Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

Cased Hole Logging

Dr. Ir. Dedy Kristanto, M.Sc

Cased Hole Logging


Formation Evaluation Completion Evaluation Cement Evaluation Corrosion Tubular Evaluation Perforating

Why Log?
Fluid contact detection and movement (material balance) Other water/gas movement Injection frontal advance Water salinity

Special Applications
Old wells Gravel-pack monitoring Channeling behind casing In-situ petrophysical properties

Formation Evaluation
Logs for cased hole formation evaluation Gamma ray NGS log Neutron log Sonic log Thermal decay time log Gamma ray spectrometry tool

NEAR & FAR COUNTS

SIGMA GR RATIO

TDT ANALYSIS

Completion Evaluation
Production logging applications Well performance Well problems Well testing Single and multi phase flow Flow anomalies

Completion Evaluation
Evaluating completion efficiency Detecting mechanical problems, breakthrough, coning Providing guidance for workovers, enhanced recovery projects Evaluating stimulation treatment effectiveness Monitoring and profiling of production and injection

Completion Evaluation
Detecting thief zones, channeled cement Single layer and multiple layer well test evaluation Determining reservoir characteristics Identifying reservoir boundaries for field development

Completion Evaluation
Production logging tools Spinner flow meters Radioactive tracer tools Fluid density tools Nuclear fluid density tools Temperature tools Noise tools

Gamma Ray
0 2 API Caliper Inches 500 7 0

Pressure
4000 PSIA 4200 Temperature Density Total Flow BPD 28000 0.2 F g/cm3 245 0 1.2 240

Diphasic Analysis

Total Flow
0

Flow Rates BPD 28000 0.2

28000 240 Density g/cm3 1.2

Temperature 245 F

9000 9100 9200 9300 9400 9500

CAL

100%
Shut-in

Flowing

PLT GR

75%

65% OH GR

25%
Flowing

Shut-in

Cable head Weights Thru-tubing guide (Centralizer) Collar locator Telemetry cartridge, including GR detector Caliper Weights PCM/CCL Telemetry

10 motorized centralizer

Gamma ray

Quartz pressure gauge

Fluid density Temperature

In-line flowmeter Centralizer Thermometer/ Strain-gauge Gradiomanometer Fullbore flowmeter Pressure 10 Bow spring centralizer Continuous spinner flowmeter

The Schlumberger Simultaneous Production Logging Tool (PLT).

Atlas Wirelines SPL tool.

Completion Evaluation
Spinner Tools Continuous flow meter Fullbore spinner Inflatable diverter

Ideal response

increase increase

Spinner rotation, rps

Mechanical losses
(bearing friction, etc.)

Viscous and mechanical losses

vth Fluid velocity, vf

10

10

Spinner speed, rps rev/sec

0. 0 5r

Spinner speed, rps rev/sec

Ide al s

slo

at e

s si 5 rp p .7 0.02 in 4 t 1 e = t/ m a f as lop 50 G s = Vf
f

t / (f

/m

) in

0 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320

0 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280

Fluid velocity, ft/minute

(A) Continuous flowmeter


(small diameter)

(B) Fullbore continuous flowmeter

W at e V r sl f = o G 3 pe as ft / = m 0. in 04 sl und op e 3 V rp rp f = e s/ = re 12 0 (f t s /m ft/ .04 su in 0 re m ) in rp s/ (ft /m in )


Fluid velocity, ft/minute

p ps = e= 3.5 0. ft/ 040 m in rps /( f t/m

lop

e=

in

Electrical connection

Upper bearing Magnet Pickup coil

Spinner

Lower bearing

Schematic of Schlumberger/Sondex type continuous flowmeter spinner

Peco type spinner flowmeter

Spinner

Basket Basket flowmeter opened in production well

CCL Electronic cartridge Comumicatation CCL cartridge Electronic cartridge Spinner section Flowmeter Water-cut meter Packer spring Densimeter Packer spring Packer tube

Packer bag

Packer bag Pump Filter Fluid entrance port Pump Filter

Well Sketch

Continuous Flowmeter, rps


0 20 40 40C

Temperature
60C 80C

Flowmeter Flowmeter after before treatment treatment 11.000 B/D 23.000 B/D

Shut in one day Shut in three days During injection

Review of Flowmeter Types


Continuous In-situ calibration (takes time but arguably more valid than a chart as it takes actual tool characteristics into account) Medium to high flowrates. Poor sensitivity to low rates, especially in multi-phase flow Interpretation becomes difficult in multi-phase flow, especially in inclined pipe Stationary Point measurements Lab-derived response chart Low to medium flow rates. (pressure differential across the sealing element induces leaks and eventually moves the tool) Converging effect tends to homogenize fluid mixture in relatively narrow tool body - better interpretation in multiphase flow.

Completion Evaluation
Radioactive Tracer Tools Can be placed into the following two categories: Gamma ray tools without downhole ejectors for releasing radioactive material Gamma ray tools with downhole ejectors and multiple gamma ray detectors

Background

First detector 10.5 seconds

Second detector

6 seconds

Formation GR Cable speed CCL Temperature GR Lower GR Upper

Tracker ejection Depth

Flow rate, B/D


0 500 1000 Ejector
A B C D E F G H I

Presumed path of annulus water

Far detector 59.0

CCL

Near detector 51.5

4000 4900 5000 5100

Completion Evaluation
Fluid Density Tools Gradiomanometer tool Pressure-temperature tool Nuclear fluid density tool

32.0

Transducer

Upper Sensing Bellows Slotted Housing Floating Connection Tube Lower Sensing Bellows

38.9

Expansion Bellows

8200

Flowing

Shut-in
8300

Depth, feet
8400

5 1/2
8500 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

Fluid density, GM/CC

Water

8200

O/W Contact

Depth, feet

8400

5 1/2
8500 1600 1800 2000 2200

Shut-in

8300

Oscillator frequency, Hz

Oil

Gamma ray source

Fluid density instrument Counter

Sampling channel

Gamma ray detector

2 Feet

Shielding

CS 137 Source

Completion Evaluation
Temperature Tools Detection of gas production via the cooling effect of expanding gas Qualitative evaluation of fluid flow indicated by departures from the geothermal gradient Temperature information for PVT equations Evaluation of fracture treatments Evaluation of mechanical integrity of a completion

Completion Evaluation
Noise Tools Two types of noise logs Single frequency Multiple frequency

Cement Evaluation
Cement bond log (CBL) Variable density log (VDL) Compensated cement bond log Cement evaluation tools (CET)

Cement Evaluation
The cement bond log (CBL) The CBL, later combined with the VDL waveform, has been for many years the primary way to evaluate cement quality. The principle of measurement is to record the transit time and attenuation of an acoustic wave after propagation through the borehole fluid and casing wall.

Cement Evaluation
Compensated Cement Bond Tool A newer generation tool that is lighter and more flexible for use in deviated holes. The principle of the measurement consists of recording two sets of receiver amplitudes and computing their ratio. This ratio is then used to compute attenuation.

Cement Evaluation
Cement Evaluation Tool This tool evaluates the quality of the cementation in eight directions with very fine vertical resolution.

Perforating
Shaped Charges Wireline Perforating Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns