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Physiological Psychology Lecture Notes: Memory

Types of memory Temporal memory Short term memory Working memory Longterm memory Remote Memory

Qualitative: Implicit memory (procedural memory e.g. note taking, riding a bike, skills, habits) Explicit Memory (conscious memory) (amnesia- can't consciously recall things but implicit memory is not affeted. Episodic Memory (memory for events, time and place) Semantic memory (content, knowledge; not tied to experience; may lose epidosodic memory but retain the facts (semantic memory)) Neurological cases support

Amnesia Most patients with amnesia lose abilities related to explicit memories,, but maintain abilities related to implicit memories. Creation of new implicit memories may be attacked also (not sure if the professor said this) Amnesia deals mostly with longterm memory and explicit memory. There is evidence (in figure of elephant and umbrella) that people when processed a sketch with missing parts can be perceived quicker after the person loses the conscious recollection

Types of Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia: Loss of memory for events or info learned before the amnesiainducing brain injury Deficit is they can't access the information they learned in the past Anterograde Amnesia: Loss of memory for events occurring after the amnesia-inducing brain injury. Can remember things from the past, but after the injury occurred the person cannot consolidate new memories. Consolidation: process of forming new long term memories (generally long term, explicit memories. LONG TERM MEMORY CONSOLIDATION Can have more than one kind of amnesia, can be temporary or permanent Retrograde amnesia Past <<<Time<<<< Brain Damage Occurrance Anterograde Amnesia Future


Most common form is a mixture of both Types of Amnesia

Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia:

Bilateral Damage to Medial Temporal Lobes Commonly results in Anterograde Amnesia for explicit memories Preserved intellectual functioning H.M. (a patient example) A memory thing not an overall cognitive deficit

Medial Diencephalic Amnesia: Korsakoff's amnesia: common in alcoholics, damage associated w/ thiamin deficiency Sever anterograde amnesia, progresses to retrograde amnesia Damage to mediodorsal nuclei in thalamus One of the few that can be prevented Amnesia of Alzheimer's disease Predementia memory deficits: anterograde, retrograde, episodic progressing to semantic, WM, some implicit Implicit deficits: Verbal and perceptual deficits Ach depletion, degeneration of basal forebrain Leads to Acetylcholine depletion Infantile Amnesia: Normal inability to recall explicit memories from childhood (evidence that implicit is preserved) World is processed different, verbal development leads to better consolidation After Concussion: Post-Traumatic Amnesia (MOST COMMON) Permanent: Mild retrograde for events that led up to concussion & longer anterograde for events following concussion & coma Concussions disrupt memory consolidation processes Possible Anterograde right after the person wakes up, confusion may cause the person to not remember discussions right after awakening

Normal congnitive functioning >>> Retrograde amnesia >>(blow to head)>> coma >>> Confusion and Anterograde amnesia >>> >>Normal cognitive function

Hippocampus & Consolidation (book is fucked) Professor says its the accessing of memories that is affected and not the storage of memories. Storage is in cortex Hippocampus: Time-limited role in consolidation & retrieval Mechanism of consolidation: is called Reactivation Hippocampus replays neural activity associated with memory Network between hippocampus & Cortex Results in formation of connections in Cortical Areas. Eventually hippocampus not needed to retrieve Reactivation occurs during sleep & Relaxed wakefulness; can be enhanced w/ conscious rehearsal

Brain areas for Learning & Memory Medial temporal Lobes Hippocampus: Rhinal Cortex: Entorhinal & Perirhinal cortices (Entorhinal: spatial location, processing of memory) (Perirhinal: object recognition) Mediodorsal nucleus (Thalamus) Basal Forebrain (important in memory)

Inferotemproal Cortex: (Visual) Amygdala (emotional memory) (processing & retrieval) Prefrontal Cortex: (working memory) (consolidating information, retrieval of memories, keeping temperal order (sequencing)) Cerebellum (implicit memory) ( Striatum (basal ganglion): important to habit formation (implicit memory)