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FLUID MECHANICS Second Edition by L. D. LANDAU and E. M. LIFSHITZ Institute of Physical Problems, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Volume 6 of Course of Theoretical Physics Second English Edition, Revised Translated from the Russian by J. B. SYKES and W. H. REID © PERGAMON PRESS OXFORD - NEW YORK - BEIJING - FRANKFURT SAO PAULO - SYDNEY - TOKYO - TORONTO UK. USA. PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY BRAZIL AUSTRALIA JAPAN CANADA Pergamon Press, Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, England Pergamon Press, Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, New York 10523, U.S.A. Pergamon Press, Room 4037, Qianmen Hotel, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Pergamon Press, Hammerweg 6, D-6242 Kronberg, Federal Republic of Germany Pergamon Editora, Rua Ega de Queiros, 346, CEP 04011, Paraiso, Sio Paulo, Brazil Pergamon Press Australia, P.O. Box $44, Potts Point, N.S.W. 2011, Australia Pergamon Press, 8th Floor, Matsuoka Central Building, 1-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan Pergamon Press Canada, Suite No. 271, 253 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada MST 1RS Copyright © 1987 Pergamon Books Ltd. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: ‘electronic electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, re- cording oF otherwise, without permission in writing from the publishers. First edition 1959 Reprinted 1963, 1966, 1975, 1978, 1982 ‘Second edition 1987 ‘Translated from Gidrodinamika, 3rd edit mn, “Nauka”, Moscow, 1986. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Landau, L. D. (Lev Davidovich), 1908-1968. Fluid mechanics. (Volume 6 of Course of theoretical physics) Includes index. Translation of: Mekhanika sploshnykh sred. 1, Fluid mechanics. 1. LifshifS, E. M. (Evgerii Mikhilovich) II. Title. IIL. Series: Teoreticheskaia fizika. English; v. 6, QAS01.L283 1987 53286-30498 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Landau, L. D. Fluid mechanics. —2nd ed. —(Course of theoretical physics; v. 6) 1. Fluid mechanics L Tite ML Lifsbif, EM. IIL Series S32 Qci4s.2 ISBN 0-08-033933-6 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-08-033932-8 (Flexicover) Printed in Great Britain by A. Wheaton & Co. Lid., Exeter CONTENTS Prefaces to the English editions E. M. Lifshitz Notation 1. IDEAL FLUIDS §1. The equation of continuity §2. Euler’s equation §3. Hydrostatics §4. The condition that convection be absent §5. Bernoulli's equation §6. The energy flux §7. The momentum flux §8. The conservation of circulation §9. Potential flow §10. Incompressible fluids §11. The drag force in potential flow past a body §12. Gravity waves §13. Internal waves in an incompressible fluid $14. Waves in a rotating fluid Il. VISCOUS FLUIDS §15. The equations of motion of a viscous fluid §16. Energy dissipation in an incompressible fluid $17. Flow in a pipe §18. Flow between rotating cylinders $19. The law of similarity §20. Flow with small Reynolds numbers §21. The laminar wake §22. The viscosity of suspensions §23. Exact solutions of the equations of motion for a viscous fluid §24. Oscillatory motion in a viscous fluid §25. Damping of gravity waves I. TURBULENCE §26. Stability of steady flow §27. Stability of rotary flow §28. Stability of flow in a pipe §29. Instability of tangential discontinuities §30. Quasi-periodic flow and frequency locking §31. Strange attractors §32. Transition to turbulence by period doubling v ix xiii Coun 12 14 17 26 31 i 50 St =| 56 58 67 73 75 83 92 95 99 103 106 108 113 118