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ANY / SOME Use "some" in positive sentences. We use some for both countable and uncountable nouns.

. Example: I have some friends. Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns. Example: Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago. Use "some" in questions when offering or requesting something that is there. Example: Would you like some bread? (offer) - Could I have some water? (request) Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns. Example: Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago. Use "some" words - somebody, someone, somewhere and something - in positive sentences. Example: He lives somewhere near here. Use "any" words - anybody, anyone, anywhere and anything - in negative sentences or questions. Example: Do you know anything about that boy? - She doesn't have anywhere to go. IN Use 'in' with spaces:

in a room / in a building in a garden / in a park

Use 'in' with bodies of water:


in the water in the sea in a river

Use 'in' with lines:


in a row / in a line in a queue

AT Use 'at' with places:

at the bus-stop at the door at the cinema at the end of the street

ON Use 'on' with surfaces:


on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor on the table

Use 'on' with small islands:

I stayed on Maui.

Use 'on' with directions:


on the left on the right straight on

TO Use 'to' with movement from one place to another:


I went to school. Did you go to work? Let's go to the shopping mall.

DO NOT Use 'to' with 'home'


a = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with consonants She has a dog. I work in a factory. an = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with vowels (a,e,i,o,u) Can I have an apple? She is an English teacher. the = definite article (a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know) The car over there is fast. The teacher is very good, isn't he? The first time you speak of something use "a or an", the next time you repeat that object use "the". I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms. I ate in a Chinese restaurant. The restaurant was very good. DO NOT use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as "The United States".

He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier. They live in northern British Columbia. Use an article with bodies of water, oceans and seas My country borders on the Pacific Ocean DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about things in general I like Russian tea. She likes reading books. DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about meals, places, and transport He has breakfast at home. I go to university. He comes to work by taxi.

'Like' can be used as a verb or as a preposition. There are a number of common questions with 'like' that are easy to confuse.

What's he like? - 'What like?' is used to ask about a person's or object's character and is general in nature. What does he like? - This use of the verb 'like' is for general preferences. 'Like' as a verb is generally followed by the 'ing' form of the verb (I like playing tennis). What does she look like? - 'Like' is used as a preposition to express physical appearance. In this case, 'like' can also mean 'similar to' if you are making a comparison to other people. What would you like to drink? - Another common use of 'like' is in 'would like' to express wishes. Note that 'would like' is followed by the infinite form of the verb NOT the '-ing' form. The past form of regular verbs ends in 'ed'. Irregular verbs must be studied individually. Here is a list of past forms of some of the most common irregular verbs. be - was/were become - became begin - began break - broke bring - brought build - built buy - bought come - came cost - cost cut - cut do - did drink - drank eat - ate find - found fly - flew get - got give - gave go - went have - had keep - kept know - knew leave - left make - made meet - met pay - paid

put - put read - read say - said see - saw sell - sold send - sent speak - spoke spend - spent take - took teach - taught tell - told think - thought There are four types of pronouns: Subject Pronouns, Object Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns and Demonstrative Pronouns. Here is a list and explanation showing the different types of pronouns:

Subject Pronouns - I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they function as the subject of a sentence: I live in New York. Do you like playing tennis? He doesn't want to come this evening. She works in London. It won't be easy. We are studying pronouns at the moment. You went to Paris last year, didn't you? They bought a new car last month.

Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them serve as the object of a verb. Give me the book. He told you to come tonight. She asked him to help. They visited her when they came to New York. She bought it at the store. He picked us up at the airport. The teacher asked you to finish your homework. I invited them to a party.

Possessive Pronouns - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs show that something belongs to someone. That house is mine. This is yours. I'm sorry, that's his. Those books are hers. Those students are ours. Look over there, those seats are yours. Theirs will be green. Demonstrative Pronouns - this, that, these, those refer to things. 'this' and 'these' refer to something that is near. 'that' and 'those' refer to things that are farther away.

This is my house. That is our car over there. These are my colleagues in this room. Those are beautiful flowers in the next field.

Possessive adjectives - my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their are often confused with possessive pronouns. The possessive adjective modifies the noun following it in order to show possession. I'll get my books. Is that your car over there? That is his teacher, Mr Jones. I want to go to her store. Its color is red. Can we bring our children? You are welcome to invite your husbands.

IN Use 'in' months and years and periods of time:


in January in 1978 in the twenties

Use 'in' a period of time in the future:


in a few weeks in a couple of days

AT Use 'at' with precise time:


at six o'clock at 10.30 at two p.m.

ON Use 'on' with days of the week:


on Monday on Fridays

Use 'on' with specific calendar days:


on Christmas day on October 22nd

IMPORTANT NOTES in the morning / afternoon / evening - at night We say in the morning, afternoon or evening BUT we say 'at night' Verb + 'ing' OR Verb + Infinitive When two verbs are used together, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing) or the infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes. Common Verbs + 'ing' go enjoy quit discuss mind can't stand suggest Examples: They go jogging on Saturdays. I don't mind helping you. They can't stand driving in traffic jams. Common Verbs + Infinitive promise plan refuse want need decide hope Examples: I promised to help him. Alice needs to start that task. He decided to quit his job. Use the present simple to talk about activities or routines which take place on a regular basis. Positive Sentences Subject + present conjugation of verb + objects I / You drive to work every day.

She / He / It drives to work every day. You / We / They drive to work every day. Negative Sentences Subject + do not + base form of verb + objects I / You don't (do not) use a computer every day. She / He / It doesn't ( does not) use a computer at work. It You / We / They don't (do not) use a typewriter at work. Question Form Wh? + do + subject + base form of verb ? When do I / you arrive at work? What does he / she / it use at work? Where do we / you / they keep the paper? Modals are verbs that modify other verbs. The most common modals are: Can Should Must Note that all subjects take the same form of the modal. Positive Subject + Modal + Base Form of Verb + Objects Examples He can play the piano. I must leave soon. Negative Subject + Modal + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects Examples

They can't visit next week. You shouldn't go to that film. Question Modal + Subject + Base Form of Verb + Objects Examples Can you help me? What should I do? Giving Advice with Should 'Should' is used when asking for or giving advice. It is also used when asking for suggestions. Examples I think you should see a doctor. What type of job should I get? Expressing Ability with Can 'Can' is used to speak abilities. Examples He can speak Japanese. Can you play golf? Asking for Permission with May 'May' is used to ask for permission. Examples May I help you? May I visit you this afternoon? NOTE: In spoken English, 'Can I ...?' is often used instead of 'May I ...?' The future with 'Will' is used in a variety of situations discussing the future. Use the following forms with 'will'. Notice that 'will' or 'won't' is used for ALL subjects. Positive Subject + will + base form of verb + object(s)

Negative Subject + will + not + base form of verb + object(s) Question (Question Word) + will + subject + base form of verb? Used for spontaneous decisions. Spontaneous decisions are decisions made AT the moment of speaking. Examples Jack's hungry. I'll make her a sandwich. That's difficult! I'll help you with the problem. Used for predictions: Examples It will snow tomorrow. She won't win the game. Used for scheduled public events Examples The concert will begin at 8 o'clock. When will the train leave? The class won't start next week. Used for promises Examples Will you marry me? I'll help you with your homework after class. Future with 'Going to' The future with 'going to' is used to speak about future intentions or plans made before the present moment. Use the following forms with 'going to'. Positive Subject + to be + going to + base form of verb + object(s) Negative

Subject + to be + not + going to + base form of verb + object(s) Question (Question Word) + to be + subject + going to + base form of verb? Examples We are going to study French next semester. Where are you going to stay in France? She isn't going to take a vacation this year. Used for planned decisions. Planned decisions are decisions made BEFORE the moment of speaking. Examples I'm going to study Languages at university next year. We're going to stay at the Hilton in New York next week. Used for predicting an action that you see is about to happen: Examples Watch out! You're going to hit that car! Look at those clouds. It's going to rain. Used for future intentions: Examples I'm going to be a policeman when I grow up. Katherine is going to study English when she goes to University. Countable and Uncountable Uncountable Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns. Use both 'some' and any' with uncountable nouns when speaking about specific objects. Examples Do you have any butter? There is some juice in the bottle. If you are speaking in general, do not use a modifier. Examples Do you drink coca cola? He doesn't eat meat.

Countable Use the plural form of the verb with countable nouns. Use both 'some' and 'any' with countable nouns when speaking about specific objects. Examples There are some magazines on the table. Has he got any friends? If you are speaking in general, use the plural form of the noun. Examples They love books by Hemingway. She doesn't eat apples. Expressions for Use with Countable and Uncountable Nouns Use the following expressions with uncountable nouns. most much, lots of, a lot of some a little, little Examples There is lots of interest in the project. She's got some money left in the bank. There's little time to finish. Use the following expressions with countable nouns. many, lots of, a lot of several some not many, only a few, few Examples There are a lot of pictures on the wall. We have several friends in Chicago. She bought some envelopes this afternoon. There are only a few people in the restaurant. What are countable nouns? Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted.

books, Italians, pictures, stations, men, etc. A countable noun can be both singular - a friend, a house, etc. - or plural - a few apples, lots of trees, etc. Use the singular form of the verb with a singular countable noun: There is a book on the table. That student is excellent! Use the plural form of the verb with a countable noun in the plural: There are some students in the classroom. Those houses are very big, aren't they? What are uncountable nouns? Uncountable nouns are materials, concepts, information, etc. which are not individual objects and can not be counted. information, water, understanding, wood, cheese, etc. Uncountable nouns are always singular. Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns: There is some water in that pitcher. That is the equipment we use for the project. Adjectives with Countable and Uncountable Nouns. Use a/an with countable nouns preceded by an adjective(s): Tom is a very intelligent young man. I have a beautiful grey cat. Do not use a/an with uncountable nouns preceded by an adjective(s): That is very useful information. There is some cold beer in the fridge. Some uncountable nouns in English are countable in other languages. This can be confusing! Here is a list of some of the most common, easy to confuse uncountable nouns. accommodation advice baggage bread equipment furniture garbage information

knowledge luggage money news pasta progress research travel work We use the comparative and superlative form to compare and contrast different objects in English. Use the comparative form to show the difference between two objects. Example: New York is more exciting than Seattle. Use the superlative form when speaking about three or more objects to show which object is 'the most' of something. Example: New York is the most exciting city in the USA. Here is a chart showing how to construct the comparative form in English. Notice in the example sentences that we use 'than' to compare the two objects: One Syllable Adjectives add '-er' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel) remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'ier' Example: cheap - cheaper / hot - hotter / high - higher Example Sentences Yesterday was hotter than today. This book is cheaper than that book. Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y' Example: happy - happier / funny - funnier Example Sentences I am happier than you. That joke was funnier than his joke. Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives place 'more' before the adjective Example: interesting - more interesting / difficult - more difficult Example Sentences London is more expensive than Madrid. This test is more difficult than the last test.

IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions: good

good - adjective better - comparative

Example Sentences This book is better than that one. I am better at tennis than my sister. bad

bad - adjective worse - comparative

Example Sentences His French is worse than mine. His singing is worse than Tom's. Here is a chart showing how to construct the superlative form in English: One Syllable Adjectives Place 'the' before the adjective and add '-est' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel). Example: cheap - the cheapest / hot - the hottest / high - the highest Example Sentences Today is the hottest day of the summer. This book is the cheapest I can find. Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives Place 'the most' before the adjective. Example: interesting - the most interesting / difficult - the most difficult Example Sentences: London is the most expensive city in England. That is the most beautiful painting here.

Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y' Place 'the' before the adjective and remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'iest'. Example: happy - the happiest / funny - the funniest Example Sentences New York is the noisiest city in the USA. He is the most important person I know. IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions: good

good - adjective the best - superlative

Example Sentences Peter is the best golf player in the school. This is the best school in the city. bad

bad - adjective the worst - superlative

Example Sentences Jane is the worst student in the class. This is the worst day of my life. Time expressions are used to indicate the time at / during which an action took place. Common time expressions include: Present forms: everyday, on Fridays, at the moment, now, as well as adverbs of frequency such as always, usually, sometimes (for present habits and routines). Days of the weeks followed by 's' such as Mondays, Tuesdays, etc. Examples He sometimes finishes work early. Marjorie is listening to the radio at the moment. Peter goes jogging on Saturdays. Past forms: when I was ..., last week, day, year, etc., yesterday, ago (two weeks ago, three years ago, four months ago, etc.)

Examples He visited his friends last week. I didn't see you two days ago. Jane flew to Boston yesterday. Future forms: next week, year, etc., tomorrow, by (the end of the week, Thursday, next year, etc.) in X time (in two weeks time, in four months time, etc.) Examples I'm going to attend a conference next week. It won't snow tomorrow. They're going to visit New York in two weeks. Perfect forms: since, yet, already, just, for Examples Michael has worked here since 1998. Have you finished reading the paper yet? He's just gone to the bank. Use adverbs of frequency to say how often you do something. Adverbs of frequency are often used with the present simple because they indicate repeated or routine activities. For example, They often go out for dinner. Adverbs of frequency include (form most often to least often): always usually often sometimes occasionally seldom rarely never If the sentence has one verb (e.g. no auxiliary verb) put the adverb in the middle of the sentence after the subject and before the verb. Examples Tom usually goes to work by car. Janet never flies. She always goes by bus. Adverbs of frequency come after the verb 'be': Examples

I am never late for work. Peter is often at school. If the sentence has more than one verb (e.g. auxiliary verb), put the adverb of frequency before the main verb. Examples I can never remember anything! They have often visited Rome. When using adverbs of frequency in the question or negative form, put the adverb of frequency before the main verb. Examples She doesn't often visit Europe. Do you usually get up early? Use the imperative form when giving instructions or orders. The imperative is also very common in written instructions. Be careful when you use the imperative, as it is often considered impolite in English. If someone asks you for instructions, use the imperative. If, on the other hand, you would like to request that someone do something use a polite question form. There is only one imperative form for both 'you' singular and plural. Examples: Hurry up! Take the first left, go straight on and the supermarket is on the left. Positive Base Form of Verb + Objects Turn the music down, please. Insert coins into the slot. Negative Do + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects Do not smoke in this building. Don't rush, I'm not in a hurry. Adjectives Modify Nouns

Adjectives are placed directly before a noun: Examples:

Tom is an excellent singer. I bought a comfortable chair. She's thinking about buying a new house.

Adjectives are also used in simple sentences with the verb 'to be'. In this case, the adjective describes the subject of the sentence: Examples: Jack is happy. Peter was very tired. Mary'll be excited when you tell her.

Adverbs Adverbs Modify Verbs, Adjectives and Other Adverbs

Adverbs are easily recognized because they end in '-ly' (with a few exceptions!): Examples: Adjective - careful / Adverb - carefully Adjective - quick / Adverb - quickly

Adverbs are often used at the end of a sentence to modify the verb: Examples: Jack drove carelessly. Tom played the match intelligently. Jason talks about his classes constantly.

The present perfect is used to say what has happened recently and has an effect on the present moment. We often use 'just', 'yet' and 'already' to express the relationship to the present moment. Examples Have you seen Mary yet? They've already had dinner. She's just been to the dentist's.

The present perfect is also used to express something which has happened up to the present moment of time. Examples Have you worked here for a long time? Peter's lived here since 1987. She hasn't had much fun this week. Positive Form Subject + have + past participle + object(s) Examples Peter's lived here since 1987. We've been very busy today. Negative Form Subject + have + not + past participle + object(s) Examples I haven't been to class very often this month. She hasn't had much fun this week. Question Form (Wh?) + have + subject + past participle? Examples Have you worked here for a long time? Where have you been? Present Perfect for Unspecified Past When speaking about an experience that has happened at an UNSPECIFIED point in time before the present moment use the present perfect. Examples I've been to New York three times. They've lived in many places. She's studied in London.

NOTE: In this use of the present perfect, we are talking about things that have happened up to the present moment. Whenever you speak about something that has happened up to now without giving a precise point in time, use the present perfect. Use of 'For', 'Since' and 'How long' Use 'for' to indicate a duration or period of time. Examples He has lived here for seven years. We have been here for six weeks. Shirley has played tennis for a long time. Use 'since' to indicate a specific point in time. Examples I've worked here since 2004. She's gone to dancing lessons since April. They've been unhappy since they left college. Use 'How long' in the question form to ask about duration. Examples How long have you played the piano? How long has he worked here? How long has she been with you? Use the past simple to talk about activities or routines which take place at a specified time in the past. Notice that all subjects take the same conjugation of the verb. Regular verbs end in '-ed'. visit - visited enjoy - enjoyed Irregular verbs have various forms and each verb needs to be learned. see - saw think - thought The past simple is used to express a finished past action which occurs at a specific moment in the past. Examples She visited Iran last month. They didn't go to Tom's party last weekend. Where did you go on vacation last summer?

The following time signifiers often indicate a specific point in time. last ago in ... (plus a year or month) yesterday when ... (plus a phrase) Examples They had lunch at home last week. He left the company many years ago. Susan bought a new car in May. He telephoned his friend in Rome yesterday. I played golf when I was a teenager. Positive Form Subject + past form of verb + object(s) + time Examples They flew to Chicago last month. Peter completed his course three weeks ago. Negative Form Subject + did + not + base form of verb + object(s) + (time) Examples They didn't expect to see you at Christmas. She didn't understand the question. Question Form (Wh?) + did + subject + base form of verb + (object(s))+ (time)? Examples Where did you study French? When did you arrive last week? Use the present continuous to speak about what is happening at the present moment in time. Positive Form Subject + to be + verb + ing + objects

Examples He is watching TV. They're playing tennis at the moment. Negative Form Subject + are not + verb + ing + objects Examples She isn't studying at the moment. We aren't working now. Question Form Wh? + do + subject + verb + ing + objects ? Examples What are you doing? Are you cooking dinner now? NOTE: We use time expressions like 'at the moment, currently, this week - month' with this form of the present continuous. Present Simple Use the present simple to talk about activities or routines which take place on a regular basis. Examples I often go jogging on Saturdays. He usually has coffee for breakfast. Present Continuous Use the present continuous to speak about what is happening at the present moment in time, around the present moment, or for a future scheduled event. Examples We're working on the Smith account this month. She's watching TV at the moment. Stative Verbs Stative verbs are verbs which express a state. Action verbs are verbs which express something a person does.

Examples I hope to see you soon. (stative verb) He is cooking dinner at the moment. (action verb) Stative verbs cannot be used in the continuous forms. Here is a list of common stative verbs: believe understand think (opinion) want hope smell taste feel sound look seem appear Sometimes the past simple and the present perfect are confused. It is important to remember that the past simple is used to express a finished past action which occurs at a specific moment in the past. The present perfect is used to express something that happened at an unspecified moment in the past. For example, if I visited Paris in 2004, I could express this in two ways: Past Simple I visited Paris in 2004. I went to Paris a few years ago. Note that the moment in time is specific - in 2004, a few years ago. Present Perfect I've been to Paris. I've visited Paris. In this case, the moment of my visit is not specific. I am speaking about an experience that I have had in my life up to this moment in time. This is the key to understanding the difference between the past simple and the present perfect. The past simple expresses something which happened at a specific time in the past. The present perfect expresses something that I have experienced in my life without giving the exact time.