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Article I.

Define Motivation
By Richard Romando
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Motivation can be defined in a number of ways. Generally, it is defined as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. In other words, motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. It is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his/her personality. There are different types of motivation such as achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, competence motivation, power motivation, and attitude motivation. Motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behavior, the direction of behavior, and persistence of behavior. Arousal of behavior involves what activates human behavior and direction of behavior is concerned with what directs behavior towards a specific goal. Persistence of behavior is concerned with how the behavior is sustained. Various studies have been conducted to understand the different motives that drive a person to success. Motives are categorized into three: homeostatic motives, nonhomeostatic motives, and learned or social motives. Almost all the motives belong to one or more of these three groups. Motives such as thirst, hunger, respiration, and excretion are included in homeostatic motives. Nonhomeostatic motives include required activities such as seeking shelter and curiosity about the environment. Curiosity, a desire for novelty, power, achievement, social affiliation, and approval are considered as learned motives or social motives. Motivation is essential to be successful in any endeavor you undertake. It can be positive or negative, subtle or obvious, tangible or intangible. It is very important in workplaces as it plays a key role in the effective performance of employees. In industry, managers play a significant role in employee motivation. They use different motivation techniques to improve productivity, thereby promoting cooperation between employees and employers. Learning is somewhat interrelated to motivation. In education, instructors also use motivation techniques in order to motivate the students to learn. It is essential to increase student motivation as it can make a student more competent. Also, motivation encourages self confidence and problem-solving skills.

Motivation provides detailed information on Motivation, Daily Motivation, Employee Motivation, Motivation Posters and more. Motivation is affiliated with Christian Motivational Speakers. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Richard_Romando

Motivation as a Personality Characteristic

Because of their personal learning and reinforcement histories, people develop unique predispositions to set goals and to persist at tasks related to those goals. In terms of the previous discussion, some people are more likely to focus on effective intrinsic reinforcers and to make internal and controllable attributions for their successes and failures than persons with lower achievement-orientations. These predispositions (like other features of personality) are learned, and therefore classroom activity definitely can have an impact on motivation as a personality characteristic. Although these predispositions cannot easily be changed during a single unit of instruction or even during an entire academic career, teachers should be aware that the way they interact with students can influence not only their motivation for particular tasks but also motivation as a personality characteristic (Ames, 1990). A large number of personality characteristics are related to motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985), but only a few can be covered even briefly in this book. For example, Atkinson (1964) has classified people as motivated either by seeking success or avoiding failure. Research has shown that for success seekers motivation increases following failure; but failure avoiders decrease their efforts after failing at a task. In addition, success seekers seem to be most strongly motivated by tasks that have a medium level of difficulty; whereas failure avoiders seem to prefer either very easy or very difficult tasks. Finally, success seekers are more likely to set realistic goals, whereas failure avoiders tend to set goals for themselves that are unrealistically easy or difficult. Teachers often use the term self-motivated to refer to students who become easily motivated to learn, without much external persuasion. These students are learners who have learned to identify and implement the principles described in this chapter. Self-motivation of this kind is often the strongest form of motivation. Self motivated learners are likely to be the best learners, if their motivation is directed toward productive goals. Self-motivation is not an innate characteristic, but rather is learned in much the same fashion as the metacognitive skills described in chapter 7. Teachers should be aware that by enabling learners to employ motivational strategies effectively and by focusing attention on the principles discussed in this chapter, they can help students develop a personality trait of self motivation that can be helpful for both academic and non-academic tasks. Table 5.2 summarizes some of the major characteristics of learners with intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivational orientations. Table 5.3 summarizes strategies for promoting intrinsic motivation. By incorporating these strategies, teachers can help students not only master specific tasks, but also develop a motivational orientation that will assist them in many other learning situations.

Characteristics of Intrinsically versus Extrinsically Motivated Learners (based on Lepper, 1988). 1. If perceived ability is low, extrinsically motivated students are more likely to quit after failure. 2. If the task is mundane or algorithmic, the extrinsically motivated student may be superior to the intrinsically motivated student. 3. If the task is conceptual or requires higher level thinking skills, the intrinsically motivated student is likely to be superior to the extrinsically motivated student. 4. The intrinsically motivated student is more likely to apply effective metacognitive strategies and "deeper" study strategies. 5. The intrinsically motivated student is more likely to select problems and subgoals of moderate difficulty, whereas the extrinsically motivated student is more likely to select the easiest problems and subgoals. 6. The intrinsically motivated student is more likely to take risks and to explore freely. 7. If the task is complex, the intrinsically motivated student is more likely to employ logical and efficient performance strategies. 8. Students who have previously been extrinsically motivated to engage in a particular activity are less likely to engage in that activity when external incentives are no longer available. 9. Intrinsically motivated students are more likely than extrinsically motivated students to be able to handle artificial rewards without experiencing negative consequences.

Table 5.3. Strategies for Promoting Intrinsic Motivation (based on Lepper, 1988). Technique Description Promote the learners' sense of control over activities How to do it 1. Minimize extrinsic constraints on the activity. (If an activity is of initial intrinsic interest, avoid adding superfluous extrinsic control. If an activity is of low intrinsic interest, use minimal sufficient external control.) 2. Reduce extrinsic constraints over time. (If it is necessary to use external pressures or incentives,

Control

fade these over time.) 3. Minimize the salience of extrinsic constraints. (Make the constraints seem logical; and embed them in the activity itself, if it is possible to do so.) 1. Help students set goals of uncertain attainment, and give feedback regarding current status of accomplishments. (Help students short-term and long-term goals at intermediate levels of difficulty. Also help students set multiple levels of goals, so that students at different levels will feel motivated and so that students can move on to new goals as they attain earlier goals. ) 1. Highlight areas of inconsistency and incompleteness and focus on paradoxes or possible simplifications that will provoke the interest of the learners. 2. Focus on activities, domains of knowledge, persons, and problems that are already of interest to the learners. 1. Present the activity in a natural, interesting context. 2. Present the activity in a simulation or fantasy context of interest to the student.

Challenge

Provide students with a continuously challenging activity.

Curiosity

Provoke the learners' curiosity.

Highlight the Contextualization functionality of the activity.

As you may have noticed, the strategies in Table 5.3 closely resemble those employed by authoritative (as opposed to permissive or authoritarian) parents in Baumrind's (1973, 1978, 1980) research, which was summarized in chapter 4. Students who internalize their motivation to learn tend to display numerous characteristics related to successful learning, including generally higher self-esteem (Ryan & Connell, 1989), more self-confidence (Lorion, Cowen, & Caldwell, 1975), and a better ability to cope with failure (Ryan, Connell, & Grolnick, 1992). In addition, students with more internalized or intrinsic motivation are much less likely to succumb to the negative side effects of artificial reinforcement (Flink et al., 1992). This is an important consideration: it means that children with an intrinsic motivational orientation are less likely than their extrinsically motivated peers to have their subsequent effort undermined by artificial reinforcers that may occasionally be necessary to motivate other members of a class (Boggiano & Barrett, 1985).

Even students who appear to be self-motivated can often benefit from experiencing and adopting new motivational strategies. For example, a child who is self-motivated by a powerful urge to succeed at competitions would become a potentially better learner by discovering that curiosity and cooperation are also powerful motivating factors. Expanding the child's self-motivational repertoire in this way would be especially useful if the child moved into a new setting where the factors that previously stimulated self-motivation were no longer present. For example, a student who is very strongly self-motivated by a competitive drive might be at a loss if he graduated from high school and went to a college where he was no longer able to win at competitions; but if this child had also learned to be self-motivated by curiosity, then he would continue to be a self-motivated student in the new school.

Techniques of motivation

Article I. ice-breakers and warm-ups for motivation


When a group or team of people assemble for a conference, or training course, there is always a feeling of uncertainty and discomfort. Even if people know each other, they feel uncomfortable in the new strange situation, because it is different. Mankind has evolved partly because of this awareness to potential threats and fear of the unknown. Games and team building activities relax people, so that they can fully concentrate on the main purpose of the day, whatever it is, rather than spending the morning still wondering what everyone else is thinking. See the stress theory section for examples. Activities and games are great levellers - they break down the barriers, and therefore help develop rapport and relationships.

Article II. building confidence for motivation


Learning something new and completely different liberates the mind. Facing a challenge, meeting it and mastering it helps build confidence.

Article III. building

motivational team

When you break down barriers, misunderstandings, prejudices, insecurities, divisions, territories and hierarchies - you begin to build teams. Get a group of people in a room having fun with juggling balls or spinning plates and barriers are immediately removed. Teams unite and work together when they identify a common purpose - whether the

aim is the tallest tower made out of newspapers, or a game of rounders on the park. Competition in teams or groups creates teams and ignites team effort.

Article IV. motivational coaching and training motivation


Learning to juggle or some other new activity demonstrates how we learn, and how to coach others. Breaking new tasks down into stages, providing clear instructions, demonstration, practice, time and space to make mistakes, doing it one stage at a time..... all the essential training and coaching techniques can be shown, whether juggling is the vehicle or some other team-building idea, and the learning is clearer and more memorable because it is taken out of the work context, where previously people 'can't see the wood for the trees'. Games and activities provide a perfect vehicle for explaining the training and development process ('train the trainer' for example) to managers, team leaders and trainers.

Article V. personal motivation styles and learning motivation


Everyone is different. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work situation illustrates people's different strengths and working style preferences. Mutual respect develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they didn't know existed. Also, people work and learn in different ways, see the Kolb learning style model and Benziger thinking styles model for examples.

Article VI. continual development and motivation


Learning and taking part in a completely new activity or game like juggling demonstrates that learning is ongoing. The lessons never finish, unless people decide to stop learning. Juggling the basic 'three ball cascade' pattern doesn't end there - it's just a start - as with all learning and development. Master juggler Enrico Rastelli practiced all the daylight hours juggling ten balls. Introducing people, staff or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new avenues of personal development, and emphasises the opportunity for continuous learning that is available to us all.

Article VII. improving empathy and communications for motivation

"Seek first to understand, and then to be understood." (Steven Covey). See the Seven Habits Of Highly Effective People summary and review. To communicate we must understand the other person. Empathy and intuitive skills are right-side brain. Conventional classroom training or distance learning do nothing to address this vital area. Juggling and playing spontaneous or creative games definitely promote development and awareness in the right-side of the brain, which we use when we communicate and understand others. Team activities and games promote communications and better mutual understanding - essential for good organizational performance (see the Johari Window model and theory).

Article VIII. creativity

motivation and

Creativity and initiative are crucial capabilities for modern organizational effectiveness. Juggling and other games activities dispel the notion that actions must be according to convention, and that response can only be to stimulus. Successful organizations have staff that initiate, create, innovate, and find new ways to do things better, without being told. Using mind and body together in a completely new way encourages proactive thought and lateral thinking, which opens people's minds, and develops creative and initiative capabilities. See the brainstorming process, which integrates well with team building activities and workshops. See also the workshops process and ideas.

Article IX. motivation for problem-solving and decisionmaking


Problem-solving is integral to decision-making - see the problem-solving and decisionmaking section. Learning to juggle or taking part in new challenging stimulating activities uses the intuitive brain to solve the problem, the same part that's vital for creatively solving work problems. People who can solve problems creatively can make decisions - and organizations need their staff and employees to have these abilities.

Article X. physical activity is motivational


Team building activities like juggling, construction exercises, or outdoor games, get the body moving, which is good for general health and for an energetic approach to work. A minute of juggling three balls is 200 throws, the equivalent of pumping over 20 kilos. Physical activity also provides significant stress relief, and stress management is part of every organisation's duty of care towards its employees. People concentrate and work

better when they have had some light exercise and physical stimulus. Physical activity energises people and reduces stress and tension. See details on the stress section.

Article XI. team building workshops are empowering and motivational


See the section on workshops. Workshops are good vehicles for team building games and activities, and also great for achieving team consensus, collective problem-solving, developing new direction and strategy, and to support the delegation and team development process (see the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum for example).

Article XII. team building games and activities are motivational


Learning new things - even simple skills like plate-spinning - help to build confidence, promote team-working and unleash creativity. Taking part in workshops and brainstorming sessions are empowering activities. Combine all three and it's even more effective for team building, development and motivation. See particularly the 'Hellespont Swim' case study and exercise. If you think about it, all manner of left-side-brain conventional training and business skills can be integrated within an innovative, participative right-side-brain activitybased approach, to increase interest, participation, involvement, retention and motivation.

Article XIII. saying thanks is hugely motivational


Saying thanks and giving praise are the most commonly overlooked and underestimated ways of motivating people. And it's so easy. Saying thanks is best said naturally and from the heart, so if your intentions are right you will not go far wrong. When you look someone in the eye and thank them sincerely it means a lot. In front of other people even more so. The key words are the ones which say thanks and well done for doing a great job, especially where the words recognise each person's own special ability, quality, contribution, effort, whatever. People always appreciate sincere thanks, and they appreciate being valued as an individual even more. When you next have the chance to thank your team or an individual team-member, take the time to find out a special thing that each person has done and make a point of mentioning

these things. Doing this, the praise tends to carry even greater meaning and motivational effect.

Article XIV. motivational quotes - using inspirational quotations and sayings is motivational
Inspirational quotations, and amusing maxims and sayings are motivational when used in team building sessions, conferences, speeches and training courses. Inspirational quotes contribute to motivation because they provide examples and role models, and prompt visualization. Inspirational quotes stimulate images and feelings in the brain both consciously and unconsciously. Powerful positive imagery found in motivational quotations and poems is genuinely motivational for people, individually and in teams, and can help to build confidence and belief. Inspirational examples motivate people in the same way that the simple 'power of positive thinking', and 'accentuate the positive' techniques do - people imagine and visualise themselves behaving in the way described in the quotation, saying, story or poem. Visualization is a powerful motivational tool - quotes, stories and poems provide a very effective method for inspiring and motivating people through visualization, imagination and association. See the stories section, and 'If', Rudyard Kipling's famous inspirational poem. Here are a few motivational quotes, relating to different situations and roles, for example; achievement, management, leadership, etc. When using quote for motivation it's important to choose material that's relevant and appropriate. Motivational posters showing inspirational quotes or poems can be effective for staff and employee motivation, and in establishing organizational values. There are more quotations about inspiration and achievement on the quotes section. These quotes all make effective motivational posters (see the free posters page), and are excellent materials for motivational speakers:

Article XV. quotes

motivational

"We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them." (Albert Einstein) "It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit." (President Harry S Truman) "In the midst of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer." (Albert Camus, 1913 - 1960, French author & philosopher)

"If you're not part of the solution you must be part of the problem." (the commonly paraphrased version of the original quote: "What we're saying today is that you're either part of the solution, or you're part of the problem" by Eldridge Cleaver 1935-98, founder member and information minister of the Black Panthers, American political activist group, in a speech in 1968 - thanks RVP) "A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline." (Harvey Mackay - thanks Brad Hanson) "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles overcome while trying to succeed." (Booker T Washington, 1856-1915, American Educator and African-American spokesman, thanks for quote M Kincaid, and for biography correction M Yates and A Chatterjee) "Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they've got a second. Give your dreams all you've got and you'll be amazed at the energy that comes out of you." (William James, American Philosopher, 1842-1910 - thanks Jean Stevens) "Whatever you can do - or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer, 1749-1832 - thanks Yvonne Bent) "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant himself." (Didacus Stella, circa AD60 - and, as a matter of interest, abridged on the edge of an English 2 coin) "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." (Sir Isaac Newton, 1676.) "The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes - any fool can do that. The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes." (William Bolitho, from 'Twelve against the Gods') "Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be, For my unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeonings of chance my head is bloody but unbowed . . . . . It matters not how strait the gait, how charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul." (WE Henley, 1849-1903, from 'Invictus') "Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves, not organising things." (Lauren Appley) "It's not the critic who counts, not the one who points out how the strong man stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better. The credit belongs to

the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred with the sweat and dust and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes up short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause and who, at best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat." (Theodore Roosevelt, 23 April 1923.) "The world is divided into people who do things, and people who get the credit. Try, if you can, to belong to the first class. There's far less competition." (Dwight Morrow, 1935.) "What does not kill us makes us stronger." (attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche, probably based on his words: "Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger." from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899) "A life spent in making mistakes is not only more honourable but more useful than a life spent doing nothing." (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950.) "I praise loudly. I blame softly." (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.) More are on the inspirational quotes page, and a more varied selection including funny sayings are on the sayings and maxims page.

Article XVI. motivational ideas for sales managers for sales teams
(These principles are applicable to all job roles subject to the notes at the end of this item.) Motivation of sales people commonly focuses on sales results, but nobody can actually 'do' a result. What matters in achieving results is people's attitude and activity and the areas of opportunity on which the attitude and activity is directed. What sales people can do is to adopt a positive and creative attitude, and carry out more productive and efficient activity, directed on higher-yield strategic opportunities. By doing these things sales people and sales teams will improve their results. However the tendency remains for sales managers, sales supervisors and team leaders (typically under pressure from above from executives who should know better) to simply direct people to 'meet the target', or to 'increase sales', or worse still, to pressurise customers into accelerating decision-making, which might work in the shortterm but is extremely unhelpful in the medium-term (when business brought forward

leaves gaps in the next months' forecasts), and damages the long-term (when as a result of supplier-driven sales pressure, the customer relationship is undermined or ruined). Instead think about what really motivates and excites people, and focus on offering these opportunities to sales people and sales teams, on an ongoing basis. Don't wait until you find yourself 25% behind target with only half of the year remaining, and with targets set to increase as well in the final quarter. People will not generally and sustainably improve their performance, or attitude when they are shouted at or given a kick up the backside. People will on the other hand generally improve their performance if empowered to develop their own strategic capability and responsibility within the organisation. Herzberg, Adams, Handy, Maslow, McGregor, and every other management and motivation expert confirmed all this long ago. Sales teams generally comprise people who seek greater responsibility. They also seek recognition, achievement, self-development and advancement. So if we know these things does it not make good sense to offer these opportunities to them, because we know that doing so will have a motivational effect on them, and also encourage them to work on opportunities that are likely to produce increasing returns on their efforts? Of course. So do it. If you are managing a sales team try (gently and progressively) exploring with the team how they'd like to develop their experience, responsibilities, roles, status, value, contribution, within the business. Include yourself in this. Usually far more ideas and activity come from focusing on how the people would like to develop their roles and value (in terms of the scale and sophistication of the business that they are responsible for), rather than confining sales people to a role that is imposed on them and which is unlikely to offer sustainable interest and stimulation. All businesses have many opportunities for new strategic growth available. Yours will be no different. Most employees are capable of working at a far higher strategic level, developing ever greater returns on their own efforts. Performance improvement is generally found through enabling people and teams to discover and refine more productive and strategic opportunities, which will lead to more productive and motivating activities. For example: reactive sales people are generally able to be proactive account mangers; account managers are generally able to be major accounts developers; major accounts developers are generally able to be national accounts managers; national accounts mangers are generally able to be strategic partner and channel developers; strategic partner and channel managers are generally able to be new business sector/service developers, and so on...

Again include yourself in this. If necessary (depending on your organisational culture and policies seek approval from your own management/executives for you to embark on this sort of exploration of strategic growth. (If you are unable to gain approval there are many other organisations out there who need people to manage sales teams in this way....) Obviously part of the approach (and your agreement with your people - the 'psychological contract') necessarily includes maintaining and meeting existing basic business performance target levels. This is especially so since strategic growth takes time, and your business still needs the normal day-to-day business handled properly. But people can generally do this, ie., maintain and grow day-to-day performance while additionally developing new higher-level strategic areas, because genuinely motivated people are capable of dramatic achievements. The motivation and capacity to do will come quite naturally from the new responsibility and empowerment to operate at a higher level. N.B. The principles described above generally apply to most other job roles. People are motivated by growth and extra responsibility, while at the same time the organisation benefits from having its people focus on higher strategic aims and activities. Be aware however that people in different roles will be motivated by different things, and particularly will require different types of support and guidelines when being encouraged to work at a higher strategic level. For example, engineers require more detail and clarification of expectations and process than sales people typically do; administrators are likely to require more reassurance and support in approaching change than sales people typically do. For sure you should encourage and enable people to develop their roles, but make sure you give appropriate explanation, management and support for the types of people concerned.

Section 16.01

ice-breakers and warm-ups for motivation

When a group or team of people assemble for a conference, or training course, there is always a feeling of uncertainty and discomfort. Even if people know each other, they feel uncomfortable in the new strange situation, because it is different. Mankind has evolved partly because of this awareness to potential threats and fear of the unknown. Games and team building activities relax people, so that they can fully concentrate on the main purpose of the day, whatever it is, rather than spending the morning still wondering what everyone else is thinking. See the stress theory section for examples. Activities and games are great levellers - they break down the barriers, and therefore help develop rapport and relationships.

Section 16.02

building confidence for motivation

Learning something new and completely different liberates the mind. Facing a challenge, meeting it and mastering it helps build confidence.

Section 16.03

motivational team building

When you break down barriers, misunderstandings, prejudices, insecurities, divisions, territories and hierarchies - you begin to build teams. Get a group of people in a room having fun with juggling balls or spinning plates and barriers are immediately removed. Teams unite and work together when they identify a common purpose - whether the aim is the tallest tower made out of newspapers, or a game of rounders on the park. Competition in teams or groups creates teams and ignites team effort.

Section 16.04

motivational coaching and training motivation

Learning to juggle or some other new activity demonstrates how we learn, and how to coach others. Breaking new tasks down into stages, providing clear instructions, demonstration, practice, time and space to make mistakes, doing it one stage at a time..... all the essential training and coaching techniques can be shown, whether juggling is the vehicle or some other team-building idea, and the learning is clearer and more memorable because it is taken out of the work context, where previously people 'can't see the wood for the trees'. Games and activities provide a perfect vehicle for explaining the training and development process ('train the trainer' for example) to managers, team leaders and trainers.

Section 16.05

personal motivation styles and learning motivation

Everyone is different. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work situation illustrates people's different strengths and working style preferences. Mutual respect develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they didn't know existed. Also, people work and learn in different ways, see the Kolb learning style model and Benziger thinking styles model for examples.

Section 16.06

continual development and motivation

Learning and taking part in a completely new activity or game like juggling demonstrates that learning is ongoing. The lessons never finish, unless people decide to stop learning. Juggling the basic 'three ball cascade' pattern doesn't end there - it's just a start - as with all learning and development. Master juggler Enrico Rastelli practiced all the daylight hours juggling ten balls. Introducing people, staff or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new avenues of personal development, and emphasises the opportunity for continuous learning that is available to us all.

Section 16.07 motivation

improving empathy and communications for

"Seek first to understand, and then to be understood." (Steven Covey). See the Seven Habits Of Highly Effective People summary and review. To communicate we must understand the other person. Empathy and intuitive skills are right-side brain. Conventional classroom training or distance learning do nothing to address this vital area. Juggling and playing spontaneous or creative games definitely promote development and awareness in the right-side of the brain, which we use when we communicate and understand others. Team activities and games promote communications and better mutual understanding - essential for good organizational performance (see the Johari Window model and theory).

Section 16.08

motivation and creativity

Creativity and initiative are crucial capabilities for modern organizational effectiveness. Juggling and other games activities dispel the notion that actions must be according to convention, and that response can only be to stimulus. Successful organizations have staff that initiate, create, innovate, and find new ways to do things better, without being told. Using mind and body together in a completely new way encourages proactive thought and lateral thinking, which opens people's minds, and develops creative and initiative capabilities. See the brainstorming process, which integrates well with team building activities and workshops. See also the workshops process and ideas.

Section 16.09

motivation for problem-solving and decision-making

Problem-solving is integral to decision-making - see the problem-solving and decisionmaking section. Learning to juggle or taking part in new challenging stimulating activities uses the intuitive brain to solve the problem, the same part that's vital for creatively solving work problems. People who can solve problems creatively can make decisions - and organizations need their staff and employees to have these abilities.

Section 16.10

physical activity is motivational

Team building activities like juggling, construction exercises, or outdoor games, get the body moving, which is good for general health and for an energetic approach to work. A minute of juggling three balls is 200 throws, the equivalent of pumping over 20 kilos. Physical activity also provides significant stress relief, and stress management is part of every organisation's duty of care towards its employees. People concentrate and work better when they have had some light exercise and physical stimulus. Physical activity energises people and reduces stress and tension. See details on the stress section.

Section 16.11 motivational

team building workshops are empowering and

See the section on workshops. Workshops are good vehicles for team building games and activities, and also great for achieving team consensus, collective problem-solving, developing new direction and strategy, and to support the delegation and team development process (see the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum for example).

Section 16.12

team building games and activities are motivational

Learning new things - even simple skills like plate-spinning - help to build confidence, promote team-working and unleash creativity. Taking part in workshops and brainstorming sessions are empowering activities. Combine all three and it's even more effective for team building, development and motivation. See particularly the 'Hellespont Swim' case study and exercise. If you think about it, all manner of left-side-brain conventional training and business skills can be integrated within an innovative, participative right-side-brain activitybased approach, to increase interest, participation, involvement, retention and motivation.

Section 16.13

saying thanks is hugely motivational

Saying thanks and giving praise are the most commonly overlooked and underestimated ways of motivating people. And it's so easy. Saying thanks is best said naturally and from the heart, so if your intentions are right you will not go far wrong. When you look someone in the eye and thank them sincerely it means a lot. In front of other people even more so. The key words are the ones which say thanks and well done for doing a great job, especially where the words recognise each person's own special ability, quality, contribution, effort, whatever. People always appreciate sincere thanks, and they appreciate being valued as an individual even more. When you next have the chance to thank your team or an individual team-member, take the time to find out a special thing that each person has done and make a point of mentioning these things. Doing this, the praise tends to carry even greater meaning and motivational effect.

Section 16.14 motivational quotes - using inspirational quotations and sayings is motivational
Inspirational quotations, and amusing maxims and sayings are motivational when used in team building sessions, conferences, speeches and training courses. Inspirational quotes contribute to motivation because they provide examples and role models, and prompt visualization. Inspirational quotes stimulate images and feelings in the brain -

both consciously and unconsciously. Powerful positive imagery found in motivational quotations and poems is genuinely motivational for people, individually and in teams, and can help to build confidence and belief. Inspirational examples motivate people in the same way that the simple 'power of positive thinking', and 'accentuate the positive' techniques do - people imagine and visualise themselves behaving in the way described in the quotation, saying, story or poem. Visualization is a powerful motivational tool - quotes, stories and poems provide a very effective method for inspiring and motivating people through visualization, imagination and association. See the stories section, and 'If', Rudyard Kipling's famous inspirational poem. Here are a few motivational quotes, relating to different situations and roles, for example; achievement, management, leadership, etc. When using quote for motivation it's important to choose material that's relevant and appropriate. Motivational posters showing inspirational quotes or poems can be effective for staff and employee motivation, and in establishing organizational values. There are more quotations about inspiration and achievement on the quotes section. These quotes all make effective motivational posters (see the free posters page), and are excellent materials for motivational speakers:

Section 16.15

motivational quotes

"We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them." (Albert Einstein) "It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit." (President Harry S Truman) "In the midst of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer." (Albert Camus, 1913 - 1960, French author & philosopher) "If you're not part of the solution you must be part of the problem." (the commonly paraphrased version of the original quote: "What we're saying today is that you're either part of the solution, or you're part of the problem" by Eldridge Cleaver 1935-98, founder member and information minister of the Black Panthers, American political activist group, in a speech in 1968 - thanks RVP) "A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline." (Harvey Mackay - thanks Brad Hanson) "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles overcome while trying to succeed." (Booker T Washington, 1856-1915, American Educator and African-American spokesman, thanks for quote M Kincaid, and for biography correction M Yates and A Chatterjee)

"Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they've got a second. Give your dreams all you've got and you'll be amazed at the energy that comes out of you." (William James, American Philosopher, 1842-1910 - thanks Jean Stevens) "Whatever you can do - or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer, 1749-1832 - thanks Yvonne Bent) "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant himself." (Didacus Stella, circa AD60 - and, as a matter of interest, abridged on the edge of an English 2 coin) "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." (Sir Isaac Newton, 1676.) "The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes - any fool can do that. The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes." (William Bolitho, from 'Twelve against the Gods') "Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be, For my unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeonings of chance my head is bloody but unbowed . . . . . It matters not how strait the gait, how charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul." (WE Henley, 1849-1903, from 'Invictus') "Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves, not organising things." (Lauren Appley) "It's not the critic who counts, not the one who points out how the strong man stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred with the sweat and dust and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes up short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause and who, at best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat." (Theodore Roosevelt, 23 April 1923.)

"The world is divided into people who do things, and people who get the credit. Try, if you can, to belong to the first class. There's far less competition." (Dwight Morrow, 1935.) "What does not kill us makes us stronger." (attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche, probably based on his words: "Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger." from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899) "A life spent in making mistakes is not only more honourable but more useful than a life spent doing nothing." (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950.) "I praise loudly. I blame softly." (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.) More are on the inspirational quotes page, and a more varied selection including funny sayings are on the sayings and maxims page.

Section 16.16

motivational ideas for sales managers for sales teams

(These principles are applicable to all job roles subject to the notes at the end of this item.) Motivation of sales people commonly focuses on sales results, but nobody can actually 'do' a result. What matters in achieving results is people's attitude and activity and the areas of opportunity on which the attitude and activity is directed. What sales people can do is to adopt a positive and creative attitude, and carry out more productive and efficient activity, directed on higher-yield strategic opportunities. By doing these things sales people and sales teams will improve their results. However the tendency remains for sales managers, sales supervisors and team leaders (typically under pressure from above from executives who should know better) to simply direct people to 'meet the target', or to 'increase sales', or worse still, to pressurise customers into accelerating decision-making, which might work in the shortterm but is extremely unhelpful in the medium-term (when business brought forward leaves gaps in the next months' forecasts), and damages the long-term (when as a result of supplier-driven sales pressure, the customer relationship is undermined or ruined). Instead think about what really motivates and excites people, and focus on offering these opportunities to sales people and sales teams, on an ongoing basis. Don't wait

until you find yourself 25% behind target with only half of the year remaining, and with targets set to increase as well in the final quarter. People will not generally and sustainably improve their performance, or attitude when they are shouted at or given a kick up the backside. People will on the other hand generally improve their performance if empowered to develop their own strategic capability and responsibility within the organisation. Herzberg, Adams, Handy, Maslow, McGregor, and every other management and motivation expert confirmed all this long ago. Sales teams generally comprise people who seek greater responsibility. They also seek recognition, achievement, self-development and advancement. So if we know these things does it not make good sense to offer these opportunities to them, because we know that doing so will have a motivational effect on them, and also encourage them to work on opportunities that are likely to produce increasing returns on their efforts? Of course. So do it. If you are managing a sales team try (gently and progressively) exploring with the team how they'd like to develop their experience, responsibilities, roles, status, value, contribution, within the business. Include yourself in this. Usually far more ideas and activity come from focusing on how the people would like to develop their roles and value (in terms of the scale and sophistication of the business that they are responsible for), rather than confining sales people to a role that is imposed on them and which is unlikely to offer sustainable interest and stimulation. All businesses have many opportunities for new strategic growth available. Yours will be no different. Most employees are capable of working at a far higher strategic level, developing ever greater returns on their own efforts. Performance improvement is generally found through enabling people and teams to discover and refine more productive and strategic opportunities, which will lead to more productive and motivating activities. For example: reactive sales people are generally able to be proactive account mangers; account managers are generally able to be major accounts developers; major accounts developers are generally able to be national accounts managers; national accounts mangers are generally able to be strategic partner and channel developers; strategic partner and channel managers are generally able to be new business sector/service developers, and so on... Again include yourself in this.

If necessary (depending on your organisational culture and policies seek approval from your own management/executives for you to embark on this sort of exploration of strategic growth. (If you are unable to gain approval there are many other organisations out there who need people to manage sales teams in this way....) Obviously part of the approach (and your agreement with your people - the 'psychological contract') necessarily includes maintaining and meeting existing basic business performance target levels. This is especially so since strategic growth takes time, and your business still needs the normal day-to-day business handled properly. But people can generally do this, ie., maintain and grow day-to-day performance while additionally developing new higher-level strategic areas, because genuinely motivated people are capable of dramatic achievements. The motivation and capacity to do will come quite naturally from the new responsibility and empowerment to operate at a higher level. N.B. The principles described above generally apply to most other job roles. People are motivated by growth and extra responsibility, while at the same time the organisation benefits from having its people focus on higher strategic aims and activities. Be aware however that people in different roles will be motivated by different things, and particularly will require different types of support and guidelines when being encouraged to work at a higher strategic level. For example, engineers require more detail and clarification of expectations and process than sales people typically do; administrators are likely to require more reassurance and support in approaching change than sales people typically do. For sure you should encourage and enable people to develop their roles, but make sure you give appropriate explanation, management and support for the types of people concerned.

Section 16.01

ice-breakers and warm-ups for motivation

When a group or team of people assemble for a conference, or training course, there is always a feeling of uncertainty and discomfort. Even if people know each other, they feel uncomfortable in the new strange situation, because it is different. Mankind has evolved partly because of this awareness to potential threats and fear of the unknown. Games and team building activities relax people, so that they can fully concentrate on the main purpose of the day, whatever it is, rather than spending the morning still wondering what everyone else is thinking. See the stress theory section for examples. Activities and games are great levellers - they break down the barriers, and therefore help develop rapport and relationships.

Section 16.02

building confidence for motivation

Learning something new and completely different liberates the mind. Facing a challenge, meeting it and mastering it helps build confidence.

Section 16.03

motivational team building

When you break down barriers, misunderstandings, prejudices, insecurities, divisions, territories and hierarchies - you begin to build teams. Get a group of people in a room having fun with juggling balls or spinning plates and barriers are immediately removed. Teams unite and work together when they identify a common purpose - whether the aim is the tallest tower made out of newspapers, or a game of rounders on the park. Competition in teams or groups creates teams and ignites team effort.

Section 16.04

motivational coaching and training motivation

Learning to juggle or some other new activity demonstrates how we learn, and how to coach others. Breaking new tasks down into stages, providing clear instructions, demonstration, practice, time and space to make mistakes, doing it one stage at a time..... all the essential training and coaching techniques can be shown, whether juggling is the vehicle or some other team-building idea, and the learning is clearer and more memorable because it is taken out of the work context, where previously people 'can't see the wood for the trees'. Games and activities provide a perfect vehicle for explaining the training and development process ('train the trainer' for example) to managers, team leaders and trainers.

Section 16.05

personal motivation styles and learning motivation

Everyone is different. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work situation illustrates people's different strengths and working style preferences. Mutual respect develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they didn't know existed. Also, people work and learn in different ways, see the Kolb learning style model and Benziger thinking styles model for examples.

Section 16.06

continual development and motivation

Learning and taking part in a completely new activity or game like juggling demonstrates that learning is ongoing. The lessons never finish, unless people decide to stop learning. Juggling the basic 'three ball cascade' pattern doesn't end there - it's just a start - as with all learning and development. Master juggler Enrico Rastelli practiced all the daylight hours juggling ten balls. Introducing people, staff or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new avenues of personal development, and emphasises the opportunity for continuous learning that is available to us all.

Section 16.07 motivation

improving empathy and communications for

"Seek first to understand, and then to be understood." (Steven Covey). See the Seven Habits Of Highly Effective People summary and review. To communicate we must understand the other person. Empathy and intuitive skills are right-side brain. Conventional classroom training or distance learning do nothing to address this vital area. Juggling and playing spontaneous or creative games definitely promote development and awareness in the right-side of the brain, which we use when we communicate and understand others. Team activities and games promote communications and better mutual understanding - essential for good organizational performance (see the Johari Window model and theory).

Section 16.08

motivation and creativity

Creativity and initiative are crucial capabilities for modern organizational effectiveness. Juggling and other games activities dispel the notion that actions must be according to convention, and that response can only be to stimulus. Successful organizations have staff that initiate, create, innovate, and find new ways to do things better, without being told. Using mind and body together in a completely new way encourages proactive thought and lateral thinking, which opens people's minds, and develops creative and initiative capabilities. See the brainstorming process, which integrates well with team building activities and workshops. See also the workshops process and ideas.

Section 16.09

motivation for problem-solving and decision-making

Problem-solving is integral to decision-making - see the problem-solving and decisionmaking section. Learning to juggle or taking part in new challenging stimulating activities uses the intuitive brain to solve the problem, the same part that's vital for creatively solving work problems. People who can solve problems creatively can make decisions - and organizations need their staff and employees to have these abilities.

Section 16.10

physical activity is motivational

Team building activities like juggling, construction exercises, or outdoor games, get the body moving, which is good for general health and for an energetic approach to work. A minute of juggling three balls is 200 throws, the equivalent of pumping over 20 kilos. Physical activity also provides significant stress relief, and stress management is part of every organisation's duty of care towards its employees. People concentrate and work better when they have had some light exercise and physical stimulus. Physical activity energises people and reduces stress and tension. See details on the stress section.

Section 16.11 motivational

team building workshops are empowering and

See the section on workshops. Workshops are good vehicles for team building games and activities, and also great for achieving team consensus, collective problem-solving, developing new direction and strategy, and to support the delegation and team development process (see the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum for example).

Section 16.12

team building games and activities are motivational

Learning new things - even simple skills like plate-spinning - help to build confidence, promote team-working and unleash creativity. Taking part in workshops and brainstorming sessions are empowering activities. Combine all three and it's even more effective for team building, development and motivation. See particularly the 'Hellespont Swim' case study and exercise. If you think about it, all manner of left-side-brain conventional training and business skills can be integrated within an innovative, participative right-side-brain activitybased approach, to increase interest, participation, involvement, retention and motivation.

Section 16.13

saying thanks is hugely motivational

Saying thanks and giving praise are the most commonly overlooked and underestimated ways of motivating people. And it's so easy. Saying thanks is best said naturally and from the heart, so if your intentions are right you will not go far wrong. When you look someone in the eye and thank them sincerely it means a lot. In front of other people even more so. The key words are the ones which say thanks and well done for doing a great job, especially where the words recognise each person's own special ability, quality, contribution, effort, whatever. People always appreciate sincere thanks, and they appreciate being valued as an individual even more. When you next have the chance to thank your team or an individual team-member, take the time to find out a special thing that each person has done and make a point of mentioning these things. Doing this, the praise tends to carry even greater meaning and motivational effect.

Section 16.14 motivational quotes - using inspirational quotations and sayings is motivational
Inspirational quotations, and amusing maxims and sayings are motivational when used in team building sessions, conferences, speeches and training courses. Inspirational quotes contribute to motivation because they provide examples and role models, and prompt visualization. Inspirational quotes stimulate images and feelings in the brain -

both consciously and unconsciously. Powerful positive imagery found in motivational quotations and poems is genuinely motivational for people, individually and in teams, and can help to build confidence and belief. Inspirational examples motivate people in the same way that the simple 'power of positive thinking', and 'accentuate the positive' techniques do - people imagine and visualise themselves behaving in the way described in the quotation, saying, story or poem. Visualization is a powerful motivational tool - quotes, stories and poems provide a very effective method for inspiring and motivating people through visualization, imagination and association. See the stories section, and 'If', Rudyard Kipling's famous inspirational poem. Here are a few motivational quotes, relating to different situations and roles, for example; achievement, management, leadership, etc. When using quote for motivation it's important to choose material that's relevant and appropriate. Motivational posters showing inspirational quotes or poems can be effective for staff and employee motivation, and in establishing organizational values. There are more quotations about inspiration and achievement on the quotes section. These quotes all make effective motivational posters (see the free posters page), and are excellent materials for motivational speakers:

Section 16.15

motivational quotes

"We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them." (Albert Einstein) "It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit." (President Harry S Truman) "In the midst of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer." (Albert Camus, 1913 - 1960, French author & philosopher) "If you're not part of the solution you must be part of the problem." (the commonly paraphrased version of the original quote: "What we're saying today is that you're either part of the solution, or you're part of the problem" by Eldridge Cleaver 1935-98, founder member and information minister of the Black Panthers, American political activist group, in a speech in 1968 - thanks RVP) "A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline." (Harvey Mackay - thanks Brad Hanson) "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles overcome while trying to succeed." (Booker T Washington, 1856-1915, American Educator and African-American spokesman, thanks for quote M Kincaid, and for biography correction M Yates and A Chatterjee)

"Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they've got a second. Give your dreams all you've got and you'll be amazed at the energy that comes out of you." (William James, American Philosopher, 1842-1910 - thanks Jean Stevens) "Whatever you can do - or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer, 1749-1832 - thanks Yvonne Bent) "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant himself." (Didacus Stella, circa AD60 - and, as a matter of interest, abridged on the edge of an English 2 coin) "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." (Sir Isaac Newton, 1676.) "The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes - any fool can do that. The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes." (William Bolitho, from 'Twelve against the Gods') "Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be, For my unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeonings of chance my head is bloody but unbowed . . . . . It matters not how strait the gait, how charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul." (WE Henley, 1849-1903, from 'Invictus') "Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves, not organising things." (Lauren Appley) "It's not the critic who counts, not the one who points out how the strong man stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred with the sweat and dust and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes up short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause and who, at best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat." (Theodore Roosevelt, 23 April 1923.)

"The world is divided into people who do things, and people who get the credit. Try, if you can, to belong to the first class. There's far less competition." (Dwight Morrow, 1935.) "What does not kill us makes us stronger." (attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche, probably based on his words: "Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger." from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899) "A life spent in making mistakes is not only more honourable but more useful than a life spent doing nothing." (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950.) "I praise loudly. I blame softly." (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.) More are on the inspirational quotes page, and a more varied selection including funny sayings are on the sayings and maxims page.

Section 16.16

motivational ideas for sales managers for sales teams

(These principles are applicable to all job roles subject to the notes at the end of this item.) Motivation of sales people commonly focuses on sales results, but nobody can actually 'do' a result. What matters in achieving results is people's attitude and activity and the areas of opportunity on which the attitude and activity is directed. What sales people can do is to adopt a positive and creative attitude, and carry out more productive and efficient activity, directed on higher-yield strategic opportunities. By doing these things sales people and sales teams will improve their results. However the tendency remains for sales managers, sales supervisors and team leaders (typically under pressure from above from executives who should know better) to simply direct people to 'meet the target', or to 'increase sales', or worse still, to pressurise customers into accelerating decision-making, which might work in the shortterm but is extremely unhelpful in the medium-term (when business brought forward leaves gaps in the next months' forecasts), and damages the long-term (when as a result of supplier-driven sales pressure, the customer relationship is undermined or ruined). Instead think about what really motivates and excites people, and focus on offering these opportunities to sales people and sales teams, on an ongoing basis. Don't wait

until you find yourself 25% behind target with only half of the year remaining, and with targets set to increase as well in the final quarter. People will not generally and sustainably improve their performance, or attitude when they are shouted at or given a kick up the backside. People will on the other hand generally improve their performance if empowered to develop their own strategic capability and responsibility within the organisation. Herzberg, Adams, Handy, Maslow, McGregor, and every other management and motivation expert confirmed all this long ago. Sales teams generally comprise people who seek greater responsibility. They also seek recognition, achievement, self-development and advancement. So if we know these things does it not make good sense to offer these opportunities to them, because we know that doing so will have a motivational effect on them, and also encourage them to work on opportunities that are likely to produce increasing returns on their efforts? Of course. So do it. If you are managing a sales team try (gently and progressively) exploring with the team how they'd like to develop their experience, responsibilities, roles, status, value, contribution, within the business. Include yourself in this. Usually far more ideas and activity come from focusing on how the people would like to develop their roles and value (in terms of the scale and sophistication of the business that they are responsible for), rather than confining sales people to a role that is imposed on them and which is unlikely to offer sustainable interest and stimulation. All businesses have many opportunities for new strategic growth available. Yours will be no different. Most employees are capable of working at a far higher strategic level, developing ever greater returns on their own efforts. Performance improvement is generally found through enabling people and teams to discover and refine more productive and strategic opportunities, which will lead to more productive and motivating activities. For example: reactive sales people are generally able to be proactive account mangers; account managers are generally able to be major accounts developers; major accounts developers are generally able to be national accounts managers; national accounts mangers are generally able to be strategic partner and channel developers; strategic partner and channel managers are generally able to be new business sector/service developers, and so on... Again include yourself in this.

If necessary (depending on your organisational culture and policies seek approval from your own management/executives for you to embark on this sort of exploration of strategic growth. (If you are unable to gain approval there are many other organisations out there who need people to manage sales teams in this way....) Obviously part of the approach (and your agreement with your people - the 'psychological contract') necessarily includes maintaining and meeting existing basic business performance target levels. This is especially so since strategic growth takes time, and your business still needs the normal day-to-day business handled properly. But people can generally do this, ie., maintain and grow day-to-day performance while additionally developing new higher-level strategic areas, because genuinely motivated people are capable of dramatic achievements. The motivation and capacity to do will come quite naturally from the new responsibility and empowerment to operate at a higher level. N.B. The principles described above generally apply to most other job roles. People are motivated by growth and extra responsibility, while at the same time the organisation benefits from having its people focus on higher strategic aims and activities. Be aware however that people in different roles will be motivated by different things, and particularly will require different types of support and guidelines when being encouraged to work at a higher strategic level. For example, engineers require more detail and clarification of expectations and process than sales people typically do; administrators are likely to require more reassurance and support in approaching change than sales people typically do. For sure you should encourage and enable people to develop their roles, but make sure you give appropriate explanation, management and support for the types of people concerned. Motivation and Motivational Leadership
Vicki Notes

Introduction

The ability to lead depends on understanding what will move people to perform. A true leader is someone who is self-motivated to achieve and able to energize others

The Art of Leadership

Leadership includes the ability to understand what drives individuals to take specific actions and to create opportunities for them to meet personal and organizational needs at the same time.

Motivation: What is it and what it is not

Motivation implies action and energy. It can be protection or achievement oriented. Such as doing just enough to keep your job or making an effort to produce at a high level over extended periods of time. Leaders are identified by the ability to make things happen. If individuals are trying to perform they are motivated. Action must be present, because wanting to do something does not always result in moving to do so.

Key Qualities of a motivational leader

Motivational leaders consistently demonstrate a number of qualities that develop gradually over time in response to successes & failures in achieving desired responses from others

What are the characteristics of a motivational leader?


Preparation, presence & perceptual ability. Preparation - knowledge & skill Presence - communication, confidence, commitment & energy Perceptual ability - insight

What are the key qualities of a motivational leader?

Knowledge & skill, effective communication of ideas, confidence, commitment, energy, insight into the needs of others and an ability to take the action necessary to achieve goals important to others. Knowledge and Skill - comes from preparation in the responsibilities of health care delivery & organizational duty. This leader has the ability to evaluate the likelihood of success in accomplishing goals, and is able to support or suggest changes. Effective Communication of Ideas - involves the ability to convey ideas clearly and in such a way that they can be heard positively. Confidence - comes from an internal sense of security that one is competent to make a statement or take action, and that there is a reasonable chance of success in accomplishing something of value. The motivational leader is secure enough to have a lower need to control & as a result is able to encourage autonomy, participation & the empowerment of staff in decision-making. Commitment - is the internalization of an idea and a resulting drive to accomplish specific goals. The mere setting of goals does not indicate leadership that motivates. It is the ability of the leader to translate the importance of the goal (or purpose) to others and to elicit actions from others that support reaching a goal.

Energy - is also needed to empower and fire the imagination of others & constantly invent & move ahead toward future events as well as current needs. Different styles of energy can be motivational. The 'high energy leader' who is effective in one situation may be viewed as 'pushy & aggressive' in another situation. Insight into the Needs of Others - is the acute awareness of the reason behind events and an ability to anticipate results of actions. When a leader can put goals into a form that has real or personal value to each person, then motivation will exists. Additional key qualities of a motivational leader are abilities to listen, reserve judgement, give direct & positive feedback, recognize individual value through respect for others, and use humor. Professional practice & shared governance depend on the clinical leader to produce an environment that fosters autonomy in decision-making & provides the skills, resources & information needed for others to make this transition.

Theories of Motivation
Physical Needs: Fatigue, Stress, and Biological Factors

Physical needs can support or hinder an individual's ability to accomplish a job. Staff may instinctively draw back from the activity that is causing the stress or may become ineffective in their activities (recall the general adaptation syndrome). Evaluate whether working conditions permit staff to satisfy basic needs such as hunger, thirst or sleep. If these needs are left unattended, the quality of performance & morale will decline & resignation will increase. Also, the realization that the leader is aware of the problem & able to empower others toward an actual intervention can be motivational.

Psychological Needs

People can be expected to perform better to the extent that goals are difficult, specific & attractive.

Force-Field Theory

The classic Force-Field Theory refers to the extent that people can view the 'big picture' (or total issue) that they are dealing with gives them an opportunity to gain insight into the problem. If the leader sets goals that a person finds attainable then motivation can be stimulated. Performance levels also depend on the leader providing feedback.

Expectancy-Value Theory

The Expectancy-Value Theory states that people will choose the behavior with the largest combination of expected success and value. A leader can use this theory by evaluating what is important to a specific person & designing a means by which that individual can achieve their own goal while fulfilling the leader's goal. For example, a person can gain financial benefit from reducing organizational expenditures. For this theory to work you must consider several factors & the person's perception of the following: His or Her own capability of meeting a desired goal (their knowledge, skill & competence). The value of the goal. The probability that the goal will be fully realized. The cost (be it personal or financial). The risk (be it esteem, status or safety).

Equity Theory

This theory addresses that a person's motivation is also affected by whether people feel they are being treated fairly. It involves the evaluation of what one puts into a job versus what one gets out of it in comparison with some other relevant person.

Motivational-Hygiene Theory

Stresses the importance of job enrichment to improve the meaningfulness of assignments, perceived significance & worker autonomy. This works best with the self-motivated person.

Sociological Influences

The environment of the job in itself may be a motivating force. The need to be liked by others & a sense of belonging to a select group may fulfill needs for affiliation or self-esteem.

Human Resources Model (X, Y, & Z)

Theory X emphasized external rewards & that close supervision implied that employees would not work unless controlled through the use of rewards & punishments. Theory Y emphasized that workers were seen as being able to derive satisfaction from the work itself & make commitments to organizational goals. Theory Z, a combination of X and Y works the best. Theory Z suggests that people have both characteristics pertaining to both theories & that involvement of employees is essential for any organization to excel. Shared governance is one example of how a health care organization can extend full decision participation to its members

Application of Theory and Establishment of Motivational conditions Design

There are five broad categories of conditions needed to establish favorable motivation patterns & are listed as follows:

Norm Design

No matter how broadly defined, the standard operating procedure of a system must be clearly stated, both verbal & written.

External Rules

The external rules by which an organization is judged must be known by its members & may be seen in policies & procedures for various levels within the organization. Examples of external rules include the state nurse practice act, JCAHO, NCQA (National Committee on Quality Assurance, standards & legal requirements of care, and federal & states laws.

Internal Rules

Include policies, procedures and protocols established by the organization. These help to ensure compliance and provide further definition & control or standardize behavior. Rules, or norms are intended to serve as a basis for predictable performance of critical work processes that protect the legal status of the organization & its members & provide quality patient outcomes.

Standard Benefits

An organization may offer benefits as a tangible means of attracting, retaining & rewarding staff. This also makes an organization competitive with other organizations to attract & retain staff.

Incentive Rewards

Were developed to stimulate employee motivation to achieve high personal & organizational goals. As a result, performance can be expected to improve and commitment to the goal increased. By giving staff a route of professional recognition based on an achieved level of competency, a personally rewarding career route can be made available.

Professional Environment

As a motivational element, job satisfaction has been defined as the degree of positive effect toward the overall job or its components. It does not, in itself, ensure achievement motivation.

Managed Care and Nursing Case Management

Is an example of one approach to create a motivating professional environment. Nursing case management provides continuity by linking tasks, shifts & departments.

Interpersonal and Social Factors

An important responsibility of the clinical leader is participating in the selection of personnel & establishing a climate that enhances motivation. It is useful to match new employees to interpersonal needs of the staff & create group strength.

Controlling the Spin and Building the Team


Controlling the spin means making sure that communication & actions are clearly interpreted in the way in which they were intended. Clear communication at every stage of growth & change is a key feature in having others understand, participate & buy into decisions. How might a leader set new directions? o Through group process techniques - Quality circles, Problem-solving teams, Delphi technique (think tank ideas) & Focus groups. o And through leadership mechanisms - Delegation, Recognition & Collegial relationships.

Developing Self-Motivating Environments

To be effective an organization must be able to attract & hold people in a system who are dependable in their work performance & have innovative & spontaneous behavior.

Vision of the Future


Staff involvement in creating a future vision is essential. The development of this future vision marks an opportunity for staff to express ideas & form commitments. It requires motivational leaders with a strong sense of self & an ability to welcome change & uncertainty.

Organizational Design

Emerging organizational designs involve effective planning that incorporates all committed & productive employees. Several designs are discussed as follows.

Lattices and Matrices

A lattice organization allows people to deal with others across the organization. It operates to reduce traditional hierarchy & give motivational autonomy & recognition to employees.

Amoeba Diagrams

Is the drawing of organizational lines according to actual working relationships & business dependencies. This would be like drawing a free-form line around the clinical leader, clinical nurses, dietary aide, pharmacist, laboratory technician, housekeeper and doctor for a given patient population.

Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship

This work design encourages intrapreneurial ventures. In this arrangement, employees are given autonomy to develop & implement new ideas & to benefit financially, personally & professionally from their efforts. (Example: A staff-created and managed clinic for abused children). Entrepreneurship goes a step further in that the employee or group of employees becomes independent of the organization to undertake & manage their own ventures. (Example: Nurses leave hospital employment to establish a home health agency for community-based care).

Nursing Research Issues in Motivation

As the nature of health care service shifts, the need for nursing will continue to grow & evolve.

Research Models mentioned in this chapter

Results of Empowerment as a Motivator: o Enables others to act; increases employee job satisfaction & organizational commitment. o There is a positive correlation between staff nurses perceptions of empowerment & their perceptions of manager's power o How people perceive empowerment leads to organizational commitment. Results of the Organization as an Influence: o Work restructuring results in a 20% reduction in nursing budget operations. o Reengineering via function following form leads to improvements in quality, service & financial outcomes. o Staff nurses' involvement does not ensure their influence on practice. Role of job satisfaction: o Autonomy positively influences job satisfaction.

o o

Professional satisfaction & satisfaction with the organization are predictive of turnover. Enthusiasm & interest in work are significantly related to having a variety of experiences & to enhancement of patient wellness, pace, recognition, personal growth, & development & technology.

Summary

Motivation is the basis for human behavior. In this day of rapid change the need to maintain a creative, committed & productive workplace is very important. The hallmark of leadership is an ability to motivate others to develop & achieve established goals & a sense of personal accomplishment & satisfaction.

Section 16.01 1. Treat Employees as Individuals


Do you make assumptions about what motivates your employees? Some are likely to be career focused, but others may see their work as a place to make friends and earn money. Find out what motivates employees outside of work. Some enjoy a challenge such as a sporting activity, others may like to be on committees so they can use their organisational skills. Use their innate talents in the workplace where possible to keep them motivated. Set goals which stretch their abilities. Make goals SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and timeframed.

Section 16.02

2. Treat Employees with Respect

Get to know your employees on a personal level, and offer support when needed, even if it is only to listen to their concerns. Ask your employees for their opinions where possible, for example if you are changing systems or introducing new equipment. Being involved in decision making is one of the best motivation techniques. Catch your employees doing something well and praise them - and if you do this in front of others, it makes the employee feel even better. Giving employees recognition for their efforts will motivate them to repeat the process.

Section 16.03 Development

3. Provide Opportunities for Employee Learning and

Encourage a learning climate, through structured on-the-job training programmes, job transfers, inter-disciplinary projects and support for further education. Aim to have your employees constantly learning new skills and gaining new knowledge. This will reduce the level of stagnation that can easily occur in a business.

Promote from within where feasible - and invest the time and support in developing employees so they can take on new opportunities. Some managers worry that by offering a high level of training to employees, they may leave the business for better opportunities elsewhere. Remember this allows other employees to rise up and take their place! Also the word will spread that you are a good employer - which may encourage a higher calibre of external job applicants.

Section 16.04

4. Make the Workplace a Fun Place

Having fun is one of the best motivation techniques. And small things can make all the difference.. bringing sweets to team meetings sharing non-business news through e.g. newsletters arranging activities such as lunchtime yoga sessions surprising employees with a birthday cake asking the employees for their opinion on what would make the workplace a fun place! 13 Strategies for Self-motivation There are other techniques you can use to motivate yourself. 1) Renew through relationships As mentioned above, you should never have to sacrifice friendships and family relationships to be a positive influencer. It should alarm you if you are able to maintain business and social relationships, but fail at staying close to the people who really matter at home. It isnt enough to enjoy healthy relationships with friends and family. When you have the choice of whom to associate with, choose those who inspire and challenge you, not just those you are comfortable being around. 2) Take time to reflect How many lessons do you miss because you dont take time to reflect on what is happening in your life and what you can learn from it? At the end of each day, ask yourself what youve learned. What you have done that day is important, but you can increase the value of each activity and happening by extracting the meaning from it through reflection. Remember that you can learn from reflecting on what others are doing as well. You can learn from bad leaders as well as good leaders if you analyze their behavior and reflect on the lesson you can take away. 3) Dream

Dont let incessant activity push out dream time. While there are those who only dream and never dothe daydreamersthere are also those leaders who are so pre-occupied with day-to-day tasks that they lose the fuel of dreaming. They dont aspire high enough, either for themselves or their organizations. What would you really like to see happen in your life and the lives of those around you? 4) Schedule growth-producing activities The only way to grow your impact is by growing yourself. Growth is always accomplished outside of ones comfort zone. If you only do what youve always done, youll never master new skills. Growth can also come not just through reading and reflection, but through journaling. An inexpensive journal is a good way to capture growth-producing insights. Listen to an audiotape, watch a DVD or take a course. Just make sure that you have an infusion of new ideas and chances to develop new skills. 5) Take a nap I once heard weariness defined as the exhaustion of pleasure. An important clue that you need to get caught up on your rest is when the things that formerly gave you pleasure no longer do. You can substitute caffeine and energy drinks for legitimate sleep only so long before you begin to lose the fuel of true energy: sleep and health. 6) Shadow other leaders Learn from leaders you admire. Dont just read about themobserve them first hand. Find role models worthy of your attention, those who lead in the manner you aspire to lead and those who have impacted others as you desire to influence. 7) Retreat to advance At least once a year, if not more frequently, set aside a day to review your life. Remove yourself from the distractions of a typical day. This will most likely require retreating to a location where you are inspired and inaccessible by phone. Mentor someone Youll know you are making an impact when someone approaches you and asks you to be their mentor. You could initiate the process, but similar to the saying, When the student is ready the teacher will come is the idea that when you are ready to mentor the mentee will show up. One of the best ways to internalize what you know is to share it with others. Being able to build into the life of an aspiring leader is not only a way to help in the growth of another, but a revitalizing way to stay motivated. 9) Take care of your health

It is hard to live a high-performance life in a low-performance body. That isnt to suggest that you need to become fanatical about your health. It does mean that you should take care of yourself. You wont have much to give others individuals or organizationsif you destroy your health. 10) Enjoy the journey Yes, I know that sounds corny. I can visualize a review glomming onto this idea as an example of tried and trite. So be it. The reality isand this comes from personal experiencewe often become so immersed in the journey that we dont actually enjoy it. How stupid would it be if you consciously said, Im going on vacation, but I have not intention of enjoying myself? Yet that is exactly what happens when a leader become too busy to take time to appreciate the process. How do you accomplish this? Pause to be grateful. Gratefulness creates a great fullness of heart. A positive attitude is a wonderful thing, but I believe gratefulness is the ultimate antidote to negativity. Take time to enjoy the little pleasures in life and not just the significant life events. 11) Clarify your values Roy Disney said when values are clear, decision making is easy. I cant think of anything as important to success as a leader than truly knowing what is important to you, which means having boundaries defined by values. It is this consistency of the inner and outer life that enables a leader to live from the inside out. 12) Live like a victor of circumstance Bad stuff happens to good people. This is inevitable. Yet it is easy to spend too much time as a victim, trying to figure out why the bad stuff happened, than to respond as victors with a resilience that says, This is bad. So what am I going to do to make it better? The choice is simple: learn from the situation or languish in it. The next time you encounter a problem, remember: This is a test. What is the lesson? 13) Search for the Pony An old and familiar joke illustrates perfectly the attitude of the leader who takes responsibility for his or her life, even those circumstances they dont completely control. Twin boys were born to two happy parents, but as the children developed, the parents noticed a dramatic outlook each had on life. One little boy was completely negative. His perspective was consistently one of gloom and doom. No matter what happened, the little boy was downhearted. He was able to find a rain cloud in the sunniest sky.

The other boy was buoyant, and looked at everything positively. No matter what happened, this child could literally find the silver lining in the darkest rain cloud. The parents began to worry that each child had a problem. One Christmas they attempted a bold experiment to change the twins disposition. For the negative boy, they bought the most wonderful gifts: a new bike, a train set, board games and other fun diversions. For the positive boy, they gave a pile of horse manure and nothing more. When Christmas morning came, the negative boy was led into a room containing all his wonderful gifts. His negative response was predictable: The bike will become dirty and scratched the first time I ride it and the other toys will break or wear out. Then they brought in their other son who, upon seeing the pile of manure meant for him, instantly shouted in glee and shocked his parents by jumping into the manure and digging frantically. What are you doing? They exclaimed. He replied, With all this manure theres got to be a pony in here somewhere! Both boys had an extreme andjoke asideunrealistic view of life. But the positive boys response makes a valid point. When something happens the challenge is to search for the pony.