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Cell Organelle Chart

ORGANELLE Cell membrane (Plasma membrane) Cell wall Cytoplasm In bacteria? In plant? In animal? STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Boundary between intracellular & extracellular environments. Regulates entry/exit of substances. Rigid structure providing support for cell. Jelly-like substance filling intracellular space contains dissolved substances. Network of fine tubes and threads. Provides internal structural support. Paired rods, which help organize microtubules during mitosis. Membrane-bound structure containing cells' genetic information (DNA) and support molecules. Small structure within nucleus. Site of production of ribosomal RNA. Boundary between nucleus and cytoplasm. Regulates passage of materials between the two.

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes, usually Yes

Yes Yes

No Yes

Cyto-skeleton

No

Yes

Yes

Centrioles

Rarely

No, but aster is similar.

Yes

Nucleus

No

Yes

Yes

Nucleolus

No

Yes

Yes

Nuclear Membrane

No

Yes

Yes

Flagella, pili or cilia

Sometimes flagella or pili

Rarely, but some specialized cells may.

Only present in Structures used to enable movement of cells or some sometimes to propel substances across outer surface specialized of the cell. Predominantly protein in composition. cells. Yes Membrane bound organelles. Folded membranes within contain enzymes for aerobic respiration. (A little

Mitochondria

No

Yes

DNA in here too.) Membrane bound organelles. Folded membranes within contain chlorophyll and enzymes for photosynthesis. (A little DNA in here too.) Membrane bound area filled with water and assorted solutes. Role in maintenance of water balance of the cell. Small organelles at which protein synthesis occurs. May be free floating or membrane-bound. Network of flattened membranes forming tunnels. Enzymes assisting synthesis of some lipids and final processing of proteins found here. Similar to smooth ER, but with ribosomes embedded in membrane. Proteins to be exported from cell produced here. Stacks of saucer shaped membranes where export proteins are modified and stored prior to entering secretory vesicles for exocytosis. Membrane bound structure-containing enzymes, which break down toxic or unwanted molecules. Membrane bound structures with varied functions. Leucoplasts - starch storage. Chromoplasts - colored pigments within (eg flower petals). Packages for storage (eg fat droplets) or temporary transport associated with endocytosis/exocytosis.

Chloroplasts

No

Only in photosynthetic cells

No

Vacuole

No

Yes, often large

Unusual, and small if present. Yes

Ribosomes

Yes

Yes

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -smooth

No

Yes

Yes

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -rough Golgi apparatus

No

Yes

Yes

No (aka Golgi Body) Lysosomes No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Plastids

No

Yes

No

Vesicles

No

Rare

Yes