Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

NAME:

BRANDON ATWELL

SCHOOL

PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

CENTRE NO:

160042

SUBJECT:

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

TEACHERS NAME:

TERRITORY:

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

THEME:

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE WATER QUALITY OF RIVERS IN TRINIDAD.

Title
Introduction Methods of data collection Literature Review Presentation of Data Analysis of Data Discussion of Findings Conclusion Recommendations Bibliography

Page
1

3-4

5 - 11

12 - 13

14 - 16

17

18 - 19

20

The topic chosen for this journal report is the factors that affect the water quality of Rivers in Trinidad. Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. The purpose of this project is to allow one to become conscious of the factors that affect the quality of the river water that surrounds them and also the harms in which a polluted river can cause to its aquatic life and even us the humans that may use it domestically or recreationally. This project also intends to spark the enthusiasm of us, the students, to become knowledgeable about what we can do as citizens of Trinidad to assist in the diminution of water pollution. The variables present in this project are the Rivers that will be focused on are the Cipero River, Guaracara River, Godineau River, Caroni River and the Ortoire River. Additionally, the factors that affect water quality that will be focused on in this projects are as followed; pH, Conductivity, Temperature, Salinity, Total Dissolved Substances, Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrates. -1-

The methods of data collection that were used are as follows; site visits were used to conduct various observations in and around the area of the Rivers and the use of digital meters and scientific kits were used to test for the factors that affect the water quality of the Rivers. A probe was lowered into the various Rivers to acquire the readings for both the Dissolved oxygen content and the Temperature. Secondly, a YSI 63 probe was later used to obtain the levels of pH, Salinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids in the water. Lastly, a LaMotte colorimeter was used to acquire the amount of nitrates present in the water. Of the fiver rivers that were tested, the upper, middle and lower courses of the rivers were tested accept for the Ortoire river. Both the lower and middle courses were tested, but the upper course was in accessible. The internet was used to obtain the acceptable international standards for the various water pollutants and also information for the literature review.

-2-

1.

The quality of the surface water resources of Trinidad in many places is deteriorating due to high levels of suspended solids, organic matter, high bacteria counts and the presence of chemical pollutants. The main causes are uncontrolled point source discharges, in particular industrial (including mining) and domestic. The high erosion rates in upstream area and the indiscriminate removal of vegetative cover contribute to the high turbidity and suspended solids loads in certain watersheds. The increasing pressure on the water resources due to population and socio-economic activities will result in an even higher rate of pollution, if no corrective measures are instituted. (Phillip H.W. 1998 River water quality in Trinidad and Tobago)

2.

Domestic wastewater discharges continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Discharged wastewater finds its way into the marine environment where it can have negative public health effects, largely through its bacterial content. Solid wastes are managed by sanitary land filling with minimal recycling. There is a serious potential problem at the Beetham dump (Trinidad), situated close to the sea where seepage may be transported to the coast via the adjoining wetlands. Agricultural and industrial pollution are constant features of the economic development of the country. (Alexia C.R. 2009 Water Pollution in the northern range of Trinidad) -3-

3.

There have been a number of reported fish kills in rivers of Trinidad and Tobago attributed to the indiscriminate use of pesticides, fertilizers and domestic chemicals. In Trinidad the rivers Maraval, St. Anns, Santa Cruz/San Juan, Caroni and Arima. (Bryon E.R. 2010. What are some factors that affect the water quality of Rivers in Trinidad and Tobago?)

4.

Trinidad and Tobago has historically enjoyed good potable water quality. Increasing

pollution from sewage and industrial effluents combined with soil erosion and unmitigated development are threatening the quality of potable water while increasing treatment cost. At the same time, pollution can have significant implications for public health and natural ecosystems. (Michelle S.I. 2007. Importance of maintaining water quality)

-4-

Figure 1: A colomn graph Showing the average pH of each River in comparison to the international standard.

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Cipero Guaracara Godineau Caroni Ortoire International Standard

The data showed the Cipero River had an average pH of 10.17, Guaracara = 9.07, Godineau = 7.4, Caroni = 7.02, Ortoire = 7.75 and the maximum international standard of pH = 9.0.

-5-

Figure 2: A bar graph showing the average conductivity of each River in comparison to the international standard

International Sandard Ortoire Caroni Godineau Guaracara Cipero 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

The data showed the Cipero River had an average conductivity of 350.6, Guaracara = 200.6, Godineau = 646.41, Caroni = 280.67, Ortoire = 3371.92 and the maximum international standard of conductivity = 1800.

-6-

Figure 3: A 3-D cone showing the average temperature of the entire Rivers in comparison to the international standard.

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Cipero Guaracara Godineau

Caroni

Ortoire

International Standard

The data showed the Cipero River had an average temperature of 24.6, Guaracara = 24.5 C, Godineau = 24.3 C, Caroni = 26.27 C, Ortoire = 29.15 C i e i d d f e e e . d he xi

-7-

Figure 4: A table Showing the average salinity of each River in comparison to the international standard.

Name of River/ International Standard

Average Salinity 621

Cipero 545.03 Guaracara 470.13 Godineau 138 Caroni 2055 Ortoire 500 International Standard

The data showed the Cipero River had an average salinity of 621, Guaracara = 545.03, Godineau = 470.13, Caroni = 138, Ortoire = 2055 and the maximum international standard of salinity = 500.

-8-

Figure 5: A table Showing the average TDS of each River in comparison to the international standard.

Name of River/ International Standard Cipero Guaracara Godineau Caroni Ortoire International Standard

Average Total Dissolved Substances 1421.6 1224.8 1000.28 190 2835 1200

The data showed the Cipero River had an average TDS of 1421.6, Guaracara = 1244.8, Godineau = 100.28, Caroni = 190, Ortoire = 2835 and the maximum international standard of TDS = 1200

-9-

Figure 6: A table Showing the average Dissolved oxygen of each River in comparison to the international standard.

Name of River/ International Standard Cipero

Average Dissolved Oxygen

4.76 Guaracara 6.09 Godineau 8.58 Caroni 7.74 Ortoire 13.01 International Standard 7.7 The data showed the Cipero River had an average Dissolved oxygen of 4.76, Guaracara = 6.09, Godineau = 8.58, Caroni = 7.74, Ortoire = 13.01 and the maximum international standard of Dissolved oxygen = 7.7

-10-

Figure 7: A clustered horizontal cylinder Showing the average amount of nitrates of each River in comparison to the international standard.

International Standard

Ortoire

Caroni

Godineau

Guaracara

Cipero 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

The data showed the Cipero River had an average reading of nitrates of 3.63, Guaracara = 1.63, Godineau = 0.13, Caroni = 0.12, Ortoire = 0.1 and the maximum international standard of Dissolved oxygen = 1ml/l.

-11-

After the testing of the five Rivers were done, the results were collated and graphically presented in order to facilitate further analysis. With regard to figure 1, a column graph was used to compare the different pH levels of the five rivers that were tested. Indeed, the Cipero River had the highest pH reading, that is, 10.17, whilst the Caroni River recorded the lowest pH reading of 7.02. Subsequently, for figure 2 a bar graph was developed to evaluate the average conductivity of the five Rivers. Undeniably, the maximum acceptable international standard is 1800; however all the Rivers were below this figure, except the Ortoire River with a conductivity level of 3371.92. Meanwhile, figure 3, a 3-D cone, focused on the Temperature of the water. In ascending order, the temperature of the five rivers are as followed; Godineau = 24.3 C, Guaracara = 24.5 C, Cipero = 24.6 C, Caroni = 26.27 C and the Ortoire River = 29.15 C. However the international standard for temperature as seen is 30 C therefore all the Rivers were below. In terms of Salinity and TDS, figure 4 and 5 represented these two factors by the use of tables. It must be noted that the Caroni River recorded the lowest readings for both these factors; 138 and 190 respectively whilst the Ortoire River recorded the highest readings for both these factors 2055 and 2835 respectively.

-12-

Figure 6 was also represented in a tabular format and depicted the average Dissolved oxygen content of the five Rivers that were tested. In fact, the international standard is 7.7 and only two rivers had an acceptable, rather superior Dissolved oxygen content and is as follows; Godineau = 8.58 and the Ortoire with the highest at 13.01. Lastly, figure 7, a clustered horizontal cylinder illustrated the average amount of nitrates in all the Rivers in comparison to the international standard. Alas, All the rivers were not below the international standard of 1ml/l since both the Cipero and Guaracara were above this level with figures of 3.63ml/l and 1.63ml/l in that order. The results obtained indicated of the five Rivers that were tested, three of them could be considered to be not polluted.

-13-

Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. The pH of water manipulates most of its chemical processes. Pure water with no impurities has a pH of seven; however the international standard is 9.0. Consequently both the Cipero and the Caroni River are above this level and this may be because of the fact that a large variety of pesticides and fertilizers enters these two Rivers as seen during observations for the site visits. This notion may be solidified by the statement made by Bryon E.R. when he stated that a number of reported fish kills in rivers of Trinidad and Tobago attributed to the indiscriminate use of pesticides, fertilizers and domestic chemicals. Nonetheless, fish eggs strive best within the range of 7.0 9.0. Undeniably, conductivity refers to how well water passes electrical current. The more impurities in water, the greater its electrical current. All the Rivers were below the international standard except the Ortoire River because. This river had a high conductivity because of where the test was done which was where the ocean and river met.

-14-

Meanwhile, temperature is important for aquatic life since high temperatures reduce available oxygen in water but at low temperature more dissolved oxygen is available for aquatic life. However all the Rivers were within the international standard of

Salinity is simply a measure of saltiness. The weathering or dissolving of continental rocks is one of the main ways in which a river may start carrying salt. In reality, Rivers are populated with a myriad of fresh water aquatic life and if the water becomes high in salinity then the dislocation of populations may occur since they will have to migrate to cleaner waters and also some may even die. However, only the Godineau and the Caroni River had a salinity reading below the international standard of 500. A high 2055 was recorded for the Ortoire River but this occurred due to the fact of where the test was taken, that is where the ocean and river water met. Correspondingly, in terms of the TDS of the Rivers, only the Godineau and Caroni were below the international standard of 1200. Again this was due to the fact that during observations at the Cipero and Guaracara River a point source pollutant was seen since a pipeline discharging effluence was seen flowing directly into the River. This premise could be reinforced by what Phi i H W id i hi e y Rive w e q iyi i id d d b g Phi i c i ed

that the main causes are uncontrolled point source discharges, in particular industrial (including mining) and domestic. Dissolved oxygen is the amount of oxygen dissolved in water and is essential for the survival of aquatic life. Only the Cipero and the Guaracara River had an awful dissolved oxygen reading. The reading may have been dreadful since dissolved oxygen is used up when it has to breakdown a large amount of chemicals in water. -15-

This can be supported by what Phillip H.W said, in his essay on river water quality in Trinidad and Tobago. He stated that the quality of the surface water resources of Trinidad in many places is deteriorating due to the presence of chemical pollutants. Nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause desolation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. Therefore this statement was supported by Bryon E.R. who said that the indiscriminate use pesticides and fertilizers are some of the factors that lead to fish kills. Undeniably, both the Cipero and Guaracara River were above the international standard of 1ml/l. The high levels of nitrates at the Guaracara River can be accounted for since during observations upon visiting this site, it was clear that subsistence farming was being practice by a myriad of residents.

-16-

Ultimately, it is a necessity to conclude that based on the findings of this research, that not all of the five Rivers that were tested are polluted. Evidently, both the Godineau and the Caroni river are not polluted since they both had little or no pollutants since our tests proved that there were no harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Rivers. Unfortunately, the area of the Ortoire River that was tested may have skewed our results since where the brackish water was formed in the river is where was tested. Secondly the upper course of the River was inaccessible hence that reading was absent. During research for the literature review, the issues that led to certain factors that affected water quality were found and also what affects these factors have on the various Rivers. Therefore this went hand in hand with the purpose of the project which was to spark the enthusiasm of us the students to become aware of every aspect of these factors. Nevertheless, the entire research project was somewhat successful.

-17-

1. Implement various environmental legislations and penalties Therefore the owner of the business near the Cipero River that has a pipeline running directly into the river discharging effluence should be penalized accordingly. Also those people that dump garbage into this River would face the same consequences.

2. Greater emphasis on CEC's If this is done then a reduction of some water pollutants would be attained since only when a proposal is environmentally friendly then it would be granted access by the EMA to further its construction. Then these businesses near the Cipero River that pollute the River would maybe not even be in existence.

3. Development of water treatment plants in all major rivers As seen in the Caroni River, the water treatment plant there greatly reduces the amount of water pollutants there so if these plants were to be constructed in other rivers, e.g. the Guaracara River, then it would be sanitary.

-18-

4. Protect drinking water by using less pesticides and fertilizers This will be very effective since according to Bryon E.R. in the literature review of this project, the indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides have been a major cause of a large number of reported fish kills. 5. Education The general public can be educated about how their actions may affect the various water courses nearby and also steps that they can take in an attempt to curb this issue. 6. Better Farming practices The principles of GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) should be adhered to by farmers hence their well be a drastic decrease in chemical drifting and fertilizer run-off. Additionally even Phillip H.W. in his essay on water quality believed that even higher rates of pollution would occur, if no corrective measures are instituted.

-19-

1. H.W., P. (1998, January 12). EMA water pollution. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from EMA Web site: http://www.ema.co.tt/docs/techServ/water/rewpmp.pdf

2. C.R., A. (2009, february 18). new facts: Trininetworks. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from Trininetworks: http://trininetwork.com/news/facts.htm

3. C.R., B. (2010, September 11). Water pollution: WRMU. Retrieved March 01, 2012, from WRMU: http://wrmu.org.tt/uploads/policy-wrmu.pdf

4. S.I, M. (2007, July 11). Importance of water quality: Blur. Retrieved March 04, 2012, from Blur: http://blurtit.com/q517178.html

5. Thornes, N. (2001). Bath Advanced Science. Environmental Science. -20-