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AppliedEnergyConversion

AppliedEnergyConversion Eeng 428

4/10/2010

Water flowing from higher level to lower level has kinetic energy which can be converted to

mechanical energy and then electrical energy.

The hydro-energy in flowing water is a function of weight of water and the head through

which the water falls.

Hydro-energy is an easily storable, conventional renewable energy.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Introduction

I t d ti

The question is how much water can be stored for channelizing through penstocks and

hydro turbines, economically and conveniently,

The water

Th

t stored

t d in

i the

th upper reservoir/

i / lake/

l k / pondd constitutes

tit t the

th primary

i

energy.

The water flows through the pressure pipe line and through the hydro- turbine and draft tube

to the tail race.

Th hydro-turbines

The

h d t bi

d i the

drive

th generators

t andd the

th water

t is

i discharged

di h

d through

th

h tail-race.

t il

The potential energy is stored water in the reservoir at high head is converted into kinetic

energy in the flowing water.

Th flowing

The

fl i water

t converts

t the

th energy into

i t mechanical

h i l rotary

t energy in

i the

th hydro

h d turbine.

t bi

4/10/2010

Hydro Electric Schemes have a reservoir or a pool on one side of the darn and turbine generator

units on the other side at lower level.

The Head of water results in the flow.

Energy is proportional to total weight of upper level water than can flow through turbine multiplied by

the Head of fall.

The head of water and flow rate have decisive influence on the choice of the turbine.

The types of Hydro Plants are:

1. High Head

3. Low Head.

2. Medium Head

4. Underground high head.

Reservoir is created in a valley by building a dam across a river flowing through the

valley at reasonably high level.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Typical

T i l Hydro-Electric

H d El t i Power

P

Plants

Pl t

The power plant is built on the downstream side of the dam. Water from the reservoir may be taken

through pressure pipe, tunnel, penstock etc. up to turbine.

The plant rating range covers a few hundred kW to a few thousand MW.

4/10/2010

High Head Scheme has a large reservoir on higher level and water from high level

reservoir flows through pressure pipe to the turbine and is finally discharged into the

tail race.

race

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

The

Th figures.

fi

below

b l illustrate

ill t t typical

t i l conventional

ti l H

Hydro

d R

Reservoir

i Schemes.

S h

The upper reservoir is usually formed by constructing a dam on a river valley at high

level.

The excess water from the reservoir is discharged through the gates in the dam.

4/10/2010

The tail race water usually meets the river

along the down-stream.

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Medium

Medium-Head

Head Hydro Electric Power Plants.

Medium Head Scheme has usually a darn

on a river forming the reservoir on the river

side and a hydro-electric

y

power p

p

plant on the

lower level. The tail race water is discharged

into the river.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

The low head schemes are generally small hydro schemes

rated up to 15 MW.

Low Head Scheme is usually with a

b

barrage*

* on a flowing

fl i

river

i

and

d turbinet bi

generator units mounted' within the nozzle

shaped tubular passage through the barrage.

Low Head Schemes are generally Run-ofRiver schemes with a low high

g barrage

g or weir

across a river or a canal. The bulb type or tube

type turbine-generator is installed axially within

the passage of water through the draft tube.

4/10/2010

* river barrier: an artificial barrier built across a river or canal

to provide water or prevent flooding.

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

T bi

Turbine

,. ; ; .

,.-, l

Pumps:

Turbines:

n (rpm)

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

P

Pump

n (rpm)

loss

Centrifugal

g

10-80 HH&SD

35-400 MH&MD

Mixed flow

70-180 MH&MD

300-1000 LH&LD

Axial flow

150-320 LH&LD

Pelton

10 40 HH&SD

10-40

Francis

Kaplan

P/QH

4/10/2010

loss

QH/Pi

Q

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Underground Hydro

Hydro-Electric

Electric Power Plant.

Underground Hydro Electric Power Plants are built at lower level and inside a cave. The tail

race water is discharged through a tunnel into the downstream path of the river.

4/10/2010

The small hydro power plants are considered as nonconventional. Hydro-Electric Projects

rated up to and including 15 MW, are called Small Hydro Projects. Projects rated up to and

including 1 MW rating are called Mini Hydro Projects.

Projects

P

j t rated

t d up to

t 100 kW are called

ll d Micro

Mi

Hydro

H d Projects.

P j t The

Th tterms are somewhat

h t

arbitrary and not exact. Conventional Hydro Projects are generally in the range of 100 MW

and above.

y

Projects

j

is different from that of Conventional

Hydro Projects.

The Mini/Micro/Small Hydro Projects are further classified as Low Head/Medium Head/ High

head Projects:.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Large

> 100 MW

Low Head

Medium

> 15 MW

Small Hydro

<15 MW

High Head

Mini Hydro

<1 MW

Micro Hydro

<100 kW

4/10/2010

2 to 20 m

> 150 m

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Run-of-the River Plants are built across continuously flowing river with minor

seasonal variation in flow. A barrage is built across the river and turbines are housed

within the barrage. The upstream-side of the barrage has a small pool of water at

hi h level

higher

l

l than

th the

th downstream

d

t

side

id off the

th barrage.

b

Th run-off the

The

th river

i

plants

l t are

of small, mini or micro size and employ low head: Bulb Turbine or Pit Turbine or Tube

Turbine.

Diversion

Di

i Canal

C

l Schemes.

S h

Th

These

are also

l Run-of-the

R

f th River

Ri

S h

Schemes.

Th partt

The

of the water from the main river is diverted by means of a flat canal to a Weir at a

suitable geographic location.

Multi-Step River Valley Schemes. Three or more reservoirs are built at different

l

levels

l along

l

th path

the

th off flowing

fl i river.

i

Th discharge

The

di h

off first

fi t power plant

l t is

i used

d for

f

filling the second reservoir at lower level, and so on.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

The

Th run-off

ff the

th river

i

plant

l t is

i built

b ilt in

i the

th weir.

i The

Th tail

t il race water

t flows

fl

t the

to

th

main downstream of the original river.

Pumped Storage Plants. During off-peak period the machine operates as motorpump and

d converts

t electrical

l t i l energy to

t potential

t ti l hydro

h d energy storage.

t

D i peakk

During

load on the electric grid, the machine operates in Turbine-Generator mode and

converts Hydro energy to electrical energy.

4/10/2010

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

10

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Energy

gy and Power of the water flow

Hydraulic energy is available wherever water can be collected at a higher level and made to flow

through the turbine to lower level. Hydraulic energy is proportional to Qt X H.

Method used for determination of hydro-energy

hydro energy potential based on Beruni

Berunis

s formula.

formula

(See Fig. below)

e2 = h2/ +

p2 2 V2 2

;

+

2g

g

L1

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

1-2

-2

P

P V 2 2 V2 2

E1 2 = E1 E2 = g W h1 + 1 h2 + 2 + 1 1

g

g

2g

E12 = E1 E2 = g W ( 1 2 ) = g W H12 ;

P1 2 =

E 1 2

W

= g

H 1 2 = g Q 1 2 H 1 2 ;

T

T

for determination of its power.

4/10/2010

11

Where,

L1-2 a given

i

segment/distance

t/di t

off water

t flow,[m]

fl [ ]

h1,h2 a vertical Position of a relative Potential energy taken from the

centre of gravity of each sectioned planes,[m]

density of the water

water,[kg/m

[kg/m3]

g gravitational acceleration of a free fall object,[m/s2]

1,2 coefficient of non-uniform distribution of water speed (kineticenergy)

gy) along

g the sectioned line. = 1.03 1.1

V1 average speed of the flow at the sectioned line,[m/s]

v1 actual speed of the flow of water at the given point of the

sectioned line,[m/s]

p2 pressure at the given point of the water flow,[Pa]

Q1-2 discharge of the water [m3/sec]

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

12

p2 2 V2 2

e2 = h +

+

;

2g

g

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

gy of water flow at the g

given section by

y taking

g the mass of the water = 1 N.

p2

/

The summation of h2 + g = h2

E1 2

/

2

which determine the reserve of relative Potential energy at the given section.

P1

P2 1 V12 2 V2 2

= E1 E2 = g W h1 +

h +

+

g 2 g

2g

P1

- relative potential energy at given point/section with respect to centre of gravity and additional pressure,[m].

g

1 V12

2g

- relative kinetic energy of the fluid. If v1 = v2, the kinetic energy difference can be neglected

If the cutting planes 1-1 and 2-2 are approaching each other ( then V1=V2 and P1=P2),

therefore, the total potential energy will be:

Where,

E1-2 Potential energy

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

E1 2 = E1 E2 = g W ( 1 2 ) = g W H1 2 ;

equal to the level of free falling of water flow within the given segment

L1-2.

4/10/2010

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School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Average

g Power on the g

given section P1-2 ((kg/m

g or Watt)) is the ratio of p

potential flow E1-2 to the time in sec:

P1 2 =

E1 2

W

= g H1 2 = g Q1 2 H1 2 ;

T

T

N m3

N m

J

=

=

= watt

tt

m

m3 sec

sec

sec

Or having 1kgsec m/sec = 9.80665 watt, = 1000 kg/m3 (average value of density) and will be found

P1-2(kW) under the given Q 1-2 (m3/s) and H 1-2 (m):

in [kW]

1 2 H1-2

1 2;

or P1-2 in MW:

P1-2 =

Q1-2 H1-2

; in [MW]

102

;

For determining energy in kWh

kWh, we multiply P1-2 by T1 (hr),

(hr)

Hence

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

Where 1 kWh = 3.610

3 6106 Joules

Time in the year, T yearly = 8760 hrs.

Yearly electrical energy will be, 85,936 Q H1-2

Sometimes it is convenient to take W in m3 (W=Qt) so the energy in kWh can be

express as,

E1 2 =

W H1 2

;

367.2

4/10/2010

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Types of Hydro-Turbines

The prime movers for the generators installed in a hydroelectric station are Water turbines, in which the

PE and KE of the water are converted in to the mechanical energy needed for rotating the turbine

runners and generator shaft.

The choice of turbine depends on head H and flow rate Q. There are three types of turbine.

The selection of a water turbine depends up on various factors such as working head, available

discharge, speed, output and nature of load. The effective head under which the turbine is to operate

gives the first guide to the selection of the type of the turbine.

turbine For H= 300 m and above,

above an Impulse

turbine is employed.

Reactive types are not suitable for such high heads as due to high velocity of water; there will be a

rapid wear and friction losses.

Impulse Turbine (Pe1ton wheel) is used for high heads, 100 to 1000m flow rate of 2 to 100 m3/s.

Reaction Turbine (Francis) is used for medium heads, 5 to 30m flow rate of 5 to 500 m3/s.

Propeller Turbine (Kaplan) is used for low heads,2 to 100m and flow rate of 5 to 900 m3/s.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

4/10/2010

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

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Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

1. Hub of runner

1

3. Spiral casing

6. Bearing

2

4. Shaft

5. Wicket Gates

7. Generator

4/10/2010

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

25

In propeller turbine (Kaplan) the blades are pushed by propelling action of the water.

Generally the turbine and generator, exciter are mounted on the same vertical axis or horizontal

axis.

Choice of Hydro Turbines and Characteristics

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

In impulse turbine high velocity water from nozzles creates impulse on the buckets of

pelton wheel.

Low

6-50

Medium

1

15-500

High

200-1000

1

Hydro Turbine

Type

Water

storage

Actual speed, Na (rpm)

Specific speed

(kW-m units)

Kaplan

(Propeller)

Flowing river

Pond

50 -250

40 80

Francis

(Reaction)

Storage,

Pond

100- 500

60 400

Pelton

(Impulse)

Large Lake,

Reservoir

200- 1000

300- 900

300

4/10/2010

26

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

penstocks into turbine. The flow is control- led by

y the control vanes ((or g

gates))

operated by hydraulic mechanism operated by the governor. After flowing through the turbine, the water flows

into the tail-race.

In some hydro-electric systems, several hydro power stations are located at different levels.

Hydro-electric power stations are located on the lower side of a dam.

The power developed by a water turbine (its shaft output) is dependent on the volumetric rate of water

flow through it and the head of the water.

[k

/

]

Where,

Q the rate of flow of water through the turbine [m3/sec]

H - the water head [m]

stru - the efficiency of the structure (water channel

channel, head

head, penstock pipe and drought tube etc.)

etc )

Pst . =

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

turbine the efficiency of the turbine for min and max capacities, the range differs from 0.88 up to 0.94.

1000 Q H

s t g = 9.81 Q H ;

102

Where,

station - the station efficiency

capacities, the range differs from 0.95 up to 0.98.

4/10/2010

27

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Types

T

off Turbines

T bi

for

f Small

S ll Hydro

H d

In case of Large Hydro Schemes, turbines are designed to suit site parameters.

In case of small turbines Standard Packages are available with the manufacturers and

choice is made from them.

them This saves the design time.

time

The types of standard designs for Small Hydro are:

Cross Flow Turbine.

Bulb-Turbine.

Pit Turbine with Horizontal Axis.

Pit Turbine with inclined Axis.

Horizontal Axis Francis Turbine.

Horizontal Axis Impulse Turbine.

Small

Small Francis with vertical axis.

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

The types of turbines for low head and low speeds are Propeller type Reaction Turbines

with Kaplan runner.

The types of constructions in propeller type include

Fixed Blade Propeller (Kaplan) Turbine.

Adjustable Blade Propeller (Kaplan) Turbine

Axial Flow Propeller Turbines

Tube

Pit

Bulb

4/10/2010

28

Type

Head ,m

Discharge ,m3.

Speed* ,rpm

Rating ,kW

7.5-100

0.15-5.0

100-1000

50-1000

Bulb (Package)

5-18

4-25

187-500

150 4500

150-4500

S-Type (Tubular)

3-18

1.5-40

120-750

50-5000

Vertical Tubular

5-18

2-20

300-750

300 750

300-750

Horizontal Francis

20-300

0.6-17

300-1000

500-5000

Horizontal PeIton

75 400

75-400

033

0.3-3

120 1000

120-1000

100 5000

100-5000

Cross flow

Typ

e

Copyright 2009, Ta

assTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

Cross flow

Bulb (Package)

S-Type

(Tubular)

Vertical

Tubular

Horizontal

Francis

Horizontal

PeIton

Speed* Rating kW

Head m

Discharge

m3.

7.5-100

0.15-5.0

100-1000 50-1000

5-18

4-25

187-500 150-4500

3-18

1.5-40

120-750

50-5000

5-18

2-20

300-750

300-750

20-300

0.6-17

300-1000 500-5000

75-400

0.3-3

120-1000 100-5000

rpm

29

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Hydro-energy is a clean and renewable energy. The hydroelectric power generation does not produce

pollution. The hydro energy is renewed naturally by rain-water and by melting of snow on high mountains during

summers.

The natural renewable energy is stored in the high level reservoir and used whenever necessary. In this

regard, it is different from the solar and wind energies which cannot be stored in huge quantities.

Very huge Hydro-electric power plants in range of several hundred to a few thousand MW rating are

operating satisfactorily with lowest operating costs and no pollution in several nations in the world.

Hydro-Energy Technology is environment-friendly, renewable and simple.

More than 35 Hydro electric power plants in the world are rated more than 1000 MW

MW, some are rated above

5000 MW. A coal fired thermal power plant of such a capacity would result in environmental pollution beyond

permissible limits.

Transport of raw energy is natural by gravity.

The other fossil fuelled power plants have to depend on transportation of fuel up to power plant.

The operating

p

g cost of hydro

y

electric p

power p

plants is low and the renewable energy

gy resource

occurs free of cost. The price rise of fossil fuels does not affect the price of hydro energy.

The life of hydro-electric plants is 40 to 80 years.

Initial capital cost is high and construction periods are long for conventional large Hydro-Electric Power Plants.

Large hydro potential is usually away from load centers and additional investment is necessary for

transmission of bulk power from large remote hydro-electric power plants to distant transmission network.

Recently, long distance HVDC Transmission Systems have been installed successfully for this purpose and

Large Hydro Electric Projects can be built far away from load centers without limitation of transmission system.

Hydro-electric power plants have operational flexibility. They can be started quickly, stopped quickly. Auxiliaries

are simple. Hydro-electric plant can be operated as a base load plant or a peak sharing plant.

Hydro-Thermal coordination helps in conserving precious fossil fuels and utilizing natural water during

monsoon (or summer water from snow)

snow).

Mile reservoirs are necessary for supplying water for drinking, irrigation, industries, power plants, fisheries,

aqua-bio energy farms, forests etc. and the water let out from tail race is usable for these multi purposes. Thus

the electric power is received as a renewable bonus.

4/10/2010

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School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Flexibility of operation.

operation

Excellent peaking performance.

Suitable for remote, rural, agricultural areas.

Efficiency of turbine is very high.

Long service life.

Low operating cost. Requires few operating staff.

Civil construction is simple and compact with local materials and labour.

Hydro Power Plants are environment friendly and compatible with the environment (unlike

fossil fuel plants which emit CO2, S0x, NOx, Particulate Matter and Nuclear Power Plants

associated with radioactive wastes).

The major

Th

j environmental

i

t l issues

i

t be

to

b analyzed

l

d before

b f

planning

l

i

and

d sanctioning

ti i

a Hydro

H d

Scheme are however related with the reservoir volume and tailrace water flow and their impact

on the population, agriculture, geography, geology, forests, aquatic life, etc. The impact is

related with the catchment area. The permits from environmental authorities for large hydro

projects

p

j

should be taken in advance.

Hydro Schemes are multipurpose. The water is used before and after power generation and

there is no wastage of water. Only the head is lost during power generation.

4/10/2010

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

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Diversion weir -Chara Chara in 1995/97

Catchment area 16,300 km2

Spillway -1787.00 mast./635 m long

Average Discharge - 118 m3/s

Firm Release - 110 m3/s

Flood Peak at PH 1720 m3/s

Water discharge, max. - 150 m3/s

Gross head 53 m

Installed

I t ll d capacity

it -73

73 MW

Yearly energy production - 359 GWH

Level differences of 59 m

Francis Type Turbine, 36.8 MW(Each)

Turbine Rated Head 52.3 MW

Turbine Rated speed 214.3 rpm

Turbine Rated Discharge (Each) 75 m3/s

Intake gates

Turbine Rated Head 52.3 m

Poundage capacity - 80,000

Double circuit 132 KV Transmission line

m3

Generator Transformer Rated Voltage

13.8/132 KV

Firm Energy (Total) 400 GWH/Year

332 m

Generator Rated Power Factor 0.9

Generator Voltage 13.8 KV

Surface penstock 2X 4.60 m

Generator Rated Capacity (Each) 40 MVA

Rectangular canal,

LXW X H

(1,500 X 17 X 8.5)m

Copyright 2009/10,, TassTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Tiss abay

Out flow

regulation

Nile river

down stream -35 km

45 m fall

Installed capacity - 11.4 MW.

Water discharge, max. 30 m3/s

Gross head 53 m

Generator Transformer Rated Voltage

3.3/32 KV

4/10/2010

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

P

Pmax

P

Pmax

,%

,%

Stand-by

units

HEPP

Storage

type

Paverage

4

Pmax

Pmax

SEPP

&

NEPP

Pmin

b)

Copyright 2009/10,, TassTad

a)

a Load Curve and its formation; b Power Curve and its coverage; 1- Constant and 24hrs operating factories' loads;

2- Load of factories with three shifts ; 3- Load of factories with three shifts ;

4 load for electric transport; 5 Factories with single shift; 6 lighting load; 7 Self usage for electric power station;

PR Pump regime, R Turbine regime.

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Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Surplus flow

. Intake head works

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1 - ; 2- ; 3- - ; 4 - ; 5 - ; - ; 7 - ; 8 -

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5- - ( 1500 , 1=1,8 ):

1

; 2 ; i;4

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P=200 kW

D of the turbine =1m

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(.,PG =300;P=310=20m;n=200/;D=4):

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The following points should be taken into account while selecting the site for a hydro-electric

PowerStation :

i. Availability of water. Since the primary requirement of a hydro-electric power station is the

availability of huge quantity of water, such plants should be built at a e.g., place (river, canal) where

adequate water is available at a good head.

ii. Storage of water. There are wide variations in water supply from a river or canal during the year.

This makes it necessary to store water by constructing a dam in order to ensure the generation of

power throughout the year. The storage helps in equalizing the flow of waters that any excess quantity

of water at a certain period of the year can be made available during times of very low flow in the

river This leads to the conclusion that site selected for a hydro-electric

river.

hydro electric plant should provide adequate

facilities for erecting a dam and storage of water.

iii. Cost and type of land. The land for the construction of the plant should be available at reasonable

price. Further, the bearing capacity of the ground should be adequate to with-stand the weight of heavy

equipment to be installed.

Copyright 2009/10,, TassTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Choice

Ch i off Site

Sit for

f Hydro-electric

H d

l t i Power

P

Stations

St ti

iv. Transportation facilities. The site selected for a hydro-electric plant should be accessible

by rail and road so that necessary equipment and machinery could be easily transported.

It is clear from the above mentioned factors that ideal choice of site for such a plant is near a river

in hilly areas where dam can be conveniently built and large reservoirs can be obtained.

4/10/2010

57

W = Volume of water x density

( mass of 1 m3 of water is 1000 kg)

= (5 x 106) x (1000)

= 5 x 109 kg

= 5 x 109 x 9981

81 N

= (5 x 109 x 981) x (200) x (075) watt . sec

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

of capacity 5 x 10 6 m3 at a head of 200 m. Find total the energy available in

kWh if the overall efficiency is 75%.

3600 x 1000

= 2.044 106 kWh OR 2.044 MWh

4/10/2010

58

Solution:Solution:

Weight of water available, W = 94 x 1000 = 94000 kg/sec

Water head, H = 39 m

Work done/sec = W x H = 94000 x 981 x 39 watts

= 35, 963 x 103 W = 35, 963 kW

This is gross plant capacity.

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Example

E

l 2.

2 It has

h been

b

estimated

ti t d that

th t a minimum

i i

run off

ff off approximately

i t l

94 m3/sec will be available at a hydraulic project with a head

of 39 m.

Determine(i) firm capacity

(ii) yearly gross output. Assume the efficiency of the plant to be 80%.

= 080 x 35,963 = 28,770 kW

ii. Yearly gross output = Firm capacity x Hours in a year

= 28,770 x 8760 = 252 x 106 kWh

4/10/2010

59

a head of 100 meters. Calculate the electrical energy generated per hour per cubic

meter of water if the hydraulic efficiency be 086 and electrical efficiency 092.

Solution:Water head, H = 100 m ;

discharge Q = 1 m3/sec;

discharge,

overall = 086 x 092 = 079

Wt. of water available/sec, W = Q x 1000 x 981 = 9810 N

Power produced = W x H x overall

= 9810 x 100 x 079 watts

= 775 x 103 watts = 775 kW

Copyright 2009/10,, TassTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

60

* The total rainfall cannot be utilizedd as a part of it is loost by evaporation or absorption by groound. Yield

factor indicates thhe percentage of raiinfall available for uutilization. Thus 800% yield factor meaans that only

80% of total rainffall can be utilized.

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Example 4.

4 Calculate the average power in kW that can be generated in a

hydro-electric project from the following data,

Catchment area

= 5 x109 m2 ; Mean head, H = 30 m

Annual rainfall, F = 125 m ;

Yield factor, K = 80 %

Overall efficiency, overall = 70 %

If the load factor is 40% , what is the rating of generators installed ?

Solution:S

l i

Volume of water which can be utilized per annum

= Catchment area x Annual rainfall x *yield factor

= ((5 x 109) x ((125)) x ((08)) = 5 x 109 m3

Weight of water available per annum is

W = 5 x 109 x 981 x 1000 = 4905x 1012 N

Electrical energy available per annum ,

= W x H x overall = (4905

(49 05 x 1012) x (30) x (0.7)

(0 7) watt-sec

tt

= (49. 05 x 1012) x (30) x (0.7 ) kWh = 2.86 x 108 kWh

Max. demand

1000 x 3600

g ppower = 286 x 108/8760 = 32648 kW

Average

Max. demand = Average demand /Load factor = 32648/0.4 = 81620 kW

Therefore, the maximum capacity of the generators should be 81620 kW.

4/10/2010

61

i.

Calculate the total electrical energy that can be generated from the power

station.

ii. If a load of 15, 000 kW has been supplied for 3 hours, find the fall in

reservoir

i level.

l l

Solution.

i. Wt. of water available,

W = Volume of reservoir x wt. of 1 m3 of water

= (5 x 106) x (1000) kg = 5 x 109 x 9.81 N

Overall efficiency, overall = 0.95 x 0.9 x 085 = 0.726

Electrical energy that can be generated

Copyright 2009/10,, TassTad

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Example

E

l 5.

5 A hydro-electric

h d

l t i power station

t ti has

h a reservoir

i off area 2.4

2 4 km

k 2 andd

capacity 5 x106 m3. The effective head of water is 100 meters. The penstock,

turbine and generation efficiencies are respectively 95%, 90% and 85%.

= (5 x 109 x 9 8 1) x (100)x (0.72) kWh = 9,89,175 kWh

1000x 3600

4/10/2010

62

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

63

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

64

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

65

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

66

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Plant

Plant

Tekeze

GilgeGhibeII

Beles

GGIII(PhaseI)

Halele

Werebesa

Halele+Worabesa

ChemogaYeda1

Chemoga Yeda 2

ChemogaYeda2

Genale2

Genale3

Genale2&3

Geba1

Geba2

Geba1&2

AleltuWest

Baro1

Baro2

Plant

Baro1&2

AleltuEastStage1

Calub(CCGT)Natgas

Caradobi

TendahoGeothermal

AlutoGeothermal

TkezeII

GibeIV

CapacityMW

Capacity MW

300

420

460

1870

100

326

422

162

118

171

177

348

194

150

344

265

166

479

CapacityMW

645

189

600

1800

30

10

450

4/10/2010

1900

Status

U.construction

U.construction

U.construction

U.construction

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Status

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

Candidate

67

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

No.

Plant

InstallCapacityMW

Avg.EnergyProduction

GWh/Yr

Koka

Koka

43 2

43.2

171

AwashII

32

126

AwashIII

32

126

Fincha

134

531

MelkaWakena

153

604

TisAbayI

11.4

80

TisAbayII

73

279

GilgilGibeI

184

642

ICSHydro

662.6

2559

ICSDiesel

85.5

582

10

AlutoLa.Geothermal

7.3

TotalICS

755

3141

TotalSCS

36

39

TOTALICS+SCS

791

3180

4/10/2010

68

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

No.

HydroPlants

InstalledCapacity,MW

Tekeze

300

GilgilGibeII

420

GilgilGibeIII

1870

Beles

460

4/10/2010

69

GONDER I 15B

U/Un = 98.11

phi = -19.42

DABAT 15

U/Un = 94.35

phi = -21.08

P = 2.75

Q = 1.38

cosphi = 0.89

I = 0.03

P = -0.62

Q = -0.46

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

P = 0.61

Q = 0.41

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.03

P = 1.49

Q = 1.10

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.02

P = -1.49

Q = -1.10

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.02

P = 1.48

Q = 0.99

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.07

GONDER I 66

U/Un = 98.70

phi = -19.02

P = -0.61

Q = -0.41

DABAT 66

U/Un = 97.17

phi = -19.20

P = -1.48

Q = -0.99

P = -1.51

Q = -0.46

cosphi = -0.96

I = 0.01

P = -0.61

Q = -0.41

P = -0.61

Q = -0.45

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

P = -2.75

Q = -1.33

cosphi = -0.90

I = 0.03

GONDER II 15

U/Un = 97.20

phi = -20.41

P = 5.49

Q = 1.25

P = 4.58

Q = 1.01

P = 2.38

Q = 1.60

cosphi

p = 0.83

I = 0.11

P = -4.77

Q = -3.20

BAHIR DAR I 15

U/Un = 96.62

phi = -23.02

P = -0.02

Q = 2.68

cosphi = -0.01

I = 0.03

P = -2.00

Q = -2.69

cosphi = -0.60

I = 0.31

P = -0.01

Q = -0.05

cosphi = -0.11

I = 0.00

P = 0.00

Q = -2.85

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0.26

TIAB1 G1

U/Un = 105.00

phi = -20.11

G

TIS ABAY I 45

U/Un = 100.69

phi = -21.64

P = -1.96

Q = -5.12

cosphi = -0.36

I = 0.07

P = 1.98

Q = 2.48

cosphi = 0.62

I = 0.04

P = 2.00

Q = 2.69

P = 26.30

Q = 46.02

cosphi = 0.50

P = -0.05

I = 0.15

Q = -12.16

TIAB1 G3

U/Un = 100.64

phi = -21.64

P = -1.69

Q = -1.22

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

FINOTE SELAM 15

U/Un = 98.16

phi = -17.60

P = -20.70

Q = -13.91

P = -3.61

Q = -2.00

P = - 37.96

Q = -44.87

cosphi = -0.65

I = 0.16

P = 2.68

Q = 1.23

P = 2.73

Q = 1.20

FICTITIOUS_FIN_DEB

U/Un = 99.07

phi = -12.86

P = 2.28

Q = 1.53

cosphi = 0.83

0 83

I = 0.11

FINCHAA 15A

U/Un = 90.99

phi = -13.64

P = -2.28

Q = -1.53

P = -1.06

Q = -0.71

P = -2.97

Q = -1.99

FINCHA SUGAR I 15

U/Un = 96.41

phi = -15.74

P = -5.35

Q = -3.63

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.06

P = 2.97

Q = 1.99

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.14

P = -2.98

Q = -2.14

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

FINCHA SUGAR I 66

U/Un = 98.88

phi = -14.05

P = -7.76

Q = -5.61

P = 1.06

Q = 0.71

P = 61.11

Q = 107.47

107 47

P = 32.82

Q = 10.19

cosphi = 0.95

I = 0.09

P = 7.76

Q = 5.61

FINCHAA 66

U/Un = 100.12

phi = -13.86

FINCH G1

P = -33.00

Q = -13.76

U/Un

= 99.00

cosphi = -0.92

phiI ==1.51-7.40

P = 32.82

Q = 10.13

cosphi = 0.96

I = 0.09

P = -33.00

Q = -13.70

cosphi = -0.92

I = 1.51

P = -33.00

Q = -13.71

cosphi = -0.92

I = 1.51

P = 27.72

Q = 15.69

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.08

FINCH G3

U/Un = 99.00

phi = -7.37

P = 33.00

Q = 13.76

P = 33.00

Q = 13.70

GP = 33.00

Q = 13.71

P = 61.11

Q = 107.47

P = -1.25

Q = -0.84

FINCHAA 15 B

U/Un = 99.09

phi = -14.62

P = 70.20

Q = 41.67

cosphi = 0.86

I = 0.38

P = -71.14

Q = -43.34

cosphi = -0.85

I = 0.38

U/Un = 95.28

phi = -23.39

P = 28.00

Q = 20.58

GEFARSA 230

U/Un = 94.53

phi = -20.32

P = 37.90

Q = 45.97

cosphi = 0.64

I = 0.16

P = 29.87

Q = 15.98

cosphi = 0.88

I = 0.16

P = 29.87

Q = 15.98

cosphi = 0.88

I = 0.16

P = 29.87

Q = 15.98

cosphi = 0.88

I = 0.16

P = -30.05

Q = -18.23

cosphi = -0.85

I = 0.09

P = -30.05

Q = -18.23

cosphi = -0.85

I = 0.09

P = -30.05

Q = -18.23

cosphi = -0.85

I = 0.09

P = 81.90

Q = 26.75

cosphi = 0.95

I = 0.23

MUGER 132

U/Un = 90.89

phi = -24.95

P = 29.45

Q = 15.80

cosphi = 0.88

I = 0.15

Q = -6.53

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.05

P = 18.99

Q = 2.90

cosphi = 0.99

I = 0.05

P = 2.56

Q = 1.72

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.12

N1858

U/Un = 98.15

METU 15

U/Un = 95.52

P = -2.56

phi = -6.92

P = -19.07

Q = 15.38

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.06

SOR G1

U/Un = 104.00

phi = 0.00

P = 2.47

Q = 0.55

cosphi = 0.98

I = 0.02

P = -2.49

Q = -0.71

cosphi = -0.96

I = 0.48

P = -2.49

Q = -0.71

cosphi = -0.96

I = 0.48

P = 2.49

Q = 0.71

P = 2.49

Q = 0.71

P = 123.22

Q = 23.47

SOR G2

U/Un = 104.00

phi = -0.00

P = -3.18

Q = -2.14

P = 76.12

Q = -47.40

P = -69.44

Q = -1.61

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.18

WOLISSO 15

U/Un = 95.58

phi = -20.20

P = 3.35

Q = 2.25

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.17

P = -2.71

Q = -1.90

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = -60.00

Q = 26.56

cosphi = -0.91

I = 2.77

P = -60.00

Q = 26.56

cosphi = -0.91

I = 2.77

P = 60.00

Q = -26.56

P = -2.71

Q = -1.90

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = 2.69

Q = 1.81

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.12

P = 59.80

Q = -27.70

cosphi = 0.91

I = 0.17

P = 59.79

Q = -33.94

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.18

GIGI G1

U/Un = 99.00

phi = -8.09

8 09

G

P = -27.09

Q = 0.44

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.07

P = -1.96

Q = 4.77

cosphi = -0.38

I = 0.02

NEKEMTE 132

U/Un = 98.54

phi = -21.25

P = -2.03

Q = -1.42

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = -2.04

Q = -1.43

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = 2.01

Q = 1.35

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.10

P = 2.02

Q = 1.36

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.10

NEKEMTE 15

U/Un = 97.94

phi = -21.72

P = 60.00

Q = - 26.56

cosphi = 0.01

I = 0.02

MENDI132

U/Un = 98.67

phi = -21.58

MIZAN 132

U/Un = 94.02

phi = -23.16

P = -4.57

Q = -3.07

P = -0.95

Q = -0.68

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

BEDELE 15

U/Un = 97.09

phi = -25.03

P = 1.68

Q = 1.13

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

U/Un = 97.25

phi = -16.19

MIZAN 33

U/Un = 95.39

phi = -24.93

P = 1.26

Q = 0.85

P = -1.26

Q = -0.85

P = -1.81

Q = -1.22

TEPI 15

U/Un = 97.23

phi = -28.25

P = 6.44

Q = - 1.56

cosphi = 0.97

I = 0.03

P = -6.44

Q = 1.71

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.03

P = -10.05

Q = - 0.76

cosphi = -1.00

I ==0.05

P

10.05

Q = 0.76

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.05

P = 10.05

Q = 0.90

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.05

P = 1.68

Q = 1.13

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

P = 0.78

Q = 0.58

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.01

P = 3.99

Q = 2.68

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.19

U/Un = 98.31

phi = -18.70

P = -2.31

Q = -1.55

P = 1.95

Q = 1.31

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.09

GILGEL GIBE 15

U/Un = 101.06

phi = -20.11

ALABA 132

U/Un = 83.82

phi = -28.05

P = -3.99

Q = -2.68

DUKEM 45

U/Un = 88.84

phi = -27.95

P = 3.46

Q = 2.33

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.16

KOKA 230

U/Un = 95.49

phi = -19.15

P = 58.55

Q = 28.94

cosphi = 0.90

I = 0.17

P = 4.85

Q = 3.26

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.23

U/Un = 99.57

phi = -14.87

Q = -0.58

P = 27.35

Q = 9.48

cosphi = 0.94

I = 0.07

P = -27.50

Q = -12.08

cosphi = -0.92

I = 1.28

MEWA G1

U/Un = 98.00

phi = -10.62

P = -3.92

Q = 4.10

cosphi = - 0.69

I = 0.03

0 03

BONGA 132

U/Un = 95.14

phi = -22.50

P = -1.86

Q = -1.25

P = 6.46

Q = 4.34

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.31

P = -98.86

Q = -37.15

cosphi = -0.94

I = 4.33

MEWA G2

U/Un = 99.00

phi = -10.69

P = 27.50

27 50

Q = 16.06

P = 98.86

98 86

Q = 37.15

P = 20.00

20 00

Q = 15.91

P = -52.87

MEWA QG4

= -19.39

= -0.94

U/Un = Icosphi

99.00

= 0.25

0 25

phi = -11.86

P = 10.35

Q = 3.90

cosphi = 0.94

I = 0.05

P = 4.44

Q = 3.38

P = 1.22

Q = 0.82

BONGA 33

U/Un = 97.94

phi = -24.15

ARBAMINCH 132

U/Un = 80.07

phi = -30.36

P = 6.44

Q = 4.76

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.04

BONGA 15

U/Un = 95.71

phi = -26.01

Q = - 1.68

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.04

P = 4.04

Q = 3.57

P = 3.99

Q = 2.68

Wit h Breaker

P = -6.44

Q = -4.76

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.04

P = 6.40

Q = 4.30

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.31

P = -6.40

Q = -4.30

ARBAMINCH 15

U/Un = 95.51

phi = -32.80

P = 4.09

Q = 2.84

P = -1.77

Q = -0. 74

DILLA I 45

U/Un = 79.94

phi = -33.83

P = 3.76

Q = 2.73

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.07

DILLA 132KV

YIRGA ALEM 15

U/Un = 83.41

U/Un = 85.00

phi = -28.99

phi = -35.36

P = 1.92

Q = -2.38

cosphi = 0.63

I = 0.02

P = -3.76

Q = -2.73

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.07

P = -1.90

Q = 2. 40

cosphi = -0.62

I = 0.02

P = -0.02 P == 0.02

-0.00

Q = -0.02 Q == 0.02

-0.00

P = 1.74

Q = 0. 65

P = 0.00

Q = 0. 00

P = -1.74

Q = -0.65

cosphi = -0. 94

KOKA G1

U/Un = 98.00

phi = -19.45

KOKA G2

U/Un = 98.00

phi = -19.48 G

P = 10.00

Q = 7.67

P = 11.00

Q = 4.90

P = 11.45

Q = 6.13

P = -13.00

Q = -8.27

Q = -2.10

P = - 3.87

Q = -2.18

cosphi = -0.87

I = 0.04

P = 1.57

Q = 1.05

P = -4.12

Q = -2.61

P = 4.12

Q = 2.61

GOBESA 66

U/Un = 94.93

phi = -23.14

P = 2.52

Q = 1.11

P = 4.13

Q = 2.61

P = 2.53

Q = 1.12

P = 3.71

Q = 2.78

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.04

P = - 1.18

Q = -0.05

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.01

P = 1.17

Q = 0.85

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.01

ROBE 15

U/Un = 92.76

phi = -25.75

AWASH II 15A

U/Un = 93.63

phi = -23.78

P = 1.85

Q = 1.21

cosphi = 0.84

I = 0.09

P = -1.17

Q = -0.85

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

P = 1.16

Q = 0.78

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.03

P = -3.74

Q = -0.92

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.02

P = 6.53

Q = 4.83

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.04

DILLA I 15

U/Un = 86.71

phi = -35.55

P = -3.74

Wit h Breaker

P = 1.77

Q = 0.74

P = 2.24

Q = 1.50

P = -3.26

Q = -2.41

P = 3.74

HAGEREMARIAM132KV

Q = 2.51

HAGEREMARIAM33KV

cosphi = 0.83

U/Un

= 83.43

I = 0.20

U/Un = 82.94

P = -3.27

Q = -2.42

phi = -29.41

phi = -30.21

SHAKISSO 15

U/Un = 73.97

phi = -36.84

P = 2.23

Q = 1.50

P = 0.99

Q = 0.37

P = 3.26

Q = 2.41

SHAKISSO 66

U/Un = 76.06

phi = -34.80

P = -1.89

P = 1.89

Q = -0. 74

Q = 0.74

P = -1.09

Q = -1.80

cosphi = -0.52

I = 0.02

P = 6.54

Q = 4.46

cosphi = 0.83

PI = -6.55

0.07

Q = -4.46

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.07

P = 1.09

Q = 1.80

cosphi = 0.52

I ==0.02

P

-1.09

Q = -1.79

cosphi = -0.52

I = 0.02

P = 5.32

Q = 4.18

II 15

U/Un = 97.49

phi = -30.18

P = 3.03

Q = 2.04

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.14

P = -3.05

Q = -2.15

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.03

P = 11.42

Q = 8.65

P = -12.00

Q = -10.16

P = 11.42

Q = 8.65

ASELA 132

U/Un = 92.35

phi = -24.38

P = -12.42

Q = -8.74

cosphi = - 0.82

I = 0.07

P = 2.78

Q = 1.87

P = 2.73

Q = 1.83

P = -8.14

8 14

Q = -6.57

P = -0.50

Q = -0.18

P = 2.35

Q = 1.58

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

AWAS2 G3

U/Un = 100.00

phi = -19.03

G

P = -13.00

Q = -10.06

P = 13.42

Q = 8.83

P = 0.50

Q = 0.18

AWASH III 15

U/Un = 94.11

phi = -23.34

P = 27.48

Q = 18.44

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.16

P = -20.68

Q = - 13.03

cosphi = -0.85

I = 0.12

P = -6.80

Q = -5.40

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.04

P = 6.74

Q = 4.53

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.33

ASELA 15

U/Un = 95.29

phi = -28.70

BUTAJIRA 132

U/Un = 88.76

P = 3.73

phi = -25.90

Q = 2.63

BUTAJIRA 33

cosphi = 0.82

U/Un = 96.05

I = 0.02

P = -3.73

P = 3.73

P = 1.38

phi = -26.82

Q = -2.63

Q = 2.63

Q = 0.93

P = 27.98

Q = 18.77

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.16

HARAR II 33

U/Un = 98

98.54

54

phi = -29.46

P = -8.12

8 12

Q = -6.56

HARAR II 132

U/Un = 91.75

phi = -27.06

P = -11.71

Q = -5.64

cosphi = - 0.90

I = 0.06

CHELENKO 15

U/Un = 95.94

phi = -30.57

P = -2.35

Q = -1.58

P = 12.00

Q = 10.16

P = 13.00

Q = 10.06

AWAS3 G1

U/Un = 100.00

phi = -18.77

P = 6.53

Q = 4.47

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.07

HARAR I 66

U/Un = 98.91

phi = -28.91

P = -2.18

Q = -1.49

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

P = 2.16

Q = 1.36

cosphi = 0.85

I = 0.10

HARAR I 15

U/Un = 96.79

phi = -30.53

HARAR I 45

U/Un = 103.91

phi = -32.69

P = -2.18

Q = -1.49

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

P = -2.18

Q = -1.49

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

P = 2.16

Q = 1.36

cosphi = 0.85

I = 0.10

P = 2.16

Q = 1.36

cosphi = 0.85

I = 0.10

P = -2.90

Q = -1.67

cosphi = -0.87

I = 0.13

P = -3.59

Q = -2.41

P = 2.88

Q = 1.50

cosphi = 0.89

I = 0.04

JIJIGA II 15

U/Un = 96.24

phi = -32.25

P = -2.88

Q = -1.50

cosphi = -0.89

I = 0.04

P = -11.48

Q = -8.75

JIJIGA II 33

U/Un = 97.46

phi = -31.24

P = -5.62

Q = -3.78

JIJIGA I 45

U/Un = 96.37

phi = -33.32

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = 2.82

Q = 1.60

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.04

0 04

P = -1.44

Q = -0.57

cosphi = -0.93

I = 0.02

P = 1.38

Q = 1.04

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.02

BABILE 45

U/Un = 101.29

phi = -32.93

P = -1.38

Q = -1.04

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.02

JIJIGA II 132

U/Un = 88.60

phi = -28.44

P = 11.48

Q = 8.75

P = 5.62

Q = 3.78

BABILE 15

U/Un = 103.01

P = 1.35

phi = -35.75

Q = 0.91

P = -1.37

Q = -1.04

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.02

P = 11.48

Q = 8.75

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.07

P = 5.81

Q = 3.91

P = -5.81

Q = -3.91

P = -1.35

Q = -0.91

P = -2.33

Q = -1.57

P = -5.51

Q = -3.70

P = 8.12

Q = 6.56

P = -2.36

Q = -1.69

1.69

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

HARAR II 66

U/Un = 99.22

phi = -28.89

P = 5.36

Q = 4.21

P = 8.14

Q = 6.57

P = 1.36

Q = 0.91

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = -1.36

Q = -0.91

JIJIGA I 15

U/Un = 103.21

phi = -36.11

COMPUTER MODELLING OF THE INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM

Created by :

Checked by :

Scale : No scale

Approved by :

P = 1.01

Q = 0.38

P = - 2.00

Q = -0.74

cosphi = -0.94

I = 0.02

P = 3.27

Q = 2.42

P = 1.89

Q = 0. 74

DILLA33KV

cosphi = 0.93

I = 0. 01

U/Un = 95.31

phi = -29.00

MODIFIED FROM PRP1 PROJECT 33.20/71

Date : 27.07.2009

ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA

P = -1.88

Q = -0.69

NEGELE BORENA 66

U/Un = 71.51

phi = -35.76

P = 0. 00

DILLA15B Q = 0.00

U/Un = 95.31

phi = -29.00

P = -4.47

Q = -3.00

P = -6.54

Q = -4.46

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.07

P = 2.36

Q = 1.69

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.03

P = -6.74

Q = -4.53

P = 20.27

Q = 14.04

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.12

DIRE DAWA II 15

U/Un = 100.86

= -26.05

P = -3.03

Q = -2.04HARAR

P = 13.00

Q = 8.14

P = 13.42

Q = 8.83

P = 1.28

Q = 0.86

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

ALEMAYA 66

U/Un = 98.72

phi = -28.78

CHELENKO 66

U/Un = 96.85

phi = -29.04

-29 04

U/Un = 96.51

phi = -22.74

P = -1.16

Q = -0.78

P = -28.58

Q = -18.37

cosphi = - 0.84

I = 0.16

P = 1.08

Q = 1.94

cosphi = 0.49

I = 0.02

P = 13.00

Q = 8.27

P = -12.42

Q = - 8.74

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.07

GOBESA 33

U/Un = 95.40

phi = -23.97

U/Un = 95.27

phi = -25.64

P = -1.29

Q = -0.94

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

P = 3.82

Q = 0.96

cosphi = 0.97

I = 0.03

P = -3.82

Q = - 0.96

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.03

P = -3.66

Q = -2.46

P = -1.87

Q = -1.37

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

U/Un = 96.16

phi = -22.83

ADAMITULU 132

U/Un = 89.19

phi = -25.66

P = -4.67

Q = -3.55

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.03

P = 31.20

Q = 20.28

cosphi = 0.84

I = 0.17

P = -1.33

Q = -0.97

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

P = - 1.08

Q = -1.94

cosphi = -0.49

I = 0.02

P = -2.40

Q = -1.16

cosphi = - 0.90

I = 0.02

AWAS2 G1

U/Un = 99.00

phi = -18.70

P = 0.48

Q = 0.52

P = -3.87

Q = -0.69

cosphi = -0.98

I = 0.03

P = -2.60phi

Q = -1.74

P = 1.08

Q = 1.97

cosphi = 0.48

I = 0.02

P = 12.42

Q = 8.79

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.07

P = -1.96

Q = -1.32

P = -11.86

Q = -9.57

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.07

P = 4.63

Q = 3.11

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.23

P = 3.82

Q = 0.98

cosphi = 0.97

I = 0.03

P = -2.50

Q = -1.79

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

P = 2.49

Q = 1.67

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.12

P = 8.58

Q = 5.77

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.41

P = -8.63

Q = -6.54

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.05

AWAS2 G2

U/Un = 99.00

phi = -18.63

G

P = 1.48

Q = 0.79

P = 1.82

Q = 1.25

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.09

P = 14.38

Q = 9.35

P = 3.87

Q = 0.69

P = 1.32

Q = 0.88

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = -2.49

Q = -1.67

P = -13.00

Q = -8.14

Q = -1.38

P = -1.84

Q = -1.41

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.02

P = -14.38

Q = -9.35

P = -10.44

Q = -7.02

P = -10.50

Q = -6.29

cosphi = -0.86

I = 0.06

P = 11.45

Q = 6.13

AWASH II 15B

U/Un = 95.82

P = 12.45

Q = 6.33

P = -2.05

phi = -23.26

ROBE 66

U/Un = 91.52

phi = -23.41

P = -8.58

Q = -5.77

P = 12.42

Q = 8.79

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.07

P = 12.45

Q = 6.33

WONJI 15

U/Un = 96.17

phi = -25.78

P = 8.63

Q = 6.54

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.05

P = 10.47

Q = 7.00

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = -7.99

Q = -4.38

cosphi = -0.88

I = 0.04

P = -2.07

Q = -1.46

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = -0.01

Q = -0.02

cosphi = -0.50

I = 0.00

ALEMAYA 15

U/Un = 96.51

phi = -30.35

WONJI 132

U/Un = 95.92

phi = -22.97

P = -1.84

Q = - 0.49

cosphi = -0.97

IP==0.01

-8.63

Q = - 6.51

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.05

P = 7.97

Q = 5.12

cosphi = 0.84

I = 0.04

P = -28.17

Q = -17.92

cosphi = - 0.84

I = 0.15

P = -1.65

Q = 4.01

cosphi = -0.38

I = 0.16

P = 1.68

Q = -3.81

P = -7.97

Q = -5.12

cosphi = -0.84

I = 0.04

P = 2.24

Q = 1.51

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

ADAMITULU 15

U/Un = 95.27

phi = -28.68

Q = -2.51

P = -3.99

Q = -2.68

P = 0.00

WOLAYITA SODDO 15

Q = 0.00

U/Un = 81.83

WOLAYITA SODDOphi

66 = -36.51

YIRGALEM15B

U/Un = 85.48

U/Un = 93.96

phi = -33.36

phi = -30.32

KOKA G3

U/Un = 98.00

phi = -19.81

P = -10.00

Q = -7.67

BUTAJIRA 15

U/Un = 95.55

phi = -27.23

P = -3.23

Q = -2.17

YIRGALEM33KV

U/Un = 94.41

phi = -29.65

P = -11.00

Q = -4.90

P = -0.00

Q = -0.00

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0.00

DIRE DAWA I 66

U/Un = 100.24

phi = -28.36

P = -1.38

Q = -0.93

P = -1. 93

Q = 3.65

cosphi = -0.47

I = 0.02

P = -4.04

Q = -3.57

P = -0.14

Q = -1.48

P = -11.00

Q = -4.85

P = 2.05

Q = 1.38

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.10

P = -4.13

Q = -2.61

MU G1

U/Un = 100.00

phi = -23.62

P = -31.35

Q = -20.24

cosphi = -0.84

I = 0.17

DIRE DAWA I 15

U/Un = 97.85

P = 10.44

phi = -30.31

Q = 7.02

P = 1.62

Q = -4.16

cosphi = 0.36

I = 0.02

P = -1.68

Q = 3.81

cosphi = -0.40

I = 0.58

P = 0.06

Q = 0.73

P = 31.35

Q = 20.24

cosphi = 0.84

I = 0.17

P = -12.76

P == 12.76

Q

-13.50

cosphi

Q

= 13.51

= -0.69

I = 0.08 = 0.69

cosphi

I = 0.08

U/Un = 96.18

phi = -25.25

P = 1.66

Q = -3.99

cosphi = 0.38

I = 0.16

P = 2.33

Q = 1.57

P = -4.09

Q = - 2.84

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.07

P = 3.23

Q = 2.17

P = 10.58

Q = 5.25

cosphi = 0.90

I = 0.06

U/Un = 82.12

phi = -29.15

P = -6.54

U/Un = 94.74

phi = -25.69

MU DIESEL 15

U/Un = 102.93

phi = -24.53

P = 10.07

Q = 8.18

P = 11.00

Q = 4.85

U/Un = 96.18

phi = -19.07

P = -12.90

Q = -9.64

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.08

SHAKISSO 132

U/Un = 80.77

phi = -30.24

P = 7.41

Q = 6.22

P = -1.22

Q = -0.82

P = -3.19

Q = -2.14

U/Un = 96.36

phi = -25.22

P = -31.41

Q = -20.21

cosphi = -0.84

I = 0.17

P = -0.02

Q = -4.49

P = -2.63

Q = -1.77

U/Un = 95.91

phi = -22.98

P = 1.83

Q = 0.80

cosphi = 0.92

I = 0.01

P = 0.08

Q = 0.75

P = 10.87

Q = 3.23

U/Un = 96.73

P = -3.13

phi = -18.73

P = 52.68

Q = 19.18

cosphi = 0.94

I = 0.25

P = -44.43

Q = -13.97

cosphi = -0.95

I = 0.21

P = 41.21

Q = 11.36

cosphi = 0.96

I = 0.22

P = 26.40

Q = 9.88

cosphi = 0.94

I = 0.15

YIRGA ALEM 45

U/Un = 87.38

phi = -33.57

P = -7.41

Q = -6.22

P = 7.96

Q = 5.43

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

KOKA HYDRO 15

U/Un = 94

94.45

45

phi = -23.51

P = -2.27

Q = -1.71

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.04

U/Un = 95.34

P = 1.57

Q = 1.06

phi = -23.55

P = -4.22

Q = -3.15

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.03

P = -6.65

Q = -0.97

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.04

Wit h Breaker

P = -0.00

Q = -0.13

P = -27.07

Q = -36.87

P = -12.77

Q = -13.38

cosphi = - 0.69

I = 0.08

P = -0.02

Q = -7.43

With Breaker

P = 0.00

Q = 0.13

P = 10.85

Q = 3.16

P = 52. 87

Q = 19.39

cosphi = 0.94

I = 0.25

P = -20.00

Q = -15.91

cosphi = -0.78

I = 1.08

P = -13.23

Q = -3.61

cosphi = - 0.96

I = 0.07

P = -17.93

17 93

Q = - 3.56

cosphi = -0.98

I = 0.09

P = 17.75

Q = 4.28

cosphi = 0.97

I = 0.10

Wit h Breaker

P = 2.67

Q = 6.42

P = -0.02

Q = -0.17

P = 10.07

Q = 8.18

P = 2.31

Q = 1.66

P = -53.23

Q = -24.01

cosphi = -0.91

I = 0.15

P = 19.88

Q = 14.02

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.06

AWASA 132

U/Un = 84.38

phi = -27.61

P = -4.24

Q = -3.17

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.03

P = 4.20

Q = 2.83

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.20

P = -6.46

Q = -4.34

P = -6.49

Q = -4.70

cosphi

p = -0.81

I = 0.04

P = -10.48

Q = 0.33

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.05

P = -0.00

Q = 0.00

P = 27.07

Q = 36.87

P = 10.87

Q = 3.23

U/Un = 96.46

phi = -22.76

MEWA G3

U/Un = 102.00

phi = 0.00

SHASHEMENE 15

U/Un = 95.66

phi = -29.50

P = -2.31

Q = - 1.66

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.04

P = -59.49

Q = -11.15

cosphi = - 0.98

I = 0.15

P = 97.63

Q = 9.59

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.25

P = -27.50

Q = -16.06

cosphi = -0.86

I = 1.35

G

P = 27.50

27 50

Q = 12.08

P = -59.49

Q = -11.15

cosphi = -0.98

I = 0.15

P = 27.34

Q = 13.22

cosphi = 0.90

I = 0.08

P = -2.33

Q = -1.70

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

AWASA 15

U/Un = 96.38

YIRGA ALEM 132 phi = -30.27

U/Un = 83.16

JIMMA

15= -28.76

phi

P = 4.21

Q = 2.82

U/Un = 95.73

P = -8.41

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.20

Q = -5.65

phi = -22.91

P = -2.24

Q = -1.51

P = -4.63

Q = -3.11

JIMMA 132

P = 20.89

Q = 0.26

U/Un = 96.78

cosphi = 1.00

phi = -21.01I = 0.09

P = 19.89

Q = 13.37

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

U/Un = 88.77

phi = -23.36

P = 10.85

Q = 3.16

P = 2.27

Q = 1.71

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.04

MODJO 15

U/Un = 93.73

phi = -29.72

P = -4.89

Q = -3.69

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.03

SHASHEMENE 132

U/Un = 85.74

phi = -26.67

AGARO 15

U/Un = 97.79

phi = -23.90

P = 10.00

Q = 7.50

P = 19.91

P = -19.91

Q = 13.29

Q = -13.29

cosphi = 0.83cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.11

I = 0.11

P = 4.36

Q = 3.85

P = 2.00

Q = 1.35

P = -4.85

Q = -3.26

P = 2.31

Q = 1.55

cosphi = 0.83

0 83

I = 0.11

P = 0.00

Q = 0.00

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0.00

P = 2.33

Q = 1.70

P = -2.33

cosphi = 0.81

Q = -1.70

I = 0.02

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

P = -10.71

P = 13.04

Q = -3.59

Q = 5.29

cosphi = -0.95 cosphi = 0.93

I = 0.06

I = 0.07

G

P = 3.00

Q = 2.25

P = 10.00

Q = 7.50

G

G

U/Un = 106.93

phi = -21.43

G

G

P = 3.00

Q = 2.25

P = 24.31

Q = 27.65

P = 5.97

Q = 4.26

P

= -6.00

cosphi

= 0.81

Q

-4.50

I ==0.27

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.37

P = -20.00

Q = -15.00

cosphi = -0.80

I = 1.01

P = 19.92

Q = 13.27

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

P = - 19.92

Q = -13.27

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.11

P = -8.95

Q = -6.42

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.40

P = -4.36

Q = -3.85

P = 2.30

Q = 1.68

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.04

MODJO 45

U/Un = 93.11

phi = -26.99

ELALA GEDA 15

U/Un = 97.49

phi = -26.55

P = 1.73

Q = 1.16

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.09

P = -1.73

Q = -1.16

P = 58.55

Q = 28.94

cosphi = 0.90

I = 0.17

P = -6.74

Q = -4.85

U/Un = 95.41

phi = -23.49

DUKEM 15

U/Un = 91.84

phi = -29.11

P = -0.86

P = -1.75

Q = -1.29

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

DEBRE ZEIT I 15

U/Un = 89.36

phi = -30.31

HOSAINA 15

U/Un = 98.77

phi = -21.85

ALABA 15

U/Un = 95.19

phi = -29.91

P = - 19.93

Q = -13.22

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.11

P = 3.00

Q = 2.25

P = -2.30

Q = -1.68

cosphi = - 0.81

I = 0.04

P = 4.89

Q = 3.69

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.03

P = 2.64

Q = 1.90

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.05

P = -0.87

Q = -0.63

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

P = -27.68

Q = 1.86

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.07

P = -44.71

Q = -29.87

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.14

P = -44.71

Q = -29.87

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.14

cosphi = 0.68

I = 0.29

P = 0.86

Q = 0.58

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

P = 1.75

Q = 1.29

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.03

DEBRE ZEIT I 45

U/Un = 88.14

phi = -27.96

P = -3.73

Q = -2.51

P = 3.73

Q = 2.51

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.18

P = -6.00

Q = 6.02

cosphi = -0.71

PI = 0.04

= 6.74

P = 5.96

Q

= 4.85

Q = -6.39

KOKA 45

U/Un = 94.89

phi = -26.97

P = 13.73

Q = 1.23

cosphi

hi = 1.00

1 00

I = 0.06

P = -4.89

Q = -3.49

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

P = -8.84

Q = 2.26

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.04

DEBRE ZEIT II 15

U/Un = 96.50

phi = -24.82

P = -17.28

P = -1.77

Q = -1.27

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

P = 8.83

Q = -1.66

cosphi = 0.98

I = 0.04

Q = -11.61

P = -0.78

Q = -0.58

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

HOSAINA 132

U/Un = 98.10

phi = -19.12

P = -3.77

Q = -2.81

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.02

P = 19.93

Q = 13.22

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

P = 12.76

Q = 13.50

cosphi = 0.69

I = 0.08

P = -13.78

Q = - 0.32

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.06

P = -2.00

Q = -1.35

P = 15.05

Q = 3.21

cosphi = 0.98

I = 0.07

P = - 2.69

Q = -1.87

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.05

P = -4.01

Q = -2.89

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.07

AKAKI I 15

U/Un = 95.93

phi = -29.44

P = -0.77

Q = -0.52

P = -0.00

Q = 1.75

cosphi = -0.00

I = 0.01

U/Un = 95.14

AKAKI

45

phi = I-23.98

U/Un = 90.68

phi = -27.91

P = -0.79

Q = -0.50

ABA SAMUEL 15

U/Un = 87.08

phi = -30.01

U/Un = 95.46

phi = -21.81

P = - 7.52

Q = 3.85

cosphi = -0.89

I = 0.04

P = 3.75

Q = -18.65

cosphi = 0.20

I = 0.09

P = -16.98

Q = -0.36

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.08

P = -15.05

Q = - 3.20

cosphi = -0.98

I = 0.07

0 07

P = -8.83

Q = 1.66

cosphi = -0.98

I = 0.04

U/Un = 97.12

P = 0.77

phi = -29.14

Q = 0.52

P = -5.05

Q = -3.40

P = 1.63

Q = 1.17

P = -1.63

Q = -1.17

P = 7.38

Q = 4.33

cosphi = 0.86

I = 0.04

P = 3.59

Q = 2.42

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.17

P = -3.61

Q = -2.60

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

U/Un = 95.25

phi = -23.97

P = 16.93

Q = 0.88

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.08

P = -7.57

Q = -5.31

cosphi = - 0.82

I = 0.13

P = 7.49

Q = 5.26

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.13

P = -9.28

Q = -6.24

P = 2.37

Q = 1.15

cosphi = 0.90

I = 0.11

P = 27.07

Q = 36.87

cosphi = 0.59

I = 0.13

P = 9.18

Q = 6.21

P = 4.66

Q = 3.13

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.23

P = -3.08

Q = -2.32

P = 1.81

Q = 1.22

P = -1.77

TEPI

33

Q = -1.19

U/Un = 99.27

phi = -26.55

P = 1.68

Q = 1.13

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

P = 69.03

Q = 9.04

cosphi = 0.99

I = 0.18

P = 3.19

Q = 2.14

P = -3.13

P

Q == 3.08

-2.04

Q

= 2.32= -0.84

cosphi

cosphi

I = 0.03 = 0.80

I = 0.04

P = 5.39

Q = 4.30

P = -4.69

Q = -3.57

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.09

ABA SAMUEL 45

U/Un = 90.04

phi = -27.93

P = -2.41

Q = -1.34

cosphi = -0.87

I = 0.03

P = 5.75

Q = 3.16

P = -2.69

Q = -1.81

P = -3.00

Q = -2.25

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.19

BEDESA 15

U/Un = 94.01

phi = -30.36

P = -2.37

Q = -1.15

P = 2.41

Q = 1.34

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.03

YESU FACTORY 15

U/Un = 96.90

phi = -25.73

P = -10.12

Q = 1.54

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.05

I = 0.01

U/Un = 91.02

phi = -27.91

P = -1.70

Q = -1.25

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

P = 1.25

Q = 0.84

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

U/Un = 96

96.05

05

phi = -24.62

P = 2.98

Q = 2.15

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.13

P = 50. 51

Q = 61.30

cosphi = 0.64

I = 0.36

P = -3.49

Q = -2.59

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.02

BEDELE 132

U/Un = 97.62

phi = -21.54

P = 0.93

Q = 0.63

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

P = -5.92

Q = -0.52

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.03

P = -0.93

Q = -0.62

P = 0.93

Q = 0.62

P = 4.91

Q = 3.31

P = -1.78

Q = -1.27

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

TEPI 66

U/Un =P =94.04

1.77

Q = 1.19

MIZAN 15 phi = -24.80

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.09

U/Un = 96.17

P = 3.08

Q = 2.32

phi = -26.11

P = -1.70

Q = -1.25

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

P = -1.27

Q = -0.94

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

BEDESA 66

U/Un = 92.61

phi = -27.29

P = -2.43

Q = -1.12

cosphi = -0.91

I = 0.03

P = -2.51

Q = -1.69

P = 8.92

Q = 5.92

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.05

U/Un = 105.21

phi = -22.58

P = -4.79

Q = -2.46

cosphi = -0.89

I = 0.05

P = -3.59

Q = -2.42

P = 3.91

Q = -2.62

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.02

P = -0.41

Q = 5.22

cosphi = -0.08

I = 0.02

P = -3.46

Q = -2.33

P = 0.40

Q = -1.70

cosphi = 0.23

I = 0.01

P = -4.44

Q = -3.38

P = 5.87

Q = 4.23

MIZAN 66

U/Un = 95.67

phi = -24.65

P = -4.62

P = 4.57

Q = -3.54

Q = 3.07

cosphi = 0.83 cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.03

I = 0.22

I = 0.00

P = -5.87

Q = -4.23

Q = 1.87

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.04

P = -1.78

Q = -1.27

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

P = 5.39

Q = 3.57

P = -21.26

P = -1.97

Q = 2.02

Q = -1.40

cosphi = -1.00

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.10

I = 0.01

P = -9.78

Q = -7.41

cosphi = - 0.80

I = 0.17

P= 9

9.35

35

Q = 7.12

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.17

P = -5.05

Q = - 3.68

P = 8.99

P == -3.94

cosphi

-0.81

Q = -3.50

Q = 7.18

I = 0.03

cosphi = 0.93

cosphi = -0.48

I = 0.04

I = 0.04

P = 6.43

Q = -1.18

cosphi = 0.98

I = 0.03

P = 1.88

Q = -1.11

cosphi = 0.86

I = 0.01

P = 3.92

Q = -5.97

cosphi = 0.55

I = 0.03

P = 5.05

Q = 3.68

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.03

U/Un = 93.21

phi = -20.45 AWASH 7 KILO 11A

U/Un = 106.08

phi = -22.00

P = 44.39

Q = 36.80

cosphi = 0.77

I = 0.16

P = - 26.66

Q = -9.75

P = 11.58

cosphi = -0.94

Q = 11.65

I = 0.14

cosphi = 0.71

I = 0.08

P = -0.00 P = -0.04

Q == -0.00

3.90 Q = -7.79

P

cosphi

= -0.00

Q

= -0.00

I = 0.02= 0.00

cosphi

ASSOSA132

U/Un = 99.07

phi = -21.68

P = 8.80

Q = -0.50

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.04

P = -10.85

Q = -8.91

P = 12.84

Q = 8.63

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.62

P = 5.87

Q = 4.23

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.03

P = 44.39

Q = 36.80

cosphi = 0.77

I = 0.16

P = -12.84

Q = -8.63

P = 1.95

Q = -0.89

cosphi = 0.91

I = 0.01

GHIMBI 15

U/Un = 98.66

P = 0. 05

phiQ ==3.89-21.85

ADDIS SOUTH I 15

U/Un = 93.04

phi

= -31.10

P = 2.55

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.04

P = -1.70

Q = -1.25

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

P = -3.62

Q = -2.31

cosphi = -0.84

I = 0.04

P = 3.77

Q = 1.06

cosphi = 0.96

I = 0.02

P = 27.01

Q = - 2.66

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.12

P = -2.57

KALITI I 45 BB1

Q = - 1.86

cosphi = -0.81

U/Un = 91.71

I = 0.04

ADDIS SOUTH

phi

hi = -27.89

27I 45

89

U/Un = 87.72

phi = -27.89

15

U/Un = 96.01

phi = -19.04 QP == 2.55

1.87

P = -3.50

Q = -2.35

P = -1.95

Q = -1.31

With Breaker

GHIMBI 132

U/Un = 98.94

phi = -21.64

P = 0.02

Q = 18.16

P = -2.57

Q = -1.86

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.04

P = -4.66

Q = -3.55

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.09

P = -3.78

Q = 2.05

cosphi = - 0.88

I = 0.02

P = 60.00

Q = -20.92

P = -4.04

Q = -2.71

Q = 0.62

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

P = 0.02

Q = 18.16

P = -51.20

Q = -70.96

cosphi = -0. 59

I = 0.24

P = 9.52

Q = 8.04

P = -4.25

Q = -1.88

cosphi = -0.91

I = 0.02

P = -0.05 P = -0.95

Q = -0.68

Q = 2.25 cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

cosphi = -0.02

I = 0.01

P = 0.93

P = 0.02

Q = 18.16

P = - 69.05

Q = -8.66

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.18

P = -27.03

Q = 2.73

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.12

P = -60.00

Q = 20.92

cosphi = -0.94

I = 2.66

AGARO 132

U/Un = 96.93

phi = -21.30

P = -0.02

Q = 18.16

P = -5.42

Q = -3.64

GUDER 15

U/Un = 102.02

phi = -20.61

P = 63.41

Q = -92.26

P = -0.02

Q = 18.16

P = 50.70

Q = 61.50

cosphi = 0. 64

I = 0.37

P = 1.25

Q = 0.84

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = 2.32

Q = 1.12

cosphi = 0.90

I = 0.10

P = -0.03

Q = -0.08

phi = -29.70

P = -1.27

Q = -0.94

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

AWASH 7 KILO 15

U/Un = 102.66

phi = -28.86

P = 5.32

Q = 3.81 P = 2.69

Q = 1.81

ASEBE TEFERI 15

U/Un = 95.27

phi = -31.24

P = -2.32

Q = -1.12

P = -2.34

Q = -1.37

cosphi = -0.86

I = 0.03

P = 4.77

Q = 2.49

cosphi = 0.89

I = 0.05

P = -5.75

AMIBARA 15 Q = -3.16

U/Un = 99.15

P = -5.32

Q = -3.81

P = -9.11

Q = 6.99

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.05

P = -3.80

Q = 19.03

cosphi

hi = -0.20

0 20

I = 0.09

P = 10.85

Q = 8.91

P = 4.62

Q = 3.11

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.23

P = 6.59

Q = 4.70

P = 27.03

Q = -2.73

cosphi = 0.99

I = 0.12

P = 4.22

Q = 5.24

cosphi = 0.63

I = 0. 03

P = -0.02

P = 59.87

Q = 14.36 P = 59.87 Q = 18.16

Q = 14.36

P = -51.39

Q = -71.20

cosphi = -0.59

I = 0.24

P = -1.88

Q = 2.33

cosphi = -0.63

I = 0.01

P = 3.53

Q = 2.64

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.04

P = 1.16

Q = 0.78

GIGI G2

GIGI G3

U/Un = 98.37

U/Un = 99.00 U/Un = 100.00

phi = -18.59

-18 59

phi = -8.09 G phi = -8.16

P = 63.59

Q = 83.60

P = -123.22

Q = 23.47

P = -51.11

Q = -70.86

cosphi = -0.58

I = 0.24

P = 50.42

Q = 61.21

cosphi = 0.64

I = 0.36

P = 9.69

Q = 8.09

P = 4.06

Q = 2.51

P = 7.92

Q = 5.93

P = -1.76

Q = -1.19WOLKITE

P = -62.44

Q = -4.34

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.16

P = 62.42

Q = 4.74

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.16

P = 2.69

Q = 1.81

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.12

P = 10.28

Q = -0.05

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.05

P = -9.52

Q = -8.04

P = -41.31

Q = -35.94

cosphi = -0.75

I = 0.25

P = 1.60

Q = 1.38

P = 1.75

Q = 1.12

cosphi = 0.84

I = 0.08

WOLKITE 66

U/Un = 95.51

phi =33-17.57

WOLKITE

U/Un = 95.35

phi = -17.75

P = 69.07

Q = 8.28

cosphi = 0.99

I = 0.18

P = 5.42

Q = 3.81

cosphi = 0.82

0 82

I = 0.03

P = -44.05

Q = - 37.22

cosphi = -0.76

I = 0.26

P = -10.86

Q = -7.30

P = 2.71

Q = 1.82

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.13

P = 1.76

Q = 1.19

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.09

FITCHE 15

U/Un = 93.55

= -35.80

U/Un = 98.07

phi = -13.77

P = 31.80

Q = 41.91

P = 31.80

Q = -41.91

P = 63.41

Q = 92.26

P = 6.45

Q = -13.01

13 01

P = -6.44

Q = 1.56

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.03

P = 1.71

Q = 0.94

P = -1.77

Q = -1.27

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

P = 1.75

Q = 1.23

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.09

P = -3.35phi

Q = -2.25

P = 59.79

Q = -33.94

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.18

P = - 5.43

Q = -2.31

cosphi = -0.92

I = 0.03

P = 63.59

Q = -83.60

N1853

U/Un = 99.82

P = -1.76

Q = -1.37

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.02

P = -3.37

Q = -2.52

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.04

P = 1.74

Q = 1.17

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

P = -1.74

Q = -1.17

P = -25.84

Q = -21.34

cosphi = -0.77

I = 0.15

METEHARA 132

U/Un = 95.68

phi = -24.31

P = 5.03

Q = 3.38

cosphi = 0.83

P = 64.92

Q = 139.42

cosphi = 0.42

I = 0.41

P = -2.59

Q = -1.45

cosphi = - 0.87

I = 0.03

P = 2.59

Q = 1.45

P = 6.45

I = 0.24

P = -5.05

Q = -13.01

P = 6.45 Q = -3.68

cosphi = -0. 81

Q = 13.01I = 0.03

P = -65.05

Q = -139. 70

cosphi = -0.42

I = 0.41

P = 4.14

P = -4.17

Q = 2.78

Q = -2.95

cosphi

p = -0.82cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.20

I = 0.02

KALITI II 15A

U/Un = 95.16

phi = -29.37

P = -9.69

Q = -8.09

P = -3.50 P = 3.48

Q = -2.60 Q = 2.47

cosphi = 0.82

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.17

I = 0.23

P = 3.50

Q = 2.60

P = -2.73

Q = -1.89

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

MEKANISSA 15

U/Un = 96.67

phi = -24.32

P = 18.01

Q = 0.16

P = -10.43

Q = 5.12

cosphi = -0.90

I = 0.05

P = -12.46

Q = 9.48

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.07

P = 2.71

Q = 1.82

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.13

P = -1.16

Q = -0.78

P = -5.38

Q = -3.62

P = 76.12

P = -19.07

Q = -47.40

Q = 15.58

P = 30.49

Q = 2.10

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.14

P = -2.73

Q = -1.89

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

FITCHE 66

U/Un = 87.33

phi = -33.26

P = -1.75

Q = -1.24

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

FITCHE 33

U/Un = 95.37

phi = -34.50

P = 15.86

Q = -2.80

P = 76.12

Q = 47.40

P = 31.80

Q = 42.10

P = 31.80

Q = -42.10

P = 8.33

Q = 5.91

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.05

P = 43.99

Q = 37.15

cosphi = 0.76

I = 0.27

P = -8.29

Q = -5.57

P = -4.17

P = 4.14

Q = -2.95

Q = 2.78

cosphi = -0.82cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.02

I = 0.20

P = 25.75

Q = 21.41

cosphi = 0.77

I = 0.15

P = 15.65

Q = - 5.22

cosphi = 0.95

I = 0.08

MEKANISSA 132

U/Un = 95.05

phi = -23.68

P = -62.42

Q = -4.74

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.16

P = 19.07

Q = 15.58

P = 76.12

Q = 47.40

P = -4.94

Q = -1.09

cosphi = -0.98

I = 0.04

KALITI NORTH 15

P = 65.05

Q = 139.70

U/Un FICTITIOUS_SEB_KAL

= 97.72

cosphi = 0.42

phi = U/Un

-25.32= 93.65

I = 0.41

phi = -20.37

P = -8.33

Q = -5.89

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.05

ASEBE TEFERI 66

U/Un = 93.67

phi = -27.15

P = -0.00

P = -0.00Q = -0. 00

Q = -0.00

cosphi = 0.00

cosphi =I 0.00

= 0.00

I = 0.00

P = 0.03

Q = 0.08

AWASH 7 KILO 66

U/Un = 97.63

phi = -27.87

P = -5.03

Q = -3.38

NAZRETH II 132

U/Un = 95.40

phi = -22.77

P = 6.45

Q = 13.01

P = -18.66

P = 18.53

Q = -15.19

Q = 12.45

cosphi = -0.78cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.90

I = 0.11

U/Un = 94.97

phi = -24.17

P = -35.66

Q = - 31.26

cosphi = -0.75

I = 0.22

P = 0.00

Q = 0.00

KALITI I 15

KALITI I DIESEL 11

U/Un = 96.76

U/Un = 98.09

phi = -28.76

phi = -27.78

WOLISSO 66

U/Un = 93.08

phi = -17.81

Q = 3.76

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.06

P = 82.91

Q = 19.86

cosphi = 0. 97

I = 0.22

P = -1.13

Q = -0.76

GEFARSA 66

U/Un = 97.64

phi = -32.62

P = -1.60

P = -1.60

Q = -1.17

Q = -1.17

cosphi = -0.81cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

I = 0.03

P = 1.59

P = 1.59

Q = 1.07

Q = 1. 07

cosphi = 0.83 cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

I = 0.08

P = 5.12

P = 0. 00

Q = -0.00

cosphi = 0. 00

I = 0.00

AKISTA33

U/Un = 91.79

phi = -33.41

P = -0.02

Q = -0.05

cosphi = -0.38

I = 0.00

AKISTA66

U/Un = 91.79

phi = -33.41

P = 2.54

Q = 1.88

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.03

METEHARA 15

U/Un = 96.46

phi = -25.92

P = -36.82

Q = -24.74

P = -18.41

P = 18.28

Q = -14.99

Q = 12.29

cosphi = -0.78cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

I = 0.89

P = 37.07

Q = 30.18

P = 40.67 cosphi = 0.78

Q = 35.19 I = 0.23

cosphi = 0.76

I = 0.25

P = 13.20

Q = 11.99

P = 12.42

Q = -8.91

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.07

P = -55.55

Q = -47.54

cosphi = -0.76

I = 0.34

U/Un = 95.20

phi = -24.10

P = 35.39

Q = 2.36

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.16

P = 5.69

Q = 3.25

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.06

P = -5.69

Q = -3.25

cosphi = - 0.87

I = 0.06

GUDER 132

U/Un = 98.67

phi = -19.57

P = 2.47

Q = 0.55

cosphi = 0.98

I = 0.02

cosphi = -0.58

I ==0.03

P

-37.21

Q = -30.30

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.23

P = -13.20

Q = -11.99

KALITI II 132

U/Un = 94.60

phi = -24.28

P = -6.59

Q = -4.70

GHEDO 132

U/Un = 99.14

phi = -19.37

Q = -1.72

SOR 66

U/Un = 101.90

phi = -3.27

GEFARSA 45

U/Un = 98.87

phi = -28.21

P = -5.77

Q = -3.94

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.09

DEREBEREHAN33

U/Un = 87.81

AMIBARA 66

U/Un = 95.56

phi = -28.00

P = -12.82

Q = -9.77

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.24

P = 13.10

Q = 9.97

P = 0.02

Q = 0.05

cosphi = 0.38

I = 0.00

AKISTA 132

U/Un = 80.32

phi = -33.41

33 41

P = -0.00

Q = 0.00

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0. 00

DEBRE BIRHAN 15

U/Un = 95.69

P = -3.31

phi = -30.85

Q = -2.23

DEREBEREHAN15B

U/Un = 87.81

P = 12.76

Q = 8.57

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.63

P = -13.10

Q = - 9.97

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.24

P = -12.55

Q = -9.42

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.07

P = 9.11

Q = 6.22

P = -3.34

Q = -2.28

cosphi = - 0.83

I = 0.05

P = 0.00

Q = 0. 00

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0.00

P = -3.34

Q = -2.48

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.02

WEREGENU 15

U/Un = 95.22

phi = -30.12

COMBOLCHA 132

U/Un = 80.03

phi = -33.32

P = -1.55

Q = -1.04

P = 3.31

Q = 2.23

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.16

WEREGENU 132

U/Un = 92.15

P = -3.47

Q = -4.89 phi = -25.00

P = 12.50

Q = 8.40

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.60

G

P = -0.00

Q = -0.00

P = 7.96

Q = 5.35

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.39

P = 21.19

Q = 7.99

cosphi = 0.94

I = 0.11

Q = -5.65

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.11

P = 3.46

Q = 4.99

cosphi = 0.57

I = 0.03

P = -7.41

Q = -4.98

P = -0.02

Q = 2.41

cosphi = -0.01

I = 0.01

P = 15.39

Q = 8.39

cosphi = 0.88

I = 0.10

P = 1.55

Q = 1.04

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.07

P = -17.85

Q = -5.51

cosphi = -0.96

I = 0.09

U/Un = 87.81

phi = -28.31

P = 14.14

Q = 9.50

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.68

P = -21.94

P = 12.82

Q = 9.77

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.24

KALITI II 45

U/Un = 89.52

phi = -28.88

KALITI II 15B

U/Un = 96.58

phi = -27.12

P = -12.50

Q = -8.40

SEBETA 66

U/Un = 101.87

phi = -30.75

p

P = 2.07

Q = 1.39

P = -2.07

Q = -1.39

P = -2.59

Q = -1.96

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.03

P = -14.35

Q = -12.98

cosphi = -0.74

I = 0.09

P = -27.31

Q = -23.01

cosphi = -0.76

I = 0.17

P = - 4.81

Q = -0.39

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.02

P = -18.01

Q = 0.16

GHEDO 15

U/Un = 97.59

phi = -15.38

COTOBIE 45

U/Un = 88.43

phi = -31.25

ADDIS CENTER 15

U/Un = 94.03

NEFAS SILK 45

phi = -31.06

U/Un = 87.64

P = 27.07

Q = 18.20

phi = -28.88

cosphi = 0.83

P = 54.62

Q = 46.01

cosphi = 0.76

I = 0.34

P = 2.73

Q = 1.84

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.13

P = 7.66

Q = 5.39

P = -7.66

Q = -5.39

P = -7.70

Q = -5.41

SHOA ROBIT 15

U/Un = 96.55

phi = -31.13

P = -16.00

Q = -5.71

cosphi = -0.94

I = 0.09

P = 17.56

Q = 6.82

cosphi = 0.93

I = 0.10

P = -14.14

Q = -9.50

P = -9.89

Q = -9.56

P = 9.89

Q = 9.56

P = -30.58

Q = - 1.97

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.14

With Breaker

P = 4.86

Q = 1.32

cosphi = 0.97

I = 0.04

GEDJA 15

U/Un = 94.15

phi = -32.23

P = -83.22

Q = -17.26

cosphi = -0. 98

I = 0.22

P = 82.24

Q = 14.20

cosphi = 0.99

I = 0.21

P = - 2.28

Q = 0.64

cosphi = -0.96

I = 0.02

METU 66

U/Un = 100.23

phi = -3.72

U/Un = 85.51

phi = -29.94

P = 1.30

Q = 0.87

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.07

COTOBIE 132

COTOBIE 15B

U/Un = 92.67

U/Un = 96.83

phi = -24.82

phi = -33.01

Q = -0.00

P = 9.87

Q = 7.58

I = 1.34

U/Un = 92.50

phi = -24.90

P = -2.74

Q = -1.96

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.04

P = 2.73

Q = 1.84

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.13

DESSIE 15

U/Un = 95.47

P = -5.47

phi = -37.34

Q = -3.67

COMBOLCHA

15

U/Un = 92.44

phi = -35.21

P = 3.70

Q = 2.49

KOKA 15

U/Un = 88.60

phi = -31.95

GHEDO 230

U/Un = 98.45

phi = -15.09

P = 3.71

Q = 2.49

P = - 17.07

Q = 0.48

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.08

FICTITIOUS_GHE_GEF

U/Un = 97.58

phi = -16.37

P = -1.09

Q = -0.12

cosphi = - 0.99

I = 0.01

P = 2.19

Q = 0.94

cosphi = 0.92

I = 0.02

P = -0.00

Q = -0.01

cosphi = -0. 18

I = 0.00

GEFARSA 15B

P = -5.53

U/Un

= 104.05

Q = -3.71

phi = -29.31

P = 5.53

Q = 3.71

P = -8.03

Q = -6.53

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.05

ADDIS ALEM 15

U/Un = 94.00

phi = -28.86

P = -82.91

Q = -19.86

cosphi = -0.97

I = 0.22

P = 1.09

Q = 0.73

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.05

P = -54.16

Q = -36.39

P = 27.08

Q = 18.19

cosphi = 0.83

I = 1.34

P = -2.75

Q = -1.96

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.04

P = -7.87

Q = -4.88

cosphi = -0.85

I = 0.09

P = 3.92

Q = 2.43

P = 3.95

Q = 2.45

P = 7.70

Q = 5.41

P = -1.31

Q = -0.92

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

P = -1.56

Q = -1.11

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

COTOBIE 15A

ADDIS EAST I 45U/Un = 87.71

31 54

U/Un = 85

85.59

59 phi = -31.54

P = -9.87

phi = -31.23

Q = -7.58

P = 0.00

COMBOLCHA 66

U/Un = 85.92

phi = -35.96

P = -1.05

P = 1.04

Q = -0.77

Q = 0.70

cosphi = 0.83cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

I = 0.06

P = 1.31

Q = 0.92

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.02

ENDASELASIE 66

U/Un = 78.79

phi = -30.51

ENDASELASIE 15

U/Un = 86.47

phi = -31.51

NEFAS SILK 15

U/Un = 93.24

phi = -32.03

P = -27.31

Q = -23.00

cosphi = -0.76

I = 0.17

P = -4.75

Q = -3.19

P = 4.75

Q = 3.19

P = 17.01

Q = 13.70

cosphi = 0.78

I = 0. 11

ADDIS ALEM 45

U/Un = 94.74

phi = -28.29

P = -61.28

61 28

Q = -69.24

P = -1.09

Q = -0.73

GAMBELA 66

U/Un = 95.99

phi = -5.42

P = 9.26

Q = 6.22

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.46

P = -15.73

Q = 6.06

cosphi = - 0.93

I = 0.08

GEFARSA 15A

U/Un = 96.44

phi = -25.82

P = 14.73

Q = 12.23

P = 7.96

Q = 5.35

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.39

P = 1.07

Q = 0.80

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.01

P = -1.10

Q = -0.82

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

P = 12.57

Q = 8.45

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.65

P = 3.20

Q = 2.33

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.05

P = -61.28

61 28

Q = -69.24

P = -23.70

Q = -26.68

P = 23.70

Q = 26.68

P = 1.13

Q = 0.76

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = -14.73

Q = -12.23

P = 4.77

Q = 3.53

P = 61.28

Q = 69.24

P = 61.28

Q = 69.24

P = -9.35

Q = -7.19

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.17

ADWA 66

U/Un = 79.99

phi = -30.03

P = -1.32

Q = -0.42

cosphi = -0.95

I = 0.02

ADIGRAT 66

U/Un = 82.21

phi = -28.13

P = 1.28

Q = 0.86

P = -2.56

Q = -1.72

P = 16.98

Q = 0.36

cosphi = 1.00

I = 0.08

GAMBELA 15

U/Un = 92.52

phi = -7.85

P = -17. 02

Q = -13.68

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.11

MUGER 15

U/Un = 95.63P = -15.91

phi = -29.93Q = -10.69

P = -1.07

1.07

Q = -0.80

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.01

DEMBI DOLO 66

U/Un = 94.82

phi = -5.62

P = -4.77

Q = -3.53

P = -17.48

Q = - 11.54

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.10

P = -29.63

Q = -18.02

cosphi = -0.85

DerbaTap

U/Un

= 90.95

P=

-8.03

P = 0.95

Q = 0.65

P = -1.07

Q = -0.72

P = 1.07

Q = 0.72

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.05

ADIGRAT 15

U/Un = 81.78

phi = -28.53

P = 2.16

Q = 1.45

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

P = 39.99

Q = 24.07

SEBETA I 132

P = -35.40U/Un = 95.36

Q = -2.36

cosphi = -1.00

phi = -23.31

I = 0.16

P = 7.70

Q = 4.84

cosphi = 0.85

I = 0.09

P = -2.20

Q = -0.93

cosphi = - 0.92

I = 0.02

P = 2.11

Q = 1.54

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.03

P = 35.14

Q = 30.84

cosphi = 0.75

I = 0.22

P = -0.00

Q = 0.00

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0.00

P = 12.84

Q = 14.00

cosphi = 0.68

I = 0.28

P = -12.73

Q = -10.36

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.24

P = 4.81

Q = 0.83

cosphi = 0.99

I = 0.02

0.09

P I==17.02

Q = 13.68

cosphi = 0.78

I = 0.11

P = -0.95

Q = -0.65

DEMBI DOLO 15

U/Un = 91.39

phi = -8.05

P = 0.00

Q = -0.00

P

P=

= 1.28

1.29

Q

Q=

= 0.86

0.91

P = -2.17

Q = -1.53

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = 9.55

Q = 7.37

cosphi = 0.79

I = 0.18

DESSIE 66

U/Un = 83.82

phi = -36.14

WOLDIA 66

U/Un = 79.73

phi = -36.58

P = -1.06

P = 1.05

Q = -0.78

Q = 0.71

cosphi = 0.83cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.01

I = 0.06

P = -2.09

Q = -1.41

I = 0.02

P = -61.11

Q = -107.47

P = -61.11

Q = -107.47

P = -39.99

Q = -24.07

ADDIS WEST 15B

U/Un = 90.10

U/Un = 92.39

P = 1.14

P = -12.57P = -9.26 phi = -33.74

phi = -35.36

Q = 0.83

Q = -8.45Q = -6.22

cosphi = 0.81

GEDJA 45

I = 0.02

U/Un = 91.48

P = -1.14

phi = -30.80

Q = -0.83

cosphi = -0.81

P = -28.48

Q = -7.35

cosphi = - 0.97

I = 0.14

P = -20.86

Q = -17.17

cosphi = -0.77

I = 0.13

P = -20.87

Q = -17.15

cosphi = -0.77

I = 0.13

U/Un = 93.12

phi = -24.32

FINCH G4

U/Un = 104.00

phi = -5.72

P = -28.00

Q = -20.58

cosphi = -0.81

I = 1.40

FINCH G2

U/Un = 99.00

phi = -7.37

P = 6.61

Q = 4.50

P = -1.26

Q = -0.88

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = -82.85

Q = - 8.49

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.21

P = 32.82

Q = 10.13

cosphi = 0.96

I = 0.09

P = 20.70

Q = 13.92

cosphi = 0.83

I = 1.00

P = 9.24

Q = 3.54

cosphi = 0.93

I = 0.14

P = 0.65

Q = 0.20

P = -12.76

Q = -8.57

P = -1.15

Q = -0.73

SEBETA

45A

cosphi = -0.84

0.02

U/Un =I =92.61

phi = -30.75

ADDIS WEST 45

U/Un = 87.71

phi = -30.20

P = -41.41

Q = -27.83

P = 20.71

Q = 13.91

cosphi = 0.83

I = 1.00

P = 1.25

Q = 0.84

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.06

P = - 2.31

Q = -1.60

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.02

P = 5.30

Q = 3.74

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.06

P = -13.69

Q = -14.62

cosphi = - 0.68

I = 0.28

P = -9.45

Q = -3.68

cosphi = -0.93

I = 0.14

P = -35.59

Q = -32.01

32 01

cosphi = -0. 74

I = 0.12

FINCHAA 230

U/Un = 99.79

phi = -12.53

FINCHA SUGAR II 15

U/Un = 94.60

phi = -16.68

P = 9.45

Q = 3.68

P = -4.83

4.83

Q = -3.72

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.09

P = -4.72

Q = -3.64

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.09

P = 4.68

Q = 3.15

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.24

SEBETAcosphi

15II= 0. 83

P = 8.66

I = 0.55

Q = 4.67

U/Un = 93.16

phi = -25.12

P = -8.66

P = -11.07 SEBETA 15III

Q = -4.67

Q = -7.44

88

14.85

U/Un = 96.59 cosphiQP=== -0.

15.36

phi = -32.67

P = 0.00

Q = 0.00

SEBETA 45B

U/Un = 89.98

phi = -29.78

ADDIS NORTH 15

U/Un = 95.67

phi = -29.82

p

98

P = -1.29

Q = -0.91

P = 7.58

Q = -7.64

cosphi = 0.70

I = 0.05

P = -40.00

Q = -24.05

P = -11.10

Q = -8.06

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.06

P = 11.07

Q = 7.44

P = 9.52

Q = 5.04

P = 35. 52

Q = 35.04

cosphi = 0.71

I = 0.13

P = 2.31

Q = 1.71

cosphi = 0.80

I = 0.03

P = 0.67

Q = 0.22

P = 2.58

Q = 1.81

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.02

cosphi = -0.79

I = 0.18

U/Un = 92.61

phi = -24.73

P = -7.58

P = 40.00

Q = 24.05

P = 4.79

Q = 3.22

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.25

P = -9.47

Q = -6.37

Q == 7.58

7.84

P

cosphi

= -0.70

Q

= -7.79

I = 0.05 = 0.70

cosphi

I = 0.05

P = -7.58

Q = 7.79

cosphi = - 0.70

I = 0.05

P = 3.61

Q = 2.00

P = 0.84

Q = 0.59

P = -35.52

Q = -35.04

cosphi = -0.71

I = 0.13

ADDIS EAST I 15

U/Un = 90

90.36

36

phi = -34.75

ADDIS EAST II 15

U/Un = 96.92

phi = -27.15

P = -10.40

Q = -7.67

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.06

P = 28.38

Q = 7.49

cosphi = 0.97

I = 0.14

P = 61.77

Q = 18.38

cosphi = 0.96

I = 0.17

WOLDIA 15

U/Un = 82.63

phi = -38.48

P = -4.95

Q = -3.33

P = 2.50

Q = 1.68

P = -1.30

Q = -0.87

P = 10.36

Q = 6.95

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.50

P = -9.52

Q = -5.04

P = -1.84

Q = -0.65

cosphi = -0.94

I = 0.02

P = -3.56

Q = -1.78

cosphi = -0.89

I = 0.04

U/Un = 94.98

phi = -20.16

P = 2.46

Q = 1.65

P = 3.16

Q = 2.09

P = 0.74

Q = 0.50

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.03

P = 10.35

Q = 6.96

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.50

P = -65.44

Q = -140.51

cosphi = -0.42

I = 0.41

ADWA 15

U/Un = 79.12

phi = -30.87

P = -3.16

Q = -2.09

P = 3.15

Q = 2.08

P = 0.00

Q = -0.00

P = -2.16

Q = -1.45

P = -0.05

Q = -11.77

FINCHA SUGAR II 66

U/Un = 98.49

phi = -14.11

P = -2.31

Q = -1.71

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.03

P = -0.74

Q = -0.52

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = 3.59

Q = 2.00

P = -1.72

Q = -1.16

DEBRE MARKOS 66

U/Un = 95.21

phi = -15.98

P = 0.74

Q = 0.52

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.01

P = -0.75

Q = 0.71

cosphi = -0.73

I = 0.01

P = -0.05

Q = -13.98

P = -3.59

Q = -2.00

P = 0.62

Q = 0.42

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.03

P = -3.15

Q = -2.08

P = 6.31

Q = 4.18

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.04

P = -1.29

Q = -0.91

P = 1.29

Q = 0.91

I = 0.01

WUKRO 15

U/Un = 91.93

phi = -27.69

P = -0.62

Q = -0.42

P = -0.63

Q = -0.43

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = -2.59

Q = 0.01

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.01

P = -2.17

Q

= 2.17

- 1.49

P=

cosphi

Q

= 1.53= -0.82

I = 0.01 = 0.82

cosphi

ADIGRAT 132

U/Un = 82.99

phi = -27.39

P = -0.74

Q = -0.50

P = -28.03

Q = -25.54

cosphi = -0.74

I = 0.10

= 35.29

DEBRE MARKOS QP15

= 43.51

cosphi = 0.63

U/Un = 94.89

I = 0.15

phi = -16.29

P = 0.88

Q = 0.56

WUKRO 132

U/Un = 83.32

phi = -27.14

P = -0.02

Q = -3.34

P = 0.63

LALIBELA 66 LALIBELA 15

Q = 0.43

cosphi = 0.82

U/Un = 98.85 U/Un = 98.24

I = 0.01

phi = -25.21 phi = -25.66

ALAMATA 15C

U/Un = 97.32

phi = -23.12

P = 28.37

Q = 7.51

cosphi = 0.97

PI == -28.38

0.14

Q = -7.49

cosphi = - 0.97

I = 0.14

U/Un = 96.54

phi = -13.85

Q = -6.24

SEKOTA 15

U/Un = 98.55

phi = -25.39

P = 4.76

Q = 1.48

cosphi = 0.95

I = 0.03

P = -4.77

Q = -0.49

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.03

P = 4.66

Q = 4.79

P = -9.29

SEKOTA 66

U/Un = 99.06

phi = -25.01

P = -10.39

Q = -7.68

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.06

P = 1.81

Q = 1.31

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.02

P = 3.37

Q = 2.44

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.04

P = -3.35

Q = -2.25

P = 1.34

Q = 0.94

cosphi = 0.82

I = 0.01

P = -1.35

Q = -0.39

cosphi = -0.96

P = -1.81

Q = -1.31

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

P = 1.68

Q = 1.13

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

P = 1.68

Q = 1.13

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

Q = -0.94

cosphi = -0.82

I = 0.01

P = 2.73

Q = -0.82

Q = -0.80

P = 1.79

Q = 1.21

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.09

Q = -1.22

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

P = -0.00

Q = 2.85

P == -1.21

1.19

P

Q == -0.86

0.80

Q

U/Un

= 93.20

cosphi == -0.81

0.83

cosphi

0.03

II == 0.00

phi = -15.13

MOTA 33

U/U = 96

U/Un

96.45

45

P = -1.19 phi = -15.43

P = 27.78

Q = 38.66

cosphi = 0.58

I = 0.13

P = -1.79

Q = -1.21

BITCHENA 66

U/Un = 93.01

FINOTE SELAM 66 phi = -16.23

U/Un = 89.82

phi = P-16.42

= -1.69

P = 0.00

Q = 0.00

cosphi = 0.00

I = 0.00

TIAB1 G2

U/Un = 105.00

phi = -21.86

BITCHENA 15

U/Un = 96.83

phi = -17.55

P = 4.01

Q = 0.15

P = -0.63

Q = 0.50

cosphi = -0.78

I = 0.01

P = 43.64

Q = 16.69

cosphi = 0.93

I = 0.13

P = -26.57

Q = - 37.80

cosphi = -0.58

I = 0.12

P = -4.01

Q = -0.15

With Breaker

P = 2.96

Q = -1.59

cosphi = 0.88

I = 0. 04

P = 1.84

P = 2.00

Q = 0.08

ALAMATA 15A

I = 0.01

P = 1.26

Q = 0.84

U/Un = 99.21

ALAMATA 15B

phi = -25.03

U/Un = 97.32

P = -1.26

phi = -23.12Q = -0.84

MAYCHEW 15

P = 4.66

Q = 4.79

U/Un = 97.46

P = 1.33

Q = 0.90

cosphi = 0.83 phi = -25.72 MEKELE 15

I = 0.06

P = -1.33

U/Un = 81.70

Q = -0.90

phi = -28.02

ADWA 132

U/Un = 81.82

phi = -28.13

P = 6.99

Q = 4.70

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.85

P = -7.02

Q = -5.10

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.05

P = -6.39

Q = -0.61

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.03

P = 17.37

P = 12.63

Q = 15.75

Q = 9.78

P = -13.98

Q = -9.40

P = 6.99

Q = 4.70

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.85

P = -7.02

Q = -5.10

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.05

P = -0.04

Q = -11.12

MAYCHEW 66

U/Un = 98.59

phi = -24.89P = -1.34

ALAMATA 66

U/Un = 99.53

phi = -24.72

P = 2.02

Q = 0.15

P = 0.00

Q = -0.00

P = 0.00

Q = -0.00

P = -45.17

Q = 30.57

cosphi = -0.83

I = 0.15

P = -2.40

= 5.11

QQ

= -1.76

cosphi

= -0.81

cosphi

= 0.34

I =I =

0.04

0.07

P = 2.38

Q = 1.60

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.11

0 11

P = 2.02

Q = 0.15

P = -2.02

Q = -0.15

With Breaker

P = -7.55

Q = -3.70

P = 7.55

Q = 3.70

P = 3.04

Q = -0.85

BAHIR DAR I 45

U/Un = 96.94

phi = -21.13

P = -2.40

Q = -1.76

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.04

P = 2.00

Q = 0.08

U/Un = 97.45

phi = -13.30

P

= -2.97

cosphi

= 0.96

I = =0.03

Q

1.53

cosphi = -0.89

I = 0.03

ALAMATA 132

U/Un = 97.33

phi = -23.12

P = 14.04

Q = 10.19

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.09

With Breaker

P = -0.07

Q = -0.68

cosphi = - 0.11

I = 0.01

P = -2.11

P = -17.37

Q = -15.75

P = -2.02

Q = -0.15

P = 25.70

Q = - 25.17

cosphi = 0.71

I = 0.16

P = 25.70

Q = - 25.17

cosphi = 0.71

I = 0.16

P = -25.73

Q = 25.21

P = -25.67

Q = 25.13

P = 24.37

Q = 28.55

P = 24.37

Q = -28.55

P = -14.06

Q = -10.08

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.09

P = -0.03

Q = - 8.39

With Breaker

P = 24.39

Q = -28.58

P = -7.55

Q = -3.70

P = 7.55

Q = 3.70

P = 12.63

Q = 9.78

P = 17.37

Q = 15.75

Q = 9.80

P = 39.00

cosphi = -0.21

Q = 23.01

cosphi = 0.86I = 0.03

I = 0.13

P = 1.21

Q = 0.77

P = 24.39

Q = 28.58

P = -14.75

Q = 0.10

cosphi = - 1.00

I = 0.04

P = 2.86

Q = 1.92

P = -17.37

Q = -15.75

P = -39.55

Q = -4.62

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.11

MESSOBO 6

U/Un = 95.56

phi = -28.89

MEKELE 132

U/Un = 83.61

phi = -26.86

P = -2.31

Q = -4.38

cosphi = -0.47

I = 0.02

P = -5.72

Q = -3.84

P = 2.86

Q = 1.92

P = 4.58

Q = 1.01

P = -3.05

Q = 0.90

cosphi = -0.96

I = 0.03

BAHIR DAR I 66

U/Un = 96.43

phi = -20.41

P = -2.38

Q = -1.60

P = 1.17

Q = 0.83

P = -2. 11

Q = 9.80

cosphi = -0.21

I = 0.03

P = 2.28

Q = 4.11

cosphi = 0.49

I = 0.19

BAHIR DAR II 66

U/Un = 96.56

phi = -20.30

P = -6.11

Q = -2.91

cosphi = -0.90

I = 0.06

P = -2.71

Q = -1.82

P = -26.13

Q = 25.48

cosphi = -0.72

I = 0.17

MESSOBO 132

U/Un = 83

83.36

36

phi = -26.96

MEKELE 230

U/Un = 86.10

phi = -25.26

S

P = 2.11

Q = 1.52

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.01

P = -4.19

Q = -2.89

cosphi = -0.82

P = 2. 11

Q = 1.52

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.01

With Breaker

P = -3.92

Q = -2.63

P = -26.13

Q = 25.48

cosphi = -0.72

I = 0.17

P = 4. 19

P = -4.22

P = 0.00

0 00

Q = 2.89

2 89

Q = -3.03

Q = 0.00

cosphi = 0.82

cosphi = -0. 81

cosphi = 0.00 I = 0.52

I = 0.02

I = 0.00

P = 33.82

Q = 13.55

cosphi = 0.93

I = 0.17

With Breaker

U/Un = 95.53

phi = -20.89

WERETA 15

U/Un = 96.12

phi = -21.86

U/Un = 90.04

phi = -1

16.01

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

U/Un = 96.43

phi = -11.72

BAHIR DAR II 15B

U/Un = 96.67

phi = -13.36

DANGLA 15

U/Un = 95.00

phi = -24.06

TEKEZE6.6KV

U/Un = 84.95

phi = -26.68

ALAMATA 230

U/Un = 88.57

phi = -23.01

P = 3.92

Q = 2.63

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.19

P = 2.71

Q = 1.82

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.13

TIAB2 G2

U/Un = 102.00

phi

hi = -5.39

5 39

P = -34.00

Q = -18.27

cosphi = -0.88

I = 2.08

P = 18.43

Q = -64.49

cosphi = 0.27

I = 0.30

P = 5.69

Q = 3.27

cosphi = 0.87

I = 0.06

cosphi = -0.80

I = 0.05

P = -33.99

Q = 62.20

cosphi = -0.48

I = 3.82

TEKEZE66KV

U/Un = 85.18

P = 34.00

Q = 18.27

G

TIAB2 G1 Wit h Breaker

U/Un = 102.00

phi

hi = 0.95

0 95

P = -0.05

Q = -11

11.80

80

P = 0.07

Q = 1.23

cosphi = 0.05

I = 0.01

Q = -2.00

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.03

P = 34.00

Q = -62.20

P = 1.68

Q = 1.22

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.02

P = -1.74

Q = -0.29

cosphi = -0.99

I = 0.02

DANGLA 66

U/Un = 89.12

P = -3.94

phi = -21.19

Q = -2.98

WERETA 66

U/Un = 95.89

phi = -20.07

P = -2.73

P = -14.60

Q = -8.49

cosphi = -0.86

I = 0.05

P = -1.68

Q = -1.22

cosphi = -0.81

I = 0.02

PAWE 66

U/Un = 85.63

phi = -21.79

P = 2.66

Q = 0.77

cosphi = 0.96

I = 0.03

GONDER II 230

U/Un = 88.70

phi = -16.71

P = 14.60

Q = 8.49

P = 14.65

cosphi = 0.86

Q = 20.29

I = 0.05

cosphi = 0.59

I = 0.07

TEKEZE 230

U/Un = 86.45

phi = -25.43

P = 9.04

Q = 6.08

P = -14.60

Q = -8.49

P = 1.67

Q = 1.12

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.08

P = -9.04

Q = -6.08

P = 14.60

Q = 8.49

P = -1.67

Q = -1.12

PAWE 15

U/Un = 93.42

phi = -23.09

With Breaker

P = -2.74

Q = 0.08

cosphi = -1.00

I = 0.02

With Breaker

P = 0.61

Q = 0.41

cosphi = 0.83

I = 0.03

GONDER I 15A

U/Un = 97.55

phi = -19.77

GONDER II 66

U/Un = 98.90

phi = -19.00

P = 1.90

Q = 1.38

cosphi = 0.81

I = 0.03

P = -1.90

Q = -1.38

P = -1.22

Q = -0.82

NEGELE BORENA 15

U/Un = 79.91

phi = -37.39

4/10/2010

P = 1.22

Q = 0.82

P = 1.90

Q = 1.38

P = 0.66

Q = 0.44

P = -0.66

Q = -0.44

NEGELE BORENA 33

U/Un = 80.50

phi = -36.89

70

Cairo

EG

YP

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

Aswan

Merowe

Gedaref

EN

M

YE

82 k

m

km

a

ab

m

90 k

Koka

SOMALILAND

km

185

D.Dawa

M.Wakena

GD 08

GD-08

Mogadishu

230 kV

Kisimayou

590

k

Y

EN

LEGEND

LI

LEGEND

Substation at 230 kV and above

400 kV

370 km

km

80

Mega

465 km

100

k

GD-06

km

GG-III

0k

50

22

GG-II

GD-03

SO

GG-I

220 kV

Hargessa

di

Ad

Finchaa

Djibouti

DJIBOUTI

201

km

Ab

i

ob

D

K.

Bord

er

Mandaya

km

Berbera

B.Dar

SU D

le

Tekeze

Beles

Roseries

26

Gonder

Shehedi

i

aw

ke

km

ra

37

me

AN

RE

Shire

Hu

7k

IT

Me

15

ER

80 km

Khartoum

17

120

k

Asmara

Nairobi

(Switchyard at 230 kV and above)

Town

500 kV

HVDC Link

4/10/2010

AC/DC Station

(Converter/Inverter)

71

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

72

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

73

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

74

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

75

School of C

Computing and Electtrical Engineering

4/10/2010

76