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IS J AA

International Journal of Systems , Algorithms & Applications

Multimedia Data Transmission over Wireless Networks by Exploiting the QoS Parameters
1,3 1 M. Shanmukhi, 2O.B.V. Ramanaiah and 3V.S.K. Reddy Department of Computer Science & Engg., MRCET, JNT University, Hyderabad, India. 2 Department of Computer Science & Engg., JNT University, Hyderabad, India. e-mail: shanmukhi.m@gmail.com

Abstract-Quality of Service (QoS), efficient bandwidth utilization and a good reliable protocol are important issues for Multimedia Data Transmission over Wireless Networks. However, existing techniques unable to provide QoS performance and reliability due to lack of bandwidth, Packet loss and Delay. Besides Existing systems are built over RTP. RTP neither support timely delivery, It nor guarantees data delivery, and there is no mechanism to recover from packet loss. By considering these issues we propose a new method that has Four key issues: First issue is estimating the bandwidth i.e., Estimate the bandwidth of the link, if bandwidth is low more data compression will be done, and if bandwidth is high less data compression will be done; Second issue is load distribution over multiple links; Third issue is design of new reliable protocol; and Fourth issue is routing algorithm. This paper suggests a new method, it provides QoS performance. Keywords: QoS Parameters, Bandwidth estimation, Routing Protocol, Load distribution.

plications can then be formulated as satisfying constraints on QoS parameters. Since each subsystem in the data transmission process contributes to the degradation of the QoS, QoS control mechanisms are studied at all these different components. To facilitate the study, QoS are usually grouped into different layers [2]. The application QoS layer (which includes Useroriented and Application-specific QoS parameters) and the network QoS layer (which includes the whole network protocol stacks, especially the transport and network layers in networking terminology) are the two major layers where the current research on QoS parameters and QoS control mechanisms is focused[3]. Four approaches towards providing QOS guarantees are described and discussed: the tightly controlled approach, the approximate approach, the bounding approach, and the observation-based approach [4]. Researchers have been trying to create bandwidth estimation algorithms for available band width over the last 20 years. Lot of routing algorithms, and protocols they suggested, but still there is a requirement and certainty for an optimized method that covers all concepts in one single method. Here in this paper we propose a method it evaluates the bandwidth, then it uses a compression method according to the rate of the bandwidth, then the proposed method identifies the number of links from source to destination and perform load distribution, at receivers end packet reordering will be done, And a reliable protocol TCP with infinite buffer and Ondemand multicast routing protocol is suggested for routing to perform multimedia data transmission. 2. PROPOSED RESEARCH ISSUES 2.1 First Issue First key issue is estimating the band width of the link: The available bandwidth in a network path is of major importance in congestion control, streaming allocations, QoS verification, and server selection in netwoks. Self Loading Periodic Streams (SLoPS) [5] is followed to estimate the bandwidth of the link. The basic idea in SLoPS is that the one-way delays of a periodic packet stream show an increasing trend when the stream's rate is higher than the avail-bw[5]. After esti-

1. INTRODUCTION Multimedia Systems [1] play very important role in our everyday life. For example, video conferencing and collaboration systems allow people to interact and communicate with others who may be far away. Eshopping systems allow people to browse merchandize at home through virtual reality techniques and to order on-line. Video-on-Demand systems allow people to watch their favorite programs at home any time they want. To make all these scenarios reality, distributed multimedia systems need support from the underlying transporting networks. Transmitting multimedia data, especially for continuous media such as video or audio, over the network is a challenging problem. The network requirements for multimedia data are different from those for traditional network traffic such as TELNET or FTP. For example, multimedia data are very sensitive to packet delivery delay, but can endure some loss of data. In contrast, traditional data network traffic can endure packet delivery delay, but have to be delivered 100% error free. Multimedia data flows through several subsystems. For example, a video frame is encoded at the video server program, sent through the underlying transport network, and is decoded at the receiving application. To provide better understanding of the requirements of the multimedia applications, these requirements are abstracted as a set of Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. The problem of providing satisfactory QoS to ap-

Volume 2, Issue ICAEM12, February 2012, ISSN Online: 2277-2677 ICAEM12|Jan20,2012|Hyderabad|India

MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION OVER WIRELESS NETWORKS BY EXPLOITING THE QOS PARAMETERS

IS J AA

International Journal of Systems , Algorithms & Applications

mating the bandwidth of the link if band width is high, LZW compression technique is applied to compress data.if Bandwidth of the link is low, H.261 compression technique is applied to compress the data. 2.2 Second Issue Second key issue is load distribution over multiple links. We will find multiple paths from particular source to destination. List of the routes are prioritized, according to the priority of route, percentage of packet distribution is done, and at the destination packet reordering is performed. The bandwidth of a path is considered as the service rate of the forwarding processor which connects to the path. Network load caused by input traffic with arrival rate B is shared among the multiple paths, i.e., the
load of path p is assigned the traffic rate Bp<= B[6].

2.4 Fourth Issue Fourth Key issue is routing algorithm. Many techniques used by routing protocols for wireless networks assume that links in the network can be used equally well in both directions between the two endpoint nodes of the link. However, there are many real-world situations in which wireless links may physically work in only one direction, resulting in degradation of routing performance in the network [8]. In this paper we analyze on-demand multicast routing protocol for wireless networks and present mechanisms that enable such protocols to route efficiently. 3.RELATED WORK 3.1 Band Width Even there are several bandwidth estimation tools; most of them measure capacity rather than available bandwidth. Specifically, pathchar [9], clink [10], pchar [11], and tailgating technique of measure per-hop capacity [12] etc. There was a technique, called TOPP, for measuring available bandwidth was proposed in [13]. TOPP uses sequences of packet pairs sent to the path at increasing rates. From the relation between the input and output rates of different packet pairs, one can estimate the available bandwidth and the capacity of the tight link in the path. In certain path configurations, it is possible to measure the available bandwidth and capacity of other links in the path. Both TOPP and SLOPs are based on the observation that the queuing delays of successive periodic probing packets increase when the probing rate is higher than the available bandwidth in the path. The two techniques, however, are quite different in the actual algorithm they use to estimate the available bandwidth. A detailed comparison of the two estimation methods is an important task for further research [14]. 3.2 Load Distribution The Bandwidth of a path is considered as the service rate of the forwarding processor which connects to the path. Network load caused by input traffic with arrival rate B is shared among the multiple paths, i.e., the load of path p is assigned the traffic rate Bp<= B . Inefficient load distribution can cause many problems. The load imbalance problem can occur when the load is assigned on each path improperly with respect to the capacity of the path in terms of bandwidth and buffer size [17]. Load distribution over multiple links. We will find multiple paths from particular source to destination. List of the routes are prioritized, according to the priority of route, percentage of packet distribution is done, at the destination packet reordering is performed. The bandwidth of a path is considered as the service rate of the forwarding processor which connects to the path.

2.3 Third Issue Third key issue is design of new reliable protocol, designing a network protocol to support streaming media raises many issues, such as: UDP - There is no mechanism within the protocol to guarantee delivery. It is up to the receiving application to detect loss or corruption and recover data using error correction techniques. If data is lost, the stream may suffer a dropout. RTP, RTCP - Were specifically designed to stream media over networks. But both built on top of UDP. TCP - Reliable protocol TCP, Guarantee correct delivery of each bit in the media stream. However, they accomplish this with a system of timeouts and retries, which makes them more complex to implement. It also means that when there is data loss on the network, the media stream stalls while the protocol handlers detect the loss and retransmit the missing data. Clients can minimize this effect by buffering data for display. While delay due to buffering is acceptable in video on demand scenarios, users of interactive applications such as video conferencing will experience a loss of fidelity if the delay that buffering contributes to exceed 200ms. The term multimedia streaming means that there are more than one media type involved in communication, e.g. text and graphics, voice, animations, video and audio. We define multimedia to denote the property of handling a variety of representation media in an integrated manner. This means that the various sources of media types are integrated into a single system framework [7]. We choose TCP protocol for reliable data delivery and we assume there is infinite buffer with the TCP protocol.

Volume 2, Issue ICAEM12, February 2012, ISSN Online: 2277-2677 ICAEM12|Jan20,2012|Hyderabad|India

MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION OVER WIRELESS NETWORKS BY EXPLOITING THE QOS PARAMETERS

IS J AA

International Journal of Systems , Algorithms & Applications

3.3 Compression Technique After estimating the Bandwidth of the link if band width is high, LZW compression technique should be applied to compress data. If Bandwidth of the link is low, H.261 compression technique is applied to compress the data. LempelZivWelch (LZW) is a universal lossless compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, Terry and Welch. It was published by Welch in 1984 as an improved implementation of the LZ78. Algorithm published by Lempel and Ziv in 1978. The algorithm is simple to implement, and has the potential for very high throughput in hardware implementations [15]. H.261 is an ITU-T video coding standard, ratified in November 1988. It is the first member of the H.26x family of video coding standards in the domain of the ITUT Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG), and was the first video codec that was useful in practical terms. H.261 was originally designed for transmission over ISDN lines on which data rates are multiples of 64 kbit/s. The coding algorithm was designed to be able to operate at video bit rates between 40 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s. The standard supports two video frame sizes: CIF (352x288 luma with 176x144 chroma) and QCIF (176x144 with 88x72 chroma) using a 4:2:0 sampling scheme. It also has a backward-compatible trick for sending still picture graphics with 704x576 luma resolution and 352x288 chroma resolution (which was added in a later revision in 1993) [16]. 3.4 Design of a reliable network protocol to support streaming media Multimedia data transmission over unreliable environment, like wireless channels or in generally any network with unreliable transport protocol, is always subject to packet loss due to network congestion and channel noise. By using compressed video, errors could propagate to the subsequent frames with resulting worse video quality. They performed packet loss analysis on RTP from recorded packet sequence numbers [18]. RTP was built over UDP, UDP is unreliable protocol, so there is no guarantee for data, if data is lost, and the stream may suffer a dropout. And RTP does not support timely delivery, it does not guarantee data, and there is No mechanism to recover from packet loss. Because of these reasons we are in a need of reliable protocol design perform QoS. We choose TCP to design new protocol that performs multimedia data transmission. TCP - Reliable protocol TCP, Guarantee correct delivery of each bit in the media stream. However, they accomplish this with a system of timeouts and retries, which makes them more complex to implement. It also means that when there is data loss on the network, the media
Volume 2, Issue ICAEM12, February 2012, ISSN Online: 2277-2677 ICAEM12|Jan20,2012|Hyderabad|India

stream stalls while the protocol handlers detect the loss and retransmit the missing data. Clients can minimize this effect by buffering data for display. While delay due to buffering is acceptable in video on demand scenarios, users of interactive applications such as video conferencing will experience a loss of fidelity if the delay that buffering contributes to exceed 200ms. In this paper we assume there is infinite buffer with the TCP protocol. Still more research need to be done on this issue. 3.5 Routing Algorithm Having a good mechanism to identify Bandwidth, To perform Load distribution and a reliable protocol is not enough to achieve QoS performance. We need to study most important concept in a network i.e., routing algorithm. Routing Algorithm plays very important role to minimize the delay and retransmission, maximizes the transmission speed. Many techniques used by routing protocols for wireless networks assume that links in the network can be used equally well in both directions between the two endpoint nodes of the link. However, there are many real-world situations in which wireless links may physically work in only one direction, resulting in degradation of routing performance in the network [8]. In this paper, We Select on-demand multicast routing protocol to route packets efficiently over wireless network.

Figure: Shows the summary of the related work

4 METRICS QoS parameters for like packet loss, delay, lack of band width, jitter are considered for multimedia data transmission and to design above concepts. Summary of QoS Requirements on Transport Subsystems Audio/Video Communication needs to be bounded by deadlines. End-to-End jitter must be bounded. End-to-End guarantees are required. Synchronization mechanisms for different data streams are required. Variable bit rate traffic support is required
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MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION OVER WIRELESS NETWORKS BY EXPLOITING THE QOS PARAMETERS

IS J AA

International Journal of Systems , Algorithms & Applications

Services and protocols should make sure that no starvation occurs

5. CONCLUSION Multimedia files play important role in many applications like E-Commerce, Mobile Telephony, Video and Audio Conferences and E-Business. Not only limited to above applications, it includes, IPTV Transmission, live Telecasts, and online streaming. If we develop a method with the concepts discussed in section 3, obviously the method works efficiently and it produces successful results. Our Simulation based experiments are in progress. This paper proposes a new method that includes Bandwidth allocation method, load distribution, reliable protocol, routing algorithm and QoS Parameters for multimedia data transmission over wireless networks. REFERENCES
[1] P.W. Agnew, A.S. Kellerman, Distributed Multimedia: Technologies, Applications, and Opportunities in the Digital Information Industry, ACM Press, 1996. [2] S. Li, Quality of service control for distributed multimedia systems, PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science, Purdue University, December 1997. [3] Multimedia data transmission and control using active networks, Bharat Bhargavaa, Sheng-Yih Wangb, Maleq Khana,*, Ahsan Habi [4] Open Issues and Challenges in Providing Quality of Service Guarantees in High-Speed Networks1 Jim Kurose,Department of Computer Science,University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA 01003

[5] End-to-End Available Bandwidth: Measurement Methodology, Dynamics, and Relation with TCP Throughput Manish Jain, Constantinos Dovrolis [6] Effective Delay-Controlled Load Distribution over Multipath Networks, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS,Sumet Prabhavat, Hiroki Nishiyama, Nirwan Ansari, and Nei Kato. [7] wikipedia.org [8] On-Demand Multicast Routing in Ad Hoc Networks with Unidirectional Links Jorjeta G. Jetcheva and David B. Johnson December 15, 2004 CMU-CS-04-175 [9] V. Jacobson. Pathchar: A Tool to Infer Characteristics of Internet Paths.. [10] A. Downey. Using Pathchar to Estimate Internet Link Characteristics. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, Sept. 1999. [11] B. A. Mah. pchar: a Tool for Measuring Internet Path Characteristics.http://www.employees.org/_bmah/Software/pchar/,Feb. 1999. [12] K. Lai and M.Baker. Measuring Link Bandwidths Using a Deterministic Model of Packet Delay. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, Sept. 2000. [13] B. Melander, M. Bjorkman, and P. Gunningberg. A New End-to -End Probing and Analysis Method for Estimating Bandwidth Bottlenecks. In Global Internet Symposium, 2000. [14] EndtoEnd Available Bandwidth: Measurement Methodology, Dynamics, and Relation with TCP Throughput_Manish Jain, Constantinos Dovrolisy [15]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lempel%E2%80%93Ziv%E2%80% 93Welc [16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.26 [17] Effective Delay-Controlled Load Distribution over Multipath Networks, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS Sumet Prabhavat, Hiroki Nishiyama, Nirwan Ansari, , and Nei Kato, [18] Simulation of Packet Losses in Video Transfers Using Real-time Transport Protocol,2010 20th international conference Radioelektronika Jan mochnac,stanislav marchevsky,pavol kocan

Volume 2, Issue ICAEM12, February 2012, ISSN Online: 2277-2677 ICAEM12|Jan20,2012|Hyderabad|India

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