figures with dimension and
vice versa the following formula is to be used for:

a
R =
a
r
2
g
U / (100
g
S ),

g
S - nominal power of the generator,

g
U - resistance voltage of the generator,

a
R - resistance of the stator winding stated in ohm,

a
r - resistance of the stator winding stated in %.
For the conversion of reactance the same formula is to be used in principle.
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If the input value for the resistance of the stator winding is zero the program will
calculate with the following data basing on experience:

a
r = 0.3
"
d
x
g
S <= 150 KVA

a
r = 0.25
"
d
x 150 KVA <
g
S < 1000KVA

a
r = 0.15
"
d
x
g
S >= 1000KVA

2. Asynchronous motors

Single motors
All motors rated above 100 KW or exceeding the generator power by 15 % are large
motors and should be calculated individually acc. to the revised IEC Publication 363.
Motors witch do not match above categories will be classified as small motors.
Definitions:
s
r [%] - stator resistance,
r
r [%] - rotor resistance,
s
x [%] - stator reactance,
r
x [%] - rotor reactance.

If the motor data except for the shaft power and the voltage are not available (i.e.
input data = 0) the program will calculate the short circuit current by means of the
following parameters taken from IEC Publication except for the efficiency and the power
factor, witch are based on experience.
Internal data:
a) Impedance, reactance and resistances of large motors
"
m
z = 16 %
"
m
x = 15 % (
s r m
x x x + )
s
r = 3.4 %
r
r = 2.1 %

b) Impedance, reactance and resistances of small motors
"
m
z = 20 %
"
m
x = 18.8 % (
s r m
x x x + )
s
r = 4.3 %
r
r = 2.7 %

c) Time constants at 60 Hz for large and small motors
"
m
T = 18.67 ms
dc
T = 11.73 ms

d) Time constants at 50 Hz for large and small motors
"
m
T = 22.4 ms
dc
T = 14.076 ms

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e) Power factor and efficiency
power factor = 0.8
efficiency = 0.9

Equivalent motor
The equivalent motor will be calculated as a small motor despite of the KW power.
For the definition of small and large motors reference is made to the IEC Publication
61363-1. The fault currents of the equivalent motor will be evaluated as follows:
In I
ac
5 - ac component of the short circuit current at t = 0
n p
I I 8 - peak value of the short circuit current
ac dc
I I 2 - dc component of the short circuit current at t = 0
n
I - is the theoretical nominal current of the equivalent motor calculated by means of
main bus voltage and a power factor and an efficiency as mentioned above.

Transformers
The complex internal impedance of a transformer is calculated by the program, using
the following input data:
a) short-circuit voltage (z - component of the internal impedance)
b) copper losses (r - component of the internal impedance)
In short circuit condition a transformer is normally operated with reduced voltage,
therefore losses of the iron core are not relevant.
Calculation of the internal resistance and the impedance:

) 100 /(
2
traf traf k traf
S U u Z

traf
Z - impedance of transformer,
k
u - short circuit voltage [%],
traf
U - nominal voltage of transformer on that side witch is opposite to the short circuit,
traf
S - nominal power of transformer,

2 2
/
traf traf cu traf
S U P R

traf
R - internal resistance of a transformer,
cu
P - copper losses of a transformer.
The reactance X is derived from Z and R by means of the following formula:

) (
2 2
traf traf traf
R Z X

If short circuit voltage and copper losses are not available, the following table may be
used to obtain the missing data:
a) 220 V transformers

power [KVA] 50 100 250 500 1000
short-circuit voltage [%] 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.5 5
copper losses [KW] 1.0 1.5 2.5 4.0 7
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b) 3 kVA transformer

power [KVA] 500 1000 2500 5000
short-circuit voltage [%] 4.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
copper losses [KW] 5.0 9.0 16.0 25.0

The data of tables 1 and 2 above are based on experience.

Cables
R and X values (resistances and reactances) of cables are calculated by means of a
program routine based on the data specified by the table below. If this internal data shall
be used, the input of the specific r - and x - values, which can be found on several
pages, must be zero.

Cross-
Section
[mm x mm]
Resistance
R
[m/m]
Resistance
X at 50 Hz
[m/m]
Resistance
X at 60 Hz
[m/m]
3x1.5 13.1 0.126 0.152
3x2.5 7.86 0.117 0.140
3x4 4.91 0.107 0.128
3x6 3.28 0.100 0.120
3x10 1.965 0.098 0.113
3x16 1.23 0.091 0.109
3x25 0.786 0.082 0.098
3x35 0.560 0.082 0.098
3x50 0.393 0.075 0.090
3x70 0.280 0.075 0.090
3x95 0.206 0.075 0.090
3x120 0.164 0.072 0.086

Table: Resistances and reactances related to length of marine cable made of copper
for nominal voltages up to 1000 V. The data are based on experience.
If the specific r -and x -values are unequal to zero, the program will ignore the
internal data and calculate resistances and impedances of cables by means of the specific
data.
Under number of conductors enter the number of parallel conductors per phase.

Parameters
After entering the submenu parameters the following may be specified:
1. Modification of time constants <false> - the time constants which are derived from
external or internal data will remain unchanged during the calculation.
2. Modification of time constants <true> - the time constants which are derived from
external or internal data will be modified by the resistances and the reactances of passive
components which are cables and transformers. The equation used for the modification of
time constants are extracted unchanged from the IEC Publication 61363-1.
3. The setting modification of time constants <true> should be standard due to fact
that the dc time constants of generators will not be derived from the input data but
calculated by means of reactances and resistances. If the mentioned setting is true a
possible further element of uncertainty (i.e. the dc time constant) may be eliminated from
the calculation. The short-circuit program is using the following equation from the
calculation of the modified dc time constant of the generators acc. To the IEC Publication
61363-1:
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59
)) ( 2 ( / ) (
"
acb a cab d mdc
R R f X X T + +

mdc
T - dc time constant of a generator , modified;

"
d
X - sub transient reactance of a generator;

cab
X - reactance of the cable between a generator and the main distribution ;
f frequency;

a
R - resistance of the stator winding of a generator;

cab
R - resistance of the cable between the generator and the main distribution.
The equation for the modification of the subtransient time constant as stated by the
IEC Publication will change this constant, even if no cable is provided between generator
and main distribution.
4. Include preload conditions of motors < false> - for the calculation of fault currents
of motors the preload conditions (i.e. motor was running with nominal load prior to the
short circuit) will be neglected. The internal voltage of the motor will be the nominal
voltage at the terminals of this machine.
5. Include preload conditions of motors <true> - the preload conditions of a motor
will be taken into account. The internal voltage of this motor is now the voltage at the
terminals minus the voltage drop caused by the current and by the internal impedance.
The fault currents of a motor become smaller if preload conditions are not neglected.
Enable back up file <true> all input data are written into a file named bak on the
following occasions:
before leaving the short circuit calculation
before deleting an input page <alt+d>
before starting a print out
before starting a calculation
To recover data the bak-file has to be renamed using an appropriate command from
system level. The modified file name must have the extension .dat.
The status of the above mentioned parameters (true/false) is written into a file named
default when leaving the submenu parameters. After each start on the short
calculation these parameters will be set acc. to the content of the default-file. A new

Detailed Results
Instead of showing the complete results after performing a calculation the program
may display detailed results enabling the operator to check the influence of parameters or
to verify the results of a calculation.
To enable a more detailed output enter the submenu parameters and specify under
menu item display detailed calculation that part of the calculation which shall be
displayed in detail.
To produce hard-copies of the detailed results use the key combination <shift> +
<print>.
If a detailed calculation is selected the complete results will not be displayed.

4.4.1.5. Simplified Calculation

For a simplified calculation of short-circuit currents at the main distribution supplied
by generators and motors the following equations may be used.
"
kg
I =
gn
I 100 /
"
d
x [%]
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"
km
I = 6
mn
I
"
ktot
I =
"
kgtot
I +
"
kmtot
I
ptot
I = 2.3
"
ktot
I

gn
I - nominal current of a single generator;

"
kg
I - subtransient short-circuit current of a single generator;

"
kgtot
I - subtransient short-circuit current of all generators which may operate in
parallel;

mn
I - nominal current of a single motors;

"
km
I - subtransient short-circuit current of a single motor;

"
kmtot
I - subtransient short-circuit current of all motors, which may be operated
simultaneously;

"
ktot
I - subtransient short-circuit current of all generators and motors;

ptot
I - peak value of the short-circuit current of all motors and generators.

4.4.1.6. Selection of switch gear

Beside the calculation of electrodynamics forces between busbars and heat dissipation
in electric components a short-circuit evaluation is required for the selection of the
protective devices which are fuses and circuit breakers.
For the selection of breakers the following ratings must be available:
rated short-circuit making capacity;
rated short-circuit breaking capacity;
rated operational voltage;
power factor.
The rated short-circuit breaking capacity of a circuit breaker must not be less than the
calculated symmetric ac-component. Concerning the breaking operation delay times of
the switch gear may be taken into account.
The rated short-circuit making capacity of a circuit-breaker must not be lees than the
calculated peak value of the short-circuit current.
The rated operational voltage of the breaker must not be lees than the voltage at the
point of installation of the breaker.
If the above mentioned conditioned are not fulfilled the circuit-breaker manufacturer
may be consulted as to state whether the may be modified.

4.4.1.7. The documentation

The documentation of a short-circuit calculation submitted for approval should
comprise:
1. The principle lay-out of the electrical mains which has been calculated showing all:
- active components, e.g. generators and motors;
- cables;
- transformers;
- distributions and sub distributions;
- fault points with identifications markings.
The electrical mains may be displayed in the form of a single line diagram.
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2. Table of all input data required for the calculation, e.g. list of cables with cross
section, lengths and number of parallel conductors per phase, data of motors, generators,
transformers, etc.
It should be clearly if data are based on assumption.
3. Results of the short-circuit calculation for the worst case condition, comprising the
short-circuit current (peak current, symmetrical, ac- currents and power factors) of the
active components, and the short-circuit currents at all relevant fault points, e.g.:
- main bus,
- breaker of generators,
- breaker of single motors,
- distributions,
- subdistribution.
4. For practical reasons the document containing the calculated results should be
grouped with regard to the fault points and should comprise a list stating the make and
type of all installed breakers with their making capacity, breaking capacity and power
factors, see example below showing the procedure for a sub distribution and two
breakers.

Place of Installation: subdistribution EXAMPLE

Fault currents and power
factors at the place of
installation, calculated
values

Data of breakers for 440 V
operation makers data

p
I [kA]
ac
I [kA]
p.f. Type Make Break p.f.
25 16 0.45 XYZ 63A 35 18 0.25
UVW 125A 40 20 0.3

4.4.2. Short circuit current calculation according BUREAU VERITAS

4.4.2.1. Main methods

There are only 2 methods of calculation:
Equivalent impedance method: by this method, the impedances on network are
reduced to an equivalent impedance by considering the connection of impedances
(series, parallel) in relation to the point of calculation.
Contribution method: by this method, each equipment is considered separately in
relation to the point of calculation and the total short circuit current on the point is
the summation of the short circuit currents of elements connected to the point of
calculation.
Any other method is a variation, a combination or a particular case of the two
methods.

Real units method
By this method, all operators are measured directly in ohm, V, A, VA. The main
problem of method is that the impedances must be corrected to the voltage level of the
point of calculation if TXs are present in the network; if there are many voltage levels
(many TXs) in the network, the method may be quite elaborated.
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The correction formula for Z, R and X, from one voltage level to other voltage level
is:
2
1
2
1 2

,
_

U
U
Z Z
where:

1
Z is the value calculated for voltage level
nom
U U
1
of equipment,

2
Z is the corrected value from
1
U to
2
U = voltage level of the point of calculation.
Alternatively, the values can be calculated directly to the voltage level of the point of
calculation; by this way, each Z, R and X will have one value for each point of calculation
(for each voltage level).

Proportional units method (pu)
By this method, each equipments impedance is referred to an apparent base power Sb
and to a base voltage Ub; by this way, the corrections of values from one voltage level to
other voltage level are eliminated.
The three (3) formulae of the method are:
] , [ ] [ ] [
2
V VA
U
S
ohm Z pu Z
b

] , , [
3
A V VA
U
S
I
b
b
b

] , , [ A pu A
Z
I
I
b
b
k

where:
U [V] - is the nominal voltage of equipment, regardless of voltage level of the
intended point of calculation;

b
U [V] - is the voltage level of the point of calculation;

b
S [VA] - is the base power and has an arbitrary value (e.g. 1kVA, 10MVA,
100MVA, 0.444VA etc), provided that is has the same value for calculation of all
b
I , Z,
R and X in the network,

b
I [Apu] - is the base current at the point of the calculation,

b
Z [pu] - is equivalent or calculation Z at the point of calculation,

k
I [A] - is short circuit current at the point of calculation.
By using the above formulae, the calculation formulae of Z, R and X are changed in
comparison to real units method.

4.4.2.2. Theoretical considerations

The following steps are to be performed for calculation of short-circuit currents:
Step 1: Calculation of each equipment impedance Z
i
.
Step 2: Development of impedances diagram, based on one-line diagram system.
Step 3: Calculation of short-circuit impedances Z
ki
on the points of calculations.
Parallel connection:

i
i
i
i
c
A
A
A

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Serial connection:

i
i c
A A

Convert from to Y:
23 13 12
13 12
1
A A A
A A
A
+ +

23 13 12
23 13
3
A A A
A A
A
+ +

23 13 12
23 12
2
A A A
A A
A
+ +

Convert from Y to :
3
2 1
2 1 12
A
A A
A A A
+
+ +

1
3 2
3 2 23
A
A A
A A A
+
+ +

2
3 1
3 1 13
A
A A
A A A
+
+ +

Step 4: Calculation of short-circuit currents.

By short-circuit is meant the contact with a very small resistance between two or more
conductors being under voltage; the circuit is closed by a small resistance, the current on
this circuit resulting to be of a very high value (as I = U/R).
Based on the above, the following can be deduced:
the short-circuit is basically a normal circuit with a small resistance as consumer;
as bigger the voltage is, as higher the short-circuit current is.
the calculation of the short-circuit current is simplified reduced to determining the
resistance at the point of short-circuit.
There are defined three short-circuit currents according to the type of short-circuit,
respectively (RMS values):
3P short-circuit:
( )
k
k
k
Z
U
I

3
3

1 2
3
A
12
A
1 A
2
A
23
A
3
A
13
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2P short-circuit:
( )
k
k
k
Z
U
I

2
2

1P short-circuit:
( )
0
1
2 Z Z
U
I
k
k
k
+

where:
Z
k
- is the equivalent short-circuit impedance,
U
k
- is the line voltage at the point of calculation,
Z
0
- is the impedance of neutral conductor (=

Z ); if the neutral is connected to earth
by an impedance Z
n
, then Z
0
=

Z + Z
n
.

Three-phase short-circuit
This fault involves all three phases. Short-circuit current I
sc3
is equal to:

SC
sc
Z
U
I
3
3

where U (phase-to-phase voltage) corresponds to the transformer no-load voltage which
is 3 to 5 % greater than the on-load voltage across the terminals. For example, in 390 V
networks, the phase-to-phase voltage adopted is U = 410 and the phase-to-neutral voltage
is . 237 3 V U
Calculation of the short-circuit current therefore requires only calculation of Z
sc
, the
impedance equal to all the impedances through which I
sc
flows from the generator to the
location of the

fault, i.e. the impedances of the power sources

and the lines (see fig. 4.33.
). This is, in fact, the

"positive-sequence" impedance per phase:

( ) ( )
2 2

+ X R Z
sc

where:
R - is the sum of series resistances,
X - is the sum of series reactances.

It is generally considered that three-phase faults provoke the highest fault currents.
The fault current in an equivalent diagram of a polyphase system is limited by only the
impedance of one phase at the phase-to-neutral voltage of the network. Calculation of I
sc3

is therefore essential for selection of equipment (maximum current and electrodynamic
withstand capability).

Phase-to-phase short-circuit clear of earth
This is a fault between two phases, supplied with a phase-to-phase voltage U. In this
case, the short-circuit current I
SC2
is less than that of a three-phase fault:

3 3 2
86 . 0
2
3
2
sc sc
sc
sc
I I
Z
U
I

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Fig. 4.33. The various short-circuit currents (Z
sc
= Z
k
; I
sc
= I
k
)

Phase-to-neutral short-circuit clear of earth
This is a fault between one phase and the neutral, supplied with a phase-to-neutral
voltage 3 / U V . The short-circuit current I
SC1
is:
Ln sc
sc
Z Z
U
I
+

3
1

In certain special cases of phase-to-neutral faults, the zero-sequence impedance of the
source is less than Z
sc
(for example, at the terminals of a star-zigzag connected
transformer or of a generator under subtransient conditions).
In this case, the phase-to-neutral fault current may be greater than that of a three-
phase fault.

Phase-to-earth fault (one or two phases)
This type of fault brings the zero-sequence impedance Z
(0)
into play. Except when
rotating machines are involved (reduced zero-sequence impedance), the short-circuit
current I
sc(0)
is less than that of a three-phase fault.
Calculation of I
sc(0)
may be necessary, depending on the neutral system (system
earthing arrangement), in view of defining the setting thresholds for the zero-sequence
(HV) or earth-fault (LV) protection devices.

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Initial short circuit current
The initial short-circuit current is the total short-circuit current
k
i (
ksym
i +
dc
i ) at time
t = 0 sec. Sometime, the initial short-circuit current is understood as the RMS value of
symmetrical short circuit current.

The steady state (permanent regime) short-circuit current is the total
k
i short-circuit
current after
dc
i decayed to zero; it is actually the symmetrical short-circuit current
ksym
i .

Peak current
p
i
The peak short circuit current is the maximum instantaneous value of short circuit
current at a point of calculation. This current occurs within the first cycle of short
circuit, but it is generally accepted to be calculated at cycle = 0.01 sec on 50 Hz based
networks and at 0.0083 sec on 60 Hz based networks ( ) 2 / 1 2 f t ft t .

1
]
1

+

) sin( sin 2

t e I i i
R X
t
k k p

Thermal short circuit current
kt
I
By thermal equivalent short-circuit current
kt
I in AC circuits is meant the effective
value of an AC current that in 1 sec develops into a network element a heat which is equal
to the heat developed by the
k
i on entire short circuit duration, and serves at verification
of circuit breakers at thermal stability, having the formula:

t
k
k ktAC
t
t
n m I I ) (
0
+
where:

0 k
I - is the initial symmetrical short-circuit current,
m - is the factor of influence of
dc
i , depending of
s
K and
sc
t ,
n - is the factor of influence of variation of
kaym
i , depending of
sc
t and
k k
I I /
0
,

k
t [sec] - is the duration of short-circuit that is equal with the opening time of
circuit breaker (from catalog) plus the time for breaking the electric arc (= apr.
0.15 sec for
n
U 35 kV and 0.08 sec for
n
U 35 kV),

t
t =1 sec is the corresponding time of
kt
I .
In DC circuits, the
k k s k
R U I i I /
0
, and the
kt
I is:

t k
k
t k k ktDC
t t
R
U
t t I I / /

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4.4.2.3. Formulas

Motors
a) proportional units method: sub transient reactance X (%) and motor resistance
(ohm). When missing, these data can be approximated; for project no 7015 X=17%,
m
K =10.

m
X = ] [
100
"
pu
S
S x
m
b
;
m
R = ] [ pu
K
X
m
m
;
m
K =10 ;
m
Z = ] [
2 2
pu X R
m m
+

Other method is to calculate the
m
R and
m
X in real units and to refer them to
b
S and
b
U ; the method is valid too for
me
X and
me
R (see below):

m
X [pu] =
m
X [ohm]
2
b
b
U
S
;
m
R [pu] =
m
R [ohm]
2
b
b
U
S
;
m
Z = ] [
2 2
pu X R
m m
+

b) real units method: resistance
m
R [ohm], reactance
m
X [ohm], nominal current
n
I ,
power factor cos and starting factor
p
K .

m
X = ] [
3
sin
ohm
I K
U
n p

;
m
R = ] [
3
cos
ohm
I K
U
n p

;
m
Z = ] [
3
ohm
I K
U
n p

In case of more motor connected to the point of calculation, it can be calculated the
total equivalent resistance
me
R and reactance
me
X of these motors by approximating
cos , sin ; the total current
ne
I is the sum of nominal currents of motors;
pe
K the
equivalent starting factor:

ne
I =
ni
I ;
pe
K =

i
ni
i
pi
I
I
;
me
A =
ne pe
I K
U

3
] cos ; sin [

Where
me
A has the value Z, R, X, being the equivalent data of motors connected to
the point of calculation.

Transformer
a) proportional units method: short circuit voltage
k
u (%) and short circuit power
k
p (kW).

t
Z = ] [
100
pu
S
S u
t
b k
;
t
R =
k
p [kW] ] [
2
pu
S
S
t
b
;
t
X = ] [
2 2
pu R Z
t t

b) real units method: short circuit voltage
k
u (%) and short circuit power
k
p (kW).

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t
Z = ] [
100
2
ohm
S
U u
t
t k
;
t
R =
k
p ] [
2
2
ohm
S
U
t
t
;
t
X = ] [
2 2
ohm R Z
t t

Where
t
U is the voltage of the side (primary, secondary) on witch the item is
calculated. Generally,
t
U =
2
U , resulting the item directly referred to secondary side, thus
being avoided the referring of
1
Z to
2
Z .

DG set
a) proportional units method: subtransitorial reactance X (%) and DG resistance
(ohm). When missing, these data can be approximated.

DG
X = ] [
100
"
pu
S
S x
t
b
;
DG
R =
DG
DG
K
X
[pu] ;
DG
K =20

b) real units method: subtransient reactance X (%) and DG resistance (ohm). When
missing, these data can be approximated. X is appr. equal to 18%.

DG
X = ] [
100
"
2
ohm
S
U x
DG
DG
;
DG
R =
DG
DG
K
X
[ohm] ;
DG
K =20

Cables
a) proportional units method: the resistance
0
R (ohm/km), reactance
0
X (ohm/km),
length of circuit l and number of cables per phase n.

c
X = ] [
1000
2
0
pu
U
S
l
n
x
b
b

;
c
R = ] [
1000
2
0
pu
U
S
l
n
r
b
b

;
c
Z = ] [
2 2
pu X R
c c
+

b) real units method: the resistance
0
R (ohm/km), reactance
0
X (ohm/km), length of
circuit l and number of cables per phase n.

c
X = ] [
1000
0
ohm l
n
x

;
c
R = ] [
1000
0
ohm l
n
r

;
c
Z = ] [
2 2
ohm X R
c c
+

System/utility
a) proportional units method: the short circuit power MVA available at the point of
connection and the power MVA:

] [ 99 . 0 99 . 0 pu
S
S
Z X
s
b
s s
;
s
b
s s
S
S
X R 1485 . 0 15 . 0

b) real units method: the short circuit power MVA available at the point of connection
and rated voltage at the point of connection:

] [ 99 . 0 99 . 0
2
ohm
S
U
Z X
s
s s
;
s
s s
S
U
X R
2
1485 . 0 15 . 0
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Percentage: X = 99% ; R = 14.85%

4.4.2.4. Selection of protective device

Nominal current I
nPD
:
c nDP
I I

where I
c
is the current required by load; the is valid for all protection devices (PD).

Circuit breakers
Breaking capacity
cm
I : it indicates the maximum instantaneous current to witch CB
withstand without being damaged;
cm
I must be bigger that peak value of short circuit
current:
cm
I
p
i .
Service short circuit breaking current
cs
I : the breaking capacity of CB is to be bigger
than the RMS value of short circuit current calculated at the time when contacts start to
open. The
cs
I indicates the maximum current (RMS value) than the CB can trip/break
without being damaged or being affected - the CB is still operational after breaking the
short circuit current. The
cs
I is generally indicated in % of
cu
I .

) ( opening t t I I
k cs

Ultimate short circuit current
cu
I : the breaking capacity of CB is to be bigger than the
RMS value of short circuit current calculated at the time when contacts start to open. The
cu
I indicates the maximum current (RMS value) that the CB can trip/break and being
damaged - the CB will not be operational after breaking the short current and to be
replaced.
) ( topening t I I
k cu

Example: a CB having
cu
I =10 kA and
cs
I =50%
cu
I =5 kA will trip short currents up
to 5 kA without being damaged and will trip short currents from 5 kA to 10 kA with
coming out of operation (damaged). Generally, incoming CBs and essential consumers
CBs have
cs
I =
cu
I , while outgoing CBs and non-essential CBs have:

cs
I = (25%, 50%, 75%)
cu
I

Short time withstands current
cw
I : this current is only defined for CBs of utilization
category B.:
a) utilization category A: the CBs of this category are not intended to be used in series
(downstream of CB) with another protection devices; it is e.g. a motor protection CB (end
of line)
b) utilization category B: the CBs of this category are intended to be used in series
(downstream of CB) with another protection devices; it is e.g. a line protection CB
(beginning of line or intermediate in line CB). In order to assure the selectivity of
protection, the CB is provided with an intentional time delay release and with
cw
I in order
to withstand to short circuit current on the duration of intentional delay.

cw
I must be bigger than the RMS value of symmetrical short circuit current.
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cw
I ) ( RMS l symmetrica I
k

Thermal limit current
lt
I : it indicates the maximum thermal equivalent current to
which CB withstand in respect to heat developed at short circuit; it must be bigger than
the thermal equivalent short circuit current:
t
I
1 kt
I where t I1 is the thermal limit current
for 1 sec of circuit breaker indicated on catalog.
If the thermal limit current indicated for other time than 1 sec (
lt
I ), then
t
I
1
is
determined by formula:
t
I
1
= t I
lt
.

Fuses
Breaking capacity I
r
must be bigger than RMS value or symmetrical short circuit
current:
0 k r
I I

Current transformers
Thermal stability:
f k lt lt
t I t I
2 2

Where:
] [ A I
lt
- is the limit current at time t
lt
[sec], indicated in catalog;
t
f
= t
fp
+ t
fa
[sec];
t
fp

[sec] - is the period fictive time depending of t
k
and = I
k0
/I
k
;
t
fa
= 0.05
2
, because t
fa
0.05 sec, it can be ignored for t
k
> 1 sec.

Dynamic stability (breaking):
s ld
I I 2

Where I
ld
is the dynamic limit current, indicated in catalog and is the shock current.

Separators
Breaking capacity I
cm
: it indicates the maximum current (RMS value) that the
separator can break under load conditions; it must be bigger than peak value of short
circuit current.

Cables
Thermal stability:
C
t
I S
k
k

Where: S [mm
2
] is the cables cross section and C is the constant depending of the
type and material of cable:
- C = 122 for PVC insulated cable of copper, maximum admissible temperature at short
circuit is 150
0
C,
- C = 104 for EPR insulated cable of copper, max. admissible temperature at short circuit
is 120
0
C.

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4.5. Worked example of cable calculation

The installation is supplied through a 1,000 kVA transformer. The process requires a
high degree of supply continuity and this is provided by the installation of a 500 kVA
400 V standby generator and the adoption of a 3-phase 3-wire IT system at the main
general distribution board. The remainder of the installation is isolated by a 315 kVA
400/400 V transformer. The isolated network is a TT-earthed 3-phase 4-wire system.

Dimensioning circuit C
1
The HV/LV 1,000 kVA transformer has a rated no-load voltage of 420 V. Circuit C
1

must be suitable for a current of
A I
n
374 , 1
420 3
10 000 , 1
3

per phase.
Six single-core PVC-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used for each phase.
These cables will be laid on cable trays corresponding with reference F. The K
correction factors are as follows:
K
1
= 1 (see figure 4.5.)
K
2
= 1 (see figure 4.6.)
K
3
= 1 (temperature 30
0
C)
If the circuit breaker is a Masterpact, one might choose:

I
z
= 1,374 A

A
K K K
I
I
z
n
374 , 1
1
374 , 1
3 2 1

Each conductor will therefore carry 229 A. Figure 4.9. indicates that the c.s.a. is 95
mm
2
.
The resistances and the inductive reactances for the six conductors in parallel are, for
a length of 5 metres:

m
S
l
R 1623 . 0
6 95
5 5 . 18

m R 1083 . 0
6
5 13 . 0

Dimensioning circuit C6
Circuit C
6
supplies a 315 kVA 3-phase 400/400 V isolating transformer.

Primary current A 433
3 42 . 0
315

A single-core cable laid on a cable tray (without any other cable) in an ambient air
temperature of 30
0
C is proposed. The circuit breaker is regulated to 433 A:

I
z
= 433 A

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Fig. 4.34. Example of one-line diagram

The method of installation is characterized by the reference letter F, and the K
correcting factors are:
K
1
= 1
K
2
= 1
K
3
= 1

A
K
I
I
z
z
433
'

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A c.s.a. of 240 mm
2
is appropriate. The resistance and inductive reactance are
respectively:

m
S
l
R 1568 . 1
240
5 5 . 18

m R 2 . 1 15 08 . 0

Calculation of short-circuit currents for the selection of circuit breakers Q
1
and Q
6

(see Fig. 4.34.)

Fig. 4.35. Example of short-circuit current evaluation

The protective conductor
Thermal requirements: figure 4.23. show that, when using the adiabatic method the
c.s.a. for the protective earth (PE) conductor for circuit C
1
will be:

2
108
143
2 . 0 800 , 34
mm

A single 120 mm
2
conductor dimensioned for other reasons mentioned later is
therefore largely sufficient, provided that it also satisfies the requirements for indirect-
contact protection (i.e. that its impedance is sufficiently low). For the circuit C
6
, the c.s.a.
of its PE conductor should be:
2
92
143
2 . 0 300 , 29
mm

In this case a 95 mm
2
conductor may be adequate if the indirect-contact protection
conditions are also satisfied.

Protection against indirect-contact hazards
For circuit C
6
of figure 4.34., the maximum permitted length of the circuit is given
by:

a
ph
I m
S U
L
+

) 1 (
8 . 0
0
max

m L 70
11 630
95
240
1 5 . 22 2
000 , 1 3 230 240 8 . 0
max

,
_

+

(The value in the denominator 63011 = I
m
i.e. the current level at which the instantaneous
short-circuit magnetic trip of the 630 A circuit breaker operates). The length of 15 metres
is therefore fully protected by instantaneous overcurrent devices.
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Voltage drop
From figure 4.30. it can be seen that:
For the cable C
1
(695 mm
2
per phase)

V
A Km VA
U 54 . 1
3
008 . 0 374 , 1 42 . 0
1 1

% 38 . 0 54 . 1
400
100
% U

For the circuit C
6

V
A Km VA
U 36 . 1
3
015 . 0 433 21 . 0
1 1

% 34 . 0 34 . 1
400
100
% U

At the circuit terminals of the LV/LV transformer the percentage volt-drop
U% = 0.72%

4.6. Choice of the protective devices

4.6.1. The basic functions of LV switchgear

National and international standards define the manner in which electric circuits of
LV installations must be realized, and the capabilities and limitations of the various
switching devices which are collectively referred to as switchgear.
The main functions of switchgear are:
electrical protection;
electrical isolation of sections of an installation;
local or remote switching.

Fig. 4.36. Basic functions of LV switchgear

Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart from fuses) normally incorporated in
circuit-breakers, in the form of thermal-magnetic devices. In addition to those functions
shown in figure 4.36., other functions, namely:
over-voltage protection;
under-voltage protection are provided by specific devices (lightning and various
other types of voltage-surge arrester; relays associated with: contactors, remotely
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controlled circuit-breakers, and with combined circuit-breaker/isolators and so
on).

Electrical protection

Electrical protection assures:
protection of circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses of short-
circuit currents;
protection of persons in the event of insulation failure;
protection of appliances and apparatus being supplied (e.g. motors, etc.).
The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive
(short-circuit) currents, or those due to overloading and insulation failure, and to separate
the defective circuit from the rest of the installation.
A distinction is made between the protection of:
the elements of the installation (cables, wires, switchgear);
persons and animals;
equipment and appliances supplied from the installation;
the protection of circuits:
- against overload; a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy
(unfaulted) installation;
- against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between
conductors of different phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (or PE)
conductor.
Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit-breaker, at the
distribution board from which the final circuit (i.e. the circuit to which the load is
connected) originates.
The protection of persons:
- against insulation failures. According to the system of earthing for the installation
(TN, TT or IT) the protection will be provided by fuses or circuit-breakers, residual
current devices, and/or permanent monitoring of the insulation resistance of the
installation to earth.
The protection of electric motors:
- against overheating, due, for example, to long term overloading; stalled rotor;
single-phasing, etc. Thermal relays, specially designed to match the particular
characteristics of motors are used.
Such relays may, if required, also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload.
Short-circuit protection is provided either by type aM fuses or by a circuit-breaker from
which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed, or otherwise made
inoperative.

Isolation

A state of isolation clearly indicated by an approved fail-proof indicator, or the
visible separation of contacts, are both deemed to satisfy the national standards of many
countries.
The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus, or an item of plant (such as a
motor, etc.) from the remainder of a system which is energized, in order that personnel
may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety.
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In principle, all circuits of an LV installation shall have means to be isolated. In
practice, in order to maintain an optimum continuity of service, it is preferred to provide a
means of isolation at the origin of each circuit.
An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements:
all poles of a circuit, including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PEN
conductor) must be open;
it must be provided with a means of locking open with a key (e.g. by means of a
it must conform to a recognized national or international standard concerning
clearance between contacts, creepage distances, over voltage withstand capability,
etc. and also verification that the contacts of the isolating device are, in fact, open.
The verification may be:
- either visual, where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be
seen (some national standards impose this condition for an isolating device located at the
origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer);
- or mechanical, by means of an indicator solidly welded to the operating shaft of
the device. In this case the construction of the device must be such that, in the eventuality
that the contacts become welded together in the closed position, the indicator cannot
possibly indicate that it is in the open position;
- leakage currents; with the isolating device open, leakage currents between the
open contacts of each phase must not exceed:
- 0.5 mA for a new device;
- 6.0 mA at the end of its useful life.
- voltage-surge withstand capability, across open contacts. The isolating device,
when open must withstand a 1.2/50 s impulse, having a peak value of 6, 8 or 12 kV
according to its service voltage, as shown in figure 4.37. The device must satisfy these
conditions for altitudes up to 2,000 metres. Correction factors are given in IEC 60664-1
for altitudes greater than 2,000 metres.
Consequently, if tests are carried out at sea level, the test values must be increased by
23% to take into account the effect of altitude.

Fig. 4.37. Peak value of impulse voltage
according to normal service voltage of test specimen

The degrees III and IV are degrees of pollution defined in IEC 60664-1

Switchgear control

Switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded
system at any moment, according to requirements. In broad terms control signifies any
facility for safely modifying a load-carrying power system at all levels of an installation.
The operation of switchgear is an important part of power-system control.

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Functional control
This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for
energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation, or an individual piece of
equipment, item of plant, etc.
Switchgear intended for such duty must be installed at least:
at the origin of any installation;
at the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads).
Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous. In order to
provide the maximum flexibility and continuity of operation, particularly where the
switching device also constitutes the protection (e.g. a circuit-breaker or switch-fuse) it is
preferable to include a switch at each level of distribution, i.e. on each outgoing way of
all distribution and subdistribution boards.
The manoeuvre may be:
either manual (by means of an operating lever on the switch) or
electric, by push-button on the switch or at a remote location (load-shedding and
reconnection, for example).
These switches operate instantaneously (i.e. with no deliberate delay), and those that
provide protection are invariably omni-polar.
The main circuit-breaker for the entire installation, as well as any circuit-breakers
used for change-over (from one source to another) must be omni-polar units.

Emergency switching - emergency stop
An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is, or could
become, dangerous (electric shock or fire).
An emergency stop is intended to arrest a movement which has become dangerous. In
the two cases:
the emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote
location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop pushbutton
must be recognizable and readily accessible, in proximity to any position at which
danger could arise or be seen;
a single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors;
a break glass emergency switching initiation device is authorized, but in
unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by
means of a key held by an authorized person.
It should be noted that in certain cases, an emergency system of braking, may require
that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until final stoppage
of the machinery.

Switching-off for mechanical maintenance work
This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be
inadvertently restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the
driven machinery. The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching
device, with the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism.

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4.6.2. Elementary switching devices

4.6.2.1. Disconnector (or isolator) (see Fig. 4.38.)

This switch is a manually-operated, lockable, two-position device (open/closed)
which provides safe isolation of a circuit when locked in the open position. A
disconnector is not designed to make or to break current and no rated values for these
functions are given in standards.

Fig. 4.38. Symbol for a disconnector (or isolator)

A LV disconnector is essentially a deadsystem switching device to be operated with
no voltage on either side of it, particularly when closing, because of the possibility of an
unsuspected short-circuit on the downstream side. Interlocking with an upstream switch
or circuit breaker is frequently used.
It must, however, be capable of withstanding the passage of short-circuit currents and
is assigned a rated short-time withstand capability; generally for 1 second, unless
otherwise agreed between user and manufacturer. This capability is normally more than
adequate for longer periods of (lower-valued) operational overcurrents, such as those of
motor-starting. Standardized mechanical-endurance, overvoltage, and leakage-current
tests, must also be satisfied.

4.6.2.2. Load-breaking switch (see Fig. 4.39.)

This control switch is generally operated manually (but is sometimes provided with
electrical tripping for operator convenience) and is a non-automatic two-position device
(open/closed).

Fig. 4.39. Symbol for a load-breaking switch

It is used to close and open loaded circuits under normal unfaulted circuit conditions.
It does not consequently, provide any protection for the circuit it controls. It is
characterized by:
- the frequency of switch operation (600 close/open cycles per hour maximum);
- mechanical and electrical endurance (generally less than that of a contactor);
- current making and breaking ratings for normal and infrequent situations.
When closing a switch to energize a circuit there is always the possibility that an
(unsuspected) short circuit exists on the circuit. For this reason, load-break switches are
assigned a fault-current making rating, i.e. successful closure against the electrodynamics
forces of short-circuits current is assured. Such switches are commonly referred to as
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fault-make load-break switches. Upstream protective devices are relied upon to clear
the short-circuit fault
Category AC-23 includes occasional switching of individual motors. The switching of
capacitors or of tungsten filament lamps shall be subject to agreement between
manufacturer and user.
The utilization categories referred to in figure 4.40. do not apply to an equipment
normally used to start, accelerate and/or stop individual motors.

Example:
A 100 A load-break switch of category AC-23 (inductive load) must be able:
- to make a current of 10I
n
(1,000 A) at a power factor of 0.35 lagging;
- to break a current of 8I
n
(800 A) at a power factor of 0.45 lagging;
- to withstand short duration short-circuit currents when close.

Fig. 4.40. Utilization categories of LV AC switches

4.6.2.3. Bistable switch (tlrupteur) (see Fig. 4.41.)

This device is extensively used in the control of lighting circuits where the depression
of a pushbutton (at a remote control position) will open an already-closed switch or close
an open switch in a bistable sequence.
Typical applications are:
- two-way switching on stairways of large buildings;
- stage-lighting schemes;
- factory illumination, etc.
Auxiliary devices are available to provide:
- remote indication of its state at any instant;
- time-delay functions;
- maintained-contact features.

Fig. 4.41. Symbol for a bistable remotelyoperated switch
(tlrupteur)

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4.6.2.4. Contactor (see Fig. 4.42.)

The contactor is a solenoid-operated switching device which is generally held closed
by (a reduced) current through the closing solenoid (although various mechanically
latched types exist for specific duties). Contactors are designed to carry out numerous
close/open cycles and are commonly controlled remotely by on-off pushbuttons. The
large number of repetitive operating cycles is standardized by:
the operating duration: 8 hours; uninterrupted; intermittent; temporary of 3, 10,
30, 60 and 90 minutes;
utilization category: for example, a contactor of category AC3 can be used for the
starting and stopping of a cage motor;
the start-stop cycles (1 to 1,200 cyles per hour);
mechanical endurance (number of off-load manoeuvres);
electrical endurance (number of on-load manoeuvres);
a rated current making and breaking performance according to the category of
utilization concerned.

Fig. 4.42. Symbol for a contactor

Example:
A 150 A contactor of category AC3 must have a minimum current-breaking capability
of 8In (1,200 A) and a minimum current-making rating of 10In (1,500 A) at a power
factor (lagging) of 0.35.

Characteristics

Altitude
The rarefied atmosphere at high altitude reduces the dielectric strength of the air and
hence the rated operational voltage of the contactor breaker. It also reduces the cooling
effect of the air and hence the rated operational current of the contactor breaker (unless
the temperature drops at the same time).
No derating is necessary up to 3000 m.
Derating factors to be applied above this altitude for main pole operational voltage
and current (a.c. supply) are as follows:

Altitude 3500 m 4000 m 4500 m 5000 m
Rated operational voltage 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6
Rated operational current 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86

Ambient air temperature
The temperature of the air surrounding the device, measured near to the device. The
operating characteristics are given:
- with no restriction for temperatures between 5 and +55,
- with no restriction, if necessary, for temperatures between 50 and +70.
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Rated operational current (I
e
)
This is defined taking into account the rated operational voltage, operating rate and
duty, utilization category and air temperature around the device.

Rated conventional thermal current (I
th
)
The current witch a closed contactor breaker can sustain for a minimum of 8 hours
without its temperature rise exceeding the limits given in the standards.

Short time rating
The current witch a closed contactor breaker can sustain for a short time, after a
period of no load, without dangerous overheating.

Rated operational (U
e
)
This is the voltage value witch, in conjunction with the rated operational current,
determines the use of the contactor breaker or starter, and on witch the corresponding
tests and the utilization category are based. For 3-phase circuits, it is expressed as the
voltage between phases.
Apart from exceptional cases such as rotor short-circuiting, the rated operational
voltage U
e
is less than or equal to the rated insulation voltage U
i
.

Rated control circuit voltage (U
c
)
The rated value of the control circuit voltage, on witch the operating characteristics
are based. For a.c. applications, the values are given for a near sinusoidal wave from (less
than 5 % total harmonic distortion).

Rated insulation voltage (U
i
)
This is the voltage value used to define the insulation characteristics of a device and
referred to in dielectric tests determining leakage paths and creepage distances.
As the specifications are not identical for all standards, the rated values given for each
of them are not necessarily the same.

Rated impulse withstand voltage (U
imp
)
This is the highest peak value of an impulse voltage, of prescribed from and polarity,
witch the device is able to withstand without failure under specified test conditions, and
to which isolation clearance values are referred. The rated impulse withstand voltage of a
device must be equal to or higher than the values stated for the transient overvoltages
appearing in the circuit in which the device is fitted.

Rated operational power (expressed in kW)
The rated power of the standard motor, which can be switched by the contactor
breaker, at the stated operational voltage.
Note: these definitions are based on extracts from standard IEC 947

Rated breaking capacity (I
q
)
This is the current value, which the contactor breaker can break in accordance with
the breaking conditions specified in the IEC standard.

Rated making capacity
This is the current value, which the contactor breaker can make in accordance with
the making conditions specified in the IEC standard.
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This is the ratio between the time the current flows (t) and the duration of the cycle
(T): m = t / T

Cycle duration: duration of current flow + time at zero current.

Pole impedance
The impedance of one pole is the sum of the impedance of all the circuit components
between the input terminals. The impedance comprises a resistive component (R) and an
inductive component (X = L).
The total impedance therefore depends on the frequency and is normally given for 50
Hz.
The average value is given for the pole at its rated operational current.

Electrical durability
This is the average number of on-load operating cycles, which the main pole contacts
can perform without maintenance. The electrical durability depends on the utilization
category, the rated operational voltage.

Mechanical durability
This is the average number of no-load operating cycles (i.e. with zero current flow
through the main poles), which the contactor breaker can perform without mechanical
failure.

The standard utilization categories define the current values, which the contactor
breaker must be able to make or break.
These values depend on:
the type of load being switched: squirrel cage or slip ring motor, resistors,
the conditions under which making or breaking takes place: motor stalled, starting
or running, reversing, plugging.

Utilization categories for a.c. applications (contactor breakers)

Category AC-1: applies to all types of a.c. load with a power factor equal to or greater
than 0.95 (cos 0.95). Non-inductive or slightly inductive loads. Application examples:
heating, distribution.

Category AC-2:
- applies to starting, plugging and inching of slip motors,
- on closing, the contactor breaker makes the starting current, which is about 2.5 times the
rated current of the motor,
-on opening, it must break the starting current, at a voltage less than or equal to the mains
supply voltage.

Category AC-3:
- applies to squirrel cage motors with breaking during normal running of the motor,
- on closing the contactor breaker makes the starting current, which is about 5 to 7 times
the rated current of the motor,
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- on opening, it breaks the rated current drawn by the motor; at this point, the voltage at
the contactor breaker terminals is about 20 % of the mains supply voltage. Breaking is
light.
Application examples: all standard squirrel cage motors (lifts, escalators, conveyor
belts, bucket elevators, compressors, pumps, mixers, air conditioning units).

Category AC-4:
- covers applications with plug braking and inching of squirrel cage motors,
- on closing, the contactor breaker makes a current peak which may be as high as 5 or 7
times the rated motor current,
- on opening, it breaks this same current at a voltage which is higher, the lower the motor
speed. This voltage can be the same as the mains voltage. Breaking is severe.
Application examples: printing machines, wire drawing, hoisting equipment,
metallurgy industry.

Utilisation categories for a.c. applications (auxiliary contacts)

Category AC-14: applies to the switching of electromagnetic loads whose power
drawn with the electromagnet closed is less than 72 VA.
Application example: switching the operating coil of contactors and relays.

Category AC-15: This category applies to the switching of electromagnetic loads
whose power drawn with the electromagnet closed is greater than 720VA.
Application example: switching the operating coil of contactors.

Category AC-41: applies to all types of a.c. device (load) with a power factor equal to
or greater than 0.95 (cos 0.95). Non-inductive or slightly inductive loads.
Application example: heating, distribution

Category AC-42:
- applies to starting, plugging and inching of slip ring motors,
- on closing, the contactor breaker makes the starting current, which is about 2.5 times the
rated current of the motor,
- on opening, it must break the starting current, at a voltage less than or equal to the mains
supply voltage.

Category AC-43:
- applies to squirrel cage motors with breaking while motor running; inching or
occasional reversing of limited duration are permissible if the number of operating cycle
does not exceed 5 per minute, or 10 within a 10 minute period,
- on closing the contactor breaker makes the starting current, which is about 5 to 7 times
the rated motor current,
- on opening, it breaks the rated current drawn by the motor; at this point, the voltage at
the contactor breaker terminals is about 20 % of the mains supply voltage. Breaking is
light.
Application examples: all started squirrel cage motors (lifts, escalators, conveyor
belts, bucket elevators, compressors, pumps, mixers, air conditioning units).

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Category AC-44:
- covers applications with plug braking and inching of squirrel cage or slip ring motors,
- on closing, the contactors breaker makes a current peak which may be as high as 5 or 7
times the rated motor current,
- on opening, it breaks this same current at a voltage which is higher, the lower the motor
speed. This voltage can be the same as the mains voltage. Breaking is severe.
Application examples: printing machines, wire drawing machines, hoisting
equipment, metallurgy industry, etc.

Utilization categories for d.c. applications

Category DC-13
This category applies to the switching of electromagnetic loads for whthe time taken
to reach 95% of the steady state current (T = 0.95) is equal to 6 times the power P drawn
by the load (with P 5pW).
Application example: switching the operating coil of contactor breakers.

4.6.2.5. Fuses (see Fig. 4.43.)

The first letter indicates the breaking range:
The second letter indicates the utilization category; this letter defines with accuracy
the time-current characteristics, conventional times and currents, gates:
For example:
gG indicates fuse-links with a full-range breaking capacity for general
application;
gM indicates fuse-links with a full-range breaking capacity for the protection of
motor circuits;
aM indicates fuse-links with a partial range breaking capacity for the protection
of motor circuits.
Fuses exist with and without fuse-blown mechanical indicators. Fuses break a
circuit by controlled melting of the fuse element when a current exceeds a given value for
a corresponding period of time; the current/time relationship being presented in the form
of a performance curve for each type of fuse. Standards define two classes of fuse:
those intended for domestic installations, manufactured in the form of a cartridge
for rated currents up to 100 A and designated type gG;
those for industrial use, with cartridge types designated gG (general use); and gM
and aM (for motor-circuits).

Fig. 4.43. Symbol for fuses

The main differences between domestic and industrial fuses are the nominal voltage
and current levels (which require much larger physical dimensions) and their fault current
breaking capabilities. Type gG fuse-links are often used for the protection of motor
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circuits, which is possible when their characteristics are capable of withstanding the
motor-starting current without deterioration.
A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for
motor protection, designed to cover starting, and short-circuit conditions. This type of
fuse is more popular in some countries than in others, but at the present time the aM fuse
in combination with a thermal overload relay is more-widely used.
A gM fuse-link, which has a dual rating, is characterized by two current values. The
first value I
n
denotes both the rated current of the fuse-link and the rated current of the
fuseholder; the second value I
ch
denotes the time-current characteristic of the fuse-link.
These two ratings are separated by a letter which defines the applications.
For example: I
n
MI
ch
denotes a fuse intended to be used for protection of motor
circuits and having the characteristic G. The first value I
n
corresponds to the maximum
continuous current for the whole fuse and the second value I
ch
corresponds to the G
Important: Some national standards use a gI (industrial) type fuse, similar in all main
essentails to type gG fuses.
Type gI fuses should never be used, however, in domestic and similar installations.

Fusing zones - conventional currents
The conditions of fusing (melting) of a fuse are defined by standards, according to
their class.

Class gG fuses
These fuses provide protection against overloads and short-circuits. Conventional
non-fusing and fusing currents are standardized, as shown in figure 4.44. and in figure
4.45.
The conventional non-fusing current I
nf
is the value of current that the fusible
element can carry for a specified time without melting.
Example: A 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1.25I
n
(i.e. 40 A) must not melt in less
than one hour.
The conventional fusing current I
f
(= I
2
in fig. 4.44.) is the value of current which
will cause melting of the fusible element before the expiration of the specified
time.

Fig. 4.44. Zones of fusing and non-fusing for gG and gM fuses

Example: A 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1.6I
n
(i.e. 52.1 A) must melt in one hour
or less IEC 60269-1 standardized tests require that a fuse-operating characteristic lies
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between the two limiting curves (shown in figure 4.44.) for the particular fuse under test.
This means that two fuses which satisfy the test can have significantly different operating

Fig. 4.45. Zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses

The two examples given above for a 32 A fuse, together with the foregoing notes
on standard test requirements, explain why these fuses have a poor performance in
It is therefore necessary to install a cable larger in ampacity than that normally
required for a circuit, in order to avoid the consequences of possible long term
By way of comparison, a circuit breaker of similar current rating:
which passes 1.05In must not trip in less than one hour; and
when passing 1.25In it must trip in one hour, or less (25% overload for up to one
hour in the worst case).

Fig. 4.46. Current limitation by a fuse

Class aM (motor) fuses
These fuses afford protection against short-circuit currents only and must necessarily
be associated with other switchgear (such as discontactors or circuit breakers) in order to
n
. They are not therefore autonomous.
Since aM fuses are not intended to protect against low values of overload current, no
levels of conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are fixed.

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Rated short-circuit breaking currents
A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that, owing to the rapidity of fusion in
the case of high short-circuit current levels, a current cut-off begins before the occurrence
of the first major peak, so that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value
(see fig. 4.46.).
This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses
which would otherwise occur, thereby minimizing danger and damage at the fault
position. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the
RMS value of the AC component of the prospective fault current.
No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses.
A gM type fuse is essentially a gG fuse, the fusible element of which corresponds to
the current value I
ch
(ch = characteristic) which may be, for example, 63 A. This is the
IEC testing value, so that its time/current characteristic is identical to that of a 63 A gG
fuse. This value (63 A) is selected to withstand the high starting currents of a motor, the
n
) of which may be in the 10-20 A range. This means that a
physically smaller fuse barrel and metallic parts can be used, since the heat dissipation
required in normal service is related to the lower figures (10-20 A). A standard gM fuse,
suitable for this situation would be designated 32M63 (i.e. I
n
M I
ch
).
The first current rating I
n
fuse-link, while the second current rating (I
ch
) relates to its (short-time) starting-current
performance. It is evident that, although suitable for short-circuit protection, overload
protection for the motor is not provided by the fuse, and so a separate thermal-type relay
is always necessary when using gM fuses. The only advantage offered by gM fuses,
therefore, when compared with aM fuses, are reduced physical dimensions and slightly
lower cost.

4.6.2.6. Circuit breaker

The fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker are:
its rated voltage U
e
;
its rated current I
n
;
r
or I
rth
) and
for short-circuit protection (I
m
);
its short-circuit current breaking rating (I
cu
for industrial CBs; I
cn
for domestic
type CBs).
Rated operational voltage (U
e
)
This is the voltage at which the circuit breaker has been designed to operate, in
normal (undisturbed) conditions.

Rated current (I
n
)
This is the maximum value of current that a circuit breaker, fitted with a specified
overcurrent tripping relay, can carry indefinitely at an ambient temperature stated by the
manufacturer, without exceeding the specified temperature limits of the current-carrying
parts.
Example
A circuit-breaker rated at I
n
= 125 A for an ambient temperature of 40
0
C will be
equipped with a suitably calibrated overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A). The same
circuit-breaker can be used at higher values of ambient temperature however, if suitably
derated. Thus, the circuit breaker in an ambient temperature of 50
0
C could carry only
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117 A indefinitely, or again, only 109 A at 60
0
C, while complying with the specified
temperature limit.
Derating a circuit-breaker is achieved therefore, by reducing the trip-current setting of
its overload relay, and marking the CB accordingly. The use of an electronic-type of
tripping unit, designed to withstand high temperatures, allows circuit-breakers (derated as
described) to operate at 60
0
C (or even at 70
0
C) ambient.
Note: I
n
for circuit breakers is equal to I
u
for switchgear generally, I
u
being rated
uninterrupted current.

Frame-size rating
A circuit-breaker which can be fitted with overcurrent tripping units of different
current level-setting ranges is assigned a rating which corresponds with that of the highest
current-level-setting tripping unit that can be fitted.
Example
A NS630N circuit-breaker can be equipped with 4 electronic trip units from 150 A to
630 A. The size of the circuit-breaker is 630 A.

rth
or I
r
)
Apart from small circuit-breakers which are very easily replaced, industrial
circuit-breakers are equipped with removable, i.e. exchangeable, overcurrent-trip relays.
Moreover, in order to adapt a circuit-breaker to the requirements of the circuit it
controls, and to avoid the need to install over-sized cables, the trip relays are generally
adjustable. The trip-current setting Ir or Irth (both designations are in common use) is the
current above which the circuit breaker will trip. It also represents the maximum current
that the circuit-breaker can carry without tripping.
That value must be greater than the maximum load current I
B
, but less than the
maximum current permitted in the circuit I
z
.
The thermal-trip relays are generally adjustable from 0.7 to 1.0 times I
n
, but when
electronic devices are used for this duty, the adjustment range is greater; typically 0.4 to 1
times I
n
.
Example (see Fig. 4.47.)
A NS630N circuit-breaker equipped with a 400 A STR23SE overcurrent trip relay, set
at 0.9, will have a trip-current setting: I
r
= 4000.9 = 360 A
Note: For circuit breakers equipped with non-adjustable overcurrent-trip relays,
I
r
= I
n
. Example: for C60N 20 A circuit-breaker, I
r
= I
n
= 20 A.

Fig. 4.47. Example of a NS630N circuit breaker equipped with
a STR23SE trip unit adjusted to 0.9, to give I
r
= 360 A
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Fig. 4.48. Tripping-current ranges of overload
and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers

Short-circuit relay trip-current setting (I
m
)
Short-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or slightly time-delayed) are intended to
trip the circuit-breaker rapidly on the occurrence of high values of fault current. Their
tripping threshold I
m
is either fixed by standards for domestic type CBs, Indicated by the
manufacturer for industrial-type CBs according to related standards.
For the latter circuit-breakers there exists a wide variety of tripping devices which
allow a user to adapt the protective performance of the circuit breaker to the particular
requirements of a load (see Fig. 4.48., Fig. 4.49. and Fig. 4.50.).

Isolating feature
A circuit-breaker is suitable for isolating a circuit if it fulfills all the conditions
prescribed for a disconnector (at its rated voltage) in the relevant standard. In such a case
it is referred to as a circuit-breaker-disconnector and marked on its front face with the
symbol:

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity (I
cu
or I
cn
)
The short-circuit current-breaking rating of a CB is the highest (prospective) value of
current that the CB is capable of breaking without being damaged. The value of current
quoted in the standards is the RMS value of the AC component of the fault current, i.e.
the DC transient component (which is always present in the worst possible case of short-
circuit) is assumed to be zero for calculating the standardized value. This rated value (I
cu
)
for industrial CBs and (I
cn
) for domestic-type CBs is normally given in kA RMS.
I
cu
(rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity) and I
cs
(rated service short-circuit
breaking capacity) are defined in IEC 60947-2 together with a table relating I
cs
with I
cu

for different categories of utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B (time-delayed
tripping).

Rated insulation voltage (U
i
)
This is the value of voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than
2U
i
) and creepage distances are referred.
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The maximum value of rated operational voltage must never exceed that of the rated
insulation voltage, i.e. U
e
U
i
.

Fig. 4.49. Performance curve of a circuit-breaker thermal-magnetic
protective scheme

Fig. 4.50. Performance curve of a circuit-breaker electronic protective scheme
I
r
- overload (thermal or short-deley) relay trip-current setting
I
m
- short-circuit (magnetic or long-delay) relay trip-current setting
I - short-circuit instantaneous relay trip-current setting
PdC - breaking capacity

Rated impulse-withstand voltage (U
imp
)
This characteristic expresses, in kV peak (of a prescribed form and polarity) the value
of voltage which the equipment is capable of withstanding without failure, under test
conditions.
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Generally, for industrial circuit breakers, U
imp
= 8 kV and for domestic types,
U
imp
= 6 kV.

Category (A or B) and rated short-time withstand current (I
cw
)
There are two categories of LV industrial switchgear, A and B, according to IEC
60947-2:

Fig. 4.51. Category A circuit breaker

those of category A, for which there is no deliberate delay in the operation of the
instantaneous short-circuit magnetic tripping device (see Fig. 4.51.), are
generally moulded-case type circuit-breakers, and
those of category B for which, in order to discriminate with other circuit breakers
on a time basis, it is possible to delay the tripping of the CB, where the fault-
current level is lower than that of the short-time withstand current rating (I
cw
) of
the CB (see Fig. 4.52.). This is generally applied to large open-type circuit
breakers and to certain heavy-duty moulded-case types. I
cw
is the maximum
current that the B category CB can withstand, thermally and electrodynamically,
without sustaining damage, for a period of time given by the manufacturer.

Fig. 4.52. Category B circuit breaker

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Rated making capacity (I
cm
)
I
cm
is the highest instantaneous value of current that the circuit breaker can establish at
rated voltage in specified conditions. In AC systems this instantaneous peak value is
related to I
cu
(i.e. to the rated breaking current) by the factor k, which depends on the
power factor (cos ) of the short-circuit current loop (as shown in Figure 4.53.).

Fig. 4.53. Relation between rated breaking capacity I
cu
and rated making capacity I
cm
at
different power-factor values of short-circuit current

Example: A Masterpact NW08H2 circuit-breaker has a rated breaking capacity I
cu
of
100 kA. The peak value of its rated making capacity I
cm
will be 1002.2 = 220 kA.

Rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (I
cs
)
The rated breaking capacity (I
cu
) or (I
cn
) is the maximum fault-current a circuit
breaker can successfully interrupt without being damaged. The probability of such a
current occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are
considerably less than the rated breaking capacity (I
cu
) of the CB. On the other hand it is
important that high currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so
that the CB is immediately available for reclosure, after the faulty circuit has been
repaired. It is for these reasons that a new characteristic (I
cs
) has been created, expressed
as a percentage of I
cu
: 25, 50, 75, 100% for industrial circuit breakers. For domestic CBs,
I
cs
= kI
cn
. In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k factor of 100% so that I
cs
= I
cu
.

Fault-current limitation
The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB concerns its ability, more or less
effective, in preventing the passage of the maximum prospective fault-current, permitting
only a limited amount of current to flow, as shown in figure 4.54.

Fig. 4.54. Prospective and actual currents

The current-limitation performance is given by the CB manufacturer in the form of
curves (see fig. 4.55.).

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Fig. 4.55. Performance curves of a typical LV current-limiting circuit breaker

diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of current plotted against the RMS value
of the AC component of the prospective fault current (prospective fault-current
refers to the fault-current which would flow if the CB had no current-limiting
capability)
limitation of the current greatly reduces the thermal stresses (proportional I
2
t) and
this is shown by the curve of diagram (b) of figure 4.55., again, versus the RMS
value of the AC component of the prospective fault current.
LV circuit breakers for domestic and similar installations are classified in certain
standards (notably European Standard EN 60 898). CBs belonging to a class (of current
limiters) have standardized limiting I
2
t let-through characteristics defined by that class.
In these cases, manufacturers do not normally provide characteristic performance
curves.

The use of current-limiting CBs affords numerous advantages:
better conservation of installation networks: current-limiting CBs strongly
attenuate all harmful effects associated with short-circuit currents;
reduction of thermal effects: conductors (and therefore insulation) heating is
significantly reduced, so that the life of cables is correspondingly increased;
reduction of mechanical effects: forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are
lower, with less risk of deformation and possible rupture, excessive burning of
contacts, etc.
reduction of electromagnetic-interference effects: less influence on measuring
instruments and associated circuits, telecommunication systems, etc.
These circuit breakers therefore contribute towards an improved exploitation of:
cables and wiring;
prefabricated cable-trunking systems;
switchgear, thereby reducing the ageing of the installation.

4.6.3. Combined switchgear elements

Single units of switchgear do not, in general, fulfil all the requirements of the three
basic functions: protection, control and isolation.
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Where the installation of a circuit-breaker is not appropriate (notably where the
switching rate is high, over extended periods) combinations of units specifically designed
for such a performance are employed. The most commonly-used combinations are
described below.

4.6.3.1. Switch and fuse combinations

Two cases are distinguished:
The type in which the operation of one (or more) fuse(s) causes the switch to
open. This is achieved by the use of fuses fitted with striker pins, and a system of
switch tripping springs and toggle mechanisms (see Fig. 4.56.)

Fig. 4.56. Symbol for an automatic tripping switch-fuse

The type in which a non-automatic switch is associated with a set of fuses in a
common enclosure.
In some countries, the terms switch-fuse and fuse-switch have specific meanings:
A switch-fuse comprises a switch (generally 2 breaks per pole) on the upstream
side of three fixed fuse-bases, into which the fuse carriers are inserted (see Fig.
4.57.)

Fig. 4.57. Symbol for a non-automatic switch-fuse

A fuse-switch consists of three switch blades each constituting a double-break per
phase.
These blades are not continuous throughout their length, but each has a gap in the
centre which is bridged by the fuse cartridge. Some designs have only a single break per
phase, as shown in figure 4.57. and figure 4.58.

Fig. 4.58. Symbol for a non-automatic fuse-switch

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The current range for these devices is limited to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase,
while their principal use is in domestic and similar installations. To avoid confusion
between the first group (i.e. automatic tripping) and the second group, the term switch-
fuse should be qualified by the adjectives automatic or non-automatic.

4.6.3.2. Fuse - disconnector + discontactor, fuse - switch-disconnector + discontactor

As previously mentioned, a discontactor does not provide protection against short-
circuit faults. It is necessary, therefore, to add fuses (generally of type aM) to perform this
function. The combination is used mainly for motor-control circuits, where the
disconnector or switch-disconnector allows safe operations such as:
the changing of fuse links (with the circuit isolated);
work on the circuit downstream of the discontactor (risk of remote closure of the
discontactor).

Fig. 4.59. Symbol for a fuse-disconnector + discontactor

The fuse-disconnector must be interlocked with the discontactor such that no opening
or closing manoeuvre of the fuse-disconnector is possible unless the discontactor is open
(Figure 4.59.), since the fusedisconnector has no load-switching capability.
A fuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) requires no interlocking (Figure 4.60. The
switch must be of class AC22 or AC23 if the circuit supplies a motor.

Fig. 4.60. Symbol for a fuse-switchdisconnector + discontactor

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4.6.3.3. Circuit-breaker + contactor circuit-breaker + discontactor

These combinations are used in remotely controlled distribution systems in which the
rate of switching is high, or for control and protection of a circuit supplying motors.

4.6.4. Selection of a circuit breaker

4.6.4.1. Choice of a circuit breaker

The choice of a CB is made in terms of:
electrical characteristics of the installation for which the CB is destined;
its eventual environment: ambient temperature, in a kiosk or switchboard
enclosure, climatic conditions, etc.
short-circuit current breaking and making requirements;
operational specifications: discriminative tripping, requirements (or not) for
remote control and indication and related auxiliary contacts, auxiliary tripping
coils, connection;
installation regulations; in particular: protection of persons;
load characteristics, such as motors, fluorescent lighting, LV/LV transformers.
The following notes relate to the choice LV circuit breaker for use in distribution
systems.

Choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature
The rated current of a circuit breaker is defined for operation at a given ambient
temperature, in general:
30
0
C for domestic-type CBs;
40
0
C for industrial-type CBs.
Performance of these CBs in a different ambient temperature depends principally on
the technology of their tripping units (see Fig. 4.61.)

Fig. 4.61. Ambient temperature

Uncompensated thermal-magnetic tripping units
Circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-
current level that depends on the surrounding temperature. If the CB is installed in an
enclosure, or in a hot location (boiler room, etc.), the current required to trip the CB on
overload will be sensibly reduced. When the temperature in which the CB is located
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exceeds its reference temperature, it will therefore be derated. For this reason, CB
manufacturers provide tables which indicate factors to apply at temperatures different to
the CB reference temperature. It may be noted from typical examples of such tables (see
Fig. 4.62.) that a lower temperature than the reference value produces an up-rating of the
CB. Moreover, small modular-type CBs mounted in juxtaposition, are usually mounted in
a small closed metal case. In this situation, mutual heating, when passing normal load
currents, generally requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.8.

Fig. 4.62. Examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with
uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature

Example
What rating (I
n
) should be selected for a C60 N?
protecting a circuit, the maximum load current of which is estimated to be 34 A
installed side-by-side with other CBs in a closed distribution box
in an ambient temperature of 50
0
C
A C60N circuit breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 35.6 A in ambient air at
50
0
C (see Fig. 4.62.). To allow for mutual heating in the enclosed space, however, the
0.8 factor noted above must be employed, so that, 35.60.8 = 28.5 A, which is not suitable
A 50 A circuit breaker would therefore be selected, giving a (derated) current rating
of 440.8 = 35.2 A.

Compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units
These tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload
trip-current setting (I
r
or I
rth
) to be adjusted, within a specified range, irrespective of the
ambient temperature.
For example:
In certain countries, the TT system is standard on LV distribution systems, and
domestic (and similar) installations are protected at the service position by a
circuit breaker provided by the supply authority. This CB, besides affording
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protection against indirect-contact hazard, will trip on overload; in this case, if the
consumer exceeds the current level stated in his supply contract with the power
authority. The circuit breaker ( 60 A) is compensated for a temperature range of
- 5
0
C to + 40
0
C.

Fig. 4.63. Derating of Masterpact NW20 circuit breaker, according to the temperature

LV circuit breakers at ratings 630 A are commonly equipped with compensated
tripping units for this range (- 5
0
C to + 40
0
C).

Electronic tripping units
An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable performance in
changing temperature conditions. However, the switchgear itself often imposes
operational limits in elevated temperatures, so that manufacturers generally provide an
operating chart relating the maximum values of permissible trip-current levels to the
ambient temperature (see Fig. 4.63.).

Selection of an instantaneous, or short-time-delay, tripping threshold
Figure 4.64. below summarizes the main characteristics of the instantaneous or short-
time delay trip units.

Selection of a circuit breaker according to the short-circuit breaking capacity
requirements
The installation of a LV circuit breaker requires that its short-circuit breaking capacity
(or that of the CB together with an associated device) be equal to or exceeds the
calculated prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation.
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The installation of a circuit breaker in a LV installation must fulfil one of the two
following conditions:
either have a rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icu (or Icn) which is equal to or
exceeds the prospective short-circuit current calculated for its point of installation,
or
if this is not the case, be associated with another device which is located upstream,
and which has the required short-circuit breaking capacity.

Fig. 4.64. Different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time-delayed

In the second case, the characteristics of the two devices must be co-ordinated such
that the energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which
the downstream device and all associated cables, wires and other components can
withstand, without being damaged in any way. This technique is profitably employed in:
associations of fuses and circuit breakers or associations of current-limiting circuit
breakers and standard circuit breakers.

4.6.4.2. The selection of main and principal circuit breakers

A single transformer
The circuit breaker at the output of the smallest transformer must have a short-circuit
capacity adequate for a fault current which is higher than that through any of the other
transformer LV circuit breakers.
If the transformer is located in a consumers substation, certain national standards
require a LV circuit breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible.

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Example (see Fig. 4.65.)
What type of circuit breaker is suitable for the main circuit breaker of an installation
supplied through a 250 kVA HV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transformer in a consumers
substation?
I
n
transformer = 360 A
I
sc
(3-phase) = 8.9 kA
A Compact NS400N with an adjustable tripping-unit range of 160 A - 400 A and a
short-circuit breaking capacity (I
cu
) of 45 kA would be a suitable choice for this duty.

Fig. 4.65. Example of a transformer in a
consumers substation

Several transformers in parallel (see Fig. 4.66.)
The circuit breakers CBP outgoing from the LV distribution board must each be
capable of breaking the total fault current from all transformers connected to the
busbars: I
sc1
+ I
sc2
+ I
sc3
.
The circuit breakers CBM, each controlling the output of a transformer, must be
capable of dealing with a maximum short-circuit current of (for example)
I
sc2
+ I
sc3
only, for a short-circuit located on the upstream side of CBM1.
From these considerations, it will be seen that the circuit breaker of the smallest
transformer will be subjected to the highest level of fault current in these circumstances,
while the circuit breaker of the largest transformer will pass the lowest level of short-
circuit current.
The ratings of CBMs must be chosen according to the kVA ratings of the
associated transformers.
Note: The essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in
parallel may be summarized as follows:
the phase shift of the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units
to be paralleled;
the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all
units;
the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units.
For example, a 750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will share the load correctly
with a 1,000 kVA transformer having a Zsc of 6%, i.e. the transformers will be loaded
automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. For transformers having a ratio of kVA
ratings exceeding 2, parallel operation is not recommended.
Figure 4.67. indicates, for the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal
kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal CBs (CBM
and CBP respectively, in figure 4.66.) are subjected. It is based on the following
hypotheses:
the short-circuit 3-phase power on the HV side of the transformer is 500 MVA,
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the transformers are standard 20/0.4 kV distribution-type units rated as listed,
the cables from each transformer to its LV circuit breaker comprise 5 metres of
singlecore conductors,
between each incoming-circuit CBM and each outgoing-circuit CBP there is 1
metre of busbar,
the switchgear is installed in a floormounted enclosed switchboard, in an
ambientair temperature of 30
0
C.
Moreover, this table shows selected circuit breakers of M-G manufacture
recommended for main and principal circuit breakers in each case.

Fig. 4.66. Transformers in parallel

Example (see Fig. 4.68.)
Circuit breaker selection for CBM duty:
I
n
for an 800 kVA transformer = 1.126 A I
cu
(minimum) = 38 kA (from figure 4.67.),
the CBM indicated in the table is a Compact NS1250N (I
cu
= 50 kA)
Circuit breaker selection for CBP duty:
The short-circuit breaking capacity (I
cu
) required for these circuit breakers is given in
the figure 4.67. as 56 kA.

Fig. 4.67. Maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers
(CBM and CBP respectively), for several transformers in parallel

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A recommended choice for the three outgoing circuits 1, 2 and 3 would be current
limiting circuit breakers types NS400 L, NS250 L and NS 100 L. The I
cu
rating in each
case = 150 kA.
These circuit breakers provide the advantages of:
Absolute discrimination with the upstream (CBM) breakers,
Exploitation of the cascading technique, with its attendant economy for all
downstream components.

Fig. 4.68. Transformers in parallel

4.6.5. Protection of circuits according GL

The rating of switches must correspond at least to the current rating of the fuse
protecting the circuit in question and they must have a making/breaking capacity in
accordance with category AC-21 or DC-21.
Where the sequence busbar-switch-fuse is chosen, the making/breaking capacity must
conform to category AC-23 or DC-23.

Each supply line run from the main switchboard must be provided with a circuit
breaker with overcurrent and short-circuit protection or with a fuse for each non-earthed
conductor and an all-pole switch, or with a contactor with control switch.
Where fuses and switches are employed, the sequence busbar-fuse-switch is to be
used. The specified sequence may be changed where motor switches of service category
AC-23 are used as switches, provided that the switches are weldproof even in the event of
a short circuit.

Fuse links must have an enclosed fusion space. They must be made of ceramic or
other material recognized by GL as equivalent. The fusible link must be embedded in
heat-absorbent material.
Fuses may be used for overload protection only up to a rating of 315A.
Exception to this rule are subject to approval by GL.

4.6.6. Protection of circuits according Bureau Veritas

1. Each separate circuit shall be protected against short-circuit and against overload.

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2. Each circuit is to be protected by a multipole circuit-breaker or switch and fuses

3. Circuits for lighting are to be disconnected on both non-earthed conductors, single-
pole disconnection of final sub-circuits with both poles insulated is permitted only in
accommodation spaces.

4. The protective devices of the circuits supplying motors are to allow excess current
to pass during transient starting of motors.

5. Final sub-circuits which supply one consumer with its own overload protection (for
example motors), or consumers which cannot be overloaded (for example permanently
wired circuits and lighting circuits), may be provided with short-circuit protection only.

6. Steering gear circuits are to be provided with short-circuit protection only.

4.7. Coordination between circuit breakers

By limiting the peak value of short-circuit current passing through it, a current-
limiting CB permits the use, in all circuits downstream of its location, of switchgear and
circuit components having much lower short-circuit breaking capacities, and thermal and
electromechanical withstand capabilities than would otherwise be the case. Reduced
physical size and lower performance requirements lead to substantial economies and to
the simplification of installation work.

The limitation of current benefits all downstream circuits that are controlled by the
current-limiting CB concerned.
The principle is not restrictive, i.e. current-limiting CBs can be installed at any point
in an installation where the downstream circuits would otherwise be inadequately rated.
The result is:
simplified short-circuit current calculations,
simplification, i.e. a wider choice of downstream switchgear and appliances,
the use of lighter-duty switchgear and appliances, with consequently lower cost
economy of space requirements, since light-duty equipment is generally less
voluminous.

4.7.2. Discriminative tripping (selectivity)

Selectivity (discrimination) is the ability of an electrical system to interrupt a circuit
suffering a short-circuit from the system to maintain safe operation of the remaining
consumers.
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Discrimination is achieved by automatic protective devices if a fault condition,
occurring at any point in the installation, is cleared by the protective device located
immediately upstream of the fault, while all other protective devices remain unaffected
(see Fig. 4.69.).

Fig. 4.69. Absolute and partial discrimination
Discrimination between circuit-breakers A and B is absolute if the maximum value of
short-circuit current on circuit B does not exceed the short-circuit trip setting of circuit
breaker A. For this condition, B only will trip (see Fig. 4.70.).
Discrimination is partial if the maximum possible short-circuit current on circuit B
exceeds the short-circuit trip-current setting of circuit breaker A. For this maximum
condition, both A and B will trip (see Fig. 4.71.).

Fig. 4.70. Absolute discrimination between CBs A and B

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Fig. 4.71. Partial discrimination between CBs A and B

Discrimination based on current levels: Protection against overload
(see Fig. 4.73.a)
This method is realized by setting successive relay tripping thresholds at stepped
levels, from downstream relays (lower settings) towards the source (higher settings).
Discrimination is absolute or partial, according to the particular conditions, as noted
in the above examples.
As a rule, discrimination is achieved when:
2 <
r
rA
I
I
; 2 >
rmB
rmA
I
I

The discrimination limit is I
rmA
.

Discrimination based on stepped time delays: Protection against low level
short-circuit currents (see Fig. 4.72.b)
This method is implemented by adjusting the time-delayed tripping units, such that
downstream relays have the shortest operating times, with progressively longer delays
towards the source.
In the two-level arrangement shown, upstream circuit breaker A is delayed
sufficiently to ensure absolute discrimination with B (for example: Masterpact
electronic).

Current-level discrimination
Current-level discrimination is achieved with circuit-breakers, preferably limiters, and
stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements:
The downstream circuit-breaker is not a current-limiter.
The discrimination may be absolute or partial for a short-circuit fault downstream
of B.
Absolute discrimination in this situation is practically impossible because
I
scA
I
scB
, so that both circuit breakers will generally trip in unison. In this case
discrimination is partial, and limited to the I
rm
of the upstream circuit breaker.
The downstream circuit breaker is a current limiter.
Improvement in discriminative tripping can be obtained by using a current limiter in a
downstream location, e.g. for circuit breaker B.
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For a short-circuit downstream of B, the limited level of peak current I
B
would operate
the (suitably adjusted) magnetic trip unit of B, but would be insufficient to cause circuit
breaker A to trip.

Fig. 4.72. Discrimination (selectivity)

Fig. 4.73. Downstream limiting circuit breaker B

Note: All LV breakers (considered here) have some inherent degree of current
limitation, even those that are not classified as current limiters. This accounts for the
curved characteristic shown for the standard circuit breaker A in figure 4.73. Careful
calculation and testing is necessary, however, to ensure satisfactory performance of this
arrangement.

The upstream circuit-breaker is high-speed with a short-delay (SD) feature.
These circuit-breakers are fitted with trip units which include a non-adjustable
mechanical short-time-delay feature. The delay is sufficient to ensure absolute
discrimination with any downstream high-speed CB at any value of short-circuit current
up to I
rms
(see Fig. 4.74.).

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Fig. 4.74. Use of a selective circuit breaker upstream

Example
Circuit breaker A: Compact NS250 N fitted with a trip unit which includes a SD
feature, I
r
= 250 A, magnetic trip set at 2,000 A.
Circuit breaker B: Compact NS100N, I
r
= 100 A.
The Merlin Gerin distribution catalogue indicates a discrimination limit of 3,000 A (an
improvement over the limit of 2,500 A obtained when using a standard tripping unit).

Time-based discrimination
This technique requires:
The introduction of timers into the tripping mechanisms of CBs.
CBs with adequate thermal and mechanical withstand capabilities at the elevated
current levels and time delays envisaged.
Two circuit breakers A and B in series (i.e. passing the same current) are
discriminative if the current-breaking period of downstream breaker B is less than the
non-tripping time of circuit breaker A.

Fig. 4.75. Discrimination by time delay

Discrimination at several levels
An example of a practical scheme with circuit-breakers Masterpact (electronic
protection devices). These CBs can be equipped with adjustable timers which allow 4
time-step selections, such as:
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the delay corresponding to a given step is greater than the total current breaking
time of the next lower step,
The delay corresponding to the first step greater than the total current-breaking
time a high-speed CB (type Compact for example) or of fuses (see Fig. 4.75.).

Fig. 4.76. Selectivity in ships systems

Fig. 4.77. Natural selectivity (current selectivity)

G
C.B.
G
C.B.
M
C.B.
Bus II
F
2
F
1
Main Bus
Bus I
Bus II
50 kA

10 kA

Main Bus
Bus I
80 kA

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CHAPTER
5

5. Electrical machines

5.1. Induction motors

5.1.1. The basic functions of the motor-starters

A motor starter consists of five basic functions: the disconnection, the interruption,
the protection against the short-circuits, the protection against the overcharges and the
commutation.

The disconnection
It is necessary to isolate, overall or partial, the circuits of their source of energy
supply (main power supply) in order to be able to intervene on facilities for guaranteeing
the security of the intervening parties. The function said of "disconnection" is assured by
disconnectors. It can be integrated in multifunction equipments having, by conception, the
faculty to the disconnection, such the switches-disconnectors, the circuit-breakers.

The interruption
Whereas an installation is in service, it is sometimes necessary to interrupt its
electric power supply in full charge, this capable to serve as emergency stop.
The function so-called "interruption" is assured by switches. She is also integrated in
multifunction equipments, like the switches-disconnectors, the circuit-breakers.

The protection against the short-circuit
Facilities and the motors can be the seat of electric incidents or mechanical resulting
in a fast and important elevation of the absorbed current. Whereas au starting a standard
motor absorbs 6 to 8 times its rated current, a superior current of 10 to 13 times the rated
current is a fault current. It is assimilated to a short-circuit current.
In order to avoid the deterioration of facilities and equipments, the perturbations on
the network supply and the risks of human accidents, it is indispensable to detect these
short-circuit and to interrupt the concerned circuit quickly. The protective function
against the short-circuit is assured by fuses or circuit-breakers.
Note: The motor starters are part of the terminal circuits of an electrical installation. A
defect in a terminal circuit must not disturb the other circuits of the installation. It is
necessary to protect the installation against the consequences of the short-circuit in the
terminal circuits while assuring the selectivity and the filiation of the magnetic
protections of the installation.

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The protection against the overcharges
The mechanical overcharges and the shortcomings of the networks supply are the
most frequent reasons of the overcharge supported by the motors. They provoke an
important increase of the current absorbed by the motor, who conducted to an excessive
warming-up of the motor, strongly reducing its lifetime, and capable to go until its
destruction.
It is therefore necessary to detect the overcharge of the motor. The protective function
against the overcharges is assured by thermal protective relay, multifunction electronic
relays, or special magnetic-thermal circuit-breakers so-called: "motor circuit-breakers".
She is integrated in the motor starters-retarders and the electronic speed variators.
A complementary protection can be achieved by protective relays with probes or by
multifunction electronic relays, associated to thermal protection via PTC thermal probe
integrated in the coils of the motor.
Note: the starting time of a motor is bound closely to the features of the driven
The motors can absorb an important starting current during one variable time of some
seconds to several decade seconds. The thermal protection relays are distributed in classes
of starting point (release classes) permitting the adjustment of the thermal protection to
the needs of the motor (to the motor needs).

The commutation
Shes role is to establish and to cut the power supply of the motor. The function so-
called "commutation" is assured by electromagnetic contactors.
In case of manual control, she can be assured by motor circuit-breakers or by
switches, imperatively associated to release devices, on lack of power supply, and under
some conditions by motor-starters or by electronic speed variators.
Note: According to the nature of the commuted loads (motors, resistances,
transforming, etc.), the cadence and the fashion of use, the poles of the contactor, are
variously solicited, to the establishment as to the cut of the circuits.
The choice of the caliber of a contactor is adapted to its use, according to the
categories of employment.

5.1.2. The motor start solutions

5.1.2.1. D.O.L. solutions

"Three products" solution

She rests on the association of three distinct equipments:
a magnetic circuit-breaker or a switch-disconnector with fuses integrating the
functions: disconnection, interruption and protection against the short-circuit;
a thermal protective relay integrating the protection against the overcharges;
a contactor integrating the commutation function.
She permits the realization of motor-starters on the whole beach of low power tension,
whatever is their complexity or their specificity. The separation of the functions is an
answer to some constraints of implementation and of exploitation; she assures a
particularly comfortable maintenance.

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Example 1

magnetic circuit-breaker
GV2, NS
thermal relays or multifunction relays
LR2 K, D, F LT6

+
+

contactors
LC1 K, D, F and CV

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Example 2

switch-disconnector
GS1

contactors
LC1 K, D, F, V and CV

+
+

thermal relays
LR2 K, D, LR9D, F
or
multifunction relays
LT6

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"Two products solution

She is about the association of two distinct equipments:
a motor circuit-breaker integrating the functions disconnection, interruption,
protection against the short-circuit and the overcharges;
a contactor dedicated to the function commutation.
She permits the realization of direct on line motor-starter on the whole beach of low
power tension, in a reduce clutter, and allow a comfortable maintenance.

Example 3
"One product" solution

This solution is achieved:
either by a combined type equipment associating in a same ensemble one circuit-
breaker and a contactor;
She permits the realization of the direct on line starter of small power motors in one
optimized clutter.
either by a "complete" type equipment regrouping in only one ensemble the all
basic functions of the starter.
She permits the realization of the direct on line starter of small and middle power
motors in an optimized clutter, and guarantees the continuity of service (total
coordination).

Hand starter

+

circuit-breakers
GV2 ME, GV2 P,
GV3, GV7, NS

contactors
LC1 K, D, F and CV
motor circuit-breakers
GV2 ME, GV7

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Automatic starters

5.1.2.2. Star-delta for motor control

This method of starting is only applicable to 3-phases motors whose delta
connection corresponds to the main voltage and on which all 6 stator terminals are
accessible.
Star-delta starting should be used for motors starting on no-load or having a low
- the starting torque in star connection is reduced to on third of the direct starting
torque, i.e. about 50 % of the rated torque;
- the starting current in star connection is about 1.8 to 2 times the rated current.
The transition from star to delta connection must occur when the machine has run
up to speed. A too rapid build up in load torque would cause the stabilized run-up speed
to bee too low and would therefore eliminate any advantage in this method of starting:
this is the case with certain machines whose load torque depends on its speed
(characteristic of centrifugal machines, for example).
combined automatic circuit-breakers
GV2 ME or GV2 P

contactors-circuit-breakers
Integral 18, 32, 63

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Switching from star to delta connection must be complete within a minimum time.
A control relay and a time delay auxiliary contact block perform this function.

Power diagram

Control diagram

Note: in accordance with the norms of facilities in force, every departure must be
protected against the short-circuit by fuses or a circuit-breaker.

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5.1.2.3. Star-double star solution (Dahlander connection)

5.1.3. Variable speed drives for asynchronous motors (Altivar 38)

5.1.3.1. Applications

The Altivar 38 is a frequency inverter for three-phase asynchronous motors powered
by a three-phase supply 360 V to 460 V in the power range 0.75 kW to 315 kW.
The Altivar 38 has been designed for state-of-the-art applications in heating,
ventilation and air conditioning in industrial and commercial buildings:
ventilation;
air conditioning;
pumping.
The Altivar 38 can reduce operating costs in buildings by optimizing energy
consumption whilst improving user comfort.
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Its numerous integrated options enable it to be adapted to and incorporated into
electrical installations and sophisticated control systems.
The need for electromagnetic compatibility was taken into account at the outset of
designing the drive. Depending on the drive rating, filters and chokes are either builtin or
available as optional accessories.

5.1.3.2. Functions

The Altivar 38 is supplied ready for use in pumping and ventilation applications. It
comprises a terminal which can be used to modify programming, adjustment, control or
monitoring functions in order to adapt and customize the application to meet individual
customer requirements.

Specific functions for pumping/ventilation:
- energy saving;
- automatic catching a spinning load with speed detection (catch on the fly);
- adaptation of current limiting according to speed;
- faster/slower, preset speeds;
- integrated PI control, with preset PI references;
- electricity and service hours meter;
- motor noise reduction.

Protection functions:
- motor and fan thermal protection via PTC thermal probe;
- protection against overloads and overcurrents in continuous operation;
- machine mechanical protection via jump frequency function;
- protection via multiple fault management and configurable alarms.

Easy to integrate into control systems:
- 4 logic inputs, 2 relay outputs, 2 analog inputs and 1 analog output;
- plug-in I/O connectors;
- display of electrical variables and operating indicators;
- an RS 485 multidrop serial link with Modbus protocol as standard in the drive. This
serial link can be used to connect PLCs, a PC, communication gateways or one of the
available programming tools.

5.1.3.3. Options

PowerSuite advanced dialogue solutions: 3 solutions are available, with plain
text display in 5 languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Italian) and
configuration memory:
- Power Suite Pocket PC;
- Power Suite software workshop;
- Magelis display unit.

Customizing the application:
- I/O extension cards;
- application cards: pump switching, multi-motor function, multiple parameter settings
and cycles;
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- communication cards for bus or network: METASYS N2, Ethernet, Fipio,
Uni-Telway/Modbus, Modbus Plus, AS-i, Profibus DP, Interbus-S, CANopen,
DeviceNet.
- communication module for LonWorks bus.

5.1.3.4. Characteristics

Torque characteristics (typical curves)
The curves below define the available continuous torque and transient overtorque for
both force-cooled and self-cooled motors.
The only difference is in the ability of the motor to provide a high continuous torque
at less than half the nominal speed.

1 self-cooled motor: continuous useful torque
2 force-cooled motor: continuous useful torque
3 transient overtorque
4 torque in overspeed at constant power

Motor thermal protection
The Altivar 38 drive features motor thermal protection designed specifically for
self-cooled or forced-cooled variable speed motors.
This motor thermal protection is designed for a maximum ambient temperature of
40C around the motor.
If the temperature around the motor exceeds 40C, thermal protection should be
provided directly by thermistor probes integrated into the motor using one of the available
option cards.

5.1.3.5. Special uses

Switching the motor at the drive output
The drive can be switched when locked or unlocked. If the drive is switched on-thefly
(drive locked), the motor is controlled and accelerates until it reaches the reference speed
smoothly following the acceleration ramp.
The "flying restart" must be configured for this type of use and the "loss of motor
phase" protection function must be disabled. Example: breaking of downstream contactor.
Typical applications: breaking safety circuit at drive outputs, "bypass" function,
switching of motors connected in parallel.
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Operation with intermittent cycle and high switching frequency
If the operating conditions are intermittent and the maximum cumalative running time
is 36 s per 60 s cycle (load factor 60%), it is possible to operate at a high switching
frequency without derating the power.

Connecting motors in parallel
The nominal current of the drive must be greater than or equal to the sum of the
currents of the motors to be controlled. In this case, provide external thermal protection
for each motor using thermal probes or relays.
If the number of motors connected in parallel is 3, it is advisable to install an output
filter between the drive and the motors or to reduce the switching frequency.
If several motors are used in parallel, there are 2 possible scenarios:
- the motors have equal power ratings, in which case the torque characteristics will
remain optimised after the drive has been configured, or
- the motors have different power ratings, in which case the drive configuration will be
incompatible for the motors with the lowest power ratings and the overtorque at low
speed will be considerably reduced.
Ensure that the cables are the correct length. As the leakage currents are proportional
to the total length of the cable between the drive and the motors, ensure L 100 m by
L = l
1
+ l
2
+ l
x
+ l
4
.

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5.1.3.6. Connection diagrams
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(1) Line choke recommended
(2) Fault relay contacts for remote signalling of drive status
(3) Internal + 24 V. If an external + 24 V supply is used, connect the 0 V on the external supply to the COM terminal, do not use the + 24 terminal on the
drive, and connect the common of the LI inputs to the + 24 V of the external supply.
(4) Relay R2 can be reassigned
(5) X and Y can be configured between 0 and 20 mA independently for AI2 and AO1.
Note:
1 All terminals are located at the bottom of the drive.
2 Fit interference suppressors to all specific circuits near the drive or connected on the same circuit, such as relays, contactors, solenoid valves,
fluorescent lighting, etc.

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(1) Line choke recommended
(2) Fault relay contacts for remote signalling of drive status
(3) Internal + 24 V. If an external +24 V supply is used, connect the 0 V on the external supply to the COM terminal, do not use the + 24 terminal on the
drive, and connect the common of the LI inputs to the + 24 V of the external supply.
(4) Use the "downstream contactor control" function with relay R2 (or with the logic output LO of one of the "I/O extension" cards, when connecting).
(5) X and Y can be configured between 0 and 20 mA independently for AI2 and AO1.
Note:
1 All terminals are located at the bottom of the drive.
2 Fit interference suppressors to all specific circuits near the drive or connected on the same circuit, such as relays, contactors, solenoid
valves, fluorescent lighting, etc.
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2-wire control
Used to control the direction of operation by means of a maintained contact. Enabled
by means of 1 or 2 logic inputs (one or two directions). This function is suitable for all
one or two direction applications. Three operating modes are possible:
- detection of the state of the logic inputs;
- detection of a change in state of the logic inputs;
- detection of the state of the logic inputs with forward operation always having priority
over
reverse.

3-wire control
Used to control the operating and stopping direction by means of pulsed contacts.
Enabled by means of 2 or 3 logic inputs (non-reversing or reversing). This function is
suitable for all non-reversing and reversing applications.

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5.2. Connection diagrams for synchronous generators

rotor
sliprings
F1
F2
regulator
U2 V2 W2
U1 V1
W1
stator
with slip rings
stator
rotor
Rot. Rect.
Exc. field
Exc. Arm.
regulator
U1 V1 W1
U2 V2 W2
brushlees type
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5.3. Connection diagrams for DC- Motors

CLOCK
ROTATION
(A2)
(A2)
M

L+
L-
L
R
IA
A1
(B1)
B2 E1
IE
I
L+
L-
L
R
I
A1
(B1)
D1
B2
D2
I
Shunt-connection Series-connection
E2
(B1) (B1)
(A2) (A2)
E2 E1
L+
L-
L+
L-
A1 A1
B2
D1 B2 D2
L
R
I

I
I
IE
IA
ANTI CLOCK
ROTATION
L
R
M
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5.4. Protection of motors according Bureau Veritas

1. Motors of rating exceeding 1kW and all motors for essential services are to be
protected individually against overload and short-circuit. The short-circuit protection may
be provided by the same protective device for the motor and its supply cable.

2. For motors intended for essential services, the overload protection may be replaced

3. The protective devices are to be designed so as to allow excess current to pass
during the normal accelerating period of motors according to the conditions
corresponding to normal use.
(B1)
(B1)
(A2)
L-
L
R
IA
A1
IA
IE IE
2L+ 2L-
B2
F2
F1
IE
IA
A1
L-
L+
(A2)
L
R
M
D1
B2
D2
E1
E2
I
CLOCK
ROTATION
Separate excited Compound- connection
L+
M
(B1)
(A2)
(B1)
(A2)
L
L
L- L-
2L 2L-
IA
A B2
F2
F
IA
IE
IE
L
R
L
R
A
D
B D E2 E1
IA
IE
I
ANTI
CLOCK
ROTATION
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If the current/time characteristic of the overload protection device does not
correspond to the starting conditions of a motor (e.g. for motors with extra-long starting
period), provision may be made to suppress operation of the device during the
acceleration period on condition that the short-circuit protection remains operative and
the suppression of overload protection is only temporary.

4. For continuous duty motors the protective gear is to have a time delay characteristic
which ensures reliable thermal protection against overload.

5. The protective devices are to be adjusted so as to limit the maximum continuous to
a value within the range 105%-120% of the motors rated full load current.

6. For intermittent duty motors the current setting and the delay (as a function of time)
of the protective devices are to be chosen in relation to the actual service conditions of the
motor.

7. Where fuses are used to protect polyphase motor circuits, means are to be provided
to protect the motor against unacceptable overload in case of single phasing.

8. Motors rated above 1kW are to be provided with:
undervoltage protection, operative of the reduction or failure of voltage, to cause
and maintain the interruption of power in the circuit until the motor is deliberately
restarted or
undervoltage release, operative on the reduction or failure of voltage, so arranged
that the motor restarts automatically when power is restored after a power failure.

9. The automatic restart of a motor is not to produce a starting current such as to cause
excessive voltage drop.
In the case of several motors required to restart automatically, the total starting current is
not to cause an excessive voltage drop or sudden surge current; to this end, it may be
necessary to achieve a sequence start.

10. The undervoltage protective devices are to allow the motor to be started when the
voltage exceeds 85% of the rated voltage and are to intervene without fail when the
voltage drops to less than approximately 20% of the rated voltage, at the rated frequency
and a time delay as necessary.

5.5. Protection of generators

Protection of generators according Bureau Veritas

1. Generators are to be protected against short-circuits and overloads by multipole
circuit-breakers.
For generators not arranged to operate in parallel with a rated output equal to or less
than 50 kVA, a multipole switch with a fuse in each insulated phase on the generator side
may be accepted.

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2. When multipole switch and fuses are used, the fuse rating is to be maximum 110%
of the generator rated current.

3. Where a circuit-breaker is used:
a) the overload protection is to trip the generator circuit-breaker at an overload between
10% and 50%; for an overload of 50% of the rated current of the generator the time delay
is not to exceed 2 minutes; however, the figure of 50% or the time delay of 2 minutes
may be exceeded if the construction of the generator permits this.

b) the setting of the short-circuit protection is to instantaneously trip the generator circuit-
breaker at an overcurrent less than the steady short-circuit current of the generator. Short
time delays (e.g. from 0,5s to 1s) may be introduced for discrimination requirements in
instantaneous tripping devices.

the generator automatically, give a visual and audible alarm in a permanently attended
space.

5. After disconnection of a generator due to a overload, the circuit-breaker is to be

6. Generator circuit-breakers are to be provided with a reclosing inhibitor which
prevents their automatic reclosure after tripping due to a short-circuit.

7. Generators having a capacity of 1500 kVA or above are to be equipped with a
suitable protective device or system which, in the event of a short-circuit in the generator
or in supply cable between the generator and its circuit-breaker, will de-excite the
generator and open the circuit-breaker (e.g. by means of differential protection).

8. Where the main source of electrical power is necessary for the propulsion of the
ship, load shedding or other equivalent arrangements are to be provided to protect the

9. Arrangements are to be made to disconnect or reduce automatically the excess load
when the generators are overloaded in such a way as to prevent a sustained loss of speed
and/or voltage. The operation of such device is to activate a visual and audible alarm. A
time delay of 5-20s is considered acceptable.

10. When an overload is detected the load shedding system is to disconnect
automatically, after an appropriate time delay, the circuits supplying the non-essential
services and, if necessary, the secondary essential service in a second stage.

11. Alternating current generators arranged to operate in parallel are to be provided
with the reverse-power protection.
The protection is to be selected in accordance with the characteristics of the prime
mover.
The following values are recommended:
2-6% of the rated power for the turbogenerators
8-15% of the rated power for diesel generators.
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The reverse-power protection may be replaced by other devices ensuring adequate
protection of the prime movers.

12. Generators are to be provided with an undervoltage protection which trips the
breaker if the voltage falls to 70%-35% of the rated voltage.
The undervoltage release also prevents the closing of the circuit-breaker if the
generator voltage does not reach a minimum of 85% of the rated voltage.
The operation of the undervoltage release is to be instantaneous preventing closure of
the breaker, but it is to be delayed for selectivity purposes when tripping the breaker.

Generator protection according GL

Every generator must have the following protective devices:
overload 110-150 % rated current, time delay 0 2 min.;
short-circuit protection more than 150% of the rated current, but less than the
permanent short circuit current I
KD
:
- time delay up to 200 ms (DC)
- time delay up to 200-500 ms (AC)

recommended automatic disconnection direct or in steps of the non-essential
consumers. Minimum delay 5 sec and alarm output. On passenger ships this
function is obliged.
parallel operation: automatic disconnecting of non-essential consumers if one
generator trips during parallel operation to avoid the overload of the remaining
sets.
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parallel operation: reverse power protection 4-10 % of the rated output of the
diesel generators, 1-3 % for turbo generators. Delay 2-5 sec.
low voltage protection 70 % - 30 % U rated. Short time delay acc. 0-2min;
low frequency protection 90 % rated frequency, 5-10 sec. delay.
synchronizer (if auto: also manual)
Stand-by system
- generators 45 sec
- consumers -10 % f rated , delay 5 -10 sec
After tripping due to overcurrent, generator power circuit-breakers must at once be
ready for reclosing. Thermal trips are not suitable.
Generator circuit-breakers must be fitted with a reclosing inhibitor to prevent
automatic reconnection after a short circuit trip.
For alternators with output ratings of less than 50 kVA fuses and on load switches are
also permitted.
Any alternator contactors are to have a tripping time lag (up to about 500 ms) and are
to be designed to carry at least twice the rated alternator current.

5.6. Transformers

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one electrical circuit to
another by magnetic coupling without moving parts. It is often used to convert between
high and low voltages and accordingly between low and high currents.

5.6.1. Basic principles

A simple single phase transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the
primary coil and the secondary coil. The primary is fed with a varying (alternating or
pulsed direct current) electric current which creates a varying magnetic field around the
conductor. According to the principle of mutual inductance, the secondary, which is
placed in this varying magnetic field, will develop a potential difference called an
electromotive force or EMF. If the ends of the secondary are connected together to form
an electrical circuit, this EMF will cause a current to flow in the secondary. Thus, some of
the electrical power fed into the primary is delivered to the secondary.

magnetic circuit

primary coil
secondary coil
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In practical transformers, the primary and secondary conductors are coils of wire
because a coil creates a denser magnetic field (higher magnetic flux) than a straight
conductor.
A transformer winding should never be energized from a constant DC voltage source,
as this would cause a large direct current to flow. In such a situation, in an ideal
transformer, the current would rise indefinitely as a linear function of time. In practice,
the series resistance of the winding limits the amount of current that can flow, until the
transformer either reaches thermal equilibrium or is destroyed.

5.6.2. Circuit symbols

Standard symbols

Transformer with two windings and iron core.

Transformer with three windings. The dots show the adjacent ends of the
windings.

Step-down or step-up transformer. The symbol shows which winding has more
turns, but does not usually show the exact ratio.

Transformer with electrostatic screen, which prevents electrostatic coupling
between the windings.

Power three-phase transformer

5.6.3. Transformer types

Autotransformers
An autotransformer has only a single winding, which is tapped at some point along
the winding. AC or pulsed DC power is applied across a portion of the winding, and a
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higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding.
Autotransformers are used to compensate for voltage drop in a distribution system or for
matching two transmission voltages, for example 115 V and 138 V. For voltage ratios,
not exceeding about 3:1, an autotransformer is less costly, lighter, smaller and more
efficient than a two-winding transformer of a similar rating.

Current transformers

Current transformers

A current transformer is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is
accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary.
Current transformers are commonly used in electricity meters to facilitate the
measurement of large currents which would be difficult to measure more directly.
Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected
from its load while current is flowing in the primary as in this circumstance a very high
voltage would be produced across the secondary.
Current transformers are often constructed with a single primary turn either as an
insulated cable passing through a toroidal core, or else as a bar to which circuit
conductors are connected.

Voltage transformers
The voltage transformers are utilized for the extension of measuring instruments.
These are usual step-down electric transformers and are utilized for connection of
voltmeters and for connection of the parallel coils (windings) of wattmeters, electric
meters, relays etc.

Pulse transformer
A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular
electrical pulses (that is, pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude).
Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications
circuits, often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Medium-sized power
versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Larger power
versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage
control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors such as triacs, IGBTs,
thyristors and MOSFETs.
To minimise distortion of the pulse shape, a pulse transformer needs to have low
values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance, and a high open-circuit
inductance. In power-type pulse transformers, a low coupling capacitance (between the
primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from
high-powered transients created by the load. For the same reason, high insulation
resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. A good transient response is
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necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary, because a pulse with
slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors.
The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more
accurately, the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterize pulse transformers.
Generally speaking, the larger this product, the larger and more expensive the
transformer.

Pulse transformer

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5.6.4. Vector- groups of Transformers

1V
1V
1V
1V
1V
1V
1W
1W
1W
1U
1U
1U
1W
1W
1W 1U
1U
1U
2V
2V
2V
2U
2W
2U 2W
2U 2W
2W
2U
2V
2U
2V
2W
2V
2U
2W
Yz5
Yd5
Dy5
Dz0
Yy0
Dd0
0
5
POINTER DIAGRAM
HV LV
CONNCTION
HV LV
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
VECTOR
GROUP
1W
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Y star connection
D delta connection
the first letter (majuscule)
primary connection
Z zig-zag connection
the second letter (minuscule)
secondary connection
y, d or z star, delta, zig-zag connection
the third letter N or n sccessible neutral
clock hour figure of vector group 0,1,2, 11 delay of the LV beside HV stated in multiple of 30
0

Example: the clock hour figure of a vector group 11 correspond at the delay
1130 = 330.

Several transformers in parallel
The essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in
parallel may be summarized as follows:
2W
1V
1V
1V
1V
1V
1V
1U 1W
1U 1W
1U
1W
2W
2V
2U
2V
2W
2U
2V
2W
2U
1U 1W
2V
2U
1U 1W
2V
2W
2U
1U 1W
2V
2W
2U
Dd6
Yy6
Dz6
Dy11
Yd11
Yz11
11
6
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
1U 2U

1V 2V

1W 2W
POINTER DIAGRAM
HV LV
CONNECTION
HV LV
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the phase shift of the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units
to be paralleled;
the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all
units;
the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units.

Characteristics:

Connection Transformation ratio

Yy
1
2
n
n
m

Yd
1
2
3
3
n
n
m

Yz
1
2
2
3
n
n
m

Dy
1
2
3
n
n
m

Dd
1
2
n
n
m

5.6.5. Important equations

The voltage in the secondary coil depends on the voltage in the primary coil and the
ratio of the number of turns in the secondary and primary coils.
If we call:
the voltage in and number of turns in the primary V
p
and N
p

the voltage in and number of turns in the secondary V
s
and N
s
then

V
s
/V
p
= N
s
/N
p

or, rearranging:
V
s
= V
p
N
s
/N
p

Similarly, the current in the secondary coil depends on the current in the primary coil
and the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary and primary coils. However, the
current is inversely related to the number of turns.
If we call:
the current in and number of turns in the primary I
p
and N
p

the current in and number of turns in the secondary I
s
and N
s
then

I
s
/I
p
= N
p
/N
s

or, rearranging:
I
s
= I
p
N
p
/N
s

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The power in the primary is equal to the power in the secondary (assuming a perfect
transformer).
I
p

V
p
= I
s
V
s

5.6.6. Protection of transformers according Bureau Veritas

1. The primary winding side of the power transformers is to be protected against
short-circuit and overload by means of multipole circuit-breakers or switches and fuses.
Overload protection on the primary side may be dispensed with where it is provided
on the secondary side or were the total possible load cannot reach the rated power of the
transformer.

2. The protection against short-circuit is to be such as to ensure the selectivity
between the circuits supplied by the secondary side of the transformer and the feeder
circuit of the transformer.

3. When transformers are arranged to operate in parallel, means are to be provided so
as to trip the switch on the secondary winding side when the corresponding switch on the
primary side is open.

short circuit
protection
primary wdg.
secondary wdg
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CHAPTER
6

6. Technical information

6.1. Degrees of protection provided by enclosures

Degrees of protection against the penetration of solid bodies, water and

IP code
The IP code comprises 2 characteristic numerals (e.g. IP 55) and may include an
additional letter when the actual protection of personnel against direct contact with live
parts is better than that indicated by the first numeral (e.g. IP 20C).
Any characteristic numeral which is unspecified is replaced by an X (e.g. IP XXB).
Additional letter: corresponds to protection of personnel against direct contact
with live parts:
A - with the back of the hand.
B - with the finger.
C - with a 2.5 mm tool.
D - with a 1 mm wire.

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1st characteristic numeral: corresponds to
protection of the equipment against penetration of solid objects
and protection of personnel against direct contact with live
parts
Protection of the equipment Protection of
personnel
2nd characteristic numeral:
corresponds to protection of the
equipment against penetration of water
with harmful effects

0
Non-protected machine No special protection
0
Non-protected
machine
No special
protection
1

50mm

Protected against
the penetration of
solid objects
having a diameter
greater than or
equal to 50 mm.
Protected against
direct contact with the
back of the hand
(accidental contacts).

1

Protected
against vertical
dripping water,
(condensation).

2

12.4mm

Protected against
the penetration of
solid objects
having a diameter
greater than or
equal to 12.5
mm.
Protected against
direct finger contact.

2

Protected
against dripping
water at an
angle of up to
15.

3

2.5mm

Protected against
the penetration of
solid objects
having a diameter
greater than or
equal to 2.5 mm.
Protected against
direct contact with a
2.5mm tool.

3

Protected
against rain at
an angle of up to
60.
4

1mm

Protected against
the penetration of
solid objects
having a diameter
> 1 mm.
Protected against
direct contact with a
1mm wire.

4

Protected
against
splashing water
in all directions.

5

Dust protected
(no harmful
deposits).

Protected against
direct contact with a
1mm wire.

5

Protected
against water
jets in all
directions.
6

Dust tight.

Protected against
direct contact with a
1mm wire.

6

Protected
against powerful
jets of water and
waves.

7

Protected
against the
effects of
temporary
immersion.

8

Protected
against the
effects of
prolonged
immersion
under specified
conditions.

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6.2. Degrees of protection against mechanical impact

IK code
The IK code comprises 2 characteristic numerals (e.g. IK 05) corresponding to a
value of impact energy.

h (cm)

Energy (J)

00 Non-protected

01 7.5

0.15

02

10

0.2

03 17.5

0.35

04 25

0.5

05 35

0.7

06 20

1

07

40

2
08

30

5
09 20

10
10

40

20
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6.3. Minimum required degrees of protection on ships (Bureau Veritas)

Condition
in location

Example
of location
Switchboard,
control gear,
motor
starters

Generators

Motors

Transformers

Luminaires

Heating
appliances

Cooking
appliances

Socket
outlets
Accessories
(e.g. switches,
connection
boxes)
Danger of
touching
live parts
only
Dry
accommodation
spaces, dry
control rooms
IP20 X(1) IP20 IP20 IP20 IP20 IP20 IP20 IP20
Control rooms,
wheel-house,
IP22 X IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22
Engine end
boiler rooms
above floor
IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP44 IP44
Steering
gear rooms
IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 X IP44 IP44
Emergency
machinery
rooms
IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 X IP44 IP44
General
storerooms
IP22 X IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 X IP22 IP44
Pantries IP22 X IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 IP44 IP44
Provision
rooms
IP22 X IP22 IP22 IP22 IP22 X IP44 IP44
Danger of
dripping
liquid
and/or
moderate
mechanical
damage
Ventilation
ducts
X X IP22 X X X X X X
Bathrooms
and/or showers
X X X X IP34 IP44 X IP55 IP55
Engine and
boiler rooms
below floor
X X IP44 X IP34 IP44 X X IP55
Increased
danger of
liquid
and/or
mechanical
damage Closed fuel oil
separator
rooms
IP44 X IP44 IP44 IP34 IP44 X X IP55
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Closed
lubricating oil
separator
rooms
IP44 X IP44 IP44 IP34 IP44 X X IP55
Ballast pump
rooms
IP44 X IP44
(2)
IP44
(2)
IP34 IP44 X IP55 IP55
Refrigerated
rooms
X X IP44 IP44 IP34 IP44 X IP55 IP55
Galleys and
laundries
IP44 X IP44 IP44 IP34 IP44 IP44 IP44 IP44
Increased
danger of
liquid and
mechanical
damage
Public
bathrooms and
shower
X X IP44 IP44 IP34 IP44 X IP44 IP44
Shaft or pipe
tunnels in
double bottom
IP55 X IP55 IP55 IP55 IP55 X IP56 IP56
Holds for
general cargo
X X IP55 X IP55 IP55 X IP56 IP56
Danger of
liquid
spraying,
presence
of cargo
dust,
serious
mechanical
damage,
aggressive
fumes
Ventilation
trunks
X X IP55 X X X X X X
Danger of
liquid in
massive
quantities
Open decks IP56 X IP56 X IP55 IP56 X IP56 IP56
(1) The symbol X denotes equipment which it is not advised to install.
(2) Electric motors and starting transformers for lateral thrust propellers located in spaces similar to ballast pump rooms may have degree of protection
IP22

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LEXICON

Breaking Capacity: a presumed current value that a switching device must be
capable of breaking under the recommended conditions of use and behavior.

Farthing fault: fault due to the direct or indirect contact of a conductor with the
earth or the reduction of its insulation resistance to earth below a specified value.

Fault: accidental modification affecting normal operation.

I
r
: rated current corresponding to the RMS value of the current that the device
must be capable of withstanding indefinitely under the recommended conditions
of use and operation.

Overvoltage: any voltage between a phase conductor and the earth or two neutral
phase conductors where the peak value exceeds the highest voltage acceptable for
the equipment.

Overvoltage factor: ratio between the overvoltages peak value and the peak
value of the maximum voltage acceptable by the device.

Rated value: value generally set by the manufacturer for given operating
conditions for a component, a mechanism or piece of equipment.

Re-ignition: resumption of current between the contacts of a mechanical
switching device during a breaking operation, within a quarter cycle after passing
to 0 current.

Re-striking: resumption of current between the contacts of a mechanical
switching device during a breaking operation, after a quarter cycle after passing to
0 current.

Short-circuit: an accidental or intentional connection through a resistance or
relatively low impedance, of two or more points on a circuit normally existing at
different voltages.

Switching device: device intended to establish or interrupt current in an electrical
circuit.

Switchgear: general term applicable to switching devices and their use in
combination with control, measurement, protection, and command devices with
which they are associated.

U
r
: rated voltage corresponding to the RMS. value of the voltage that the device
must be capable of withstanding indefinitely under the recommended conditions
of use and operation.
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Disconnector:
- mechanical connection device which in an open position guarantees a satisfactory
isolating distance under specific conditions;
- intended to guarantee safe isolation of a circuit, it is often associated with an
earthing switch;
- used for opening: at no load; for closing: at no load and at short-circuit, depending
on the case; for isolating.

Earthing:
- specially designed switch for switch connecting phase conductors to the earth;
- intended for safety in case of work on the circuits, it relays the de-energized active
conductors to the earth;
- used for opening: at no load; for closing: at no load and at short-circuit, depending
on the case.

System Earthing Arrangements

Mains electricity systems are categorised in the many European countries (Finland,
UK, etc.) according to how the earthing is implemented. The common ones are TN-S,
TN-C-S and TT.
Note that in these descriptions, system includes both the supply and the installation,
and live parts includes the neutral conductor.

Description of letter

First letter:
T The live parts in the system have one or more direct connections to earth.
I The live parts in the system have no connection to earth, or are connected only
through a high impedance.

Second letter:
T All exposed conductive parts are connected via your earth conductors to a local
ground connection.
N All exposed conductive parts are connected via your earth conductors to the earth
provided by the supplier.

Remaining letter(s):
C Combined neutral and protective earth functions (same conductor).
S Separate neutral and protective earth functions (separate conductors).

Valid systems types in the 16
th
Edition IEE regs:

TN-C No separate earth conductors anywhere neutral used as earth throughout
supply and installation (never seen this).
TN-S Probably most common, with supplier providing a separate earth conductor
back to the substation.
TN-C-S [Protective Multiple Earthing] Supply combines neutral and earth, but they
are separated out in the installation.
TT No earth provided by supplier; installation requires own earth rod (common
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IT Supply is e.g. portable generator with no earth connection, installation
supplies own earth rod.

Switch:
- mechanical connection device capable of establishing, sustaining and breaking
currents under normal circuit conditions eventually including overload currents in service;
- intended to control circuits (opening and closing), it is often intended to perform the
insulating function. In public and private MV distribution networks it is frequently
associated with fuses;
at short-circuit; for isolating: depending on the case.

Contactor:
- mechanical connection device with a single rest position, controlled other than by
hand, capable of establishing, sustaining and breaking currents under normal circuit
conditions, including overvoltage conditions in service;
- intended to function very frequently, it is mainly used for motor control;
at short-circuit,

Circuit-breaker:
- mechanical connection device capable of establishing, sustaining and breaking
currents under normal circuit conditions and under specific abnormal circuit conditions
such as during a short-circuit;
- general purpose connection device. Apart from controlling the circuits it guarantees
their protection against electrical faults. It is replacing contactors in the control of large
MV motors;
- used for opening: at no load, under load and at short-circuit; for closing: at no load,
under load and at short-circuit; for isolating: depending on the case.

Maximum permissible current: I
z

This is the maximum value of current that the cabling for the circuit can carry
indefinitely, without reducing its normal life expectancy.
The current depends, for a given cross sectional area of conductors, on several
parameters:
- constitution of the cable and cable-way (Cu or Al conductors; PVC or EPR etc.
insulation; number of active conductors);
- ambient temperature;
- method of installation;
- influence of neighbouring circuits.

Overcurrents
An overcurrent occurs each time the value of current exceeds the maximum load
current IB for the load concerned.
This current must be cut off with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude, if
permanent damage to the cabling (and appliance if the overcurrent is due to a defective
load component) is to be avoided.
Overcurrents of relatively short duration can however, occur in normal operation; two
types of overcurrent are distinguished:

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These overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits, for example, due to a number
of small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally; motor starting
loads, and so on. If either of these conditions persists however beyond a given period
(depending on protective-relay settings or fuse ratings) the circuit will be automatically
cut off.
Short-circuit currents
These currents result from the failure of insulation between live conductors or/and
between live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthed neutrals) in
any combination:
- 3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not);
- 2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not);
- 1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth).

Factor of maximum utilization (k
u
)
In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less
than that indicated as its nominal power rating, a fairly common occurrence that justifies
the application of an utilization factor (k
u
) in the estimation of realistic values.
This factor must be applied to each individual load, with particular attention to
electric motors, which are very rarely operated at full load.
In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0.75 for
motors.
For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor always equals 1.
For socket-outlet circuits, the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being
supplied from the sockets concerned.

Factor of simultaneity (k
s
)
It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed
loads of a given installation never occurs in practice, i.e. there is always some degree of
diversity and this fact is taken into account for estimating purposes by the use of a
simultaneity factor (k
s
).
The factor k
s
is applied to each group of loads (e.g. being supplied from a distribution
or sub-distribution board). The determination of these factors is the responsibility of the
designer, since it requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in
which the individual circuits are to be exploited.

Modern circuit breakers are equipped with the following devices:

SSN - instantaneous magnetic safety trip (not adjustable);
SN - instantaneous magnetic safety trip (adjustable);
B - thermal overcurrent trip (adjustable);
BN - thermal overcurrent trip (not adjustable);
SK - thermal overcurrent trip (not adjustable, temperature compensated);
A - shunt trip;
U - undervoltage trip;
M - multifunction (electronic device).
RMS (Root Mean Square) - is the effective value of a varying voltage or
current. It is the equivalent steady DC (constant) value which gives the same
effect.
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RMS RMS peak
V V V 4 . 1 2
peak RMS
V V 7 . 0

RCD (Residual Current Devices)
An RCD is a simple fitting designed to help prevent electric shock and other accidents
due to faulty electrical appliances or wiring.
An RCD can detect changes in the proper flow of electric current (when a flex or
cable is cut, for instance, or an electrical tool malfunctions). Within milliseconds of this
happening, the RCD automatically disconnects the power supply to the equipment before
you can be electrocuted or further damage can be done.

Coordination
The coordination of protection devices involves combining, in a selective way, a
short circuit protection device (fuses or magnetic circuit breakers) with a contactor and an
Its objective is to break any abnormal current, in plenty of time, without any danger
to personnel whilst providing adequate protection of the equipment against an overload or
a short circuit current.
Type 1 IEC 947-4-1 In a short circuit condition, the contactor or starter must
not present any danger to personnel or installations and may not be able to resume
operation without repair or the replacement of parts.
Type 2 IEC 947-4-1 In a short circuit condition, the contactor or starter must
not present any danger to personnel or installations and must be able to resume operation.
The risk of contact welding is permissible if they can be easily separated.
Total, ensuring reliability of operation IEC 947-6-2 In the event of a short
circuit, no damage or risk of welding is permissible on the equipment constituting the
motor starter. Operation can be resumed without any maintenance.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Schneider Electric, Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC
international standards (Technical series), Edition 2005
http://www.electricalinstallation.merlingerin.com/guide/electrical_installation.htm

[2] Germanicher LLOYD, Short circuit current calculation

[3] Bureau Veritas, Short circuit current calculation

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