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Jacob Dugopolski Arch 3021a, Architectural Theory I (1750-1968) Emmanuel Petit / Marta Caldiera December 15, 2009

Une Cite Industrielle (1903) Tony Garnier

Traces of Urban Design:


translations from Garnier to Sert, through Le Corbusiers take on the CIAM IV Athens charter
The Radiant City (1943) Le Corbusier

Can Our Cities Survive? (1942) Jos Luis Sert

Jacob Dugopolski Arch 3021a, Architectural Theory I (1750-1968) Emmanuel Petit / Marta Caldiera December 15, 2009

Traces of Urban Design:


translations from Garnier to Sert, through Le Corbusiers take on the CIAM IV Athens charter
As shown through many examples in the first half of the twentieth century, the town plan can clearly express the social and architectural ideas of its creator. It was pivotally used by a series of architects portraying and shaping the ideas of the evolving Rationalist movement. The progression that Le

Corbusier describes in 1946 puts Tony Garniers Cit Industrielle as the primary source, August Perret second, the magazine lEsprit Nouveau (showing his Ville Contemporaine/Contemporary City for three million inhabitants) in third, and the Athens Charter (based on his own thesis of the Ville Radieuse/Radiant City) fourth.1 I would like to upend this tree and investigate it from the roots. I look to shake out the dirt that occludes the concepts that Garnier set forth, first exposing how those were transformed by Le Corbusier and CIAM through the Athens Charter and secondly how they were retranslated by Sert in the blossoming of Urban Design as a profession.

In his introduction and analysis to Garniers Cit Industrielle, Riccardo Mariani makes a very distinct claim: Tony Garnier was the initiator of an entirely independent science of town planning and architecture, which ended with him as well.2 On the other end of CIAM, Eric Mumford argues that the professional field of urban design developed out of the later phases of CIAM and there was not a clear break in ideology.3 My thesis is to investigate a combination of these influences to show how Garniers project fed into the ideas of Urban Design, some filtered through CIAM and exposed, others dropped and later updated. I believe this revealing and indentifying linkages will prove useful threefold. The first will be to expose those aspects of Garnier that were lost in translation, misinterpretations that left many key qualities of this proposal behind. The second will be to open up the generalizations that plague the interpretation of CIAMs multifaceted project and the angles that Le Corbusier and Jose Luis Sert took in publishing the Athens charter. The third will be to find the historical threads that tie to Urban Design, focusing on the original reactions to the industrial emergence at the turn of the century.

1 2

Mariani, Riccardo. Tony Garnier: Une Cit Industrielle. (New York: Rizzoli, 1990) 31. Mariani 33. 3 Mumford, Eric. Defining Urban Design: CIAM Architects and the Formation of a Discipline, 1937-69. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) viii.

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With each period of investigation I look to identify the key components of the proposal or manifesto as an introduction. I will follow with influences that have guided the author to this creation. The third step will be to analyze its placement and influence in a larger context. This layered analysis will hopefully expose the lineage of ideas, a thread longer than explored in current analysis on urban design, proving a greater richness and understanding as we continue reframing the Urban Design project today.

Tony Garnier: Une Cit Industrielle


Garnier was thirty years old in 1901 when he developed the Cite Industrielle, planning this imaginary industrial city based on his own hometown of Lyon, France. He struggled with the faculty of the cole de Beaux Arts eventually taking this on as a side project throughout his education. Garniers proposal was not a Modernist machine-for-living, but rather conceived of to prevent the aesthetic of the mechanical world from imposing itself on those spaces designed for the population putting equal emphasis on outside street traffic and on mobility inside the domestic environment.4

In Vittorio Magnagos history of architecture and city planning in the twentieth century, he states: At a time when the theory of city planning had not progressed beyond Camillo Sittes medieval reminiscences, Ebenezer Howards sociological idylls, Hendrik Petrus Berlages initial and as yet uncertain designs, and Otto Wagners technical Classicist plans, Garnier created a revolutionary concept of a city that contained all the essential elements of rational urban planning.5 Cit Industrielle was a fully developed design for a population of 35,000. It included a housing estate, a city center, industrial buildings, a railway station, and all necessary public buildings, but no barracks, police stations, prisons, or churches. His belief was that these would no longer be required by the new society that the organizational logic of this new city would help to alleviate these societal ills.6 In his meager four page explanation of the project, Garnier explained that it was a design which completely fulfills the moral and material needs of the individual.7

4 5

Mariani 21. Magnago Lampugnani, Vittorio. Architecture and City Planning in the Twentieth Century. (New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985) 55. 6 Magnago 52. 7 Mariani 43.

cover color panorama

education zone ground plan of library

art school modernist hotel

residence residential neighborhood http://exhibits.slpl.org/steedman/data/Steedman240088583.asp?thread=240093362

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Framing his proposal around new social determinations, Garnier utilizes the distribution of building types to form various systems. The main example of this is the creation of an educational cycle that would feedback to industrial productivity. The schools were based in industry and arranged for a greater

dissemination and advancement of industrial ideas. He also emphasized the creation of a civic presence, a city center that would cultivate culture through a major public venue. On a larger scale, he was well ahead of his time planning regional feedback loops, from the hydroelectric power that fed the city to placement of industry for pollution control, transportation connections, and growth. Also important to note is the inclusion of an existing historical fragment into the city, not demolishing but fictionally supporting a conservation mindset.

Materially, he was influenced by the emerging investigations of reinforced concrete and included this new construction type in innovative ways even though at the time there had been only a few buildings constructed in this way. Magnago clarifies his ingenuity that led to many Rationalist forms that utilized the possibilities of this material bands of windows, glass walls, pilotis, cantilevering canopies, free ground plans, and flat roofs.8 He created detailed drawings down to the utility cores, but also presented his scheme through multiple perspective renderings, giving it a sense of place and personal feeling that made it fully believable.

Not particularly well read, this design emerged from Garniers own understanding of the city through his upbringing and travels. His ideal city project was similar in size and magnitude of societal reform to Ebenezer Howards Garden City but Howards was only translated to French in 1902, one year after Garnier started his sketches. Garnier did however engage the social and physical organization based on self ruling ideas of French political activist and writer mile Zola. This is made abundantly clear through plates that show inscriptions on the public building from Zolas book Travail.

It is important to mention the prominence of the Italian futurist movement to give context and comparison. Antonio SantElias drawing of the futurist city was developed after but widely published before Garniers scheme. A major difference was the mode of representation. SantElia never drew a complete plan of his

Magnago 53.

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proposal but instead set forth only an image and expression. The written manifesto shows its clear departure from Garnier separation of the machine through reorganization. It states that we must invent and rebuild the Futurist city: it must be like an immense, tumultuous, lively, noble work site, dynamic in all its parts ; and the Futurist house must be like an enormous machine.9

Both of these projects were deemed historical precedents by Le Corbusier and CIAM, but indentified and classified long after they were developed. Both were published after the conclusion of the First World War and had its greatest influence on young architects. The two authors never produced substantive theoretical writings on their ideal cities, which allowed for an open interpretation from their self-proclaimed successors.10

Le Corbusier: Translation through CIAM IV


Le Corbusier was a founding member of CIAM and his massive influence saturated the course of the group. Many of his design theories were spread through the venue of CIAM and their translation put into new urban principles. Rather than to follow the complete history of the group and Le Corbusiers

involvement, I am going to take the highpoint of the organizations Rationalist principles which was most directly connected to Garnier the Athenss Charter. This was the Functionalist City declaration from the CIAM IV meeting, discussed onboard the cruise ship Patris II between Marsailles and Athens in July 1933.

The first three CIAM congresses set forth the rationale for architects to be concerned with urban problems, and the fourth was structured to address the scale of the Functional City.11 Tony Garnier was invited to the initial gathering, but indicated that he could not attend.12 A key precursor to this Congress was the way in which studies of 33 cities for comparison were structured. A series of guidelines were developed under strong influence by Le Corbusier, stating that the prepared plans focused on residential, work and recreational areas; the traffic network; and the relationship between the city and its surrounding region.13

Conrads, Ulrich. Programs and Manifestoes on 20 -century Architecture. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964) 36. Mariani 21. 11 Gold, John R. Creating the Charter of Athens: CIAM and the Functional City, 1933-43. The Town Planning Review, (Vol. 69, No. 3, Jul 1998) 225. 12 Mumford, Eric. The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000) 15. 13 Gold 231.
10

th

Manhattan juxtaposed with Le Corbusiers Contemporary City of Three Million People (1922) (Pinder 96)

Amsterdam Extension Plan (1934) (Sert 237)

Le Corbusier, The Radiant City Plan (1930) (Pinder 82) City Analysis Map for CIAM IV, Amsterdam (Sert 6)

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This use of statistical data in planning was an emerging trend, most notably used in the Amsterdam extension plan. This project represented a shift toward more process-oriented planning that relied on detailed statistical data to project areas for various uses without designing them in any detail.14

After a contentious discussion emerged a list of numbered Constatations, the original mutely pointed Athens Charter. This was drastically different than the tone of Le Corbusiers distinct proclamations preceding and following, hardly the attractor of extreme rejection that contemporary writings place on this charter. John Gold explains this outcome stating that the most surprising feature of these brief

documents was their mild tone and contents they offered little more than gentle reformism that would have typified many groups, modernist or otherwise.15 Many of these points find similarity in the proposal that Garnier put forth thirty years earlier, three below of which have the strongest ties:

77-78. The keys to town planning can be found in the four functions: housing, work, recreation (during leisure), and traffic. Planning will determine the structure of each of the sectors assigned to the four key functions and will fix their respective locations within the whole. 80-81. The new mechanical speeds have disrupted the urban environment, creating permanent danger, causing traffic jams and paralyzing communications, and interfering with hygiene. The principle of urban and suburban traffic must be revised. A classification of available speeds must be drawn up. The reform of zoning that brings the key functions of the city into harmony will create between them natural links, which in turn will be reinforced by the establishment of a rational network of major thoroughfares. 83-84. The city must be studied within the totality of its region of influence. A regional plan will replace the simple municipal plan. The limit of the agglomeration will coincide with the radius of its economic action.16

It was mainly the interpretations and affiliated publications of Le Corbusier that skewed future interpretations. Because of the contentious result, the Constatations were edited for over ten years and distributed through separate publications by Jose Luis Sert and Le Corbusier. Serts response was published first in Can Our Cities Survive (1942), whose bend I will describe in more detail in the next section. Coincidentally or not, Le Cobusiers Ville Radieuse/Radiant City was published soon after CIAM IV and before the first draft of the Constatations was published.17 Le Corbusier full interpretation of the Athens Charter, which I will analyze below, was published in 1943. This publication showed the

14 15

Mumford, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism 61. Gold 235. 16 Conrads 140-141. 17 Mumford, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism 63.

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difference in meaning of functionalism between Le Corbusier and Sert and ultimately their relation to Garnier.

The issue of building height in relation to open space was the one area where Le Corbusier boosted the Constatations claims. He explains that The resources offered by modern techniques must be taken into account High buildings, set far apart from one another, must free the ground for broad verdant areas.18 Garnier utilized the emergent technique of reinforced concrete but kept his residential buildings to a standard of one to two stories, each with affiliated open space. Le Corbusier instead calls for height to allow for view, pure air, sunshine, and space for the establishment of communal facilities.18 Garnier specifies window direction and quantity of light per room type as well in his low structures and instead of putting community facilities in the vestiges of open space, concentrates their effect into distinct centers.

A key point of ideological difference is exposed by comparing movement within the Cit Industrielle and Functionalist City. Garnier creates a system of free circulation utilizing an administrative center

conceived as a vast public arena designed for intellectual exchange. This is the core of his plans including civic and governmental facilities and clearly differentiated from the dwellings. The Functionalist city on the other hand was composed of obligatory paths and pre-determined rhythms established by a strictly orthogonal layout, with no provision for spontaneous or autonomous participation among individuals.19 Partially due to the increasing speeds of transportation by the time of the Athens charter and the problems this sponsored, the Constatations recognized the need for technological solutions to improve flows.20 Le Corbusier took this attitude to an extreme, calling for differentiation between various types of traffic, classifying them according to vehicle speed and restricting them to their own channels.20 This interpretation of Le Corbusier takes the differentiated roads that Garnier proposes but completely separates the pedestrian from the car. This segregation tendency and has been the course that the postwar policy largely followed.

18 19

Le Corbusier. The Athens Charter. Trans. A. Eardley, (New York: Grossman, 1973) 65. Mariani 32. 20 Gold 242.

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Concerning the structure of the city, Le Corbusier and CIAM distilled the idea of distinct zoning from Garniers plan for a certain purism and economic rationalization. The intention of Garnier however, was to invest the urban layout with a precise sense of order, without curtailing any freedom in either the configuration of the town itself or in the patterns of life of the citizens. 21 The ideas of zoned

leisure/recreation, industry, work, and transport were set forth through the mappings in preparation for the congress. This excluded key concepts that Garnier held at the core of his proposal. John Gold explains that the collection of data related to civic and cultural were omitted and data related to social and economic conditions was not taken into consideration by these four categories. He states analysis was shaped by the requirement of mapping data into the four functional categories and reporting general features of needs and wants on that basis. That, in turn, would inevitably affect any broader principles that might emerge from the resulting plan.22 In just considering these four functions, the functional city was impeded toward understanding the larger whole in the same way that Garnier organically shaped the city into a cohesive whole.

Jose Luis Sert: Translation through CIAM IV


The interpretation of the CIAM IV conference through Serts eyes is shown in his book Can Our Cities Survive?: An ABC of Urban Problems, Their Analysis, Their Solutions. The book was intended for an American mass audience amid Serts transition to the United States, thus full of photos, statistics, and cartoons which make this publication seem light on first glance. But looking into Serts interpretation of the Constatations in relation to Garniers initial influence proves useful especially in explaining the direction that Sert leads CIAM in subsequent years.

With the issue of height Sert echoes the Constatations and Le Corbusiers sentiments to liberate the necessary land surface for recreation purposes, community services, and parking places, and provide dwellings with light, sun, air, and view.23 This call is softened from Le Corbusier, not mandating this as a global carpet, but wherever the need for density exists. In regards to circulation, Sert echoes the

provisions of CIAM IV but also provides current examples from parkways to clover-leaf intersections. This

21 22

Mariani 21. Gold 231. 23 Sert, Jose Luis. Can Our Cities Survive? : An ABC of Urban Problems, Their Analysis, Their Solutions. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942) 247.

Rockafeller Plaza, New York City in Serts Essay (Tyrwhitt, Sert, Rogers 5)

Studies for the Pilot Plan, Lima, Peru (Wiener and Sert) (Tyrwhitt, Sert, Rogers 15)

Serts sketches (Tyrwhitt, Sert, Rogers 14) Jose Luis Sert, William Nash, J. George J Pillorge, Theodore A Moncelli, Harvard New Communities project, June 1968 (Mumford, Designing Urban Design 184)

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is similar to Garnier and his organizational strategies for long-distance travel and not as dogmatic as Le Corbusiers extreme segregation of the pedestrian.

The biggest difference between the two translations lies in the structure and growth of the city. Le Corbusier distinctly calls for a rigid structure where the city becomes a framework for the four key functions no longer the disorderly result of random ventures.24 John Gold explains that influenced by comments from pre-publication readers, particularly Lewis Mumford, Sert had moved away from narrower materialistic approaches to functionalism to emphasize more organic interpretations. 25 This idea of organic growth placed greater emphasis on a combination of influences and the humanist tendencies that Sert leaned toward. In his translation, Sert also drew attention to greater cultural dimensions,

emphasizing the importance of civic centers as a visible expression of mans higher aspirations.26

These ideas were played out in his tenure as CIAM coordinator during the eighth congress. Giedion and Sert were the main champions, longing for an environment that is the symbol or mirror of a mans inner desires. Eric Mumford explains this concept of new monumentality, a call that Modern architects should try to create, within their functionality reorganized urban environments, places where the arts could satisfy [the] desire for collective expression.27 In Space, Time, and Architecture Giedion explains further, the four notions of living, working, recreation, and circulation that were the basis of the Athens Charter had proved useful for the first analysis of a city. But now it appeared that something more was needed to grasp the spirit of a city.28

The topic for CIAM VIII was The Heart of the City transforming the discussions from abstraction to an emphasis on the human. Mumford states that In contrast to nearly all his planning predecessors since the 1920s, Sert viewed [the city] as correctible. He advocated for the carrying out of large civic

complexes: the integration of city-planning, architecture, and landscape architecture; the building of a

24 25

Le Corbusier 100. Sert, Can Our Cities Survive? 242 26 Sert, Can Our Cities Survive? 230. 27 Krieger, Alex and William S. Saunders. Urban Design. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009) 21. 28 Giedeon, Sigfried. Space, Time and Architecture; the Growth of a New Tradition. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967) 701-702.

Dugopolski 9 complete environment.29 This idea of a civic culture or civil society, and creating the appropriate space for this to occur is a distinct commonality with Garniers proposal. Sert believed that the urban central

areas were key spaces of face-to-face pedestrian interaction, a kind of fifth function previously neglected. This reflects Le Corbusiers obsession with using the human scale as module, but does not put the human in distinct competition with the machine. The consequence of Le Corbusiers interpretation was a project that had fallen short in facilitating human contacts so as to raise the cultural level of their populations. 30 In the publication from CIAM VIII, Sert states that the social function of the new community centers or Cores is primarily that of uniting the people and facilitating direct contacts and exchange of ideas that will stimulate free discussion.31 He continues to explain that the resulting pattern of the zoning should be organic and each sector needs to have a center which results in a network, culminating in one main center, the heart of the city.32 These later CIAM conferences started to address the complex issue of aesthetics, and Sert was an avid proponent of bringing aesthetic discourse to city making. The illustrations in Can Our Cities Survive? clearly show this attitude and his belief in

establishing a continuum between the technical and aesthetic aspects of city making.33

The following year, 1943, Sert collaborated with Leger and Giedion to formulate Nine Points on Monumentality. These were part of Serts evolving ideas of the urban core and clear integration of a humanist tendency in his city planning:

6. A new step lies ahead. Post-war changes in the whole economic structure of nations may bring with them the organization of community life in the city, which has been practically neglected, up to date. 7. The people want the buildings that represent their social and community life to give more than functional fulfillment. They want their aspiration for monumentality, joy, pride, and excitement to be satisfied This collaboration has failed in the last hundred years. Most modern architects have not been trained for this kind of integrated work. Monumental tasks have not been entrusted to them.34

Eric Mumford explains this change in mindset: If the prewar city was mechanistic and functional, the

29 30

Krieger 18. Krieger 19. 31 Tyrwhitt, Jaqueline, Jose Luis Sert, E.N. Rogers. The Heart of the City: Towards the Humanization of Urban Life. New York: Pellegrini and Cudahy, 1952) 3. 32 Tyrwhitt, Sert, Rogers 11. 33 Mumford, Eric, Hashim Sarkis, and Neyran Turan. Josep Lluis Sert : The Architect of Urban Design, 1953-1969. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008) 3. 34 Sert, Jose Luis, Fernand Lger, and Sigfried Giedion Nine Points on Monumentality (Harvard Architecture Review, 1984) 62-63.

Dugopolski 10 postwar metropolis would take on a natural morphology and become more socially responsible.35 Sert would lead this renewed conception of the city at Harvard in shaping the newly conceived Urban Design degree.

Garnier and Sert: Reflection in the formation of Urban Design


During the immediate post-war years, Joseph Hudnut prepared the ground at Harvard for an aspect of planning that allowed for the creative engagement of public spaces and public facilities.36 Serts strong desire to imbue the functional city with a greater set of attributes and his humanist tendency strongly fulfilled the role of leading this new discipline into being, formalizing the field as a new place for investigating the urban realm.

It is important to first define urban design before stringing parallels with Garniers pre-CIAM ideas. This way of thinking derives from the French word urbanisme, which was created in the early nineteenth century. It can be translated as: the systematic study of methods that permit adaptation of the urban habitat to the needs of the people; the ensemble of techniques for the application of these methods.37 The means can be summarized as dealing with measure and scale, groups of buildings, open areas, roads, and their relationships.38

In the initial development the discipline would become more responsive to the piecemeal transformation of the city and elemental. New interpretations of the modern functionalist city were derived of the patio, plinth, tower, and pedestrian street. Sert emphasized teaching through visual demonstration, and in this task photographs take center stage in translating the technical language of the urban planner into a visually coherent set of image-ideas Main points emphasized were the use of space, humanization of scale, and the conversion of wasted space into areas for leisure, commerce, and growth.39

35 36

Mumford, Sarkis, Turan 77. Mumford, Sarkis, Turan 4. 37 Mumford, Sarkis, Turan 18. 38 Krieger 26. 39 Mumford, Sarkis, Turan 48-49.

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Outlining the Traces


The counterargument for framing a lineage between Garnier and Serts translation into Urban Design is a particular reading of Garniers proposal. In his writing, Bruno Zevi traces the idea of dimensionalism in planning. He states that the module used in urban design has little to do with Garniers French version of Rationalism, which explains why his scheme has been used an infinite number of times, with monotonous rectangular grids and repetitious parallel cubes.40 I disagree with this high level interpretation of the Cit Industrielle and believe that certain social and cultural ideas and means of structuring the city have proven through. This idea of this fifth function was neglected in the preparation of CIAM IV but critical to the conception of Urban Design.

The points below are the main tenants of Garniers proposal, each with a subsequent note on the development of this way of thinking:

Material and moral needs of man Le Corbusier uses on the dimensions of the modular and the fundamental needs of view, light, and fresh air as organizational. The lineage of humanism is most avidly taken up by Sert addressing this fifth function of the city toward the social and cultural needs of man. Civic society and a civic core / Cultivating social exchange Garniers combination of a social and spatial model were dropped in the Functional city. It was reintegrated by Sert through his focus on the heart of the city, creating a network of centers which focused on one main center, the hub for social exchange in the city. Emphasis on education A central part of Garniers scheme, the educational feedback loop is not specifically carried on as a structuring mechanism by Le Corbusier or Sert. Central to the city is the dwelling, the unit and organizing element. Concentration of tall buildings As described before, height was a point of contention between the various schemes and a difference of degree between Le Corbusier and Sert. The Radiant City was a specific departure from this concentration of height. The ideas of a new monumentality that Sert championed seem to advocate for the use of this toward the need for density and emblematic purpose, though not specifically defined.

40

Mariani 20.

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Separation of the industrial zone - Garnier called for an inclusion of the machine whose aesthetic would not dominate everyday life. Forgrounded in the Functionalist City, the emphasis on the human and an aesthetic discourse reemerges with Urban Design. Planning for efficiency, speed of rail line New transportation technologies played a huge role in the economic potential in the modern city, a lineage set forth by Garnier and extended through CIAM and Urban Design. Pedestrian priorities and full integration The separation of the pedestrian from the new modes of transportation that created a safety issue was introduced in the Cit Industrielle and this distinction of movement was amplified through Le Corbusier. There is a balance and

reintegration in Urban Design maintaining the importance of safe pedestrian movement. Inclusion of historical fabric The attitude of the Functional City is one of autonomy a clean ideal master plan with no regard for the historical fabric. Le Corbusiers City for three million inhabitants obliterates the historical grid of Paris and carpets over the directional grid of New York. The Radiant City on the other hand is a creation similar to Garniers without a distinct site and gives no reference to existing. In Urban Designs initial development it was partially the need to

piecemeal development that demanded a recognition and inclusion of context at its core.

In 1908 Le Corbusier visited Garnier at his home in Lyons, the only face-to-face interaction the two architects had. Two years before Garniers death in 1946, Le Corbusier explained in a speech: Around 1900, Tony Garnier presented a series of magnificent drawings illustrating his Cit Industrielle, the first example of urban land defined as public space and organized to accommodate amenities for the common benefit of the inhabitants.41 Mariani goes on to explain that Tony Garnier was undoubtedly both an initiator and an initiate of Modernism, but certainly not in the sense that Le Corbusier claimed in 1946.42 Through his loud voice in writing and powerful influence over the first half of CIAM leading to the Functionalist City, Le Corbusier structured a certain reading of Garniers proposal, using it as a recent historical precedent in support of his new ideas on the city. Garniers scheme was distilled to a set of functional reforms and became an easily digestible model for the Rationalists to move forward. Mariani continues to explain that the arrogance of the 1920s and 30s and postwar Modernism, together with the

41 42

Mariani 19. Mariani 30.

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insistence on absolute truths dominating the then-current European society, virtually eclipsed those whose works were inspired by that particular breed of reformism born during the industrial revolution.43

To blame mistaken post-war planning on the Athens Charter is misplaced; rather it was the gaps and indeterminacies in the Constatations which allowed the tangential interpretations by subsequent editors. John Gold explains that Sert filled many gaps with illustrations of hopeful prototypes and case studies; Le Corbusier with new statements of doctrine.44 The fillers that Sert inserted referred to the foundation of Garnier set forth in his Cit Industrielle, bridging the development of CIAM and forming a longer linage to the disciplinary formation of Urban Design. Realizing these qualities embedded in the beginning of the industrial revolution hopefully will form a deeper understanding of the profession and how to positively integrate the human, machine, and the city.

43 44

Mariani 33. Gold 244.

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Works Cited:
Conrads, Ulrich. Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-century Architecture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964. Giedeon, Sigfried. Space, Time and Architecture; the Growth of a New Tradition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967. Gold, John R. Creating the Charter of Athens: CIAM and the Functional City, 1933-43. The Town Planning Review, Vol. 69, No. 3 (Jul 1998), pp.225-247. Krieger, Alex and William S. Saunders. Urban Design. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. Le Corbusier. The Athens Charter. Trans. A. Eardley, New York: Grossman, 1973. Magnago Lampugnani, Vittorio. Architecture and City Planning in the Twentieth Century. New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985. Mariani, Riccardo. Tony Garnier: Une Cite Industrielle. New York: Rizzoli, 1990. Mumford, Eric. The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000. Mumford, Eric. Defining Urban Design: CIAM Architects and the Formation of a Discipline, 1937-69. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. Mumford, Eric, Hashim Sarkis, Neyran Turan. Josep Lluis Sert : The Architect of Urban Design, 19531969. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. Sert, Jose Luis. Can Our Cities Survive? : An ABC of Urban Problems, Their Analysis, Their Solutions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942. Sert, Jose Luis, Fernand Lger, and Sigfried Giedion. Nine Points on Monumentality Harvard Architecture Review, 1984. Tyrwhitt, Jaqueline, J.L. Sert, E.N. Rogers. The Heart of the City: Towards the Humanisation of Urban Life. New York: Pellegrini and Cudahy, 1952.

Works Referenced:
Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007. Fishman, Robert. Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier. Cambridge; London: MIT Press, 1999. Pinder, David. Visions of the City: Utopianism, Power and Politics in Twentieth-Century Urbanism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005. Rovira, Josep M. Sert half a century of architecture: 1928-1979

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