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802.0 8J.2 34, .., .., .. A History of the English Language. : . .: : , 2001. 496 . ISBN 5-89349-176-9 () ISBN 5-02-022584-3 () ; : , , , ; . . , , . .., .., ..


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228 231 240 241 244 247 248 251 261 263 267 271 272 274 277 281 283 301 316 338 359 396 405 419 477 479

pages 3 Table of Contents '. 5 7 Foreword 10 Part 1. Lectures 13 1 Introductory. General Characteristics of Germanic Languages 15 2 Old English. General Characteristics 33 3 Middle English. General Characteristics 48 4 New English. General Characteristics 63 5 Old English phonetics 77 6 Old English grammar. The nominal system 89 7 Old English grammar. The verbal system 107 8 Changes in the phonetic system in Middle and New English 126 9 Changes in the nominal system in Middle and New English 145 10 Changes in the verbal system in Middle and New English 157 11 English vocabulary 173 12 Ethymological strata in Modern English 190 Part 2. Seminars 203 1. Introductory. Germanic languages 205 2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages. Grammar 208 3. Survey of the periods in the history of English. General characteristics of the Old English period 211 4. Old English phonetics. Vowels 217 5. Old English phonetics. Consonants 220 6. Old English grammar. Noun 221 7. Old English grammar. Verb 226

Old English. Discussion 228 General characteristics of the Middle English period 231 10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels 240 11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants 241 12. Middle English grammar. Noun 244 13. Middle English grammar. Verb 247 14. Middle English. Discussion 248 15. General characteristics of the New English period 251 16. New English phonetics. Vowels 261 17,. New English phonetics. Consonants 263 18. New English grammar. Noun 267 19. New English grammar. Verb 271 20. English wordstock 272 21. Vocabulary layers 274 22. Modern regular and irregular noun and verb forms 277 Part 3. Keys 281 Key to Seminars 3 & 6. Ohthere's account of his first voyage 283 Key to Seminars 4,5 & 7. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 301 Key to Seminars 9, 10 & 12. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ....316 Key to Seminars 11 & 13. Trevisa, About thelanguages of the inhabitants 338 Key to Seminars 15, 16 & 18. Shakespeare, Hamlet ; 359 Key to Seminar 20. Shakespeare, Sonnet 396 Key to Seminar 21. Dickens, David Copperfield .... 405 Part 4. Glossary 419 Part 5. Summary 477 1-12 479

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Trie, present study manual is intended for philology students Eind post-graduates, as well as all those interested in the problems of historical development of the language and wishing to extend their knowledge of it. T^.manual consists of a set of lectures, seminars including materials for recapitulation, keys, tasks for independent work arid control of retention, as well as a glossary. The scope and volume of the material (12 lectures and 22 seminars) is calculated for a course of studies during 2 semesters, according to the new program of training specialists at philology faculties and departments of universities. Th,e whole complex follows a clearly defined plan. This, refers both to the lectures and seminars, where all activity is to be conducted according to. a uniform pattern, from simple to difficult and from general to particular, with gradual complication and deepening of knowledge on each period of the historical development of the language. The clear and. welldefined structure of the material presentation and analysis allows! the sjxident to pay more attention to the informative content of the; course, The lectures (Part 1) are accompanied by many tables and, language, examples making the theoretical notions more visual and easy to remember. Besides that, the schemes and tables can be used later when fulfilling practical tasks for the seminars. The'materials for conducting seminars (Part 2) contain theoretical' problems for discussion in class and practical tasks. An indispensable.component of each seminar, (except for the introductory one) is the analysis of an authentic text of the appropriate historical period from the point of view of its phonetic, grammar and etymological features. The' seminars are divided into units corresponding to the periods in the history of the English language, The first seminars

of each unit contain a text analysis pattern; the subsequent seminars provide for the possibility of independent work to be checked using the keys.(Part 3). The final seminar of each unit contains a text for analysis with no keys; a written analysis of this text is to form a part of the course paper permitting to evaluate the comprehension and mastering of the material. The manual includes a glossary (Part 4) containing the necessary structural and etymological data concerning all language units to be found in the texts of the seminars and permitting the student to conduct their analysis and perform other practical tasks. There is also a brief capsule summary of the lectures given in Russian with reference to the appropriate sections of the full text of the lectures (Part 5). Such reference is possible due to clear and sufficiently detailed subdivision of the text of the lectures according to subject headings. This section is intended as a reminder of the principal topics of the course, allowing a convenient method of search for an appropriate issue, and can also be used for preliminary acquaintance with the studied problems of those whose practical knowledge of the language is yet not fully adequate for free work with the English text. The choice of Russian as the language for the summary of the subject is explained by the desire to make the course easier and more readily accessible to a larger group of readers. The manual differs from other similar publications in the following: self-sufficiency requiring no additional sources for mastering the material stipulated by the programme; ; clear and concise recital of the material; transparent structure and modular system of its presentation; detailed division into subsections permitting crossreference and fast finding of the necessary information;

possibility of use by thos e with a different level of knowledge of English; extensive material for seminars with an in-depth plan, theoretical, practical and text analysis tasks; keys to the analysis of the texts of different periods allowing their use for self-control; tasks for independent work giving the students a possibility to creatively interpret the material and to conduct a limited research with the results to be presented as a written course or exam paper; carefully checked-out glossary containing vocabulary entries of different periods of the English language; presence of a brief article at the end of each lecture giving some interesting facts connected with the topic of the lecture and making the study of the material not only useful, but also pleasant.


Tart 1, Lectures
"Learning makes life more rewarding and enjoyable; ...the worst thing of all is ignorance." King Alfred the Great

Mappe Monde from a MS of the 9th century at the Strasburg library - one of the oldest existing maps of the world

List of Lectures
pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Introductory. General Characteristics of Germanic Languages Old English. General Characteristics Middle English. General Characteristics New English. General Characteristics Old English phonetics Old English grammar. The nominal system Old English grammar. The verbal system Changes in the phonetic system in Middle and New English Changes in the nominal system in Middle and New English Changes in the verbal system in Middle and New English English vocabulary Ethymological strata in Modern English

15 33 48 63 77 89 107 126 145 157 173 190



"The Germans themselves I should regard as aboriginal, and not mixed at all with other races... For who would leave Asia, or Africa or Italy for Germany, with its wild country, its inclement skies, its sullen manners and aspect, unless indeed it were his home? ...The name Germany, on the other hand, they say is modern and newly introduced, from the fact that the tribes whichfirstcrossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, and are now called Tungrians, were then called Germans. Thus what was the name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror." Tacitus, Germania List of principal questions: 1. 2. 3. The aim of the study Of the subject Inner and outer history of the language Chief characteristics of the Germanic languages 3.1. Phonetics 3.2. Grammar 3.3. Alphabet



1. The aim of the study of the subject

It is well known that language, whether it is English, Russian or any other, is a historical phenomenon. As such it does not stay unchanged for any considerable period of time, or for any time at all, but it inconstantly changing throughout its history. The changes affect all the spheres of the language: grammar and vocabulary, phonetics and spelling. The changes that any language undergoes are gradual and very slow but pronounced enough if you compare the stages of its development within a century or even half a century. You can imagine that with the passage of time the difference between different stages of the development of the language grows and you will easily deduce that if you speak of such a language as English the history of which embraces over fifteen centuries you will have to analyze and explain a great number of linguistic data characterizing the language at different stages of its history. The aims set before a student of the history of the English language are as follows: 1. 2. 3. to speak of the characteristics of the language at the earlier stages of its development; to trace the language from the Old English period up to modern times;

to explain the principal features in the development of modern language historically. To achieve those aims a student will have to know the theoretical basis of the subject and to work with the text to apply the theoretical knowledge to the practical analysis of English texts at different periods of the language development. While speaking about the importance of theoretical courses we may quoting Simeon Potter's words:


"We cannot know too much about the language we speak every day of our lives... knowledge is power. The power of rightly chosen words is very great, whether these words are intended to inform, to entertain or to move." Simeon Potter, Our language Thus the main purpose of studying the history of the English language is to account for the present-day stage of the language to enable a student of English to read books and speak the language with understanding and due knowledge of the intricate and complicates "mechanism" they use. We said that the history of any language is an unbroken chain of changes more or less rapid. But though the linguistic tradition is unbroken it is impossible to study the language of over 15 centuries long without subdividing it into smaller periods. Thus the history of the English language is generally subdivided conventionally into Old English (5 th 11 th century), Middle English (11th15"' century) and New English (15th centurytill now).

2. Inner and outer history of the language

We are going to speak about the inner and the outer history of the English language. The outer history of the language is the events in the life (history) of the people speaking this language affecting the language, i.e. the history of the people reflected in their language. The inner history .of the language is the description of the changes in the language itself, its grammar, phonetics, vocabulary or spelling. It is well known that the English language belongs to the Germanic subdivision of the Indo-European family of languages. The direct and indirect evidence that we have concerning old Germanic tribes and dialects is approx-imatelv-.twenty centuries


old. We know that at the beginning of AD Germanic tribes occupied vast territories in western, central and northern Europe. The tribes and the dialects they spoke at the time were generally very much alike, but the degree of similarity varied. It is common to speak about the East Germanic group of dialects mainly spoken in central Europe Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian; North Germanic group of dialects Old Norwegian, Old Danish, Old Swedish, Old Icelandic; and the West Germanic group of dialects the dialects of Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians and others, originally spoken in western Europe. The first knowledge of these tribes comes from the Greek and Roman authors which, together with archeological data, allows to obtain information on the structure of their society, habits, customs and languages. The principal East Germanic language is Gothic. At the beginning of our era the Goths lived on a territory from the Vistula to the shores of the Black Sea. The knowledge of Gothic we have now is almost wholly due to a translation of the Gospels and other parts of the New Testament made by Ulfilas, a missionary who christianized the Gothic tribes. Except for some runic inscriptions in Scandinavia it is the earliest record of a Germanic language we possess. For a time the Goths played a prominent part in European history, making extensive conquests in Italy and Spain. In these districts, however, their language soon gave place to Latin, and even elsewhere it seems not to have maintained a very tenacious existence. Gothic survived longest in the Crimea, where vestiges of it were noted down in the sixteenth century. North Germanic is found in Scandinavia and Denmark. Runic inscriptions from the third century preserve our earliest traces of the language. In its earlier form the common Scandinavian language is conveniently spoken of as Old Norse. From about the eleventh century on, dialectal differences become noticeable. The Scandinavian languages fall into two groups:


Map 1-1. Germanic tribes in Europe


an eastern group including Swedish and Danish, and a western group including Norwegian and Icelandic. Of the early Scandinavian languages Old Icelandic is much the most important. Iceland was colonized by settlers from Norway about A.D. 874 and preserved a body of early heroic literature unsurpassed among the Germanic peoples. Among the more important monuments are the Elder or Poetic Edda, a collection of poems that probably date from the tenth or eleventh century, the Younger or Prose Edda compiled by Snorri Sturluson (1178 1241), and about forty sagas, or prose epics, in which the lives and exploits of various traditional figures are related. West Germanic is of chief interest to us as the group to which English belongs. It is divided into two branches, High and Low German, by the operation of a Second (or High German) SoundShift analogous to that described below as Grimm's Law. This change, by which West Germanic p, t, k, d, etc. were changed into other sounds, occurred about A.D. 600 in the southern or mountainous part of the Germanic area, but did not take place in the lowlands to the north. Accordingly in early times we distinguish as Low German tongues Old Saxon, Old Low Franconian, Old Frisian, and Old English. The last two are closely related and constitute a special or Anglo-Frisian subgroup. Old Saxon has become the essential constituent of modern Low German or Plattdeutsch; Old Low Franconian, with some mixture of Frisian and Saxon elements, is the basis of modern Dutch in Holland and Flemish in northern Belgium; and Frisian survives in the Dutch province of Friesland, in a small part of Schleswig, in the islands along the coast, etc. High German comprises a number of dialects and is divided chronologically into Old High German (before 1100), Middle High German (11001500), and Modern High German (since 1500). High German, especially as spoken in the midlands and used in the imperial chancery, was popularized by Luther's




translation of the Bible into it (15221532), and since the sixteenth century has gradually established itself as the literary language of Germany.

3. Chief characteristics of the Germanic languages

The barbarian tribes Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks, Frisians, Teutons, Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Scandinavians lived on the fringes of the Roman Empire. All these spoke Germanic languages, which had distinctive characteristics of structure and pronunciation which are reflected in its descendants.

3.1. Phonetics
One of the most important common features of all Germanic languages is its strong dynamic stress falling on the first root syllable. The fixed stress emphasised the syllable bearing the most important semantic element and to a certain degree later contributed to the reduction of unstressed syllables, changing the grammatical system of the languages. The most important feature of the system of Germanic vowels is the so-called Ablaut, or gradation, which is a spontaneous, positionally independent alteration of vowels inhabited by the Germanic languages from the Common IndoEuropean period. This ancient phenomenon consisted in alteration of vowels in the root, suffix or ending depending on the grammatical form or meaning of the word. There are two types of Ablaut: quantitative and qualitative. The qualitative Ablaut is the alteration of different vowels, mainly the vowels [e] / [a] or [e] / [o]


Old Icelandic Old High German Cf.: Russian Latin

bera (to give birth) barn (baby) stelan (to steal) stal (stole) (I stroll, I wade) (ford, wade) tego (to cover, to cloth) toga (clothes)

Quantitative Ablaut means the change in length of qualitatively one and the same vowel: normal, lengthened and reduced. A classic example of the Indo-European Ablaut is the declension of the Greek word "pater" (father): [e:] [e] [\ pater pater patros
(nominative case, lengthened stage) (vocative case, normal stage) (genitive case, reduced stage)

Ablaut in Germanic languages is a further development of Indo-European alterations. Here we often find cases with both the quantitative and qualitative ablaut. It should be also mentioned that in the zero stage before sonorants an extra-short vowel [u] was added: quantitative ablaut Goth1 qiman (to come) qums (the arrival) qualitative ablaut OHG stelan (to steal) stal (stole) quantitative+quaUtative ablaut OE . findan (tofind) fand (found, fundan (found,
past tense) past part.)

Ablaut as a kind of an internal flexion functioned in Old Gemnanic languages both in form- and word-building, but it was the most extensive and systematic in the conjugation of strong verbs.

We shall use the following abbreviations Gk - Greek Goth - Gothic Lat - Latin OE - Old English OHG - Old High German

for the names of the languages: Old - Old Icelandic OSc - Old Scandinavian OSx - Old Saxon Rus - Russian Snsk - Sanskrit


Another phenomenon common for all Germanic languages was the tendency of phonetic assimilation of the root vowel to the vowel of the ending, the so-called -Umlaut, or mutation. There were several types of mutation, but the most important one was palatal mutation, or i-Umlaut, when under the influence of the sounds [i] or.{j] in the suffix or ending the root vowels became more front and more closed. This process must have taken place in the 5lh,6lh centuries, and-can-be,.illustrated by comparing words from the language of the 'Qothic bible (4lh century) showing no palatal mutation with corresponding words in other Germanic languages of a later period.!) Goth harjis OE here (annyy, Goth domjan OE deman (deem); Goth kuni OE cynn ( Traces of this tendency can be" seen both in word-building and form-building as a kind of an internal flexion: OHG gast (guest) gestl (guests) man (man) mennisco (human) Speaking about Germanic caiisonans, we should first of all speak of the correspondence between Indo-European and Germanic languages which was,presented as- a system of interconnected facts by the German linguist Jacob Grimm in 1822. This phenomenon is called the First Consonant Shift, or Grimm's law. The table below shows-a scheme of Grimm's law with the examples from Germanic and other Indo-European languages.. However, there are-some, instances where Grimm's law seems not to apply. These cases were explained by a Dutch linguist Karl Ver.ner, and the seeming exceptions from Grimm's law have come to be known as Venter's law.



7(? /-/. Grimm's law Indo-European Germanic voiceless fricatives f p h 0 Gtff/? <9#G fseder (father) preis (three) herza (heart)

voiceless stops

p t

Lat Lat Gk

pater tres kardia

voiced stops b d g Rus Lat Gk duo egon

voiceless stops

p t

OE Goth O/c/

pol (pool) twai (two) ek (I)

voiced aspirated stops' bh dh gh Snsk Lat Snsk

voiced non-aspirated stops bdg __ brodor medu (mead) syngva (sing)

bhratar OE frater, Rus madhu OE


songha omphe (voice)



Verner's law explains the changes in the Germanic voiceless fricatives f p h resulting from the first consonant shift and the voiceless fricatives depending upon the position of the stress in the original Indo-European word, namely:

'Note that the correspondencies in the third group are less clear, for aspirated, stops can be found only in Sanskrit, the other Indo-European languages having either voiceless fricatives or voiced stops, and the [gh] sound in Sanskrit is only reconstructed.


Table 1-2. Verner's law Indo-European p t s Gk Gk G& Sn.yfe hepta pater dekas ayas Germanic b d/d g z/r Goth OSc Gof/ Goth sibun (seven) fadir, OE faeder tigus (ten, a dozen) aiz, O#G er (bronze)

According to Verner's law, the above change occurred if the consonant in question was found after an unstressed vowel. It is especially evident in the forms of Germanic strong verbs, except the Gothic ones, which allows to conclude that at some time the stress in the first two verbal stems fell on the root, and in the last two on the suffix: OE OSx Goth OE Old Goth teon tiohan tiuhan ceosan kiosa kiusan teah toh tauh ceas kaus kaus

tugun tauhum curon k0rom kusum

to3en (to tug) gitogan tauhans coren (to choose) k0renn kusans

3.2. Grammar
One of the main processes in the development of the Germanic morphological system was the change in the word structure. The common Indo-European notional word consisted of three elements: the root, expressing the lexical meaning, the inflexion or ending, showing the grammatical form, and the socalled stem-forming suffix, a formal indicator of the stem type. However, in Germanic languages the stem-forming suffix fuses


with the ending and is often no longer visible, thus making the word structure a two-element one. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account when explaining the differences in the categorial forms of words originally having different stemforming suffixes. It should also be mentioned that Germanic languages belonged to the synthetic type of form-building, which means that they expressed the grammatical meanings by changing the forms of the word itself, not resorting to any auxiliary words. The Germanic nouns had a well-developed case system with 1 1 four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative) and two number forms (singular and.plural). They also had the category of gender (feminine, masculine and neuter). The means of formbuilding were the endings added to the root/stem of the noun. The Germanic adjectives had two types of declension, conventionally called strong and weak. Most adjectives could be declined both in accordance with the strong and weak type. Agreeing with the noun in gender,' case and noun, the adjective by its type of declension expressed the idea of definiteness (weak declension) or indefiniteness (strong declension), the meaning which was later to become expressed by a grammatical class of words unknown in Common Germanic the article. The adjective also had degrees of comparison, the forms of which were im most instances formed with the help of suffixes -iz/oz and -ist/-ost, but theiralso, instances of suppletivism, i.e. use of different roots for different forms a means common for many Indo-European languages: Goth leitilsminnizaminnists (littlelessleast) Rus 7

'Some languages had elements of the instrumental and vocative cases.




The Germanic verbs are divided into two principal groups: strong and weak verbs, depending on the way they formed their past tense forms. The past tense (or preterite) of strong verbs was formed with the help of Ablaut, qualitative or quantitative. Depending upon the phonetic root structure, the exact manifestation of Ablaut could be somewhat different, and accordingly strong verbs were further subdivided into classes. Weak verbs expressed preterite with the help of the dental suffix -d/-t. They also had stem-forming suffixes, depending on which they fell into separate classes. There was also a small group of highly frequent suppletive verbs forming their forms from different roots, the same as in other Indo-European languages: im (/I/am) Rus was (/I/ was) The Germanic verb had a well-developed system of categories, including the category of person (first, second, third), number (singular and plural)1, tense (past and present, the latter also used for expressing future actions), mood (indicative, imperative and optative) and vr : ?e (only in Gothicactive and mediopassive). The categprial forms employed synthetic means of form-building. Goth

Although the people of the Germanic tribes were mostly illiterate, some of the Germanic nations had their own mode of writing, with a distinctive alphabet called runic, each letter of which was called a rune. We know that runes were used to record early stages of Gothic, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, English,
'And in Gothic also dual.


Frisian, Frankish and various tribal tongues of central Germania, and they may also have supplied other Germanic languages without leaving any evidence surviving till today. "On archaeological grounds the earliest estant runes are dated to the second century AD. The script continued in use in some regions throughout the Middle Ages and into early modern times. The early runes were not written, but incisedrunic script was designed for inscribing, at first on wood, which explains many of its characteristics. Since runes were designed for incising in wood, the letter forms, in their earliest stage, eschew curves, which are hard to cut in such a grainy material. Letters were made up of vertical strokes, cut at right angles to the grain, and of slanting strokes which stood distinct from it. Horizontal strokes, which would mingle with the grain and be hard to distinguish, were avoided. Even the earliest examples of the script show there were variations in some letter forms, so it is not possible to give a standard pattern for the Germanic runic alphabet. The rune-row below is one of the most generally accepted variants:



j p e r s t


The earliest known runic alphabet had twenty-four letters arranged in a peculiar order, which, from the values of its first letters, is known as the futhark. In early times texts could be written not only from left to right, but from right to left equally well. Some texts could even be written with alternate lines in opposite directions. Even in left-to-right texts an individual letter could be reversed at whim, and occasionally a letter might be inverted. There was no distinction between capital and lowercase letters.


The Roman equivalents for the Germanic runes given above are only approximate, for the sounds of Early Germanic did not coincide with those of Modern English. We do not know where and when runes were invented. The obvious similarities with the Roman alphabet brought early scholars to the belief that the script first appeared among Germanic peoples living close to the Roman empire, and that the runes were an adaptation of the more prestigeous alphabet. Early finds of rune-inscribed objects in eastern Europe (Pietroassa in Rumania, Dahmsdorf in central Germany and Kowel in the Ukraine) suggest that runes may have been invented by Goths on the Danube or beside the Vistula. This is further supported by the similarity of occasional runes to letters of one or other of the Greek alphabets. However, continued discovery of early runic texts in various regions of Europe do not allow to consider the matter of the origin of runes conclusively proven. Be it as it may, wherever and whenever they were created, runes soon spread over the Germanic world, and by 500 AD they are found not only in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, but also in Poland, Russia and Hungary, recording different Germanic languages and being cut, stamped, inlaid or impressed on metal, bone, wood and stone. Runes were used for many centuries and in many lands, gradually changing in their passage through time and space. In England the script died out, superseded by Roman, somewhere in the eleventh century; in Germany and the Low Countries rather sooner. In Scandinavia and its colonies, however, runes continued well into the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, the later runic inscriptions are of comparatively little interest, for there is plenty of other evidence for the state of the language they record, whereas the early inscriptions are of great importance to the linguist, for they record material for which there is otherwise little or no evidence.


Thus we may summarize the above discussion stating that the principal features common to all the languages of the Germanic language area were: (i) fixation of the main stress on the initial syllable of the word; (ii) the first, or Germanic sound shift affecting the Indo-European voiceless and voiced stops and the spirant [s]; (iii) certain vowel changes; (iv) reduction in the number of cases as compared to Common Indo-European; (v) full development of the weak declension of the adjective with a particular categorial meaning; (vi) development of a dental preterite and appearance of the strong/weak verb distinction; (vii) a peculiar alphabet.

Some more facts ...

The British Britain, as far as we can trace men in our island, was first inhabited by cave-men, who have left no history at all. In the course of ages they passed away before the Iberians, or Ivernians, who came from the east and bore a striking resemblance to the Basques. It may be that some Mongolian tribe, wandering west, drawn by the instinct which has driven most race-migrations westward, sent offshoots north and south one to brave the dangers of the sea and inhabit Britain and Ireland, one to cross the Pyrenees and remain sheltered in their deep ravines. These sturdy voyagers were short and dark, harshfeatured and long-headed, worshipping the powers of Nature with mysterious and cruel rites of human sacrifice, holding beliefs in totems and ancestor-worship. When the stronger and more civilised Celt came he drove before him these little dark men, he enslaved their survivors and wedded their women, and in his turn fell into slavery to the cruel Druidic religion of his subjects. To these Iberians, and to the Celtic dread of them, we probably owe all the stories of dwaifs, goblins, elves and earth30


gnomes; and if we examine carefully the descriptions of the abodes of these beings we shall find them not inconsistent with the earth-dwellings, caves, circle huts, or even with the burial mounds of the Iberian race. The race that followed the Iberians, and drove them out or subdued them, was the proud Aryan Celtic race. Of different tribes, Gaels, Brythons and Belgcv, they were all one in spirit and one in physical feature. Tall, blue-eyed, with fair or red hair, they owerpowered the diminutive Iberians in every way. Their civilisation was of a much higher type than that of the Iberians; their weapons, their war-chariots, their mode of life are all so closely similar to that of the Greeks of Homer that a theory has been advanced and ably defended that when on the continent the Celts Gaelic or Gaulish tribes from the north of Europe had been invaded by the Homeric Greeks. It is to the Celts that we owe a debt of imperishable culture and civilisation. To them belongs our passion for the past, the ardent patriotism, the longing for spiritual beauty, so different from the Saxon materialism. The Celt, however, had his day of supremacy and passed; the Roman crushed his power of initiative and made him helpless and dependent, and the Teuton whether as Saxon, Angle, Frisian or Jute dwelt in his homes and ruled his former lands. The Teuton was a hardier, more sturdy man than the Celt; he was by choice a warrior and a sailor, a wanderer to other lands. To him physical cowardice was the inforgivable sin, next to treachery to his chieftain. A quiet death-bed was the worst end to a man's life, in the Anglo-Saxon's creed: it was a cow's death, to be avoided by everything in one's power, the only worthy finish to a warrior's life being a death in fight. Perhaps there was little of spiritual insight in the minds of these Angles and Saxons, little love of beauty; little care for the amenities of life; but they had a sturdy loyalty, an uprightness, a brave disregard of death in the cause of duty, which we can still recognise in modern Englishmen. When the English, or Anglo-Saxons, as we generally call them, had settled down in England, united their warring tribes and developed a somewhat centralised givernment, their whole national existence was imperilled by the incursions of the Danes,


or Northmen, Vikings from Norway and Iceland, whose fame and the dread of whom went before them. They were related to the nations they came to harry and plunder, but their spirit was different from that of the conquered Teutonic tribes. The rapturous fight with the elements in which the Northman lived and moved and had his being, gave him a strain of ruthless cruelty unlike anything in the more peaceful Anglo-Saxon character. There was also a power of bold and daring action, of reckless valour, of rapid conception and execution, which contrasted strongly with the slower and more placid temperament of the Anglo-Saxon, and to this strain modern Englishment probably owe the power of initiative, the love of adventure and the daring action which have made England the greatest colonising nation on the earth. These were far from the last men of many nations that were brought to England by war, trade, love of adventure or religion and with whom the English came into contact during their long and colourful history, all of them leaving their trace. With all these different elements amalgamated in one, it is no wonder that the present-day English nation, its nature and beliefs represented in its language are a unique phenomenon worthy of careful and detailed study. after M.I. Ebbutt



"The greatest Englishman that ever lived was King Alfred." - Winston Churchill "Alfred found learning dead and he restored it, Education neglected and he revived it, The laws powerless and he gave them force, The church debased and he raised it, The land ravaged by afearfid enemy from which he delivered it - Alfred's name will live as long as mankind shall respect the past" (Inscription on the base of the statue of King Alfred in Wantage, Oxfordshire, his place of birth)

List of principal questions: 1. Outer history 1.1. Principal written records 1.2. Dialectal classification 1.2.1. The dialects in Old English 1.2.2. Old English written records 2. Inner history 2.1. Phonetics 2.2. Spelling 2.3. Grammar 2.4. Vocabulary


1. Outer history
As we have already said, the forefathers of the English nation belonged to the western subdivision of old Germanic tribes, and the dialects they spoke later lay the foundation of the English national language. The history of the English language begins in the fifth century AD. when the ruthless and barbaric Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians, who up to that time had lived in western Europe between the Elbe and the Rhine, started their invasion of the British Isles. At the time of the invasion Britain was inhabited by the sor called "romanised Celts", that is, Celts who had lived under the Roman rule for over four centuries and who had acquired Roman culture and ways of life and whose language had undergone certain changes mainly in the form of borrowings from the Latin language. The Celtic tribes, whose languages, the same as Germanic, also belonged to the Indo-European family, were at one time among its most numerous representatives. At the beginning of our era the Celts could be found on the territories of the present-day Spain, Great Britain, western Germany and northern Italy. Before that they had been known to reach even Greece and Asia Minor. But under the steady attacks of Italic and Germanic tribes the Celts had to retreat, so that in the areas where they were once dominant they have left but the scantiest trace of their presence. The Celts who first came to Britain gradually spread to Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Their languages are represented in modern times by Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx. A later wave of Celtic tribes, having occupied for some centuries the central part of England, were in turn driven westwards by Germanic imvaders, and their modern language representatives are Welsh, Cornish and Breton.


The Romans invaded Britannia as it was then called in 55 54 when the troops of Julius Caesar and others conquered the isles. No centralised government was formed, instead there existed petty principalities under the control of local landlords. In 407 AD, with the departure of the last Roman emissary Constantine hostilities among the native tribes in England began anew. To normalise the situation the local chieftains appealed to influential Germanic tribes who lived on the continent inviting them to come to their assistance, and in 449 the Germanic troops Jed by Hengest and Horsa landed in Britain. The Roman occupation of England left little mark on its future. Most of what the Romans did perished after they left, so it is with the Germanic tribes that the history of England truly begins. The invaders, or Barbarians, as they were generally called, who came to the Isles were representatives of a by far inferior civilisation than the Romans. A bulk of the invaders came from the most backward and primitive of the Germanic tribes. They were an agricultural rather than a pastoral people. Their tribal organisation was rapidly disintegrating. The invaders came to Britain in hosts consisting not only of warriors, but also including labourers, women and children. They plundered the country, took possession of almost all the fertile land there and partly exterminated, and partly drove away the native population to the less inhabited mountainous parts of the country Cornwall, Wales, Scotland. The rest of the natives became slaves to the conquerors. .In view of the historical facts mentioned above it is quite clear why the language of the invaders underwent so few changes under the influence of the Celtic tongue as almost no normal intercourse between the invaded and the invaders was possible, the latter being very few and far below socially. It should be noted that nowadays the remnants of the Celtic group of languages face the threat of complete disappearance,


unable to survive in the competition with English. Cornish became extinct already in the 18th century, Manx after the second world war. Scottish Gaelic is spoken only in the Highlands by about 75 thousand people, Irish by half a million, the figures showing a steady declining tendency, and the absolute majority of those speaking these languages are bilingual, English being no less familiar to them than their former native tongue. Although in recent years a certain revival of nationalist sentiments helped to somewhat arrest the decline, many linguists fear the inevitable disappearance of the whole branch of the IndoEuropean family of languages. We have very little indirect evidence about the beginning of the Old English period 5th7lh centuries. The first written records were dated as far back as the beginning of the 8th century, that is why the 5th7th centuries are generally referred to as "the pre-written period" of the English language.

1.1. Principal written records of the Old English period

The principal written records that came to us through the centuries date from as far back as the 8th century. They were written with the help of the so-called "Runic Alphabet". This was an alphabet of some 26 letters, the shape of which is quite peculiar.
['fuGark], or ['fuGork] We have already said that it is assumed the Runic alphabet was composed by Germanic scribes in the IIIII centuries AD. and their angular shape is due to the material those inscriptions were made on wood, stone, bone and the technique of


"writing" the letters were not written but carved on those hard materials. The word "rune" meant "mystery", and those letters were originally considered to be magic signs known to very few people, mainly monks, and not understood by the vast majority of the illiterate population. Among the first Old English runic inscriptions we generally mention two: the inscription on the socalled "Franks' casket" a small box made of whalebone containing a poem about it1, and the inscription on the "Ruthwell cross" a religious poem engraved on a stone cross found in Scotland.
Rune Anglo-Saxon Name feoh Meaning cattle, wealth bison (aurochs) thorn god/mouth journey/riding torch gift joy hail necessity/trouble ice year [unknown] [unknown] sun Tiw (name of a god) birch horse man water/sea Ing (name of a hero) land/estate day oak ash bow

P h t > F < X N 1 * 1 *

f u P


w h n i j P

rad cen

hgl nied

gear peor eolh sigel tiw/tir beorc

t t

s t b e

1 ng oe d

eoh man

epel daeg



'See a picture of the Franks' casket in Pan 2 Seminars. 37


Map 2-1. Germanic settlement in England

Source: Vie Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, 199S



In the 7 century the Christian faith was introduced and with it there came many Latin-speaking monks who brought with them their own Latin alphabet. The Latin alphabet was used by the majority of the people who could read and write. It ousted the Runic alphabet. But the Latin alphabet could not denote all the sounds in the English language, for example, the sounds [w], [0]. For that purpose some runes were preserved w, p, F*, or some Latin letters were slightly altered to denote the sounds [0], [6] together with the rune p. This alphabet that is a combination of the Latin alphabet with runes and some other innovations is called "insular writing", i.e. the alphabet typical of the Isles. The majority of Old English records are written in this insular alphabet. The spelling in these early records is on the whole phonetic and reasonably consistent, so that it is possible to learn much about the early pronunciation.


1.2. Dialectal classification of Old English written records 1.2.1. The dialects in Old English
As we have already said, the onset of invasion by the members of the four principal Germanic tribes: Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians began about the middle of the fourth century and their conquest of England was completed within the next century and a half. By about AD 600 they established their separate kingdoms, the principal among them being: - those formed by the Angles: Northumbria (north of the river Humber), Mercia (in the centre of England) and East Anglia central eastern part of the country; - those formed by the Saxons mainly to the south of the river Thames: Wessex, Sussex and Essex; - the one formed by the Jutes Kent.


Only the Frisians did not form a separate kingdom, but intermarried with the population belonging to different tribes. The prevailing importance of these seven kingdoms gave to the next two centuries the title of Heptarchy. Gradually three of the seven Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria began to establish some sort of domination over their smaller neighbours. It was an important step towards the achieving the eventual unity of England. Another vital factor contributing to the unity was the appearance of Christianity in England in AD 597, and afterwards the spread of Christianity and changes of the supremacy of this or that kingdom follow almost the same course. The Old English dialects are generally named after the names of the kingdoms on the territory of which the given dialect was spoken the Northumbrian dialect, the Mercian dialect, the Wessex dialect, etc. Though the differences between the three types were later to assume considerable importance, they were at first slight, and records of the 8th and 9th centuries reveal that Englisc, as it was collectively called, had by that time emerged as an independent, language. The virtually complete geographical separation of England from the Continent was a factor favouring the further development of those characteristic features that already distinguished English from its parent Germanic language. Among the principal Old English dialects the most important for us is the Wessex dialect, as the majority of Old English written records that we have can be traced back to that dialect. But the prominence of the Wessex dialect is also based on other extralinguistic criteria. As is known, efforts to unite England failed for a very long period of time, because as soon as one kingdom became great it was in the interests of the rest to pull it down. Some historians say that the reason for that was the lack of the strongest possible motive towards any union, namely, the presence of a foreign foe.


Such enemy appeared in the second half of the 8lh century, when the Northmen, particularly the Danes, began their devastating raids on the isles. At the beginning of the 9th century, when the Danish invaders destroyed in turn the dynasties of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia, Wessex was left as the sole survivor, and its leaders became the leaders of the emerging nation. The most famous of all English kings, Alfred of Wessex, which would later come to be called Alfred the Great, came to the throne in 871 and is reputed to have been one of the best kings ever to rule mankind. He successfully fought with the Danes who by that time had conquered most of Eastern England and were moving southwards towards Wessex. Alfred managed to stop the Danes, although temporarily, and in 878 signed a treaty with the Danish king dividing England between them. But Alfred's true greatness lay not in his military, but peacetime activity. He set aside a half of the revenue to be spent on educational needs, established schools where the sons of the nobility could be taught to read and write, brought in foreign scholars and craftsmen, restored monasteries and convents, published a collection of laws and enforced them. He also mastered Latin and translated many books into Anglo-Saxon and ordered the compilation of the first history book, the AngloSaxon Chronicle, which was continued for more than two centuries after his death. All this allows to say that even had Alfred never fought a battle, he would still deserve a place among the greatest rulers of history.
King Alfred formulated his aims as follows: "Desire for and possession of earthly power never pleased me overmuch, and I did not unduly desire this earthly rule... I desired to live worthily as long as I lived, and to leave after my life, to the men who should come after me, the memory of me in good works."



Map 2-2. Old English dialects


However, after the death of Alfred the Great in 901 the supremacy of Wessex gradually began to decline, and for a time, from 1017 till 1042, the throne was occupied by Danish kings.

1.2.2. Old English written records

Old English written records which are rather numerous are generally classified either in accordance with the alphabet used or in accordance with the dialect of the scribe who wrote the record. If we speak about the first criterion the alphabet (runic or insular) - the first group is rather scarcely represented (Frank's casket, Ruthwell cross), the other group having many written records. But generally the records are classified in accordance with their dialect: Northumbrian (Franks' casket, Ruthwell cross, Caedmon's hymns), Mercian (translation of the Psalter), Kentish (psalms), West Saxon (The Anglo-Saxon chronicle, the translation of a philosophical treatise Cura Pastoralis, King Alfred's Orosius a book on history). There were also many translations from other dialects, an example of which is Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731 AD). Bede, a learned monk at Jarrow, is said to have assimilated all the learning of his time. He wrote on language, science and chronology and composed numerous commentaries on the Old and New Testament. With the rise of Wessex to the dominant position among the Old English kingdoms in the 9th and. 10"1 centuries, and thanks to the powerful influence of their learned King Alfred, the West Saxon dialect became the chief vehicle of literature. All the works of literary importance that have survived, both prose and poetry, are written in West Saxon, with only occasional traces of other dialects, and in this sense it may be regarded as typical of the Old English period.


2. Inner history
During the period the language was developing very slowly.

2.1. Phonetics
The phonetics of the Old English period was characterised by a system of dynamic stress. The fixed stress fell on the first root syllable:
agane (gone); 3eseon (see); 3aderian (gather)

The vowels had the following characteristic features: a) The quantity and the quality of the vowel depended upon its position in the word. Under stress any vowel could be found, but in unstressed position there were no diphthongs or long monophthongs, but only short vowels [a], [ej, [i], [o], [u]. b) The length of the stressed vowels (monophthongs and diphthongs) was phonemic, which means that there could be two words differing only in the length of the vowel:
metan (to mete, to measure) metan (to meet) pin (pin) pin (pain) god (god) god (good) ful (full) ful (foul)

c) there was an exact parallelism of long and short vowels: Short: u i se ea eo Long: The consonants were few. Some of the modern sounds were non-existent (], [3], ])

The quality of the consonant very much depended on its position in the word, especially the resonance (voiced and voiceless sounds: hlaf [f] (loaf) hlaford [v] (lord, "bread-keep and articulation (palatal and velar sounds: climban [k] (to climb) cild [k'] (child)), etc.


2.2. Spelling
The Old English spelling was mainly phonetic, i.e. each letter as a rule denoted one sound in every environment. Note should be taken that the letters f, s, J), 5 could denote voiced consonants in intervocal positions or voiceless otherwise; the letter was used to denote the sound [k] (palatal or velar); the letter denoted the sound [y] (similar to German [u] in the word "GemUt" or Russian [] in the word ""). The letter 3 could denote three different sounds: 0] before or after front vowels [ae], [e], [i] : 3iefan (give), (year), dx^ (day) [y] after back vowels Fal, fol, lul and consonants 1 and

da3as (days), fo^ian (follow) [g] before consonants and before back vowels [a], [o], [u]: 30d (good), 3leo (glee)

2.3. Grammar
Old English was a synthetic language (the lexical and grammatical notions of the word were contained in one unit). It was highly inflected, with many various affixes. The principal grammatical means were suffixation, vowel interchange and supplition. Suffixation: Ic (1 keep) pU Cepst (you keep) he (he keeps) Vowel interchange: WrTtan (to write) Ic wrat (I wrote) Supplition: 31 (to go) eode (went)


Ic eom (I am) bu eart (you are) he is (he is) There was no fixed word-order in Old English, the order of the words in the sentence being relatively free.

beon (to be)

2.4. Vocabulary
Almost all of it was composed of native words, there were very few borrowings. Borrowings were mainly from Latin: a) The forefathers of English, when on the Continent, had contacts with the Roman empire and borrowed words connected mainly with trade: ciese (cheese), win (wine), aeppel (apple) b) They borrowed Latin words from the Romanized Celts: strast (street), weall (wall), myln (mill) c) Some borrowings were due to the introduction of Christianity: biscop (bishop), deofol (devil), munic (monk) New words appeared as a result of two processes: a) word derivation: ' fisc+ere = fiscere (fish fisher) wulle+en = wyllen (wool woolen) claene+s+ian = claensian (clean to cleanse) b) word composition: sunne + dae3 = Sunnandas3 (sun + day = Sunday) mona + dae3 = M5nandae3 (moon + day = Monday).



Some more facts....

Origin of Modern Alphabet The Northumbrian Alcuin of York (735804) was the creator of the modern alphabet. He was an English scholar who, while head of the cathedral school of York, wrote a history of England. Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, emperor of the Franks, invited him to start a palace school at Aachen. Charlemagne belonged to the famous dynasty of Carolingians. He was a patron of letters and culture, and during his reign there began a period of literary and artistic activity upsurge. This period of intellectual advance, in which Alcuin played a leading role, was called the Carolingian Renaissance. Alcuin introduced English scholastic methods to Charlemagne's empire and wrote poignant love lyrics, but his farthest-reaching contribution was to normalise the empire's writing. When Alcuin arrived at Aachen, scribes at one end of the empire could not read the writing of scribes at the other end. Ironically, Charlemagne, who was probably illiterate himself, understood the importance of clear communication and recordkeeping better than his own scribes. Drawing from English and Irish models, especially the Insular pointed hand, Alcuin created the Carolingian minuscule hand, a highly readable script that was used by scribes throughout the empire. This hand became the model for the lowercase letters of the I5'h-century Italian Humanistic and Chancery Cursive hands (the uppercase, letters were modeled after I"- and 2'"'-centuiy Roman inscriptions in stone, such as the Trajan Column). These hands in turn became the models for the Roman and Italic typefaces introduced by Aldus Manutius (14491515), which are the basis for most modern typefaces. After D.F.B. Reed.


"Never before has such terror appeared in Britain as we have now sufferedfroma pagan race, nor was it thought that such an inroad from the sea could be made. Behold, the church ofSt Cuthbert spattered with the blood of the priests of God, despoiled of all its ornaments; a place more venerable than all in Britain is given as prey to pagan people." Alcuin, AD 793 "It is not correct to paint the, Scandinavians in either black or white; like most people they were grey... They were no mean, destructive people: rather people of wide vision who were to make a considerable contribution to European wholeness once they had become Christian and had settled down to become the nations which we know to-day." . D.M. Wilson, AD 1993

n n


(Viking ship prow decoration, Thames and Hudson archives)

List of principal questions: 1. Outer history 1.1. Scandinavian Invasion 1.2. Norman Conquest 2. 1.3. Formation of the English national language Inner history 2.1. Phonetics 2.2. Grammar 2.3. Word-stock


1. Outer history
1.1. Scandinavian Invasion
The end of the Old English period and the beginning of Middle English is marked by two outstanding political events the Scandinavian invasion and the Norman conquest. It is impossible to state the exact date of the Scandinavian invasion as it was a long process embracing over two centuries, the first inroads of the Scandinavian Vikings having began as far back as the end of the 8th century. Various Scandinavian adventurers at the head of their troops came to England wave after wave, although the English offered the invaders a stubborn resistance. At first the invaders fought with the natives, robbed and plundered the country, but later they began to settle on the lands they had managed to conquer. The part of England which suffered more from the invasion was the North-Eastern part of the country. From that part the invaders trying to conquer the whole of the country gradually proceeded to the South-West. The kingdom that was the strongest among many existing in Britain at that time and that could consequently withstand the invasion more successfully than any other was the Wessex kingdom, especially under the rule of King Alfred the Great. King Alfred the Great was so powerful and successful in his struggle against the invaders that hostilities ceased for a time and a peace treaty was concluded the Treaty of Wedmore, in accordance with which the territory of the country was subdivided into two parts: the south-western part remained English under the rule of King Alfred and the north-eastern part was to be Scandinavian. That part was referred to as Danela3U or Danelaw, i.e. the territory which was under the rule of Scandinavians, or "Danes".


The Scandinavians in England remained very strong through centuries, and at the beginning of the 1 lIh century, namely in the period between 1016 and 1042 the whole of England came under the Scandinavian rule the conquest was completed and the Danish king was seated on the English throne. Although in 1042 England was back under English power, the English king who came to the throne Edward the Confessor was to be the last English king for more than three centuries. The Scandinavian invasion and the subsequent settlement of the Scandinavian on the territory of England, the constant contacts and intermixture of the English and the Scandinavians brought about many changes in different spheres of the English language: word-stock, grammar and phonetics. The influence of Scandinavian dialects was especially felt in the North and East parts of England, where mass settlement of the invaders and intermarriages with the local population were especially common. The relative ease of the mutual penetration of the languages was conditioned by the circumstances of the AngloScandinavian contacts, i.e.: a) There existed no political or social barriers between the English and the Scandinavians, the latter not having formed the ruling class of the society but living on an equal footing with the English; b) There were no cultural barriers between the two people as they were approximately the same in their culture, habits and customs due to their common origin, both of the nations being Germanic. c) The language difference was not so strong as to make their mutual understanding impossible, as their speech developed from the same source Common Germanic, and the words composing the basic word-stock of both the languages were the same, and the grammar systems similar in essence.


Map 3-1. Viking attacks on England

Source: DM. Wilson Tile Vikings and their origin, 1993



1.2. Norman Conquest

The Norman Conquest began in 1066. The Normans were by origin a Scandinavian tribe who two centuries back began their inroads on the Northern part of France and finally occupied the territory on both shores of the Seine. The French King Charles the Simple ceded to the Normans the territory occupied by them, which came to be called Normandy. The Normans adopted the French language and culture, and when they came to Britain they brought with them the French language. In 1066 King Edward the Confessor died, and the Norman Duke William, profiting by the weakness of King Harold who succeeded King Edward on the English throne, invaded England. He assembled an army, landed in England and in a battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066 managed to defeat Harold and proclaimed himself King of England. The Norman conquest had far-reaching consequences for the English people and the English language. The English nobility perished through different reasons and was replaced by the Norman barons. The new king William confiscated the estates of the Anglo-Saxons nobility and distributed them among the Norman barons. The Norman conquerors continued pouring into England thousands after thousands, years and years after the conquest, and during the reign of King William over 200,000 Frenchmen settled in England and occupied all positions of prominence in the country, be it in court, Parliament, Church or school. The heritage of the Norman Conquest was manifold. It united England to Western Europe, opening the gates to European culture and institutions, theology, philosophy and science. The Conquest in effect meant a social revolution in England. The lands of the Saxon aristocracy were divided up among the


Normans, who by 1087 composed almost 10% of the total population. Each landlord, in return for his land, had to take an oath of allegiance to the king and provide him with military services if and when required. The Saxon machinery of government was immensely reinforced, with a Norman monarch and his officials as effective centralised controllers. Royal power was spread to provinces, royal justice was much more impartially done. The Normans created a strong medieval monarchy which was gradually to complete the unification of England. The 13th century witnessed the appearance of the first Parliament, or a council of barons, which later was changed to a national Parliament, representing the nobility, clergy, knights of the shires and major cities. The Norman conquerors, though Germanic by origin, were French by their language, habits and customs. They were a people and a class that stood aloof from the conquered English, whose habits and customs they despised and whose language they could not understand. They spoke French and addressed people in French. They taught their children French the only language they could speak, which is noticed by many writers and scholars. And for more than two centuries after the conquest the English country was ruled by French-speaking Kings and nobility, and the French language was the state language of the country. The Norman Conquest put an end to the West Saxon literary language. But eventually after a prolonged struggle the English language got ascendance over French and again became the state language of the country. The victorious and defeated peoples continued to speak their own languages. The language spoken and written by the English continued to develop in accordance with tendencies already active before the conquest. The English language emerged after the straggle, but it came in a different position. Its vocabulary was enriched by a great


number of French words and its grammatical structure underwent material changes. They generally mention-the following decisive steps in the way upward of the English language after the Norman conquest: a) 1258 Proclamation of King Henry III was published besides French also in English; b) 1362 the English language became the language of Parliament, courts of law; later, at the end of the century the language of teaching; c) the rule of King Henry IV (13991413) the first king after the conquest whose native tongue was English. The end of the 14th century also saw the first "English" translation of the Bible, and Chaucer was writing his "English" masterpieces. The new merchant class and the spread of lay learning were building a national civilisation, and by the end of the century French had probably died out as a spoken language.

1.3. Formation of the English national language

We can speak about the English national language as a language understood and mainly used throughout the country beginning with late Middle English Early New English. They generally say that the end of the Middle English period and the beginning of New English is marked by the following events in the life of the English people: 1. The end of the war between the White and the Red Rose 1485 and the establishment of an absolute monarchy on the British soil with Henry Tudor as the first absolute monarch the political expression of the English nation. The War of the Roses (14551485) was the most important event of the .15* century which marked the decay of feudalism and the birth of a new social order. It signified the rise of an


absolute monarchy in England and a political centralisation, and consequently a linguistic centralisation leading to a predominance of the national language over local dialects. 2. The introduction of printing 1477 by William Caxton (1422 1490). Printing was invented in Germany by Johann Gutenberg in 1438. It quickly spread to other countries and England was among them. The first English printing office was founded in 1476 by William Caxton, and in 1477 there appeared the first book to be printed in England called The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers. The appearance of a considerable number of printed books contributed to the normalisation of spelling and grammar forms fostering the choice of a single variant over others. William Caxton established a printing-press at Westminster, from which he issued a stream of books, many of them translated from Latin and French by himself. Caxton, a native of Kent, acquired the London dialect and made a conscious choice from among competing variants, which he even described in a preface to one of his translations, saying that he had submitted it to princess Margaret, sister of the then king, and "anon she found a default in my English which she commanded me to amend." Since that time the end of the 15"1 century the English language began its development as the language of the English nation, whereas up to that time, beginning with the Germanic conquest of Britain in the 5th century and up to the 15th century, what we call the English language was no more than a conglomerate of dialects, first tribal and then local. Indeed, a notable feature of the Middle English period is the dialectical variety that finds expression in the written documents. It was only ate in the 14lh century that the London dialect, itself a mixture of the southern and south-eastern dialects, began to emerge as the dominant type.


Thus, the English national language was formed on the basis of the London dialect which was uppermost among Middle English dialects due to the political, geographical, economic and "linguistic" position of London which became the capital of England already in the 11th century before the Norman conquest and which was in the 15th century a thriving economic centre and port of England due to its geographical position near the estuary of the largest river in England. The geographical position of London as a large port and city in the centre of the country where people of the North mingled with "people of the South, on the one hand, enabled the Londoners to acquire features of both southern and northern dialects, and on the other hand, the people coming to London helped to spread the London dialect all over the country. The importance of the London dialect as the foundation of the English national language grew also because of the fact that many of the best writers of the 14th15th centuries, and Geoffrey Chaucer among them, whose poetry achieved tremendous contemporary prestige and popularity, were Londoners or used the London dialect in their writings. As we have said, the 15th century is generally referred to as the time of the beginning of the English national language. But the literary norm of the language was established later, already in Early New English, many English authors of the forthcoming centuries contributing to it, among them such as Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Johnson and, finally, William Shakespeare.



Map 3-2. Middle English dialects



2. Inner history
The Middle English period was a time of unprecedentedly rapid development of the language. For the first three centuries English was only a spoken language, and as such had no norm and could develop without any restrain. All the elements of the language changed fundamentally.

2.1. Phonetics
The stress is dynamic and fixed in the native words. But in the borrowed French words the stress was on the last syllable: licour [li'ku:r], nature [na'nr.r], etc. New consonant sounds developed in native words: [ ship OE scip [f ] child cild [Cfe] bridge

The resonance of the consonant does not depend so much on the position of the consonant, and voiced consonants can appear not only in intervocal, but also in initial and other positions. Vowels in unstressed position were reduced: Old English Middle English

These sounds were in the end of the word, and it neutralised the difference between the suffixes the main grammar means. Compare:


Genitive Singular Nominative Plural

Old English Middle English fisces ~~~^^_ fishes fiscas . - " - " " ^ fishes

Vowels under stress underwent mainly quantitative changes. In Middle English we observe a rhythmic tendency, the aim of which is to obliterate overlong and overshort sequences. The tendency is to have in the word one long vowel + one consonant or one short vowel + two consonants.

2.2. Grammar
The grammar system in Middle English gradually but very quickly changed fundamentally: the Old English was a synthetic language, the Middle English at the end of the period an analytical language. The principal grammatical means of the Old English were preserved, but were no longer principal. At the end of the Middle English period the analytical means, which began developing in Middle English, are predominant. They are: 1. analytical verb-forms (Chaucer: perfect hath holpen (has helped); passive engendered is (is bom)); 2. the use of prepositions for grammatical purposes (Chaucer; drought of March); 3. a fixed word-order began to develop.

2.3. Word-stock
In Middle English it underwent fundamental changes and became almost new. If in Old English the word-stock was almost completely native, in Middle English there were many borrowings. The principal sources of them were: 1. Scandinavian (those who came in the end of the Old English period) over 500 words (take, give, sky, wrong, etc.);


2. French (the language of the Norman conquerors) over 3500 words (government, army, battle, etc.). Though the number of the French words is greater, all the Scandinavian words common, colloquial, everyday, indispensable entered the very core of the language, and their influence is very great. The French words are generally terms indispensable only in certain official spheres, but not colloquial. The Scandinavian borrowings are intensive, the French borrowings extensive: 1. the Scandinavians and the English were linguistically similar (both Germanic), the English and the French different (Germanic and Romance languages); 2. the English and the Scandinavians were similar socially (neither of the nations formed the upper class); the French and the English were different socially (the French-speaking people forming the ruling class, the English-speaking the lower class); 3. the English and the Scandinavians had similar culture, habits, customs, traditions; the French and the English different; that is why the assimilation of the French words could not proceed so quickly and intensively as that of Scandinavian. The principal means of enriching vocabulary were thus outer means, i.e. borrowings.

Some more facts....

Who are the Scots? Our country and people come into recorded history in AD 84, characteristically resisting foreign domination as we were to do on and off until 1603. By this time the Romans had penetrated as far as modern Stirling. Calgacus, our native


leader, addressed his men in the following terms : "The invaders loot and massacre and call it government. They make a wilderness and call it peace." The ensuing Battle of Mons Graupius near Stirling checked the Romans and they retired behind their fortified line stretching from what is now Glasgow to Edinburgh. Christianity was to unite the different tribes into that conscious entity we now know as "Scottish". About 400 St Ninian preached the faith to his own Pictish clansfolk. About 550 St Columba came from the famous monastery of lona to evangelise many Scots and Picts. His friend, St Kentigern of Glasgow, was the apostle of the Strathclyde Britons. These great missionaries had many followers and disciples who continued their apostolate. These men laid a sound foundation, for our Scottish Christianity with its valuable cultural heritage stems from them. Today it still informs most of us. Scots, Picts and Britons have been mentioned and some hold that these three words denote the "tattooed people". These unite with the Celt, warrior in name, warrior in our history. Perhaps our love of colourful tartans and our age-old martial spirit come from this racial fusion, Angles and Vikings from the seventh century onwards and Normans from the tenth are assimilated into our race, giving us much, and taking much. By about the twelfth century intermarriage and the Christian faith made us into that united Scottish nation we still are today. About 900 the word "Scot", originally meaning a native of Ireland, came to mean one of ourselves. By 1153 Scotland was one nation, though not all our national strains were fully integrated. The lovely and remote isles of the Hebrides did not become ours till 1266, and the Orkneys and Shetlands not until 1467. It needed the shock and storm of foreign invasion to fuse us into a strong and virile nation yet still fundamentally a kindly one a trait which comes into prominence so strikingly in the long history of Scotland the Brave. Much more unites us now than divides us. And though many of us have to leave Scotland, as our small land cannot provide for us all at present, these people and their descendants come back each year in their


thousands to the land of their ancestors, where they are inspired and encouraged by the ever-fresh memory of the gallant exploits of our forefathers. From Pict and Scot and Cell and Briton, And Angle, Viking, Norman diversity We Scots in time from these were forged Now conscious of our common unity. Skirl of pipe and swirl of kilt A joy to us, a joy to others Fond memory of our mountain home Unites all Scots as hand of brothers. See Bruce and Wallace nobly fight To free our folk and lochs and bens While Burns and Scott and Raeburn too Make known our land of lovely glens. Queen Mary lives in spite of fate In her descendants good and greatFor Charlie Flora death will face, She, finest flower of Highland race. Our men of God give out His Word, New things and old, with charm and wit. Dear Scotland the Brave aye bless it, Lord, Hear we that Word by doing it. After J. A. Carruth



"It was the nation and the race dwelling all round the globe that had the lion's heart." Winston Churchill Walter Raleigh, explorer of America David Livingstone, explorer of Africa

James Cook, explorer of Australia and New Zealand

Benjamin Franklin, explorer of Antarctica

List of principal questions: 1. Outer history 1.1. Emergence of the nation 1.2. Establishment of the literary norm 1.3. Geographical expansion of English 2. Inner history 2.1. Phonetics 2.2. Grammar 2.3. Word-stock


1. Outer history
1.1. Emergence of the nation
The 15 century is a border-line in the history of the English people. In 1485 there ended the War between the Roses. The end of the war meant the end of feudalism and the beginning of capitalism, a new, more peaceful era and the transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. An absolute monarchy was established, the first absolute monarch being Henry Tudor. It meant a real unification of the country, political and economic, resulted in the development of capitalism and made it inevitable that one nation and one national language be established. The first king of the period, Henry VII (14851509) strengthened the monarchy and provided the revenue imperative for its very existence. During his reign commerce and shipbuilding were encouraged, and the material wealth of the country increased. New lands Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discovered. Following in his steps, his son, Henry VIII (15091547) broke away from the ecclesiastical influence of Rome, made himself head of the Church of England and of the State and transferred the property of the monasteries to himself. Dozens of large ships were built, trade continued to develop, and new territories were drawn into it. It was during the reign of Henry's son, Edward VI (15471553), that trade with Muscovy, or Russia, as we call it today, was opened up. The long reign of Elizabeth I (15581603) was one of the most remarkable for the country, its progress in the discovery and colonizing field tremendous. Queen Elizabeth's reign was also particularly rich in learning it was the age of Shakespeare, Sidney, Spencer, Bacon, Marlowe and many other famous names. Nevertheless, the evident achievements in foreign policy, trade and culture did not put an end to the controversy of various


powerful forces in the country. Another problem which was to have far-reaching concequences was that of whether sovereignty lay with monarch or Parliament advocating the interests of the new developing classes of society. The strife between the Crown and Parliament was aggavated by religious differences. The development of the country required more regular revenue, and forced the Crown to raise taxes, which met with disapproval from Parliament. In the XVII century Charles I (16251649) for over a decade ruled without Parliament, but had finally to reach a compromise, according to which the powers of Parliament were greatly extended. Henceforth one legal system was to apply to the king and his subjects alike, and no taxation was to be raised without Parliament's consent. However, when Paliament demanded further concessions, denied the king control of the army, a crisis followed which is now known under the title of the Great Rebellion. The Crown lost the ensuing war, Charles I surrendered and was executed, and for over a decade the country was ruled by Parliament alone, the most notable leader of that time being Oliver Cromwell. Granted the title of Lord Protector, he was a virtual dictator of the nation, heavily relying on the Army and disillusioning Parliament which had first brought him to power. After the death of Oliver Cromwell the Army and Parliament We re unable to agree on a government, and the restoration of monarchy that followed in 1660, when the son of the executed kin g, Charles II, was.invited to return to the throne, was more a. restoration of Parliament than of the King himself. Charles II, w ho during the time of Cromwell lived in exile in France, brought with him from the Continent a keen interest in scientific development, culture and arts, together with a considerable mfluence of the French language spoken by his supporters.


1.2. Establishment of the literary norm

As we have said, in New English there emerged one nation and one national language. But the English literary norm was formed only at the end of the 17* century, when there appeared the first scientific English dictionaries and the first scientific English grammar. In the 17* and 18* centuries there appeared a great number of grammar books whose authors tried to stabilise the use of the language. Thus Samuel Johnson, the author of the famous Dictionary (1755), wrote that he preferred the use of "regular and solemn" pronunciation to the "cursory and colloquial." Many famous writers also greatly contributed to the formation of English, and among them, first and foremost, the great Shakespeare. Early New English (15* beginning of the 18* century) the establishment of the literary norm. The language that was used in England at that time is reflected in the famous translation of the Bible called the King James Bible (published in 16). Although the language of the Bible is Early Modern English, the authors tried to use a more solemn and grand style and more archaic expressions. A great influence was also connected with the magazine published by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele called The Spectator (17111714), the authors of which discussed various questions of the language, including its syntax and the use of words. Late New English since the 18 century. If the gradual acceptance of a virtually uniform dialect by all writers is the most important event in the emergence of Modern English, it must be recognised that this had already gone a considerable way before 1500, and it was undoubtedly helped by Caxton's introduction of printing in 1477. The fact that the London dialect was used by him in his translations and prefaces,


Map 4-1. The Growth of Empire

S m

" " J-K Horrabin. An Alias of European History



and that Chaucer's works were among the books he published, led to its rapid diffusion throughout the country. But the adoption of a standard of spoken English was a slower process. It was not until Elizabeth's time that the language of the court came to be generally recognised as the best form of spoken English; and as late as the 18*, and even the early 19* century country gentlemen in their occasional visits to polite society in London were no ashamed to use dialect. Nevertheless, despite the persistence of wide varieties in pronunciation, the basic phonetic changes that distinguish Modern English from Middle English are profound, though they are not reflected in a similar modification of spelling. The early printers, whose practice was to prove of decisive importance for the future, derived their spelling from the Middle English scribes (a fact that largely accounts for the difficulty of English spelling today). The most important of these changes was that affecting the sound of vowels and diphthongs, with the result that the "continental values" of Middle English were finally replaced by an approximation to modern pronunciation. Lesser changes also occurred in the pronunciation of consonants, though some ot these have since been restored by conscious, and often mistaken, attempts to adapt pronunciation more closely to the received spelling.

1.3. Geographical expansion of English in the li20* centuries and its effect on the language
Up to the 17l century the English language was spoken by the people who lived only on the British Isles (at the time of William the Conqueror there were about 2 million people), but even there in the far-away mountainous parts of the country the people preserved their own Celtic dialects very long into the New


Map 4-2. The English Language Today

Source,- The Cambridge B^lopedia "M" English Language, MS



English period. Thus in Cornwall the local dialect, Cornish died out in the 18th century. In Wales there arose a tendency to revive the local Celtic language. In 1893 the Welsh University was founded, and in 1961 the number of those speaking Welsh amounted to 650 thousand. In Ireland through centuries a struggle against English was fought. It reached its climax in 1916 with the Irish rebellion. In 1922 the Irish free state was formed and in 1949 the new state Eire left the Commonwealth of Nations. Now Eire occupies the whole but the Northern part of Ireland, which is a part of Britain. The number of people rose from 300 thousand to over 600 thousand, but the majority speak English. The penetration of the English language to other parts of the globe mainly began in the 16 century together with the expansion of British colonialism. The 16' century was an age of great adventurers, and England's progress in the discovery and colonising field was tremendous. The first Virginian colony was founded; Drake circumnavigated the globe; the East India Company was established and English seamen left their mark in many parts of the world. In 1620 the famous ship The Mayflower reached North America in the region which is now the state of Massachusetts. This marked the beginning of English in the New World. The 18 century witnessed the coming of English to India, where nowadays the language is widely spread, although its sphere is limited to large cities and a certain social layer, and in today's India English is a state language together with the native languages of Hindi and Urdu., th In the 18 ' century England conquered Canada. During the 19ft century the colonisation of Australia took place. In the 20 century English penetrated into South Africa. *** Now about 300 million people speak English as their national language in various parts of the globe, and many times


that as a second language. To foretell the future of any language, English among them, is of course impossible, but the mere fact of its wide diffusion throughout the world is a guarantee that it will continue to change and develop.

2. Inner history
The speed of the development of the language was lesser than in Middle English. The language developed quickly at the beginning of the period and slowly at the end (with the exception of the word-stock which develops equally quickly during the whole period). When the literary norm was formed, it, being always very conservative, prevented the change of the language, that is why the speed of the development slowed down.

2.1. Phonetics 2. LI. The system of stress

In native words the stress is fixed and falls on the first root syllable (as in Old English and Middle English). Some of the borrowed words were not fully assimilated phonetically, that is why the stress falls on another syllable, those fully assimilated have the stress on the first root syllable, like in native words. Native English words are short they have one or two syllables, that is why it is a norm, a rhythmic tendency of the language to have one stressed syllable and one unstressed one = in borrowed words there developed a system of two stresses. Sometimes the stress is used to differentiate the words formed from the same root by the process called conversion (to pro'duce 'produce).


2.1.2. Consonants
a) A new [3] was introduced in borrowed words. Otherwise the changes were not so great as in Middle English. b) Vocalisation of consonants (some consonants in some positions were vocalised they disappeared, influencing the preceding vowel). Ex.: [r] disappeared at the end of the words and before consonants changing the quantity of the vowel immediately preceding it: for form Middle English [for] [form] New English [fo:] [fo:m]

2.1.3. Vowels a) In the unstressed position the vowels that were levelled in Middle English generally disappeared at the end of the words. Some of them were preserved for phonetic reasons only, where the pronunciation without a vowel was impossible. Compare, for example, the plural forms of nouns: New English [z] dogs [s] cats [iz] dresses b) All Middle English long vowels underwent the Great Vowel'Shift (in early New English, 15th18th century). They became more narrow and more front. Some of them remained monophthongs, others developed into diphthongs. Middle English

Old English -as

Middle English -es

New English [hi:] [neim] e: => i: a: => ei


[he:] [na:me]


2.2. Grammar
In New English it did not change fundamentally. The main changes are the strengthening of analytical features of the language: a) In many more cases empty grammatical words are used (form-words); b) Analytical forms of the Middle English are preserved, and in addition to them in New English non-finite analytical forms appear (in Middle English only finite forms could be analytical); c) A fixed word-order is established.

2.3. Word-stock
The vocabulary is changing quickly. Many new words are formed to express new notions, which are numerous. Ways of enriching the vocabulary: 1. inner means (conversion: hand => to hand); 2, outer means. The sources here are numberless, as the English have not only direct, but also indirect (through books, later TV, radio, films) contacts with all the world. In the beginning of the Early New English (15 th 16 th century) the epoch of the Renaissance there are many borrowings from Greek, Italian, Latin. The ,17th century is the period of Restoration =>.borrowings come to the English language from French (a considerable number of these words being brought by Charles II and his court). In the 17th century the English appear in America => borrowings from the Indians' languages are registered. In the 18"1 century the English appear in India => borrowings from this source come to the English language (but these words


are not very frequent, for they denote some particular reality of India, ex.: curry). In the 19* century the English colonisers appear in Australia and New Zealand => new borrowings follow (kangaroo). At the end of the 19thbeginning of the 20th century the English appear in Africa, coming to the regions formerly colonised by the Dutch => borrowings from Afrikaans and Dutch appear. Old English and Middle English Russian borrowings are scarce the contacts between the countries and their peoples were difficult. In New English there are more borrowings: sable (very dark), astrakhan, mammoth; in the 20lh century soviet, kolkhoz, perestroika, etc. Some more facts...
Modern Dialects More often than not it is still possible in Britain to tell from a man's speech from which part of the country, sometimes even from which county, he comes; while the phonetic differences between the speech of any American and any Englishman are even more apparent, although less than three hundred years ago their accents would have been indistinguishable. With regard to grammar, leaving aside dialect forms that are locally still > everyday use (e.g. such plurals as 'housen', or 'childer', or in Dorset the indiscriminate use of the pronoun 'en' for 'him' or 'her'), there are significant differences. These are largely independent of educational background, between our spontaneous colloquial speech and the written language. Usually we should write: 'the man to whom I was speaking', 'as tall as he', 'if I were she', 'am I not?', but most of us say. 'the man who I was talking to', 'as tall as him', 'if I was her', 'aren't I?' and it would be hazardous to express a confident opinion as to which of these grammatical forms, the written or the spoken, will eventually survive. More immediately obvious, perhaps, are the changes taking place in respect of vocabulary. In some of the


older trades and industries the use of specific dialect terms is still almost essential for the local conduct of everyday business; while since the beginning of the century thousands of new words, mainly derived from Greek and Latin, have been created to meet the needs of scientists and technologists. At the same time, in every department of life, our borrowing from other languages continues, particularly from America; though here, more often than we appreciate, they are simply restoring words and expressions originally taken from us. Broadly, these changes are of two kinds: those that arise from tendencies inherent in the nature of the language; and those that are the result of external factors. To the fanner belong many phonetical and grammatical changes, and from their study of language in general and of the whole history of English in particular philologists have discovered that these tend to conform to patterns, and can therefore be stated as 'laws'. The latter type of development is usually the result of political and social forces. Reference has already been made to the effect of geographical isolation on the early development of English, and similarly it is clear that the preservation of a number of Elizabethan and Stuart words and idioms in contemporary American speech is due to the remoteness of the earliest settlers from their native land, while political independence and the encouragement of wholesale immigration from almost every part of the world were subsequently to cause yet further differentiation between the two great English-speaking systems. In contrast to such diversifying influences, others operate in the direction of greater uniformity, for instance, in the spread of literacy, increasing dependence on books and the extension of broadcasting. Remembering that these examples of change and variety are taken from a short period, it is easier to appreciate the total qualitative effect produced by a series of small and gradual modifications in the course of a millennium and a half. During that period English has been transformed from the dialect of a few thousand scattered tribesmen into a highly developed language spoken by millions of people in many parts of the world.


In its original form Old English is today only intelligible to specialists; even Middle English.the language of J. Chaucer, is not easy to read without a glossary. Thus, while for purposes of description it is justifiable to treat these as separate periods, and to distinguish both from a language we are familiar with, it is equally important to realise that at no stage were the people of England any more conscious of the changes they were effecting than we are today. After D. Crystal



In such ships Germanic tribes first came to the British Islands.

Souire: Vie Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, 1995

List ofprincipal questions: 1. Old English vowels 1.1. Origin of Old English vowel phonemes 1.2. Changes in Old English vowel phonemes 1.2.1. Breaking 1.2.2. Palatal mutation 1.2.3. Effect of palatal mutation upon grammar and word-stock 2. Old English consonants 2.1. Dependence of the quality of the consonant phoneme upon its environment in the word 2.2. Grimm's law, Verner's law


1. Old English vowels

1.0. There were the following vowel phonemes in Old English monophthongs diphthongs

a e l a I

0 0

As we see in Old English there existed an exact parallelism between long vowels and the corresponding short vowels. Not only monophthongs but even diphthongs found their counterparts which differed from them not only in quality but also in quantity. Thus we may say that in the system of vowels both the quality and the quantity of the vowel was phonemic. All the diphthongs were falling diphthongs with the first element stronger than the second, the second element being more open than the first. Examples: monophthongs a a : stan

diphthongs da3as

: :


-- heorte

: daed



-- eald

6 o : 3od
(god) (write)

(good) (written)

I i : wrltan writen

1.1. Origin of Old English vowel phonemes

All Old English vowel phonemes can be traced back to Common Germanic vowel phonemes. Old English monophthongs are, as a rule,


a further development of some Common Germanic monophthongs. For example: Old English (day) from Common Germanic [a] dags [i] bindan [u] cusans, etc.

bindan (bind) [o] coren (chosen)

Some Old English monophthongs developed from Common Germanic diphthongs: Old English [a] ras (wrote) from Common Germanic [ai] rais

Old English long diphthongs are a result of some further development of Common Germanic diphthongs, though in the course of history the quality of the diphthong may have undergone a change: Old English ceosan (choose) ceas (chose) from Common Germanic (Gothic) kiusan kaus

Old English short diphthongs originated from monophthongs: Old English eald (old) heorte (heart)

from Common Germanic *ald *herte


1.2. Changes in Old English vowel phonemes

1.2.0. The changes that took place in the prehistoric period of the development of the English language and which explain the difference between Old English and Common Germanic vowels were of two types: assimilative changes and independent (non-assimilative) changes. Independent changes do not depend upon the environment in which the given sound was found. They cannot be explained, but they are merely stated. Common Germanic ai a > > Old English a , etc.

Assimilative changes are explained by the phonetic position of the sound in the word and the change can and must be explained. Among the many phonetic assimilative changes which took place in the prehistoric period of the development of the English language and which account for the discrepancy between the Old English and the Common Germanic vowel system the most important are breaking and palatal mutation.

1.2..1. Breaking
The process of breaking took place in the 6 century. It affected two vowels [se] and [e] when they were followed by the consonants [r], [1], [h] generally followed by another consonant. The resulting vowel was a diphthong (hence the name "breaking" a monophthong "was broken" into a diphthong), consequently the process may be summed up" as diphthongization of short vowels [a?] and [e] before certain consonant clusters.


For example: a; > ea before r+consonant 1+consonant h+consonant h final e > ea before r+consonant lc+consonant 1 h+consonant h final asrm > earm (arm) asld > eald (old) aehta > eahta (eight) sseh > seah (saw) herte > heorte (heart) melcan > meolcan (to milk) selh > seolh (seal) feh > feoh (cattle)

1.2.2. Palatal mutation

The qualitative change of Old English vowels that experts call palatal mutation, or i-mutation, occurred somewhere during the 6th7th centuries. The process affected Germanic words where a vowel in a stressed syllable was immediately followed by the sound [i] or [j] in the next syllable. Almost all vowels, both diphthongs and monophthongs, in the context described above became further forward and higher, or more palatal and more narrow, with the exception of [e] and [i] which could go no further. This may be described as a kind of vowel hamiony a natural process affecting many modern languages: the vowels mutate, the change being caused by their partial assimilation to the following vowel (or semi-vowel). Monophthongs a>e ae > e a > >e
1 ve

* strangipu *tselian *halian *ofstian

> strengpu1 (strength) > tellan (to tell) > hiilan (to heal) > efstan (to hurry)

Compare with the root vowel of the noun "talu" from the root of which the i"b was formed, or in the second case the adjective "slrang" and the noun "streng".


> u > >

*domian *fullian *CUbian

> deman (to deem) > fyllan (to fill) > cypan (to announce)

As a result of palatal mutation new phonemes entered the vowelsystem in Old English the vowel phoneme [y] and. the vowel phoneme [y], the result of the mutation of [u] and [], respectively. Diphthongs ea > ie > eo > ie to > *ealdira *3eleafian *afeorrian *3etreowi > ieldra (elder) > 3el!efan (to believe) > afierran (to remove) > 3etnewe (true)

1.2.3. Effect of palatal mutation upon grammar and word-stock

Though palatal mutation was a phonetic process it left traces in Old English grammar and word-stock. Grammar: As a result of the process of palatal mutation there appeared vowel gradation in the system of the declension of nouns (root-stem declension). In the system of adjectives we have vowel gradation in the degrees of comparison, in the system of verbs vowel gradation is found in Old English irregular weak verbs.1 Word-stock: Palatal mutation resulted in vowel interchange as a word building means. Adjective ful (full) Noun dom (doom) Verb sittan (sit)

Verb fyllan (fill) Verb deman (deem) Verb settan (set)

See Lecture 7, Old English Grammar.



2. Old English consonants

2.0. The Old English consonant system consisted of some 14 consonant phonemes denoted by the letters p, b, m, f, t, d, n, s, r, 1, b(5),c, 3, h. The consonant system in Old English manifested the following peculiarities. 1. The relatively small number of consonant phonemes only 14 phonemes. 2. The absence of affricates and fricative consonants which we now find in the language such as WL [d 3 ], [J]> [3] 3. Dependence of the quality of the phoneme upon its environment in the word. If the first two points require no particular explanation, the last point calls for a special comment.

2.1. Dependence of the quality of the consonant phoneme upon its environment in the word
Among the 14 consonant phonemes that existed in Old English there were at least 5 that gave us positional variants which stand rather wide apart. 1 The phonemes denoted by the letters f, J>, d or s are.voiced or voiceless depending upon their phonetic position. They are generally voiced in the so-called "intervocaj position" that is between vowels and voiceless otherwise. For example: hlaf[f]

(lord, originally hlafweard bread-keeper)


36s [s] tod [9]

(tooth, Nom. Sing.)

35ses [z]
(Gen. Sing.)

(goose, Nom. Sing.)

to6es [6]
(Gen. Sing.)

2. The phoneme denoted by the letter also gave at least two 1 variants palatal [k ] and velar [k]. In the majority of cases it was a velar consonant and palatal generally before the vowel i. Compare:

Cild (child) , SCip (ship)

where denotes the palatal consonant [k ] and such words as can (can), climban (to climb) when the letter denotes the corresponding velar variant of the phoneme [k]. 3. Similar remarks can be made about the phoneme denoted by the letter 3: we have the voiced velar plosive variant [g] of it at the beginning of the word before back vowels or consonants or in the middle of the word after n: 3od (good), 3retan (to greet, to address), (to go), the voiced velar fricative variant [y] in the middle of the word between back vowels: da3as (days), the voice palatal fricative variant [j] before and after front vowels: dae3 (day), (year). The system of consonant phonemes that we observe in Old English involves certain peculiarities that are typical of the majority of Germanic dialects which set them (those Germanic dialects and Old English among them) apart from the majority of the Indo-European


languages. Those peculiarities were mainly accounted for by two linguists Jacob Grimm and Karl Verner, hence they are generally referred to as "Grimm's law" (or the first Germanic consonant shift) 1 and "Verner's Jaw" .

2.2. Grimm's law & Verner's law

Grimm's law explains the correspondence between certain groups of Germanic and non-Germanic consonants. Those correspondences involve three sets of Germanic consonants, consequently they generally speak of three stages of Grimm's law. But we shall speak here about only one stage which is the simplest to explain and the most consistent the Germanic consonants [f], [8], [h] and the corresponding consonants [p], [t] [k] we find in similar phonetic environment. The essence of this stage of the first Germanic consonant shift is the following: The voiceless plosive consonants [p], [t], [k] of IndoEuropean languages other than Germanic shifted in Germanic languages into the voiceless fricative consonants [f], [9], [h]. It was a non-assimilative change which presumably affected Germanic languages at the beginning of the first millennium AD. Examples: Russian , Greek Old English fama (foam) fiv (five) 6rie (three) t>U (thou) hrof (roof) heorte (heart) eahta (eight)

kardia octo

' p or more discussion of Grimm's law and Verner's law see Lecture 1.


It should be noted, however, that these correspondences are not absolutely clear in all the cases. Some more complicated phenomena were formulated in the so-called Venter's law. A careful analysis of Germanic words and the corresponding Indo-European words other than Germanic shows, however, that there are certain words or word-forms in Germanic languages where instead of the expected voiceless fricative consonants we find in Germanic languages voiced plosive consonants. These seeming "exceptions" to the rule are a result of the further development of the fricative consonants which appeared in Germanic languages after the first consonant shift. The essence of this change was explained by Karl Verner hence its name: Verner's law. The Germanic voiceless fricative consonants [f], [0], [h] which appeared due to Grimm's law later became voiced if they were found after unstressed vowels. Compare: Latin pater Old English feeder (father)

t>0 in accordance with Grimm's law, but as the stress in the word "fseder" in the prehistoric period was on the second syllable the voiceless fricative consonant [0] became voiced [5]; later the voiced fricative consonant [6] underwent "hardening" and became [d]. Consequently the whole process of the change may be presented in the following way: I.E. [t] > Com. Germ. [9] > [3] > [d]

Grimm's law

Verner'slaw hardening

The change referred to as "Verner's law" also affected a fourth consonant [s] in addition to the three consonants which appeared in the language under Grimm's law, i.e. [f], [0], [h]. The [s] was also voiced after unstressed vowels [s] > fz], later the resulting


consonant [z] became [r] the change [z] > [r] is called rhotacism. Verner's law explains the appearance of "consonant gradation" in some strong verbs. For instance: I cwe9an ceosan II cwsed ceas III IV

cwaedon cweden (say, Strong V) curon coren (choose, Strong II), etc.

In Common Germanic the stress in the third and fourth verbforms originally fell on the second syllable, hence the consonant [9] and the consonant [s] which were originally in the forms cwsdon/cweden and curon/coren became voiced, i.e. *[9] > [6] and [s] > [z] Vemer's law, later [5] > [d] hardening and [z] > [r] rhotacism1.

Some more facts...

Relative Chronology Temporal variation affects any language, giving rise to various highly distinctive processes and varieties. How, then, can one know when exactly the changes in the language, if any, took place? The time of the change, like that of many language phenomena, may be established with sufficient accuracy by relating it to other events, borrowings among them. It would be clear that foreign words entering the language while a certain phonetic change was in force would be affected in the same way as native words, and those borrowed after it was over would remain unchanged. Thus, palatal mutation is thought to have begun after the Anglo-Saxon invaders arrived in Britain, but before the Old English was first written down, because the words which emerged in Old English out of the Germanic spoken on the Rhotacism affected only North and West Germanic languages. It did not affect ast Germanic languages and the Gothic language among them.


Continent looked and, consequently, sounded very different from their later counterparts in the early days of German. Early Latin borrowings those acquired in the pre-written period of the English language are affected by palatal mutation: hat. molina Lat. caseus > OE myln (mill), > OE cyse (cheese),

although no French word shows the change. This proves that at the time of the earliest contacts with French the process was no longer in force. A still more difficult task is to establish the chronology of the great consonant shift, described by Jakob Grimm and now bearing his name as the Grimm's law. At one time it was thought that the changes took place simultaneously in separate groups into the Indo-European family had split. But so great a change must have been resulted from a long and gradual process. The lower limit is set by the fact that the mutation did not affect Latin and Greek words borrowed through early contact with the Mediterranean nations, so that we may take the first century A.D. as the time by which the first consonant shift was fully accomplished. As to the upper limit the beginning of the change it is far more a matter of conjecture, although it had apparently not begun when certain words were borrowed from the Finns. Thus we may say that the first consonant change was at its height in the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era. It.will be seen further that the situation with phonetic changes in later periods is considerably simpler, for there exists written evidence to support the educated guesswork based on logic and comparative reconstruction. After O.F. Emerson



Anglo-Saxon uniform
Source: The New Universal Library, 1969

Norntan uniform

List of principal questions: 1. General survey of the nominal system 2. The noun 2.1.Gender 2.2.Number 2.3.Case 2.4.Homonymity of forms in Old English and its influence on the further development of noun forms 3. The pronoun 3.1.Personal pronouns 3.2.Other pronouns 4. The adjective 4.1.Declension of adjectives 4.2.Degrees of comparison of adjectives


0. Old English grammar

0. The Old English language was a synthetic language which means that all the principal grammatical notions were expressed by a change of the form of the word in the narrow meaning of the term. The grammatical means that the English language used were primarily a) suffixation, b) vowel gradation and c) use of suppletive forms. Old English was a highly inflected language. The abundance of inflections resulted from the fact that the paradigm of declension and the paradigm of conjugation were formed by many grammatical categories and there was more than one declension in the system of declension and more than one conjugation in the system of conjugation due to the splitting of the once uniform paradigm in accordance with the original structure of the word.

1. General survey of ihe nominal system

1.0. There were five declinable parts of speech in Old English1: the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the numeral,'the participle. The nominal paradigm in Old English was characterised by the following grammatical categories (see Table 6.1). As we can see, the paradigms of different parts of speech had the same number of grammatical categories but these parts of speech were different in the number of categorial forms composing a given grammatical category. Hence the system of forms of each part of speech requires special consideration.
Among the non-finite forms of the verb the infinitive was also declined.


Table 6-/.Grammatical categories of declinable parts of speech

^ \ ^ Categories Parts^\^^ of speech ^ ^ \

Noun Pronoun Adjective




+ + +

+ + +

+ + +


2. The noun
2.0. The Old English noun paradigm was composed by the following grammatical categories: gender, number, case.

2.1. Gender
The category of gender was formed by the opposition of three gender-forms: masculine, feminine and neuter. All nouns, no matter whether they denoted living beings, inanimate things or abstract notions belonged to one of the three genders. The subdivision of Old English nouns in accordance with their grammatical gender is traditional, the correspondence between the meaning of the word and its grammatical gender bei ng hard to trace. Some nouns denoting animals were also treated.as neuter, s uch as cicen (chicken), hors (horse), etc. The grammatical gender did not always coincide with the natural gender of the person and sometimes even contradicted it (thus, for instance, the noun wifman (woman) was declined as Masculine).


Compare stSn (stone, masculine), ban (bone, neuter), cwen (queen, feminine) which belong to different genders but have similar forms. More examples: Male beings faeder (father) sunu (son) cyning (king) Masculine Lifeless things hlaf (bread) Stan (stone) hrof (roof) Abstract notions Stenc (stench) faer (fear) nama (name) dom (doom) Abstract notions trywdu (truth) huntin3 (hunting) lufu (love)

Feminine Female beings Lifeless things modor (mother) tunge (tongue) dohter (daughter) meolc (milk) CWen (queen) 3OS (goose) Living beings cicen (chicken) hors (horse) madden (maiden) Neuter Lifeless things (eye) scip (ship)

Abstract notions mod (mood) riht (right)

2.2. Number
The grammatical category of number was formed by the opposition of two categorial forms: the singular and the plural. Nominative Singular use (fish) (eye) t55 (tooth) scip (ship)

Nominative Plural fiscas te6 scipu


2.3. Case
The Old English noun formed its paradigm by the opposition of three genders, two numbers and four cases. Thus, presumably, the noun had twenty-four word-forms. On the whole the same could be observed in Common Germanic. In the course of the development of Old English, however, the original paradigm had undergone great changes due to the fusion of the original stem suffix and the original grammatical ending into one element which from the point of view of Old English is to be regarded as a grammatical ending. As a result of that fusion nouns that are known to have had different stem-suffixes originally in Old English acquired materially different endings in the same case, for example: a-stem Nominative plural -stem n-stem
nam-an (names), etc.

stan-as (stones) car-a (cares)

The original stem suffixes were formed both by vowels and by consonants. Thus there were two respective principal groups of declensions in Old English: the vowel declension ("strong" declension) and the consonant declension ("weak" declension). The vowel (strong) declension comprises four principal Paradigms: the a-stem, the o-stem, the u-stem and the i-stem paradigm. The consonant declension comprises nouns with, the stem originally ending in -n, -r, -s and some other consonants. In rare cases, however, the new form is constructed by adding the ending directly to the root. It is these words that formed the so-called root-stem declension.



Table 6-2. Declensions in Old English ^Declension Vowel (strong) stems Consonant (weak) stem Root
stems r faeder (father) s lamb fot (lamb) (foot) lamb

Case \ . n u i and number\ Nom. Sing. stan cam sunu wine nama
(stone) (care) (son) (wine) (name)

Nom. Plur.

stanas cara suna


naman fsederos


Vowel-Stems. Declension ofa-stem


This type of declension consists of the masculine and the neuter genders of Old English nouns. As a rule those are common everyday words that formed the very core of the word-stock, such as:

(bread), hwffirte (wheat), hors (horse), fisc (fish), SCip (ship) etc. As is seen from Table 6-3 below, the paradigm of the a-stem nouns is characterised by the homonymity of the Nominative and Accusative case-forms. The rest of the forms retain their endings. The difference between the genders of the nouns is clearly seen from the different endings in the Nominative and the Accusative plural, i.e. -as for the masculine and -u for the neuter.1

Consonant stems. Declension ofn-stem nouns

The consonant declensions consisted of nouns with the stern originally ending in -n, -r, -s and other consonants.2
Nouns which had a long stem syllable had the zero ending in the Nominative and the Accusative Plural (such as sceap (sheep), land (land), etc.)
2 1

Declensions of stems other than -n are not analysed here as nouns belonging to them are few and show a tendency to fall under other declensions.


Table 6-3. Declension of a-stem nouns Masculine fisc (fish) fisces fisce fisc fiscas fisca fiscum fiscas Neuter scip (ship) scipes scipe scip scipu scipa scipum scipu

Case Singular


Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative

The n-stem class was formed by nouns of all the three genders, such as nama (name.) masculine, tunge (tongue) feminine, (eye) neuter. table 6-4. Declension of n-stem nouns


^*~\Gender Masculine Case^\^ Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative nama (name) naman naman naman naman namena namum naman

Feminine tunge (tongue) tungan tungan tungan tungan tungena tungum tungan

Neuter (eye)




The n-stem was the most important among all the consonant stem declensions. This class of nouns was composed of common words. The group was very extensive in Old English and like the a-stem declension it exhibited a tendency to spread its forms over other declensions. The original stem-suffix -n may be observed in the majority of case forms, but very often the grammatical ending had been dropped in the pre-written period; this phenomenon gave rise to a well-marked homonymity of the noun forms of the declension. Five case forms of the masculine and the feminine genders all the Singular with the exception of the Nominative and the Nominative and the Accusative plural are homonymous, in case of neuter nouns only four forms are homonymous, as the Accusative case of neuter nouns is homonymous to the Nominative. Gender oppositions in this declension are also not distinct, the masculine nouns being different from the feminine only in the Nominative Singular and from the neuter in the Nominative and the Accusative Singular. Declension of root-stem nouns Root-stems require special consideration. This class was not extensive and stood apart among other Old English nouns due to peculiarities of form-building which was partly retained in Modern English. Unlike other classes the root-stem nouns such as man (man, masculine), mfls (mouse, feminine) originally had no stem-suffix the grammatical ending was added directly to the root. As a result of that in the Dative Singular and the Nominative and the Accusative Plural the root-vowel had undergone palatal mutation due to the [i]-sound in the grammatical ending of these forms. Later the ending was dropped and vowel interchange remained the only means of differentiating the


given forms in the paradigm. The endings of the rest of the forms are built up on analogy with those of the a-stems, hence the difference between genders can- be observed only in the Genitive Singular es for the masculine, -e for the feminine. Table 6-5. Declension of root-stem nouns ^^^--^^ Gender Case ^~""~"-~^^^ Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative

man (man)

mus (mouse)

mannes man man men manna mannum men

muse mys mus mys musa musum mys


2.4. Homonymity offorms in Old English and its influence on the further development of noun forms
In. the prehistoric period of the development of the English language each case had an ending typical of its uninflected form. In the course of the development of the English language, however, due to various semantic and phonetic changes different cases began to develop similar endings within one and the same paradigm; this phenomenon gave rise to the well-marked
The feminine nouns with the short root had the ending -u in the Nominative and the Accusative Singular, and -e in the Nominative and the Accusative Plural.



homonymity of case-forms in English. The reference table given below show the principal noun suffixes in Old English. The table serves to prove that the twenty-four word-forms which built up the noun paradigm had but nine materially different endings. The most distinct among them are: -es genitive singular, masculine and neuter -a/ena genitive plural, all genders -um dative plural, all genders -as nominative and accusative plural, masculine. As for the rest of the forms their mutual homonymity is considerable. For example, nouns with the stem originally ending in -a show gender differences only in the plural, all the forms in the singular but the nominative being homonymous, irrespective of gender and case differences. The existence of different endings of nouns grammatically alike and homonymous endings of nouns grammatically different testifies to a certain inadequacy of the morphological devices or the Old English noun to show the relation of the noun to other words in the sentence and a need for the development of new means to denote the grammatical meanings formerly denoted morphologically. Table 6-6. Reference table of the principal grammatical noun suffixes in Old English
Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
l Case ^ ^ - ^ a e Nominative Genitive es es Dative e e Accusative e

u u/o a' a a

n a an an an

u e e e

u u/o e a e a -/e a a a um a

n e an an an n enr um an

a es e

i -/e es e e

n e an an e


Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative

as a um as

e/es a

ana e a a a ena a a um um um um um e/as a an a e


u/o u an a a ena um um um u/o/- u an


3. The pronoun
0. The following classes of pronouns were to be observed in Old English: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative and indefinite pronouns. The system of declension of the pronoun was not the same for all the classes. It has at least two subsystems that should be singled out: the declension of personal pronouns on the one hand and the declension of other pronouns. Although the grammatical categories of each subsystem were the same, i. e. gender, number, case, the number of the categorial forms composing those categories was different.

3.1. The personal pronoun

The Old English personal pronoun similar to the Old English noun had the grammatical categories of gender, number and case.

Gender Three genders could be distinguished in the pronominal paradigm: masculine, feminine and neuter, but different forms for different genders were found only in the third person singular, the rest of the forms being indifferent to gender.

The category of number differs from that of the noun as in the first and second person we find three categorial forms: singular, dual and plural, for instance:



wit (two of us)

Plural we (we)


The category of case is built up by the opposition of four categorial forms, similar to those of the noun: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative. The table below may serve as an example of the declension of personal pronouns. Unlike the Old English noun, the paradigm of which was composed of forms that mainly differed in the ending, the paradigm of the Old English personal pronouns is built up by suppletive forms and the homonymity of pronominal forms is not great. We find it only in the Dative and the Accusative cases.
Table 6-7. Declension of the personal pronoun Ic Singular Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative . ic mm me mec, me Dual wit uncer unc unc Plural

user, Ore us usic, us ..

3.2. Other pronouns

All Old English pronouns with the exception of personal pronouns were declined almost alike. They expressed the grammatical categories of gender (three forms: masculine, feminine and neuter), number (two forms: singular and plural) and case, which was built up by five categorial forms: the Nominative, the Accusative, the Dative, the Genitive and the


Instrumental, different from the Dative only in the Singular. See, for example, the declension of the demonstrative pronoun se in Table 6-8 below. If we compare the paradigms of these pronouns with those of the noun and the personal pronoun we cannot but take notice that they differed in the number of the categorial forms composing the categories of case and number. The personal pronoun unlike the rest of the pronouns and the noun possessed three categorial forms composing the category of number. All the other pronouns unlike the personal pronoun and the noun had five cases.
Table 6-8. Declension of the demonstrative pronoun se

4. The adjective
4.1. Declension of adjectives
The paradigm of the adjective is similar to that of the noun and the pronoun, i.e. it comprises Gender, Number, Case. The grammatical category of case was built up by five forms: the Nominative, the Accusative, the Dative, the Genitive and the Instrumental.


There were two ways of declining Adjectives the Definite and the Indefinite declension. The adjective followed the Definite declension mainly if the noun if modified had another attribute a demonstrative pronoun, and they were declined as Indefinite otherwise. The grammatical suffixes forms of cases mainly coincided with those of nouns with the stem originally ending in a vowel or -n, yet in some cases we find pronominal suffixes. For example, in the Genitive Plural, in the Dative singular, etc. Table 6-9. Declension of adjectives

4.2. Degrees of comparison

The Adjective in Old English changed its forms not only to show the relation of the given adjective to other words in the sentence which was expressed by the gender, number and case of the adjective, but also to show the degree of the quality denoted by the adjective, i.e., the forms of the adjective in Old English could express degrees of comparison.


The degrees of comparison were expressed, the same as all other grammatical notions, synthetically, namely: a) by means of suffixation: heard heardra - heardost (hard) b) by means of vowel gradation plus suffixation: eald ieldra ieldest (old) c) by means of suppletive forms 3od bettra betst (good), the first means being unquestionably the most common. Both suffixation and the use of suppletive forms in the formation of the degrees of comparison are original means that can be traced back to Common Germanic. But the use of vowel interchange is a feature which is typical of the English language only and was acquired by the language in the prehistoric period of its development. The origin of vowel gradation in the forms eald ieldra ieldest is a result of the process of palatal mutation which the root-vowel ea underwent under the influence of the original stem-forming suffix -i, i.e. Positive Comparative Superlative degree degree degree eald ieldra ieldest *ealdira *ealdist ealdira > ieldra ealdist > ieldest A similar case is observed with strong (strong), long (long), etc. ***

A careful study of the systems of declensions of nouns, pronouns and adjectives shows that the pronominal and adjectival


paradigms are more developed, they are richer in the number 01 word-forms. The homonymity of forms although existing (especially in the declension of the definite adjective) is not so pronounced and the oppositions between word-forms are more evident. There were three kinds of declensions noun, pronoun (with two subdivisions) and adjective. They had the same grammatical categories, the main difference being in the quantity of the categorial forms of number (three number-forms m persona] pronouns) and case (four case-forms nouns, five case-forms personal pronouns and adjectives). The subdivision within the system of each part of speech was based on the difference in the material forms (the noun based on the original stem-suffix, the pronoun the number of categorial forms, the adjective strong and weak declensions with the functional difference.
Some more facts...
Irregular Comparisons Irregularity may be encountered not only in nouns and verbs, but also in adjectives. Some forms of the degrees of comparison may be called irregular, for they do not follow the predominant pattern. The Positives marked below with an asterisk have borrowed their comparatives and superlatives from other roots. Such Positives are therefore irregular, because they have no Comparative or Superlative of their own. The Comparative and Superlative are also defective, because they have no Positive of their own. In all the other examples the Comparative and Superlative are irregular, but formed from the same root as the Positive. Bad, ill, evil* Fore Good* worse* former better*

worst* foremost, first best*


Hind Late Little* Much (quantity)* Many (number)* Nigh Old

hinder later, latter


hindmost latest, last least* most* most* Highest, next oldest, eldest

more* more* nigher older, elder

Many of the present-day irregular comparatives are interesting from a historical point of view. Late has later latest, beside the older latterlast, both of which have lost something of their comparative force. Nearernearest are examples of new forms based upon an older comparative near, the older comparison being nighnearnext. In a similar way worser and lesser are based on true comparatives worse, less. Far has two sets of words used somewhat indiscriminately as comparative and superlative. These are fartherfarthest, furtherfurthest, only one of which is original, the comparative further. The superlative of further was fyrst, our first, which has become entirely separated from the series. Later the superlative furthest was formed, and by analogy the remaining forms with the vowel offar. Moremost are from an original adverb ma, which became an adjective in Middle English and remained in early Modern English as moe. It may be mentioned also thai evil was in Old English use the positive to worse worst, but in Middle English both a new adjective badde and ill from the Norse replaced evil in this use. Another instance of irregularity in the degrees of comparison is represented by the following five words which are adverbs in the Positive degree, but adjectives in the Comparative and Superlative: far in out beneath up farther inner outer, utter nether upper

farthest innermost, inmost uttermost, utmost nethermost uppermost


Thus instances of irregularity may be found in all the principal grammatical classes of English words. after O.F. Emerson and J.C. Nesfield


King Edward the Confessor (10421066) with his servant, fragment of a contemporary embroidery ("Bayeux tapestry", or "Queen Mathilde's tapestry", Musee de Bayeux).

List ofprincipal questions: 1. General survey of finite and non-finite forms of the verb 2. Grammatical categories of the finite forms of the verb 2.1. Person 2.2. Number 2.3. Tense 2.4. Mood 3. Morphological classification of verbs 3.1. Strong verbs 3.2. Weak verbs 3.3. Irregular verbs


1. General survey of finite and non-finite forms of the verb

The verb-system in Old English was represented by two sets of forms: the finite forms of the verb and the non-finite forms of the verb, or verbals (Infinitive, Participle). Those two types of forms the finite and the non-finite differed more than they do today from the point of view of their respective grammatical categories, as the verbals at that historical period were not conjugated like the verb proper, but were declined like nouns or adjectives. Thus the infinitive could have two case-forms which may conventionally be called the "Common" case and the "Dative" case. Common case Dative case Writan (to write) to writenne (so that I shall write) cepan (to keep) to cepenne (so that I shall keep) drincan (to drink) to drincenne (so that 1 shall drink) The so-called Common case form of the Infinitive was widely used in different syntactical functions, the Dative case was used on a limited scale and mainly when the Infinitive functioned as an adverbial modifier of purpose, i.e. Ic 3a to drincenne (/ go to drink) The participle had a well-developed system of forms, the declension of the Participle resembling greatly the declension of adjectives. The one typically "verbal" grammatical category of the participle was the category of tense, for example: Present tense writende cepende drincende

Past tense writen cept druncen


2. Grammatical categories of the finite forms of the verb

As we have already said the system of conjugation mainly embraced the finite forms of the verb as the non-finite forms were not conjugated but declined. The system of conjugation of the Old English verb was built up by four grammatical categories, those of person, number, tense and mood.

2.1. Person
There were three person forms in Old English: first, second and third. For example: First person Ic write Second person pu writes Third person he wrlte5 But we have distinct person forms only in the Indicative mood, the Imperative and the Oblique mood forms reflecting no person differences and even the Indicative mood forms changing for person only in the Singular, the plural forms being the same irrespective of person, for example:

2.2. Number
The grammatical category of number was built up by the opposition of two number forms Singular and Plural Ic write (singular) we wnta6 (plural)


2.3. Tense
The grammatical category of tense was represented by two forms: Present tense and Past terise, for example: Present Past Indicative Ic write Ic wrat Oblique Ic write Ic write There was no Future tense in Old English, future events were expressed with the help of a present tense verb + an adver denoting futurity or by a combination of a modal verb (generally sculan (shall) or willan (will) + an Infinitive, for example: Wille ic asec3an mserum peodne min aerende
(7 want to tell the glorious prince my mission)

2.4. Mood
There were three mood forms in Old English: Indicative, Imperative and Oblique, for example: Indicative Imperative Oblique pu cepst The Indicative Mood and the Imperative Mood were used cases similar to those in which they are used now But the Oblique mood in Old English differed greatly from the corresponding mood in New English. There was only one mood form in Old English that was used both to express events that are thought of as unreal or as problematic today there are two mood forms to denote those two different kinds of events, conventionally called the Subjunctive and the Conjunctive! The forms of the Oblique Mood were also sometimes used in contexts for which now the Indicative mood would be more suitable to present events in the so-called "Indirect speech": He ssede past pset land sie swipe 1.
(He said that that land is very long/large). 110


3. Morphological classification of verbs

All Old English verbs may be subdivided into a number of groups in accordance with the grammatical means with the help of which they built their principal stems. There were two principal means for forming verb-stems in Old English: (1) by means of vowel interchange of the root vowel and (2) by means of suffixation. In accordance with these two methods of the formation of the verb-stems all the verbs in Old English formed two main groups the strong verbs and the weak verbs. There were other means of the formation of verb-stems in Old English as well, but the number of verbs belonging to those groups was not large. A.I. Smirnitsky suggested the following morphological classification of verbs in Old English. Table 7-1. Morphological classification of Old English verbs
Strong verbs I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII classes Weak verbs I, II, III classes Other verbs suppletive irregular (anomalous) preterite-present verbs

3.1. Strong verbs

The strong verbs are verbs which use vowel-interchange as the principal means of expressing different grammatical categories. They differ from weak'ones not only in the manner of the building of their forms but also in the number of these principal forms. The strong verbs have four principal forms, the weak ones three principal forms.


These terms "strong" and "weak" were introduced into the science of philology by the famous German linguist Jacob Grimm who considered strong verbs to be of "a more noble nature" as compared with weak verbs, because strong verbs conjugated by means of vowel interchange better reflected the prehistoric "golden age" of the language. This vowel interchange, or "ablaut", which was the principal grammatical means in the conjugation of the Old English strong verbs was of two kinds: qualitative and quantitative. The first five classes are mainly based on the qualitative ablaut; the sixth class on the quantitative ablaut; verbs of the seventh class originally formed their principal forms by means ot the so-called reduplication of the root syllable, but in the course of the development of the language that means was obliterated. The Old English qualitative ablaut is akin to the Common Germanic ablaut and even Indo-European ablaut its essence, as we remember, is the use of the gradation series consisting of a front vowel, back vowel and zero, e o 0 i a 0 In Russian, for instance, they use two grades of the series, e/zero to form the category of tense: Present tense e Classes of the strong verbs There were seven principal gradation series in Old English and there were seven classes of the strong verbs from I to VII. As we have already said, the seventh class of the strong verbs stands apart from the rest of the classes, because it was the only class formed by verbs which originally used reduplication of the root-vowel as their principal grammatical means; the sixth class Past tense 0


of the strong verbs shows a peculiarity that is also typical only of one class within the system of the strong verbs original quantitative gradation; the rest-of the classes from I to VII are characterised by a certain similarity in their original grammatical means as all of them originally used the same type of qualitative ablaut, i.e. the interchange of a front vowel back vowel zero in the form of i a-~0. The difference in the gradation series of each of the classes within the first five was mainly due to the splitting of that one gradation into variants under the influence of the vowel or the consonant of the stem that followed the vowel of gradation. Thus in the first class of the strong verbs the vowel of gradation was followed by the vowel -i, in the second by the vowel -u, in the third, fourth and fifth by a sonorous consonant + another consonant, by one sonorous consonant or by a noise consonant, respectively. The root of the verbs of the sixth class consisted only of consonants, and the purely quantitative vowel interchange of prehistoric times developed into a quantitative and qualitative ne. The verbs of the seventh class show traces of the original reduplication (addition of an extra syllable including the initial consonant of the infinitive and having the vowels -e- or -eo- in the past singular and plural)1. The original structure of the verb is still quite clear in the Gothic language. In table 7-3 below the bold type vowel in the Gothic verb is the vowel of gradation. As is seen from the examples, in the third and second forms of the verb there was no vowel of gradation the zero grade of gradation.

more details on Class VII see also p. 124-125


PART 1. LECTURES Table 7-2. Classes of the strong verbs ^XStems N. N. Ca s ls \ I II IV V VI VII I stem Infinitive, Present tense. Imperative nsan (rise) ceosan (choose) bindan (bind) teran (tear) etan (eat) scacan (shake) hatan (-call) Elstem Past tense singular ras ceas band tser set scoc het III stem Past tense plural rison curon bundon tseron seton scocon heton IV stem Past Participle JParUJl__ risen coren bunden toren eten scacen haten

Table 7-3. Old English and Gothic strong verbs

In the following table there is given the paradigm of some types of strong verbs.



Table 7-4. Conjugation of Old English strong verbs


3.2. Weak verbs

The Old English weak verbs are relatively younger than the strong verbs. They reflect a later stage in the development of Germanic languages. They were an open class in Old English, as new verbs that entered the language generally formed their forms on analogy with the weak verbs. Whereas the strong verbs used vowel-interchange as a means of differentiation among principal verb stems, the weak verbs used for that purpose suffixation, namely, suffixes -t or -d. For example: cepan cepte cept (keep) The strong verbs, as we remember, were "root-stem" verbs, i.e. they did not have any stem-forming suffix following the root, but they added their grammatical endings to the root directly. The weak verbs, however, had a stem-forming suffix that followed the root and preceded the grammatical ending. By way of an example we may use a Gothic verb where that original stem-forming suffix is better preserved than in English. Infinitive Past tense Past Participle Singular I class haus-j-an (hear) haus-i-d-a haus-i-ps Classes of the weak verbs In accordance with the character of the stem-suffix the weak verbs are subdivided into three classes. If the English strong verbs had four principal forms, the English weak verbs had three principal forms. We may draw the following table of the English weak verbs.



Table 7-5. Classes of the weak verbs

Classes Stem suffix Infinitive deman (deem) fyllan (fill) lufian (love) locian (look) Past tense Singular demde fyllde lufode Past Participle denied fylled lufod


i oi



Class I - the stem-suffix -i The class includes many verbs formed from other nouns, adjectives or verbs. All of them have a front root vowel the result of the palatal mutation due to the -i- element of the stemsuffix. e.g. deman fyllan <- dom <r- ful

In the course of time this palatal stem-suffix was as a rule lost. It was preserved only in some participles in the form of -e(after sonorous consonants): deman demde demed. Class II - the stem-suffix -oi The o-element of the suffix is preserved in the past tense and in the Past Participle. If the first class of the weak verbs reflected the palatal mutation of the root-vowel due to the i-element of the stemsuffix, the root vowel of the weak verbs belonging to the second class remained unchanged (because of the preceding 6). luf-oian > lufeian - lufean > lufian The following table shows the paradigm of weak verbs.
' Of the third class there remained in Old English only three verbs habban (haw), libban (live), sec3an (see). 117


Table 7-6. Conjugation of Old English weak verbs


3.3. Irregular verbs

Regularity means conformity with some unique principle or pattern. It does not require any exact material marker. That is why it is said that most verbs in Old English were regular I in theor conjugation they followed one of the patterns typical of this or that class of strong or weak verbs. However, there were also a few irregular verbs, conjugated in some specific way. Irregular weak verbs The majority of the weak verbs belonging to the 1st and 2nd classes were regular. The weak verbs of the 3 rd class are considered to be irregular, because the class consists of only three verbs, following their own individual patterns of form-building. However, among the Is1 class there were also some irregular verbs. This irregularity was inherent, but it was manifested in pre-historic times and in Old English differently. Here we may speak of such verbs as tellan talde tald (to tell) sellan salde said (to sell) The sign of irregularity of the weak verbs in Old English was vowel interchange, a feature not typical of this group of verbs. The cause of it was the original absence of the sterrwforming suffix -i- in Past Singular and Past Participle: * talian talde tald Under the influence of -i- only the form of the infinitive could change during the process of palatal mutation: * talian > tellan; the other two remaining unchanged, and as a result the verb acquired vowel interchange.



Irregular strong verbs There was a group of strong verbs which in the pre-wntten period lost some of their forms and'preserved the others, ontis changing their lexical and grammatical meaning. F historically past changed so as to become present in meaning. These verbs are called preterite-present, for in the written peno they build their present tense forms from the original past (preterite) ones. The new past tense forms of these verbs in 0 English are built with the help of dental suffixation, like weak verbs. The majority of preterite-present verbs are defective ver s they do not have all the forms of regular verbs, which los their connection with the other forms and were dropped. The group of Old English preterite-present verbs includes, among others, the following: infinitive cunnan sculan Present Singular Present Plural .cunnon sculon moton Past Singular ahte cu5e scolde meahte moste cunnen

cann sceal mot

The Old English forms of preterite-present verbs correspond to the following pre-written forms of the verb: Pre-written Written
Infinitive Infinitive Past Singular Present Singular


Past Plural Present Plural Past Singular

Participle u Participle II

Preterite-present verbs were further to develop in a number of different ways.



The verb a^an later developed into several words: the infinitive as a result of phonetic changes gave the New English verb owe with the past tense/participle II form owed built according to the pattern of weak verbs; the past participle gave the New English adjective own from which there was later formed the regular verb own owned ~ owned; the past tense singular ante developed into the modern modal verb ought. The verb cunnan lost its infinitive. The form can began to be used for the present, the past tense form acquired the dental suffix -d, in Middle English began to be spelled with -ou- instead f -u-, and later acquired the letter -I- on analogy with such verbs as should and would. The verb also lost its infinitive and participle I, using the form of for its present, and the former meahte gave us the present-day might. The verb mot has preserved but one form must which goes back to its past tense form moste and is understood as a present tense form it is an example of a second change of its meaning, when the new past form came to be understood as the present tense one. The verb sculan, similar to other verbs of this group, lost its infinitive, using the form sceal for the present, and the former sceolde was to develop into should, both verbs nowadays being used as modal or auxiliary. Suppletive verbs Supplition, as we know, is one of the oldest means of formbuilding. All Indo-European languages, and English among them, have suppletive verbs those building different forms from different roots. Each of them is a class in itself. Among such verbs we may mention the following:


beon wesan (be) 3n eode (go) don dyde (do) The first verb of each of the pairs above is the root for the Present tense forms, the second for the past. wa A similar phenomenon is observed in German: sein ich bin, Russian: , , Latin: sum -* fui, French: aller je vais j'irai. In fact, the forms of the verb cortresponding to the present-day be are derived from three different roots: wes~, es- and be- (for a complete paradigm of the verbs /wesan and jan/eode see table 7-7 on the next page)***


If we compare the system of conjugation with that of the system of declension we shall observe a number of instances oi basic difference between them. The principal grammatical means used in the paradigm of declension was suffixation, in the paradigm of conjugation ' vowel gradation. With reference to the structure of the noun we generally speak .of three elements of word-structure: root + stem-suffix + grammatical ending. In the verb we very often have only two elements the root and the grammatical ending. The system of declension manifested a tendency to simplification from the point of view of the number of. declensions and the number of grammatical categories, the system of conjugation preserved its principal groups and classes of verbs and also retained and developed its original grammatical categories.



Table 7-7. Conjugation of beon/wesan and /eode

Infinitive wesan/beon Present hid. Sing. 1 2 3 Plur. eom eart is sint, sindon beo bist bif> beob beo beon beo 3an/eode



Present Subj. Sing. sy, si Plur. syn, sin Imperative Sing. Plur. Participle I wesende Past /nd. Sing. 1 waes wsere




3ande, 3an3ende code eodest code eodon eode eoden

3 Plur. Past Subj. Sing. Plur. Participle II

waere wSren



Some more facts...

Reduplication The seventh class of Old English strong verbs is formed by the so-called reduplicating verbs, which, as the name implies, used repetition of their elements as a means of'form-building, although due to later contracting we see but traces of it in u English. These verbs are put in a class by themselves because their unusual pattern of preterits and are significant as fanning a connecting link between the Teutonic1 and other IndoEuropean languages, such as Greek and Latin, which also reduplication one of the oldest word- and form-building means of any language, encountered even now in some cieo languages, for example: now-now (immediately), fast-fast (very fast) - in South African English. Reduplication was perfectly preserved only in Gothic, the oldest representative of Teutonic, where past tense was formed by repeating the root syllable, for example: haitan (to call) - haihait tekan (to touch) taitok. In Anglo-Saxon examples of reduplication are far less distinctly preserved, some of the most evident of them being: hatan (to call) heht (Gothic 'haihait'), which shows reduplication by the repetition of'h'; rcedan (to advise) reord (Gothic 'rairoth'), which shows reduplication by the repetition of Y; lacan (to skip) leolc (Gothic 'lailaik'), is lost, and ci which shows reduplication by the repetition of T. More commonly the repeated consonant diphthong is substituted for the root vowel, as in:

Teutonic = Germanic



Gothic faifall haihald

Old English feoll (fell) heold (held)

Reduplicating verbs differed in one other respect from the remaining strong verbs, since their four principal steins had but two different vowels, one for the present and participle and another for the preterite singular and plural. However, due to later changes most of them have lost the pattern, preserving the vowel interchange to become 'irregular', such as beat, blow, fall, grow, hold, know, let, throw, or started to use dental suffixes for their past and participle, losing the vowel difference completely and thus becoming 'regular': blend, claw, dread, fold, glow, leap, row, salt, swoop, wheeze, wield. The only certain example of the pattern remaining in Modern English is hight (to call), which in Old English was heht, the past tense ofhatan and in Gothic haihait, as shown above. after O.F. Emerson and J.C. Nesjicld



William the Conqueror listening to his messenger, fragment of a contemporary embroidery ("Bayeux tapestry", or "Queen Mathilde's tapestry", Musee de Bayeux).

List of principal questions: 1. Changes in the phonetic system in Middle English 1.1. Vowels in the unstressed position 1.2. Vowels under stress 1.2.1. Qualitative changes 1.2.2. Quantitative changes 1.3. Consonants 2. Changes in the phonetic system in New English 2.1. Vowels in the unstressed position 2.2. Vowels under stress 2.2.1. Qualitative changes 2.2.2. Quantitative changes 2.3. Consonants 3. Changes in alphabet and spelling in Middle and New English


1. Changes in the phonetic system in Middle English

1.1. Vowels in the unstressed position
All vowels in the unstressed position underwent a qualitative change and became the vowel of the type of [] or [e] unstressed. This phonetic change had a far-reaching effect upon the system of the grammatical endings of the English words which now due to the process of reduction became homonymous. For example: forms of strong verbs Old English writan wrat writon writen with the suffixes -an, -on, -en different only in the vowel component became homonymous in Middle English: writen wrpt writen writen forms of nouns Old English Nominative Plural a-stem Genitive Singular Middle English for both the forms is or Old English Dative Singular Genitive Plural Middle English form in both cases is 1.2. Vowels under 1.2.1. Qualitative changes Changes of monophthongs Three long monophthongs underwent changes in Middle English:

fiscas fisces fisces; fisce fisca fisce.



Table 8-1. Long Monophthongs ^-\Periods a>9 Old English stan bat slaepan

Middle English st9n bot slfpen


(New English) stone boat



the rest of the monophthongs presenting their original quality, o example: Old English tep top Middle English teeth (though the spelM tooth devices may be out different) time




Out of the seven principal Old English short monophthongsa, e, o, i, u, , two changed their quality in Middle English, thus [ae] became [a] and [y] became [i], the rest of the monophthongs remaining unchanged, for example: Old English paet wses fyrst but: tell an hors singan putan

Middle English that

first tellen hors sin gen putten


Changes of diphthongs All Old English diphthongs were contracted (became monophthongs) at the end of the Old English period. Table 8-2. Diphthongs "\Periods Sounds^\^ > >| eo>e ea>a Old English deop bread seofon eald Middle English deep bread seven aid

But instead of the former diphthongs that had undergone contraction at the end of the Old English period there appeared in tyTiddle English new diphthongs. The new diphthongs sprang into being due to the vocalization of the consonant [j] after the front vowels [e] or [ae] or due to the vocalization of the consonant [y] or the semi-vowel [w] after the back vowels [o] and [a]. For instance: Old English da?3 we3 gr3 an > da3 > we3 > gre3 > drawen > 8 wen > bowe Middle English > dai > wei > grei > drauen > ouen > boue
(New English)

day way
grey draw

own bow

Thus in Middle English there appeared four new diphthongs: [ai], [ei], [au], [ou].


1.2.2. Quantitative changes

Besides qualitative changes .mentioned above vowels under stress underwent certain changes in quantity. Lengthening of vowels The first lengthening of vowels took place as early as late Old English (IX century). All vowels which occurred before the combinations of consonants such as mb, nd, Id became long. Old English [i] > [i:] climban findan cild hund Middle English climben finden cild hound (New English) climb find child hound

[u] > [u:]

The second lengthening of vowels took place in Middle English (XIIXIII century). The vowels [a], [o] and [e] were affected by the process. This change can be observed when the given vowels are found in an open syllable. Old English Middle English (New English) a>a talu tale tale e>e sprecan speken speak 09 hopian hopen hope Shortening of vowels All long vowels were shortened in Middle English if they are found before two consonants (XI century). Old English Middle English (New English) cepte cepte keep wisdom wisdom wisdom Through phonetic processes the lengthening and the shortening of vowels mentioned above left traces in grammar and wordstock.


Due to it vowel interchange developed in many cases between: different forms of the same word; different words formed from the same root. For instance: Middle English [i:] [i] [e:] [e] [k] [i] child kepen wis but children kept wisdom

1.3. Consonants
The most important change in the consonant system that can be observed if we compare the Old English and the Middle English consonant system will be the development of the fricative consonant [J] and the affricates ftp and [d3] from Old English palatal consonants or consonant combinations. Thus: Old English > [tj] cild benc cin cicen scip sceal brycx Middle English child bench chin chicken ship shall bridge

[sk1] > [J] [g'l > [d 3 ]

Thus we can notice that variants of some Old English consonant phonemes developed differenly. For example: The phoneme denoted in Old English by the letter had two 1 variants: [k] hard and [k ] palatal, the former remaining unchanged, the latter giving us a new phoneme, the phoneme [tj].


The phoneme denoted by the letters "g" or "" and which 1 existed in four variants: [g ], [g] in spelling "" and ], IYI in spelling "g" had the following development: bridge das3>dai, 3iet>yet, >, dra3an>drauen [g] remained unchanged: 3od > good Special notice should be taken of the development of su ^ consonant phonemes that had voiced and voiceless vanan Old English, such as: [fj [v] in spelling f [s] [z] in spelling s [9] [ 5 ] in spelling p, 5 They became different phonemes in Middle English. * * * Summary Middle English [g ] > [d3] w e e [Yl r vocalized: >

1. Levelling of vowels in the unstressed position. 2. No principally new monophthongs in the system of the language appeared, but the monophthongs of the [o] and [e] type may differ: they are either "open" generally those developed from the Old English a (stan > stpn) or "close" developing from the Old English (boc > bok (book)). 2. The sounds [] and [y] disappeared from the system of the language. 3. There are no long diphthongs. 4. New diphthongs appeared with the glide more close than the nucleus (because of the origin) as contrasted to Old English with the glide more open than the nucleus. 5. No parallelism exists between long and short monophthongs different only in their quantity.


6. The quantity of the vowel depends upon its position in the word, (a, o, e always long in an open syllable or before Id, mb, nd. All vowels are always short before two consonants, with the exception of Id, mb, nd). Only in one position in a closed syllable before one consonant vowels of any quantity could be found (wls but pig). 7. New affricates and the fricative [J] appeared in the system of the language. 8. The resonance (the voiced or the voiceless nature) of the consonants ([fj, [v], [s], [z] and [9], [6]) became phonemic.

2. Changes in the phonetic system in New English

2.1. Vowels in the unstressed position
Vowels in the unstressed position already reduced in Middle English to the vowel of the [] type are dropped in New English if they are found in the endings of words, for example: Old English nama writan sunu Middle English name writen sone New English name write son [neim] [rait] [sAn]

The vowel in the endings is sometimes preserved mainly for phonetic reason: wanted, dresses " without the intermediate vowel it would be very difficult to Pronounce the endings of such words.




the resulting vowel is more open, than the resulting vowel in such cases when the long vowel undergoing the Shift was followed by a consonant other than "r". For example: [ei] [i:] [ai] [] [] but but but but but [] [is] [ais] [] [] fate but fare steep but steer time but tire moon but moor house but hour

As a result of the Great Vowel Shift new sounds did not appear, but the already existing sounds appeared under new conditions. For instance: The sound existed before the Shift [ei] [u:] [i:]

The sound appeared

after the Shift

make moon see,

hous time


Two short monophthongs changed their quality in new glish (XVII century), the monophthong [a] becoming [as] and the monophthong [u] becoming []. For instance: Middle English [a] > [] []>[] that cut New English that cut

However, these processes depended to a certain extent upon the preceding sound. When the sound [a] was preceded by [w] it changed into [o]. Compare: Middle English [a] > [] [a] > [o] (but: wax [wseks]).

New English that was

that was

Where the sound [u] was preceded by the consonants [p], or [f], the change of [u] into [] generally did not take place, hence: bull, butcher, pull, push, full, etc. But sometimes even the preceding consonant did not preven the change, for instance: Middle English [u] > [] but [but] Changes of diphthongs Two out of the four Middle English diphthongs changed m New English, the diphthong [ai] becoming [ei] and the diphthong [au] contracted to [o:] For example: Middle English [ai] > [ei] [au]> [o:] dai lawe New English day law New English but [bAt]

2.2.2. Quantitative changes

Among many cases of quantitative changes of vowels in New English one should pay particular attention to the lengthening of the vowel, when it was followed by the consonant [r]. Short vowels followed by the consonant [r] became long after the disappearance of the given consonant at the end of the word or before another consonant: [a] > [a:] [o] > [o:] Middle English farm hors New English farm horse

When the consonant [r] stood after the vowels [e], [i], [u], the resulting vowel was different from the initial vowel not only in quantity but also in quality. Compare:


her fir fur or [h] before [t]: might, night, light.

2.3. Consonants
The changes that affected consonants in New English are not very numerous. They are as follows. 1) Appearance of a new consonant in the system of English phonemes [3] and the development of the consonants [d3J and ] from palatal consonants. Thus Middle English [sj], [zj], [tj], [dj] gave in New English the sounds [J], [3], [tf], [cfc]. For example: fcj] > [J] fcH > [3] > [tf] > [d3] Asia, ocean measure, treasure nature, culture, century soldier

Note should be taken that the above-mentioned change took place in borrowed words, whereas the sounds [tf], 3], which appeared in Middle English developed in native words. 2. Certain consonants disappeared at the end of the word or before another consonant, the most important change of the kind affecting the consonant [r]: farm, form, horse, etc. (see above, quantitative changes of vowels). 3. The fricative consonants [s], [0] and [f] were voiced after Unstressed vowels or in words having no sentence stress the so-called "Verner's Law in New English": possess, observe, exhibition; dogs, cats; the, this, that, there, then, though, etc.

I* V

Summary New English

The changes that affected the vowel and the consonant system in New English were great and numerous. Vowels Qualitative changes: 1. Disappearance of vowels in the unstressed position at the end of the word. 2. Changes of all long vowels the Great Vowel Shift. 3. Changes of two short vowels: [a] > [] or [o] and [u] > []. Vowels Quantitative changes: 4. Changes of two diphthongs: [ai] > [ei], [au] > [o:]. 5. Lengthening of vowels before [r] due to the vocalisation of consonants. Consonants: 6. Appearance of the consonant [3] and the consonants [yJ> [d3] in new positions. 7. Disappearance or vocalisation of the consonant [r]. 8. Voicing of consonants Verner's Law in New English. 9. Positional disappearance: r w h vocalised at the end of the word: before r before n before t far write knight light



3. Changes in alphabet and spelling in Middle and New English

As we remember, the Old English spelling system was 1 th th mainly phonetic. However, the 13 and 14 centuries witnessed many changes in the English language, including its alphabet and spelling. As a result of these modifications the written form of the word became much closer to what we have nowadays. In Middle English the former Anglo-Saxon spelling tradition was replaced by that of the Norman scribes reflecting the influence of French and often mixing purely phonetic spelling with French spelling habits and traditions inherited from Old English. The scribes substituted the so-called "continental variant" of the Latin alphabet for the old "insular writing". Some letters came into disuse, replaced by new means of expressing the sounds formerly denoted by them thus the letters p ("thorn") and p ("wen"), being of runic origin, unknown to the Norman scribes, disappeared altogether. Some letters, already existing in Old English but being not very frequent there, expanded their sphere of use like the letter k. New letters were added among them j , w, v and z. Many digraphs combinations of letter!? to denote one sound, both vowel and consonant appeared, mostly following the pattern of the French language. The following letters disappeared: 5, p [6/9] replaced by th: bat that 3 [g. j] g 3od g d or year ae [e] e lsetan leten (let) P [w] w
Strictly phonetic spelling means that every sound is represented by only one distinct symbol, and no symbol represents more than one sound


The following letters were introduced: gfor [g] in god and ] in singe j for $3] in words of French origin: joy, judge for [k] instead / before front vowels and n: drincan drinken, cnawan taiowen. for [v] instead off as a separate phoneme: lufu love [luva] q/ [k] {followed by u) in quay or [kw] in cwenqueen to replace OE cw2 for [z] as a separate phoneme: zel ( # " The following digraphs appeared: consonant digraphs: ch for the sound [tj] cild child dg 3] bridge h 1X3 ri3tright, th [5, 6] pencan thinken, modor mother sh [J] scip ship ph [f] w < ? r ^ borrowed from Latin'phonetics ch [] in words borrowed from Latin'chemistry vowel digraphs to show the length of the vowel: [] mete meat [] fet feet [] bat boat [] fot foot ie [e:] feld field ou/ow [u:] hus hous, tun town
Until the 17* century reform v was an allograph of u, the two letters often being interchangeable: overouer, loveloue. " Although sometimes [z] is still rendered by s: losen (lose), chesen (choose).


Some changes were made for ease of reading and for a better visual image of the word: instead of boc book in the final position for i by, my better visual separation w u now of words Besides, and w were considered more ornamental than i and u at the end of the word, allowing to finish it with an elegant curve. instead of u cumen come close to letters bigonne consisting only sunu sone of vertical lu$a love strokes, such as munuc monk u/v, n, m The New English period witnessed the establishment of the literary norm presupposing a stable system of spelling. However, the spelling finally fixed in the norm was influenced by many factors, objective and subjective in character, preserving separate elements of different epochs and showing traces of attempts to improve or rationalise it. In New English with the revival of learning in the 16th century a new principle of spelling was introduced, later to be called etymological. It was believed that, whatever the pronunciation, the spelling should represent to the eye the form from which the word was derived, especially in words of Latin or Greek origin. Thus,.the word dett borrowed from French dette w as respelled as debt, for it could be traced to Latin debitum, dout borrowed from French douter as doubt from Latin dubitare. However, the level of learning at that age was far from Perfect, and many of the so-called etymological spellings were Wrong. Here it is possible to mention such words as:


ME ake (from OE acan) respelt as ache from a wrongfully supposed connection with Greek achos; ME tonge (from OE tunge) respelt-as tongue on analogy with French langue, Latin lingua; a ME iiand (from OE igland) respelt as island from wrongfully supposed connection with French isle, Latin insu a. ME scool borrowed in OE from Latin and always writ with sc- (OE scool) respelt as school, because in Latin the sou [k] in words of Greek origin was rendered as ch; ME delit borrowed from French delit came to be spelt wi mute dighraph -gh- on analogy with light delight, etc. At the same time, the major phonetic changes of the ^ and first of all, the Great Vowel Shift, found practically n^ corresponding changes in spelling. This resulted in the prese day system where one sound can be denoted in several ways, instance: 3 torn, co&mel, herd, heard, bird, blwrred, erred, stirred, word; ou note, noble, both, toad, toe, soul, dough, mow, brooch, oh, mauve, beau, depof, yeoman, sew; one symbol can stand for different sounds: ch cfeaos, c/taise, such, cho'u; dracAm (mute) hot, cold, wolf, women, whom, son, button, lost, hero In addition, there are many so-called "silent letters", the presence of which can be explained only historically. Among the latter there are often mentioned the following:. e {mute e) at the end of words: house, take b after m: lamb, limb, comb b before t: debt, doubt ch yacht g before n and m: gnaw, phlegm h heir, hour, exhibitor


before n: knife, knee 1 could, yolk, palm n after m: autumn, column s island, aisle t after s and f and before 1 or n listen, often, wrestle, soften w wrap, sword, answer There are also double consonants used not to denote the quality or quantity of the consonant, but the quantity of the preceding vowel: bigger, redder, stopper. All these features make the present-day English system of spelling one of the most complex and complicated in the world. As Walter Skeat, the famous specialist in the History of English, puts it, "we retain a Tudor system of symbols with a Victorian pronunciation".

Some more facts...

Shakespeare's Pronunciation Shakespeare's pronunciation, though not ours, was much more like ours than has always been realized. He pronounced [e] for [i] in some words just as Pope could still say lay for tea. The falling together of er, ir, ur (e.g., herd, birth, hurt) was under way but not yet completed. As is known, M.E. was sometimes open, sometimes close [s: e:] and the two sounds were still distinct in Shakespeare's day, [e;] and [i:] respectively. Consequently sea [se:] does not normally rime with see [si:], heap with keep, speak with seek, etc. Toward the close of the fifteenth century an attempt was made to distinguish between them by the spelling. The closer sound was often spelled with or ie (deep, field) while the more open sound was as often written ea (sea, clean). But the practice was not consistently carried out. Although the two sounds are now identical, this



in spelling

is a reminder

of the difference i

pronunciation that long existed. We should also probably notice considerable difference m the pronunciation of words containing M.E. . This regula) developed into fu:J, as in room, food, roof, root, and it retains this sound in many words today. In some words the vowel was shortened in the fifteenth century and was unrounded tot e sound in blood, flood. In still other words, however, it retained its length until about 1700, but was then shortened without being unrounded, giving us the sound good, stood, book, fool, apparent that in Shakespeare's day there was much fluctuation in the pronunciation of words containing this Middle Eng ' vowel, both in the different parts of the country and in the usage of different individuals. Consequently we find in the poetry of the period word we flood riming not only with blood but with mood and good. fact, as late as Dryden we find in the same rime floodmoodgood, the three developments of the sound at the present dayis only in recent times that the pronunciation of these words w$ been standardized, and even today there is some vacillation between a long and short vowel in some of them, e.g., in broom, room, and roof. In addition to such differences in the quality of vowels there were some differences of accent. Shakespeare said persev'er, demon'strate, and generally aspect', de'testable, while he has charact'er, com'mendable, envy', se'cure, welcome', etc., i" contrast to the accentuation that is customaiy in these words today. On the whole, however, we should probably have little more difficulty in understanding Shakespeare's pronunciation than we experience in listening to a broad Irish brogue. after A.C. Baugh and T. Cable



Soldier of James I (1566 1625) from "A Schoole for Young Soldiers, containing in briefe the whole Discipline of warre"

List of principal questions: 1. General survey of grammar changes in Middle and New English. 2. The noun 2.1. Middle English 2.1.1. Morphological classification 2.1.2. Grammatical categories 2.2. New English 2.2.1. Morphological classification 2.1.2. Origin of irregular noun forms 2.1.3. Grammatical categories 3. The adjective 4. The pronoun 5. The article


1. General survey of grammar changes in Middle and New English

The grammar system of the language in the Middle and ew English periods underwent radical changes. As we remember, principal means of expressing grammatical relations in Old bng were the following: suffixation vowel interchange use of suppletive forms, all these means being synthetic. . . In Middle English and New English many grammatical notions formerly expressed synthetically either disappeared tro the grammar system of the language or came to be expressed analytical means. There developed the use of analytical form consisting of a form word and a notional word, and also word order, special use of prepositions, etc. analytical means. . In Middle English and New English we observe the process or the gradual loss of declension by many parts of speech, formeny declined. Thus in Middle English there remained only three declinable parts of speech: the noun, the pronoun and the adjective, against five existing in Old English (the above plus the infinitive and the participle)In New English the noun and the pronoun (mainly personal) are the only parts of speech that are declined.

2. The noun
2.1. Middle English 1.1.1. Morphological classification
In Old English there were three principal types of declensions: astem, n-stem and root-stem declension, and also minor declensions


i-stem, u-stem and others. These types are preserved in Middle English, but the number of nouns belonging to the same declension in Old English and Middle English varies. The n-stem declension though preserved as a type has lost many of the nouns belonging to it while the original a-stem declension grows in volume, acquiring new words from the original n-stem, root-stem declensions, and also different groups of minor declensions and also borrowed words. For example: Old English a-stem singular stan (stone) plural stanas n-stem singular nama (name) plural namen root-stem singular boc (book) plural bee Borrowed Middle English singular stpn plural stpnes singular name plural namen singular book plural bookes singular corage (courage) plural corages

2.7.2. Grammatical categories

There are only two grammatical categories in the declension of nouns against three in Old English: number and case, the category of gender having been lost at the beginning of the Middle English period. Number There are two number forms in Middle English: Singular and Plural. For example:

Old English
Singular fisc stan nama fiscas fishes stanas naman

Middle English
fish stpn name stpnes names



Case The number of cases in Middle English is | J JJ* compared to Old English. There are only two cases m English: Common and Genetive, the Old English Nomin^ ^ Accusative and Dative case having fused into one case Common case at the beginning of Middle English. For example: Old English Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive stan stan stane stanes Middle English
r e d u

nama 1 n a naman \ Common case stpn naman J naman => Genitive case stones nam

Thus we see that the complicated noun paradigm that existe Old English was greatly simplified in Middle English, which 1 reflected in the following: 1) reduction of the number of declensions; 2) reduction of the number of grammatical categories; 3) reduction of the number of categorial forms within one of the two remaining grammatical categories the category of case.

2.2. New English

The process of the simplification of the system of noun declension that was manifest in Middle English continued at the beginning of the New English period.

2.2.1. Morphological classification

In Old English we could speak of many types of consonant and vowel declensions, the a-, n- and root-stem being principal among them. In Middle English we observe only these three declensions:


a-stem, n-stem, root-stem. In New English we do not find different declensions, as the overwhelming majority of nouns is declined in accordance with the original a-stem declension masculine, the endings of the plural form -es and. the Possessive -s being traced to the endings of the original a-stem declension masculine, i.e.: Old English Nominative & Accusative Plural ending -as Genitive Singular ending -es Middle English Common Plural ending Genitive Singular ending

-es -s

Of the original n-stem and root-stem declensions we have in New English but isolated forms, generally referred to in modern grammar books as exceptions, or irregular noun forms.

2.2.2. Origin of modern irregular noun forms

All modern irregular noun forms can be subdivided into several groups according to their origin: a) nouns going back to the original a-stem declension, neuter gender, which had no ending in the nominative and accusative plural even in Old English, such as: sheep sheep (OE sceap sceap) deer deer (OE deor deor) b) some nouns of the n-stem declension preserving their plural frm, such as: ox oxen (OE oxa oxan) c) the original s-stem declension word child children (Old English cild cildra) In Middle English the final vowel was neutralised and the ending n added on analogy with the nouns of the original n-stem declension. This shows that the power of the n-stem declension was at the time still relatively strong.


d) remnants of the original root-stem declension, such as: foot feet (OE fot fet) tooth teeth (OE to6 ted) e) "foreign plurals" words borrowed in Early New English from Latin. These words were borrowed by learned people from scientific books who alone used them, trying to preserve their oiigm form and not attempting to adapt them to their native language. Among such words are: datum data, automaton automata, axis axes, etc. It should be noted that when in the course of further history these words entered the language of the whole people, they tended to a regular plural endings, which gaveriseto such doublets as: moleculamoleculae and moleculas, formula formulae and formulas, antennaantennae and antennas, the irregular form being reserved for the scientific style.

2.2.3. Grammatical categories

The category of gender is formal, traditional already in Old English; in Middle English and New English nouns have no category gender. The category of number is preserved, manifesting the difference between singular and lural forms. The category of case, which underwent reduction first to three and then to two forms, in New English contains the same number of case-forms as in Middle English, but the difference is the number of the nouns used in the Genitive (or Possessive) case mainly living beings, and the meaning mainly the quality or the person who possesses something. the boy's book a women's magazine a two miles' walk


Inanimate nouns are not so common: the river's bank the razor's edge In Modern English, however, we observe a gradual spreading of the ending -s of the Possessive case to nouns denoting inanimate things, especially certain geographical notions, such cases as England's prime minister" being the norm, especially in political style.

3. The adjective
Only two grammatical phenomena that were reflected in the adjectival paradigm in Old English are preserved in Middle English: declension and the category of number. The difference between the Indefinite (strong) and the Definite (weak) declension is shown by the zero ending for the former and the ending -e for the latter, but only in the Singular. The forms of the ^finite and the Indefinite declension in the Plural have similar endings. For instance:



Indefinite a yong squier n J , yonge Definite the yonge sonne The difference between number forms is manifest only in the Indefinite (strong) declension, where there is no ending in the Singular but the ending -e in the Plural. In New English what remained of the declension in Middle English disappeared completely and now we have the uninflected form f r the adjective used for all puiposes for which in Old English there existed a complicated adjectival paradigm with two number-forms, five case-forms, three gender-forms and two declensions. As we have seen above, all grammatical categories and declensions in Middle and New English disappeared. Contrary to that degrees of comparison of the adjective were not only preserved but also developed in Middle and New English. For example:


Table 9-1. Degrees of Comparison ^^\^^ Period Degree ^*"\. heard hard hard eald aid old 3od 3ood good heardra hardre harder ieldra/yldra eldre elder betera bettre better heardost hardest hardest ieldest eldest eldest




Old English Middle English New English Old English Middle English New English Old English Middle English New English

betst best best

It should be noted, however, that out of the three principal means of forming degrees of comparison that existed in Old Engli suffixation, vowel interchange and suppletive forms, there remained a productive means only one: suffixation, the rest of the means see only in isolated forms. At the same time there was formed an developed a new means analytical, which can be observed in sue cases encountered, for instance, in the works of J. Chaucer, as: comfortable more comfortable.

4. The pronoun
In Old English all pronouns were declined, and the pronominal paradigm was very complicated. In Middle English the system was greatly simplified and nowadays what remained of the pronominal declension is mainly represented by the declension of the personal pronoun and on a small scale demonstrative and interrogative (relative).


Case The four-case system that existed in Old English gave way to a two-case system in late Middle English and in New English. The development may be illustrated by the following scheme of the pronominal paradigm (see Scheme 9-1). Scheme 9-1. Personal Pronouns Old English Middle English New English Nominative Ic =$ Nominative I ,=> Nominative I Accusative m e c ] >-,,.. . , . Dative Genitive me } mm => mine => mine Objective me => Objective me

Possessive Pronouns Gender

As a grammatical phenomenon gender disappeared already in Middle English, the pronouns he and she referring only to animate notions and it to inanimate. Number The three number system that existed in Early Old English (Singular, Dual, Plural) was substituted by a two number system a bady in Late Old English.

5. The article
The first elements of the category of the article appeared already Old English, when the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun was Weakened, and it approached the status of an article in such phrases as: Se mann (the man), S60 see (the sea), "past lond (the land).


However, we may not speak of any category if it is not represente by an opposition of at least two units. Such opposition arose only m Middle English, when the indefinite article an appeared. The form of the definite article the can be traced back to the Old English demonstrative pronoun se (that, masculine, singular), whic 1 the course of history came to be used on analogy with the forms ot same pronoun having the initial consonant [8] and began to be use with all nouns, irrespective of their gender or number. The indefinite article developed from the Old English numeral an. In Middle English an split into two words: the indefinite pronoun an, losing a separate stress and undergoing reduction of its vowel, and tne numeral one, remaining stressed as any other notional word. Later m indefinite pronoun an grew into the indefinite article a/an, and togethei with the definite article the formed a new grammatical category t"6 category of determination, or the category of article. * * *

The system of the declinable parts of speech underwent considerable simplification, at the same time developing new analytical features: 1. Reduction in the number of the declinable parts of speech. 2. Reduction in the number of declensions (whatever is preserved follows the a-stem masculine). 3. Reduction in the number of grammatical categories 4. Reduction in the number of the categorial forms (the category of number of personal pronouns and case of all nominal parts of speech) 5. Formation of a new class of words article.



Some more facts...

TheSHEPuzde Plotting the way sounds and words changed between Old and Middle English can be an intriguing business, and one which cannot always be resolved, as the story of she illustrates. There is a fairly obvious relationship between most of the Old English pronouns and their Modem English equivalents. But what is the link between heo and she? The question has attracted several answers, and remains controversial. The simplest solution is to argue that there was a series of sound changes by which heo gradually changed into she. 1. Sometime between Old and Middle English, the diphthong altered, the first element becoming shorter and losing its stress, [he: 9] thus became [hjo:]. 2. The fhj] element then came to be articulated closer to the palate, as [3], in much the same way as happens to modern English huge. 3. [3] then became [J], to give the modern consonant. There are certain facts in favour of this theory. Spellings such as scho are found in very early Middle English in the north. Also, a similar development took place in a few place names, such as Old Norse Hjaltland becoming modern Shetland. The main argument against the theory is that there is no clear evidence for Step 3 elsewhere in English at any time apart from in these few foreign place names. Is it plausible to propose a sound change which affected only one word? Also, we are still left with the problem of getting from [o:J to [e:], which is required in order to produce the modern sound of she. For this, we have to assume a process such as analogy the vowel of she being influenced by that of he. But there is no clear evidence for this. Alternative theories argue that heo comes from seo, the feminine form of the definite article. The simplest version postulates similar sound changes to the above, giving [sjo:J as a result. This is a short, plausible step away from Ifo:}. However, we are still left with the question of why the jo:) vowel became fe:].


A third argument also begins with seo, but takes a different phonological route. Sometime after the Conquest, we have a lot of evidence to show that the sound of [:] changed to become close to [:]. This would have had the effect of making the words heo and he sound the same. In these circumstances, there would be a need to find a way of keeping the two words apart; and the suggestion is that seo filled this need. Why seo? There is a close semantic link between personal and demonstrative pronouns in many languages, and it can be seen in Old English too, where seo meant "that" as well US "the". The same could apply to seo in its relation to heo. It would be very natural to use the phonetic distinctiveness of the former to help sort out the ambiguity of the latter. All that would then be needed was a further consonant change from [si to If], as the vowel is already on course for its modern sound. The problem here is in this last step. How can [s] become [f] in front of an [e:] vowel? It would be the equivalent of a change from same to shame. To get from [s] to [f], there needs to be some intervening sound which "pulls" the s in the direction of the more palatal sound [J]. The obvious candidate is [j], itself a palatal sound, but the whole point of this third argument is that there is no [j] left in heo. The possibility of a [j] developing disappeared when we argued that became [e:]. The origins of she thus remain one of the unsolved puzzles the history of English.

After D. Crystal



Family worship in 1563 (The Whole Psalms in foure partes, John Day, 1563)

List ofprincipal questions: 1. Non-finite forms (verbals) 2. Morphological classification of verbs in Middle English and New English 2.1. Strong verbs 2.1.1. Classes of the strong verbs 2.1.2. Principal forms of the strong verbs 2.2. Weak verbs 2.2.1. Classes of the weak verbs 2.2.2. Principal forms of the weak verbs 2.3. Origin of modem irregular verbs 3Grammatical categories of the English verb


1. Non-finite forms (verbals)

A comparison of the verbals in Old English and in Middle and New English shows that the number of verbals English was less than that in Middle and New English At the en of the Middle English period a new verbal developed Gerund, in addition to the Infinitive and the Participle existing already in Old English. The Gerund appeared as a result of a blend between the Old English Present Participle ending '-ende' and the Old English Verbal noun ending in '-inge'. the Verbal noun the Gerund acquired the form (the ending '-ing(e)'), but under the influence of the Participle it became more "verbal" in meaning In the process of English history the Verbals are gradually shifting from the system of declension into the system conjugation Thus in Old English the verbals existing at the time, the infinitive and the participle could be declined (see above, English). In the course of history the Infinitive (already at the end of the Old English period) and the Participle (in Middle English) lost their declension. And at the end of the Middle English and in New English they acquired elements of conjugation t n e grammatical categories of order, voice and aspect (the infinitive) and the grammatical categories of order and voice (the participle and the gerund). The Old English preposition to preceding the Dative case of the infinitive loses its independent meaning and functions simply as a grammatical particle showing that the Verbal is an Infinitive. But even in Modern English we can find such contexts where the form of the verbal is active, though the meaning is passive: The book is worth reading. The coat needs ironing.


or the non-perfect form expresses order, i.e. is used to express events that took place prior to the action of the finite form of the verbs: I remember doing... I thanked him for bringing the happy tidings. Such phenomena reflect the previous stage of the development of the English language, when the given verbals were indifferent to voice and order.

2. Morphological classification of verbs in Middle English and New English

2.0. The subdivision of Old English verbs into Strong and Weak is preserved with modifications in Middle English.

2.1. Strong verbs 2.1.1, Classes of the strong verbs

In New English, however, the original regularity that was observed in the group of strong verbs in Old English and partly in Middle English is no longer felt due to the following: 0 Splitting of original classes into subclasses, for example:

Old English


New English

rise rose risen

bite bit bitten

2) Some strong verbs of one class entering another class. 159 Thus, the Old English verb of the 5th class:


sprecan sprsec spraicon sprecen passed into the 5 class in Middle English with the forms speken spak speken spoken on analogy with such verbs as stelen stal stelen stolen. 3) Passing of some strong verbs into the group of weak ver s and (rarely) vice versa. For example: Old English I class II class III class VI class gripan glidan creopan climban helpan bacan waecnan Old English New English to grip to glide to creep to lie to climb to help to bake to wake New English

The contrary process, as we have already said, is quite rare. hydan to hide waerian to wear 4) But some weak verbs acquired only some features of the strong verbs, like the Old English weak verb sceawian Modern English show, showed, but shown.

2.1.2. Principal forms of the strong verbs

The strong Verbs in Old English had four principal forms, for example: writan wrat writon writen (to write) bindan band bundon bunden (to shake)


In Middle English, however, they exhibited a marked tendency to have the same vowel in both the forms of the past tense, thus- gradually reducing the number of the principal forms to three. In New English we have only three principal forms in verbs originally belonging to the group of strong verbs: write wrote writen The vowel that is preserved in the Past tense is generally traced back to the vowel of Old English past tense singular. For example: Old English Middle English New English I class wrat wrot wrote (to write) II class scoc shok shook (to shake) but sometimes it is the vowel of the original past tense plural: Old English bitan bat biton biten Middle English biten bot biten biten New English bite bit bitten with the Past tense form deriving its vowel from the past tense plural form of the verb. Sometimes the vowel of the past tense form was borrowed from the form of the past participle: Old English stelan stsel staelon stolen Middle English stelen stal stelen stolen New English steal stole stolen

2.2. Weak verbs

As we have said above the number of strong verbs was diminishing in Middle English and New English mainly due to the passing of some strong verbs into the weak conjugation. Weak v ei'bs, however, were becoming more and more numerous, as they not only preserved in Middle and New English almost all the verbs that were typical of the group in Old English, but also


added to their group the majority of borrowed verbs and about seventy verbs originally strong (see above), and also such vei as: to call to want Scandinavian borrowings to guess to pierce to punish to finish to contribute to create to distribute French borrowings

Latin borrowings

Alike strong verbs many weak verbs became irregular in the course of history, especially weak verbs of the first class This irregularity was mainly conditioned by qualitative and quantitative changes that many weak verbs underwent in Middle English and New English. For instance: Old English cepan cepte cept Middle English kepen kepte kept New English keep kept kept As we see the Old English weak verb of the first class became irregular due to the quantitative change shortening of the vowel in the second and third forms in Middle English (before two consonants for example, pt), thus acquiring quantitative vowel interchange. This quantitative interchange was followed by qualitative in New English after the Great vowel shift, which only the vowel of the first form, being long, underwent, the short vowel of the second and third forms retaining their quality.


2.2.1. Classes of the weak verbs

In Old English there were two principal classes of the weak verbs. In Middle English some verbs that did not become irregular lost the class difference and .we have but one class of verbs going back mainly to the weak verbs of the second class. For instance: Old English II class Middle English lufian lufode lufod (to love) loven lov(e)de luv(e)d

2.2.2. Principal forms of the weak verbs In Old English there were three principal forms of the weak verbs, for instance: cepancepte cept (to keep) lufian lufode lufod (to love) In Late Middle English Early New English, with the loss of the final -e in the second form the second and the third form became homonymous, thus we speak of three principal forms of such verbs as to love or to keep mainly on analogy with original strong verbs, and also because of the existing tradition as no Modern English regular verb, originally belonging to the weak conjugation, shows any trace of difference between the second and third forms. Thus in New English due to different phonetic processes and changes on analogy the two principal groups of verbs that existed m Old English, strong and weak, gave us two principal groups of Modern verbs: regular and irregular, neither of which is directly derived from either of the Old English groups of strong and weak verbs.



2.3. Origin of modem irregular verbs

In Old English most verbs were regular, although there weie a number of irregular ones. In Middle English not only the ^ Old English irregular verbs were preserved, but also n irregular verbs appeared. This was due, first of all, disappearance of the division of verbs into strong and weak, m ^ strong verbs losing their regular pattern of conjugation and becoming irregular. Another source of irregular verbs was the 1st class of verbs the irregularity of which was due to several reasons. ^ addition to the examples given above we can show three grP of verbs originally belonging to the 1st class of weak verbs, wni later became irregular: a) verbs with a long root vowel, the root ending in -t or -d. Old English metan mette mett Middle English meten mette mett New English meet met met In Middle English the root vowel of the second and third forms is shortened due to the rhythmic tendency of the language requiring the shortening of all vowels if followed by two consonants. The vowel interchange in Middle English is quantitative only. In New English the long root vowel in the first form due to the great vowel shift is changed qualitatively, so now we have both quantitative and qualitative vowel interchange in the verb. b) verbs with a long root vowel, the root ending in a consonant other than -t or -d: Old English cepan cepte cept Middle English kepen kepte kept New English keep kept kept


In Middle English the dental suffixation of the 2nd and 3 rd forms is supplemented with a quantitative vowel interchange similar to that explained above, and in New English we have both vowel interchange (quantitative and qualitative) and suffixation as form-building means. c) verbs with a short root vowel, the root ending in -t or -d: Old English settan sette sett Middle English setten sette sett New English set set set No changes took place in the root vowel, the ending disappeared due to the final reduction of unstressed vowels, and now the verb forms its forms without any material manifestation. Even in the 2nd class of weak verbs examples of irregularity can be found. One of them is the verb to make. Old English macian macode macod Middle English maken makede maked New English make made made The middle syllable of the 2nd and 3rd forms was lost, making the verb irregular. Still another source of irregular verbs may be found in some loan words borrowed into the language in Middle English and New English. Although most borrowed verbs formed their forms in accordance with the weak verbs of the 2nd class, some of them are irregular. Here it is possible to mention Scandinavian strong verb borrowings which preserve their original vowel interchange a nd thus are nowadays irregular, as: give gave given take took taken get got gotten. Another irregular loan word is the French borrowing to catch (caught, caught) which is irregular, forming its forms on analogy with the verb to teach (taught, taught).


Thus, among New English regular verbs there may be encountered either native words (almost all Old English weak verbs of the 2nd class and some Old English strong verbs having lost their irregularity and forming their forms on analogy with the weak verbs of the 2nd class, such as to help, to bake, etc.) or borrowings (almost all loan verbs).

3. Grammatical categories of the English verb

In Old English the verb had four categories: person, number, tense and mood. In Middle English and New English there gradually developed three more grammatical categories order, voice ana aspect. These grammatical categories used a new grammatical means for the formation, namely, analytical forms. These analytical forms developed from free word combinations of the Old English verbs habban, beon/wesan + an infinitive (or participle). The way of the formation of those analytical forms was the following: In the free word combination habban, beon/wesan + a n infinitive (or participle) the first element was gradually losing its lexical meaning, and the second its grammatical one, thus tending to become notionally and grammatically inseparable: idiomatic. The category of order was the oldest, formed already in Middle English from the Old English free combination habban + past participle. ffie hsefdon hlera cynin.3 awor^enne
(They had already overthrown their king)


The younge sonne hath in the Ram his halve

course y-runne
(The young sun has run its half-course in the Ram)

... Whan the sonne was to reste, So hadde I spoked with hem everichon...
(When the sun was about to rest, So I had spoken with every one of them)

The same idea of order is sometimes still expressed with the help of the combination to be + participle 2, going back to the Old English beon + past participle: This gentleman is happily arrived. Now he is gone. The category of voice appeared out of the free combination f weorpan (beon) + past participle: Old English he wearb ofslae3en
(he was slain)

Middle English

engendered is the flour

(the flower is generated [born])

The category of aspect was formed in Middle English on the basis of the free combination of ben (beon) + present participle: Singinge he was ... al the dai
(he was singing all the day)

The grammatical categories of tense and mood which existed in Old English acquired new categorial forms. The Old English present and past tense forms were supplemented with a special form for the future tense which a Ppeared in Middle English out of the free combination of the Old English modal verbs "sculan" and "willan" with the infinitive. This free combination of words was split into two groups: in the first, remaining free, the modal meaning is Preserved:


You shall do it I will do it

necessity volition

in the second the independent meaning is lost and the fixed word combination is perceived as the future tense form: I shall go there. You will go there. The category of mood in Old English was represented by three mood forms, one for each of the moods (indicative, subjunctive and imperative). The subjunctive in Old English did not show whether the events were probable or contrary to fact, but it had two tense forms past and present, which in the course of history developed into two subjunctive moods: - I/he be present out of the Old English present tense form of the subjunctive mood

- I/he were present out of the Old English past tense form of the subjunctive mood. The difference between these two subjunctive moods now is in the shade of probability, and not in the tense, the second one denoting events which are contrary to fact. In addition to that at the end of Middle English and the beginning of New English two more subjunctive mood forms appeared making use of the analytical form building means: - I/he should be present to show events which are probable, though problematic

- should be present 1 to show imaginary events, he would be present } contrary to fact. Here should and would are the subjunctive mood forms of the Old English sculan and willan.



Summary Thus the system of conjugation in Middle English and New English is becoming more and more complicated: 1. New non-finite forms appear (the gerund). 2. Conjugation of verbals and disapeareance of their nomimal categories. 3. New grammatical categories are formed. 4. The already existing grammatical categories acquire new forms. 5. The predominant regularity of the verbs and' their conjugation in Old English gives way to many diverse irregularities. Some more facts...
Progressive forms Among the developments as are of most significance in the language of today one of great importance concerns the verb, English is distinctly more varied and flexible in some of its verbal expressions than the other better-known modern languages. Thus, where the French say 'je chante' or the German 'ich singe', the English may say 7 sing\ 7 do sing', or 7 am singing'. The do- forms are often called emphatic forms, and this they sometimes are; but their most important uses are in negative and interrogative sentences ( 7 don't sing', 'do you sing'). The forms with 'to be' and the present participle are generally called progressive forms since their most common use is to indicate an action as being in progress at the time implied by the auxiliary. The wide extension of the use of progressive forms is one of the most important developments of the English verb in the modern period.


In Old English such expressions as 'he was la-rende' (he was teaching) are occasionally found, but usually in translations from Latin. In early Middle English, progressive forms are distinctly rare, and although their number increases m course of the Middle English period, we must credit then development mainly to the period since the sixteenth centui)'The chief factor in their growth is the use of the participle as a noun governed by the preposition 'on' ('he burst oil laughing').* This weakened to 'he burst out a-laughing ana. finally to 'he burst out laughing'. In the same way 'he was on laughing' became 'he was a-laughing' and 'he was laughingToday such forms are freely used in all tenses ('is laughing > 'was laughing', 'will be laughing', etc.). The extension of such forms to the passive ('the house i being built') was an even later development. It belongs to the very end of the eighteenth century. Old English had no progressive passive. Such an expression as 'the man is love , feared, hated' is progressive only in so far as the verbs 'loving > 'fearing', 'hating' imply a continuous state. But no such force attaches to 'the man is killed', which does not mean the man is being killed but indicates a completed act. The construction 'the man is on laughing 'was capable also of a passive significance under certain circumstances. Thus 'the house is on building' can only suggest that the house is in process of construction- This use is found from the fourteenth century on, and in its weakened form the construction is not unknown today. Colloquially, at least, we say 'there is nothing doing at the mill this week'. 'The dinner is cooking' and 'the tea is steeping' are familial' expressions. In some parts of America one may hear 'there's a new barn a-building down the road'. When the preposition was completely lost (on building > a-building > building) the form became 'the house is building'. Since such an expression may at times be either active or passive, it had obvious limitations. Thus 'the wagon is making' is a passive, but 'the wagon is making a noise' is active. And whenever the subject of the sentence is animate or capable of pe if arming the action, the verb is almost certain to be in the active voice ('the man is building a house'). With some verbs the construction was impossible in a passive


sense. Thus the idea 'he is always being called1 could not be expressed by 'he is always calling'. In the last years of the eighteenth century we find the first traces of our modern expression 'the house is being built'. The combination of 'being' with a past participle to form a panicipial phrase had been in use for some time. Shakespeare in 'Hamlet' says: 'which, being kept close, might move more grief to hide'. This is thought to have suggested the new verb phrase. It seems first to have been recognized in an English grammar in 1802. As yet it is generally used only in the present and simple past tense ('is' or 'was being built'). We can hardly say 'the house has been being built for two years', and we avoid saying 'it will be being built next spring'. The history of the new progressive passive shows that English is a living and growing thing, that its grammar is not fixed, that it will continue to change in the future as it has changed in the past, even if more slowly. If the need is felt for a new and better way of expressing an idea, we may rest assured that a way will be found. But it is interesting to note that even so useful a construction was at first resisted by many as an unwarranted innovation. Although supported by occasional instances, it was consciously avoided by some and vigorously attacked by others. In 1837 a writer in the North American Review condemned it as "an outrage upon English idiom, to be detested, abhorred, execrated, and given over to six thousand penny-paper editors." And even so enlightened a student of language as Marsh, in 1859, noted that it "has widely spread, and threatens to establish itself as another solecism," "The phrase 'the house is being built' for 'the house is building'," he says, "is an awkward neologism, which neither convenience, intelligibility, nor syntactical congruity demands, and the use of which ought therefore to be discountenanced, as an attempt at the artificial improvement of the language in a point which needed no amendment." Artificial it certainly was not. Nothing seems to have been more gradual and unpremeditated in its beginnings. But, as late as 1870 Richard Grant White devoted thirty pages of his Words and Their Uses to an attack upon what still seemed to him a


neologism. Although the origin of the construction can be traced back to the latter part of the eighteenth century, its establishment in the language and ultimate acceptance required the better part of the century just past. after A.C. Baugli and T. Cable


The habit of smoking (from the title-page of The Roaring Girle, or Moll Cut-Purse by T. Middleton and T. Dekker, 1611). In the 17th century tobacco played a great part in English colonial and commercial expansion. Already in the 1590-ies the new American weed, together with its name, was wellfamiliar in England.

List of principal questions: 1. Old English 1.1. General characteristics 1.2. Means of enriching vocabulary 1.2.1. Internal means 1.2.2. External means 2. Middle English 2.1. General characteristics 2.2. Means of enriching vocabulary 2.2.1. Internal means 2.2.2. External means 3. New English 3.1. General characteristics 3.2. Means of enriching vocabulary 3.2.1. Internal means 3.2.2. External means


1. Old English
1.1. General characteristics
The vocabulary of Old English was rather extensive. It is said to have contained about 50 000 words. These words were mainly native words. They could be divided into a number or strata. The oldest stratum was composed of words coming from the Common Indo-European parent tongue. Many of these words were inherited by English together with some other Indo-European languages from the same common source, and we shall find related words in various Indo-European languages. Compare: Old English modor niht neowe beran New English mother night new bear Latin mater nox novus ferre Russian

Another layer, relatively more recent, was words inherited by English and other Germanic languages from the same common Germanic source. You will find them in many languages, but only those belonging to the Germanic group. Compare: Old English land see grene findan New English earth land sea green find German Erde Land See grim finden

The third stratum, and that not very extensive, was made up of words that existed only in English, for instance, the word


clypian (to call), the root preserved in the now somewhat obsolete word yclept (named). The vocabulary was changing all the time, old words becoming extinct and new words entering the language, enriching it. As is known, there are two principal ways of enriching the vocabulary of a language: internal means those that are inherent in the language itself, and external means, which result from contacts between peoples. The English-speaking people of the period mainly used internal means of enriching the vocabulary to adapt their language to the expression of more varied or new notions.

1.2. Means of enriching vocabulary

While creating new words the English language, as we have mentioned above, principally resorted to its own, internal means: word derivation, primarily affixation and vowel interchange, and word composition. 1.2.1. Internal means of enriching Word derivation In Old English affixation was widely used as a wordbuilding means. There were very many suffixes, with the help of which new nouns, adjectives, adverbs and sometimes verbs were formed, for instance:. noun suffixes of concrete nouns: -ere -estre -in3 fisc+ere (fisher) , spinn+estre (spinster) } J 'cyn+in3 (king)


denoting the doer of the action


noun suffixes of abstract nouns: -6 treow+5 (truth) -nis 30d+nis (goodness) -Scip freond+SCip (friendship) -dom freo+dom. (freedom) -had cild+had (childhood) adjective suffixes -13 Ts+13 (icy), bys+ i3 (busy) -isc Engl+isc (English), Frens+lSC (French) -ful car+ful (careful) -leas slffip+ leas (sleepless) Prefixes were used on a limited scale and they generally had a negative meaning: formisUllVowel noun son3 (song) dom (doom) for+3iefan (forgive) mis+dsed (misdeed) un+ (uncouth) interchange: verb singan (to sing) deman (to deem)

Word composition Word composition was a well-developed means of enriching vocabulary in Old English. For instance: Nouns saS+man (seaman), gold+smid (goldsmith), monan+da^3 (Monday), sunan+dae3 (Sunday), Engla+land (land of the Angles, England) Adjectives Tc+ceald (ice-cold)


1.2.2. External means of enriching vocabulary (Old English borrowings)

As we understand, borrowings into a language are a result of contacts with other nations. The Germanic tribes had but few contacts with other nations at the beginning of A.D., consequently the number of borrowed words in Old English was not great. The main borrowings that we can single out in Old English were Latin and Celtic borrowings. Latin borrowings The first Latin borrowings entered the language before the Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians invaded the British Isles, i.e. at the time when they still lived on the continent. Due to trade relations with their southern powerful neighbour the Roman empire Germanic tribes learned a number of products that had been unknown to then, and, consequently, their names. So the first stratum of borrowings are mainly words connected with trade. Many of them are preserved in Modern English, such as: pound, inch, pepper, cheese, wine, apple, pear, plum, etc. The second stratum of words was composed of loan Latin words that the Germanic tribes borrowed already on British soil from the romanized Celts, whom they had conquered in the 5"1 century. Those were words connected with building and architecture, as the preserved nowadays: tile, street, wall, mill, etc. They denoted objects which the Germanic invaders encountered on the British Isles. The third stratum of Latin loan words was composed of words borrowed after the introduction of the Christian religion. They are generally of a religious nature, such as the present-day Words:


bishop, devil, apostle, monk. As Latin was the language of learning at the time, there also entered the language some words that were not directly connected with religion, such as: master, school, palm, lion, tiger, plant, astronomy, etc. Celtic borrowings The Celtic language left very few traces in the English language, because the Germanic conquerors partly exterminate the local population, partly drove them away to the less feni mountaineous parts of the country, where they were not withm reach of the invaders. The Celtic-speaking people who remained on the territory occupied by the Germanic tribes were slaves, and even those were not very numerous. It is small wonder therefore that the number of Celtic loan words was limited. Among the tew borrowed words we can mention:
d o w n (the downs of Dover), binn (bin - basket, crib, manger).

Some Celtic roots are preserved in geographical names, such as:

kil (church Kilbrook), ball (house Ballantrae), esk (water river Esk)

and some others.

2. Middle English
2.1. General characteristics
An analysis of the vocabulary in the Middle English period shows great instability and constant and rapid change. Many words became obsolete, and if preserved, then only in some dialects; many more appeared in the rapidly developing language


to reflect the ever-changing life of the speakers and under the influence of contacts with other nations.

2.2. Means of enriching vocabulary in Middle English 2.2.1. Internal means of enriching vocabulary
Though the majority of Old English suffixes are still preserved in Middle English, they are becoming less productive, and words formed by means of word-derivation in Old English can be treated as such only etymologically. Words formed by means of word-composition in Old English, in Middle English are often understood as derived words.

2.2.2. External means of enriching vocabulary

The principal means of enriching vocabulary in Middle English are not internal, but external borrowings. Two languages in succession enriched the vocabulary of the English language of the time the Scandinavian language and the French language, the nature of the borrowings and their amount reflecting the conditions of the contacts between the English and these languages. Scandinavian borrowings The Scandinavian invasion and the subsequent settlement of the Scandinavians on the territory of England, the constant contacts and intermixture of the English and the Scandinavians brought about many changes in different spheres of the English language: wordstock, grammar and phonetics. The relative ease of the mutual penetration of the languages was conditioned by the circumstances of the Anglo-Scandinavian contacts (see above, Lecture 3).


Due to contacts between the Scandinavians and the Englishspeaking people many words were borrowed from the Scandinavian language, for example: Nouns: law, fellow, sky, skirt, skill, skin, egg, anger, awe, bloom, knife, root, .bull, cake, husband, leg, wing, guest, loan, race Adjectives: big, week, wrong, ugly, twin Verbs: call, cast, take, happen, scare, hail, want, bask, gape, kindle Pronouns: they, them, their; and many others. The conditions and the consequences of various borrowings were different. 1. Sometimes the English language borrowed a word for which it had no synonym. These words were simply added to the vocabulary. Examples: law, fellow 2. The English synonym was ousted by the borrowing. Scandinavian taken (to take) and callen (to call) ousted the English synonyms niman and clypian, respectively. 3. Both the words, the English and the corresponding Scandinavian, are preserved, but they became different in meaning. Compare Modern English native words and Scandinavian borrowings: Native Scandinavian borrowing heaven sky starve die 4. Sometimes a borrowed word and an English word are etymological doublets, as words originating from the same source in Common Germanic.



Native Scandinavian borrowing shirt skirt shatter scatter raise rear 5. Sometimes an English word and its Scandinavian doublet were the same in meaning but slightly different phonetically, and the phonetic form of the Scandinavian borrowing is preserved in the English language, having ousted the English counterpart. For example, Modern English to give, to get come from the Scandinavian gefa, geta, which ousted the English 3iefan and 3ietan, respectively: Similar Modern English words: gift, forget, guild, gate, again. 6. There may be a shift of meaning. Thus, the word dream originally meant "joy, pleasure"; under the influence of the related Scandinavian word it developed its modern meaning. French borrowings It stands to reason that the Norman conquest and the subsequent history of the country left deep traces in the English language, mainly in the form of borrowings in words connected with such spheres of social and political activity where Frenchspeaking Normans had occupied for a long time all places of importance. For example: government and legislature: government, noble, baron, prince, duke, court, justice, judge, crime, prison, condemn, sentence, parliament, etc. military life: army, battle, peace, banner, victory, general, colonel, lieutenant, major, etc.


religion: religion, sermon, prey, saint, charity city crafts: painter, tailor, carpenter (but country occupations
remained English: shepherd, smith)

pleasure and entertainment: music, art, feast, pleasure, leisure, supper, dinner,
pork, beef, mutton (but the corresponding names oj
domestic animals remained English: pig, cow, sheep)

words of everyday life: air, place, river, large, age, boil, branch, brush, catch, chain, chair, table, choice, cry, cost relationship: aunt, uncle, nephew, cousin. The place of the French borrowings within the English language was different: 1. A word may be borrowed from the French language to denote notions unknown to the English up to the time: government, parliament, general, colonel, etc. 2. The English synonym is ousted by the French borrowing:



micel large here army a river 3. Both the words are preserved, but they are stylistically different:

to begin to work

to commence to labour


to leave to abandon life existence look regard ship vessel As we see, the French borrowing is generally more literary or even bookish, .the English word - a common one; but sometimes the English word is more literary. Compare: foe (native, English) enemy (French borrowing). 4. Sometimes the English language borrowed many words with the same word-building affix. The meaning of the affix in this case became clear to the English-speaking people. It entered the system of word-building means of the English language, and they began to add it to English words, thus forming word-hybrids. For instance, the suffix -ment entered the language within such words as "government", "parliament", "agreement", but later there appeared such English-French hybrids as: fulfilment, amazement. The suffix -ance/-ence, which was an element of such borrowed words as "innocence", "ignorance", "repentance", now also forms word-hybrids, such as hindrance. A similar thing: French borrowings "admirable", "tolerable", "reasonable", but also: readable, eatable, unbearable. 5. One of the consequences of the borrowings from French was the appearance of ethymological doublets. from the Common Indoeuropean: native borrowed fatherly paternal from the Common Germanic:



native yard ward choose

borrowed garden guard choice

from Latin: earlier later (Old English) (Middle English) borrowing borrowing mint money inch ounce 6. Due to the great number of French borrowings there appeared in the English language such families of words, which though similar in their root meaning, are different in origin: native borrowed mouth oral sun solar see vision 7. There are caiques on the French phrase: It's no doubt Se n'est pas doute Without doubtSans doute Out of doubt Hors de doute.

3. New English
3.1. General Characteristics
The language in New English is growing very rapidly, the amount of actually existing words being impossible to estimate. Though some of the words existing in Old English and Middle English are no longer used*In New English, the amount of new words exceeds the number of obsolete ones manifold.


Both internal means and external means are used for the purpose of enriching the vocabulary, and the importance of either of them is hard to evaluate.

3.2. Means of enriching vocabulary in New English 3.2.1. Internal means of enriching vocabulary
The principal inner means in New English is the appearance of new words formed by means of conversion. Usually new words are formed by acquiring a new paradigm and function within a sentence. Thus, book (a noun) has the paradigm book books. Book (a verb) has the paradigm book books booked booking, etc. (The book is on the table - He booked a room.) Similarly: man (n) man (v) stone (n) stone (v) stone (adj) (as in "a stone bench"), etc.

3.2.2. External means of enriching vocabulary

Very many new words appear in New English due to borrowing. It is necessary to say here that the process of borrowing, the sources of loan Words, the nature of the new words is different from Middle English and their appearance in the language cannot be understood unless sociolinguistic factors are taken into consideration. Chronologically speaking, New English borrowings may be subdivided into borrowings of the Early New English period XVXVII centuries, the period preceeding the establishment of the literary norm, and loan words which entered the language after the establishment of the literary norm in the XVIIIXX centuries, the period which is generally alluded to as late New English.


Early New English borrowings (XVXVII


Borrowings into the English language in the XVXVII centuries are primarily due to political events and also to the cultural and. trade relations between the English people and peoples in other countries. Thus , in the XV century the epoch of Renaissance, there appeared in the English language many words borrowed from the Italian tongue: cameo, archipelago, dilettante, fresco, violin, balcony, gondola, grotto, volcano; in the XVI century Spanish and Portuguese words, such as: armada, negro, tornado, mosquito, renegade, matador and also Latin (the language of culture of the time), for instance: verbs, with the characteristic endings -ate, -ute: aggravate, abbreviate, exaggerate, frustrate, separate, irritate, contribute, constitute, persecute, prosecute, execute, etc., adjectives ending in -ant, -ent, -ior, -al: arrogant, reluctant, evident, obedient, superior, inferior, senior, junior, dental, cordial, filial. As a result of numerous Latin borrowings at the time there appeared many ethymological doublets: Latin strictum (direct) strict seniorem senior

strait (through French)



f turn fact defectum defect defeat feat

In the XVII century due to relations with the peoples of America such words were borrowed as: canoe, maize, potato, tomato, tobacco, mahogany, cannibal, hammock, squaw, moccasin, wigwam, etc. French boirowings after the Restoration: ball, ballet, billet, caprice, coquette, intrigue, fatigue, naive. Late New English borrowings (XYHJXX centuries) German: kindergarten, waltz, wagon, boy, girl French: magazine, machine, garage, police, engine, nacelle, aileron Indian: bungalow, jungle, indigo Chinese: coolie, tea Arabic: caravan, divan, alcohol, algebra, coffee, bazaar, orange, cotton, candy, chess IS7


Australian: kangaroo, boomerang, lubra Russian: Before the October Revolution the borrowings from the Russian language were mainly words reflecting Russian realm the time: borzoi, samovar, tsar, verst, taiga, etc. After the Revolution there entered the English language such words that testified to the political role of this country in the world, as: Soviet, bolshevik, kolkhoz. Cultural and technical achievements are reflected in sue borrowings as: sputnik, lunnik, lunokhod, synchrophasotron and recently such political terms as: glasnost, perestroika. In New English there also appeared words formed on the basis of Greek and Latin vocabulary. They are mainly scientific or technical terms, such as: telephone, telegraph, teletype, telefax, microphone, sociology, politology, electricity, etc.

Some more facts...

The Change of Calendar Most of the new words coming into the language today have been derived from the same sources or created by the satne methods as those that have long been familiar. Among them are borrowings, many of them reflecting events and changes in the life of the people, committing to memory the names of their perpetrators. Here we may recollect the history of calendar. Julius Caesar in 46 fixed the length of the year at 365


days, and 366 days every fourth year. The months had thirty and thirty-one days alternately, with the exception of February (then the last month of the year), which had twenty-nine in ordinary years, and thirty in leap years. To mark this change of calendar July was named after its originator. The Emperor Augustus upset this arrangement by naming August after himself, and in order that it should have the same number of days as July, i.e. thirty-one, took one day from February in both ordinary and leap years. The Julian Calendar made a slight error in the length of the year, a mere eleven minutes and fourteen seconds; but by the sixteenth century the cumulative error was about ten days. This was rectified by Pope Gregory XIII who, in 1582, decreed that 5 October should become the fifteenth. In order to prevent a recurrence of the fault it was ordained that the centurial years (i.e. 1600, 1700, etc.) should not be Leap years unless divisible by 400. England did not accept this Gregorian calendar until 1752, thereby causing much confusion between English and Continental dates, whilst the disparity between the Julian and Gregorian calendars was now eleven days. An Act of Parliament in 1750 made 2 September 1752 into 14 September and moved the first day of the year from 25 March (still reckoned as the beginning of the financial year) to 1 January 24 March 1700, for example, was followed by 25 March 1701. In this way England was brought into line with the rest of Europe. After E. R. Deldeifield



Figures of Red Indians on the announcement of The Lottery for Virginia, 1615 intended for raising money required for colonisation of America.

List of principal questions: 1. General characteristics 2. Native element in Modern English 2.1. Common Indo-European stratum 2.2. Common Germanic stratum .3. Foreign element in Modern English (borrowings) 3.1. Latin element 3.2. Scandinavian element 3.3. French element 4. Word-hybrids 5. Ethymological doublets


1. General characteristics
The English vocabulary of today reflects as no other aspect of the language the many changes in the history of the people and various contacts which the English speakers had with many nations and countries. The long and controversial history of the people is reflected in its vocabulary and especially in the number of loan words in it, different in origin and time of their entering the language and the circumstances under which the acquisition of the foreign element took place. So large is the number of foreign words in English that it might at first be supposed that the vocabulary has lost its Germanic nature. However, the functional role of the native element: the lotions expressed by native words, their regularity and frequency of occurrence, lack of restrictions to their use in written and oral speech of different functional styles, proves that the Germanic dement still holds a fundamental place, and the English vocabulary should be called Germanic.

2. Native element in Modern English

English native words form" two ethymological strata: the Common Indo-European stratum and the Common Germanic stratum.

2.1. Common Indo-European stratum

The words forming this stratum are the oldest in the vocabulary. They existed thousands of years B.C., at the time w hen it was yet impossible to speak about separate IndoEuropean languages, as well as about various nations in Europe. Words of the Common Indo-European vocabulary have been 'nherited by many modem Indo-European languages, not only


Germanic, which is often a possible proof of these words belonging to the Common Indo-European stratum. Compare: English mother brother night be stand two three ten Latin mater frater nox (noctem) fieri stare duo tres decem Russian , etc.

2.2. Common Germanic stratum

There are also words inherited from Common Germanic Common Germanic is supposed to exist before it began splitting into various subgroups around the 1st century B.C.1 century A.D. These words can be found in various Germanic languages, but not in Indo-European languages other than Germanic. English man earth harm green grey German mann erde harm gran grau Swedish man jord harm gron gra

The occurrence or non-occurrence of corresponding words in related languages is often a proof of their common origin. But, of course, the word could be borrowed from the same source into different languages, especially if we speak about languages in modern times.



3. Foreign element in Modern English (borrowings)

As we know, borrowed words comprise more than half the vocabulary of the language. These borrowings entered the language from many sources, forming consequently various ethymological strata. The principal ones here are as follows: the Latin element the Scandinavian element the French element.

3.1. Latin element

The first Latin words entered the language of the forefathers of the English nation before they came to Britain. It happened during a direct intercourse and trade relations with the peoples of [he Roman empire. They mainly denote names of household terns and products: apple, pear, plum, cheese, pepper, dish, kettle, etc. Already on the Isles from the Romanized Celts they borrowed such words as: street, wall, mill, tile, port, caster (camp in such words as Lancaster, Winchester). Words of this kind denoted objects of Latin material culture. Latin words such as: altar, bishop, candle, church, devil, martyr, monk, nun, pope, psalm, etc. Were borrowed after the introduction of the Christian religion (7!h century), which is reflected in their meaning. The number of these words inherited from Old English is almost two hundred.


We mentioned these words as Latin borrowings in the sense that they entered English from Latin, but many of them were Greek borrowings into Latin, such as bishop, church, devil and many others. Another major group of Latin borrowings entered English with the revival of learning (15thI6ll! centuries). Latin was drawn upon for scientific nomenclature, as at the time the language was understood by scientists all over the world, it was considered the common name-language for science. These words were mainly borrowed through books, by people who knew Latin well and tried to preserve the Latin form of the word as much as possible. Hence such words as: antenna antennae, index indices, datum data, stratum strata, phenomenon phenomena, axi s axes, formula formulae, etc. Very many of them have suffixes which clearly mark them as Latin boiTOwings of the time: verbs ending in -ate, -ute: aggravate, prosecute adjectives ending in -ant, -ent, -ior, -al: reluctant, evident, superior, cordial. These word-building elements together with the stylistic sphere of the language where such words are used are generally sufficient for the word attribution.

3.2. Scandinavian element

Chronologically words of Scandinavian origin entered the language in the period between the 8th and the 10th centuries due to the Scandinavian invasions and settlement of Scandinavians on


the British Isles, with subsequent though temporary union of two important divisions of the Germanic race. It is generally thought that the amount of words borrowed from this source was about 500, though some linguists surmise that the number could have been even greater, but due to the similarity of the languages and scarcity of written records of the time it is not always possible to say whether the word is a borrowed one or native, inherited from the same Common Germanic source. Such words may be mentioned here, as: they, then, their, husband, fellow, knife, law, leg, wing, give, get, forgive, forget, take, call, ugly, wrong. As we said, words of Scandinavian origin penetrated into the English language so deeply that their determination is by no means easy. However, there are some phonetic/spelling features of the words which in many cases make this attribution authentic enough. These are as follows: words with the sk/sc combination in the spelling, as: sky, skin, skill, scare, score, scald, busk, bask (but not some Old French borrowings as task, scare, scan, scape) words with the sound [g] or [k] before front vowels [i], [e] fei], in the spelling i, e, ue, ai, a (open syllable) or at the end of the word: give, get, forgive, forget, again, gate, game, keg, kid, kilt, egg, drag, dregs, flag, hug, leg, log, rig. There are also personal names of the same origin, ending in son: Jefferson, Johnson or place names ending in -ly, -thorp, -toft (originally meaning "village", "hamlet"): Whitly, Althorp, Lowestoft.


These places are mainly found in the north-east of England, where the Scandinavian influence was stronger than in other parts of England.

3.3. French element

The French element in the English vocabulary is a large and important one. Words of this origin entered the language in the Middle and New English periods. Among Middle English borrowings we generally mention earlier borrowings, their source being Norman French the dialect of William the Conqueror and his followers. They entered the language in the period beginning with the time of Edward the Confessor and continued up to the loss of Normandy in 1204. Later Middle English borrowings have as their source Parisian French. The time of these borrowings may be estimated as end of the 13th century and up to 1500. These words are generally fully assimilated in English and felt as its integral part: government, parliament, justice, peace, prison, court, crime, etc. Many of these words (though by no means all of them) are terms used in reference to government and courts of law. Later Middle English borrowings are more colloquial words: air, river, mountain, branch, cage, calm, cost, table, chair. The amount of these Middle English borrowings is as estimated as much as 3,500. French borrowings of the New English period entered the language beginning with the 17th century the time of the Restoration of monarchy in Britain, which began with the accession to the throne of Charles II, who had long lived in exile at the French court:


aggressor, apartment, brunette, campaign, caprice, caress, console, coquette, cravat, billet-doux, carte blanche, etc: Later also such words appeared in the language as: garage, magazine, policy, machine. It is interesting to note that the phonetics of French borrowings always helps us to prove their origin. These phonetic features are at least two: stress and special sound/letter features. Concerning the first (stress), words which do not have stress on the first syllable unless the first syllable is a prefix are almost always French borrowings of the New English period. Words containing the sounds [$"] spelled not sh, [d3] - dg, [tj"] not ch and practically all words with the sound [3] are sure to be of French origin: aviation, social, Asia, soldier, jury, literature, pleasure, treasure.

4. Word-hybrids
The extensive borrowing from various languages and assimilation of loan words gave rise to the formation in English f a large number of words the elements of which are of different origin they are generally termed word-hybrids. English beaaout over fore salt false French -cause -round curse cry power front cell(ar) hood because around accurse outcry overpower forefront salt-seller falsehood


French hobby scape trouble plenty aimreEnglish parbandyFrench reLatin juxta-

English horse goat some ful -less take

hobbyhorse scapegoat' troublesome plentiful aimless retake

Scandinavian take partake leg bandy-legged Scandinavian call recall French position


5. Ethymological doublets
Ethymological doublets are words developing from the same word or root, but which entered the given language, in our case English, at different times of through different channels. Classifying them according to the ultimate source of the doublets we shall receive the following: Ultimate Modern source doublets Common Indo-European *pater fatherly paternal

Period and channel

native M.E. French borrowing


Common Gexmamc. *gher*gens*wer *sker *skhed Latin discus moneta uncia defectum factum seniorem Greek adamas fantasia yard garden choose choice ward guard shirt skirt shatter scatter disk disc mint money inch ounce defect defeat fact feat senior sir diamond adamant fancy fantasy

native M.E. French borrowing native M.E. French borrowing native M.E. French borrowing native M.E. Scandinavian borrowing native M.E. Scandinavian borrowing O.E. Latin borrowing N.E. Latin borrowing O.E. Latin borrowing M.E. Latin borrowing O.E. Latin borrowing M.E. Latin borrowing N.E. Latin borrowing M.E. Latin borrowing N.E. Latin borrowing M.E. Latin borrowing N.E. Latin borrowing M.E. Latin' borrowing Early M.E. French borrowing Later M.E. French borrowing N.E. French borrowing M.E. French borrowing


Hebrew basam

balm balsam

M.E. French borrowing N.E. Latin borrowing

The examples of various ethymological strata in the Modern English vocabulary mentioned above may serve as a sufficient testimony of a long and complicated .history of the English nation and the English language. They prove that language changes can be understood only in relation to the life of the people speaking the language.

Some more facts...

Folk etymology When people hear a foreign or unfamiliar word for the first time, they try to make sense of it by relating it to words they know well. They guess what it must mean and often guess wrongly. However, if enough people make the same wrong guess, the error can become part of the language. Such erroneous forms are called folk or popular etymologies. Bridegroom provides a good example. What has a groom got to do with getting married? Is he going to groom the bride? Or perhaps he is responsible for horses to carry him and his bride off into the sunset? The true explanation is more prosaic. The Middle English form was bridgome, which goes back to Old English brydguma, from "bride" + guma "man". However, gome died out during the Middle English period. By the 16" century its meaning was no longer apparent, and it came to be popularly replaced by a similar-sounding word, grome, "serving lad". This later developed the sense of "servant having the care of horses", which is the dominant sense today. But bridegroom never meant anything more than "bride's man". Here are a few other folk etymologies: sparrow-grass a popular name for asparagus though this vegetable has nothing to do with sparrows.


cockroach the name came from Spanish cucuracha, the first part of which must have been particularly obscure to English ears. There is no connection with cock. salt-cellar in Old French a salier was a salt-box. When the word came into English, the connection with salt was evidently not clear, and people started calling the object a saltsaler. The modern form has no connection with a cellar. sirloin the first part of the word is simply derived from the French word sur "above". The form must have greatly puzzled the people of the Early Middle English period. Unused to French, they etymologized the form to sir, and then thought up a legend to make sense of it (the story of the English king who found this joint of meat so splendid that he gave it a knighthood.) After D. Crystal

Tart Z. Seminars

he front panel of the Franks' casket, carved out of whale's bone in Northumbria in about AD 750 and depicting scenes from classical egend, Germanic mythology and the Bible. A runic inscription bribes each panel. (The original is kept at the British Museum, London)

205 1. Introductory. Germanic languages 2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages. Grammar 3. Survey of the periods in the history of English. General characteristics of the Old English period 4. Old English phonetics. Vowels


5. Old English phonetics. Consonants 6. Old English grammar. Noun 7. Old English grammar. Verb 8. Old English. Discussion 9. General characteristics of the Middle English period 10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels 11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants 12. Middle English grammar. Noun 13. Middle English grammar. Verb 14. Middle English. Discussion 15. General characteristics of the New English period 16. New English phonetics. Vowels 17..New English phonetics. Consonants . 18. New English grammar. Noun 19. New English grammar. Verb 20. English wordstock 21. Vocabulary layers 22. Modern regular and irregular noun and verb forms

22 22 228

^' 240 2 ^ 2 ^ 2 ^' 248 251 261 263 267 271 272 274 277


1- Introductory. Germanic languages 2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages. Grammar

An early engraving of a gold horn roughly dated about 550 AD, found in Jylland, Sweden. It has a maker's formula cut in runes round the brim.


Seminar 1. Introductory. Germanic languages

Topics for discussion in class
Position of Germanic languages within the Indo-European family (main groups of languages, with special reference to Germanic, Celtic, Slavonic). 2. Formation of national Germanic languages in the late Middle Ages and the new period. 3. Classification of Modern Germanic languages; countries where they are spoken. The West and North Germanic subgroups. 4. Old Germanic tribes and dialects: "Common Germanic". Differentiation of Common Germanic into Germanic dialects. East, North and West Germanic groups and their representatives. 5. Development of the system of consonants in the pre-written period. 6. Grimm's law, Verner's law. Reasons for the departure from Verner's law in the pre-written period. 1.

Questions and assignments

1. 2. 3. What are the aims of studying the history of a language? What is meant by the outer and inner history of a language? Make a table showing the relationship of English to the other languages of the Indo-European family. Show the position of English among allied Germanic languages. What do we mean by the statement that two languages are "related"? Explain the relations between English and French, English and Greek, English and Welsh, English and Danish.



5. 6.

7. 8.


What is called the pre-written and written period of a language? What alphabets employed in the history of Germanic languages do you know? Speak on the origin and structure of Germanic alphabets. What is meant by a phonetic law? Show carefully how Grimm's law or any apparent exception to it is illustrated by the following words: stand, father, third, sweet. Write down five illustrations of Grimm's law and five illustrations of Verner's law.



Seminar 2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages. Grammar

Topics for discussion in class
1. 2. 3. 4. Development of the system of declension in the pre-written period. Development of the system of conjugation in the pre-written period. Means of form-building in the pre-written period. Vowel interchange as a form-building means in the prewritten period. Ablaut.

Questions and assignments

1. Explain and illustrate the terms "synthetic" and "analytic" languages. Give examples of modern synthetic and analytical languages. What form-building means were used in Germanic languages? What verbal and nominal categories existed in Germanic languages? Compare them with the categories of modern languages. Prepare for reading Old English texts: study the table below and learn to read Old English letters.

2. 3.




Reading of Old English texts Letters & Sounds Examples at, cwas6, hwasnne mpnn, lpnd, ond pystrodon, clypode, ymb past, pystrodon, top [8] [6] [f] [v] cwaed, , du cwe6an, hwe6er, faeder, fot, faran hlaford, wifan, griefe Isaac, his, 3eseon rlsan, forleosan, wyrsa , da3as, SI03 , sin3an, 1 dae3, be3ite, 3efeohtan, his, he, mihte

9 P 6 f s 3

[] [gJ



, cyssan, cin clypode, 3esceot, boc



3. Survey of the periods in the history of English. General characteristics of the Old English period 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Old English phonetics. Vowels Old English phonetics. Consonants Old English grammar. Noun Old English grammar. Verb Old English. Discussion

A runic memorial stone from Yttergarde, Sweden, telling of a Viking warrior who made three expeditions to England in the early 11th century.



Seminar 3. Survey of the periods in the history of English. General characteristics of the Old English period Topics for discussion in class
1. Survey of the three periods in the history of English (dates, principal historical events and linguistic facts). 2. Old English historical background (Germanic settlement, West Germanic tribes and Old English dialects). 3. Old English alphabet and pronunciation. 4. Old English written records: runic inscriptions, religious works, Anglo-Saxon chronicles.

Questions and assignments

1. What is called the pre-written and written Old English? 2. What is the time of the written records below (seminars 36)? 3. What is the dialect reflected in the records below (seminars 36)? 4. How do we pronounce words in Old English texts (vowels and consonants make use of the table in Seminar 2)? 5. How many vowels and consonants were there in Old English? 6. How does the quality of the consonant depend on the position of the word in the text? 7. Study the model of phonetic analysis of an Old English text. Read and translate the text into Modern English / Russian.


Continue the phonetic analysis following the model (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

From the Alfredian Version of Orosius's World History; about 893 A.D.
Alfred the Great (849900), King of Wessex, was an outstanding military leader, educator and a man of letters of the time. He tried to restore the cultural traditions of Anglo-Saxon England severely damaged by the barbaric "inroads of the Danes" and to revive learning and literature in his country. He also brought about a great reform in the schools. He translated into his native tongue some books on geography, history and philosophy written by the popular authors of IVVIII centuries. This was fortunate for the language which became a medium of expression in the simpler forms of speech itself. King Alfred's translation from Latin of "The History of the World" by the Spanish, monk Orosius (V century) is especially valuable as it contains his own insertions the descriptions of the sea-voyages in the North West of Europe of the two Scandinavian merchants, Ohthere and Wulfstan. King Alfred's writings favoured flourishing of literature in Wessex and marked the beginning of the literary tradition later known as "the Alfredian prose"'. The extract given below is "From Ohthere's account of his first voyage". It contains interesting geographical and ethnographical information of the places he visited. The dialect is West Saxon.



Ohthere's account of his first voyage

Ohthere saede his hlaforde, yElfrede cynin?e, bast he gaixa Nor5monna ! bude. He cwae5 bast he bude on lancle noweardum wip ba Westsas. He ssde beah bset bast land sie s\# 1 bonan; hit is eal weste, buton on feawum stowum stycce-maslum wlcia5 Finnas, on huntoSe on wintra and on sumera on fiscabe be bsere sai. He sajde bast he a?t suraum cirre wolde fandian hu 1 j)t land 1 obbe hwas5er westenne bude. J>a for he be bsem lande; let him ealne we3 baet weste land on 6st steor-bord. and -ha wTd-see on 6set bjefc bord. brie da3as. I>a was he swa feor swaba hwselhuntan filSi farab. I>a for he ba 3iet ^ swa feor swa he meahte on obrum brim da3um 3esi3lan. M past land bjgr east-ry nte ^ e seo see in on 5set lond, he nysse hwasder, buton he wisse 5ast he bad westanwindes and hwon , and si3lde 5a east be lande, swa-swa he meahte on feower da3um 3esi3ian. M sceolde he bldan -/; for6aem ba&t land baer subryhte obbe seo sae in on 6aet land he nysse hwseber. P& si3lde he bonan sudryhte be lande, swa-swa he on fif da3um 3esi3lan. Da 1. an micel ea up-in on bget land. Pa cirdon hie up-in on oa ea, for-jbiem hie ne dorston & bi si3lan for unfripe; forpasm 6ast land waes eall on obre healfe bare eas. Ne mette he ffir nan land, sibban he from his ham for. Fela spella him ssedon ba Beormas of hiera lande of baem landum be ymb hie utan wseron, ac he nyste hwjet bass sobes wass, for- he hit self ne 3eseah. M Finnas, him buhte, and ba Beormas sprascon neah an 3ebeode. SwTbost he for 6ider, t5-eacan b a s landes sceawun3e. for bsem hors-hwselum, for- hie habbad swlbe sepele ban on hiora t5bum, ba t6 hie brohton sume bsem cynin3e , and hiora hyd.


Model of phonetic analysis

Word as used m the text Analysis Parallels from NE word cognate languages or I related OE words


[s] voiceless initially; OE SK^de [as] lengthening of [ae] (variant form) due to loss of [g] [] palatal mutation of OHG kuning [u] caused by [ij; later M>[i] [ea] breaking of [] Gt alls before [l]+consonant, [] from PG [a] -monn: [o]=[a] from PG [a], later [a >a>as] [a] before nasal consonants; [a] from PG [a], later [ >>] [ea] from PG [au] p] lengthening due to loss of [n] before a fricative [y] __ palatal mutation of [u] caused by [i] [fj from [p] by Grimm's Law fi] _ . from [ie] monophthongisation of diphthongs in EOE Gt mann(a) Gt land Gt fcauh


cynirnje ealra Nor5monna lande t'eah SWT{)e stycce fiscafce cirre norjjryhte

king all Norman land though rel. to s t o c k rel to fish char right

. Gt s w i n g e OHG Stukki R OS kerrian (v)

-ryht: [y] from [ie] Gt raihts [e] monophthpngisation of diphthongs in EOE




[] voiced intervocally, [se] from

Gt hvabar cp OE an
rel. to Gt

whether any star-board


[] palatal mutation of [a] caused by [i]


steor: ] from PG [iuj; bord: [d] hardening of [3] [SE] from PG [a] [9] from [t] by Grimm's Law [a] is caused by a back vowel in the next syllable [se] from PG [a] [i] palatal mutation of [eo] (feor) caused by [i] (-ist) suffix of superlative degree: [eo>ie>i] [a] from PG [o] [] (Wess) from PG [] diphthongisation after palatal [j] [ea] breaking of [ac] before [h]: [a>ae>ea] [o] from PG [a]; lengthening due to the loss of [n] before a fricative [ea] from PG [au] [ from PG [a], [8] initially voiceless [ea] from PG [au]

stiurjan (v) Cf. OSk bord OSk bak /? Gtdagos OHG was EOE fierest back three days was farther

baec-bord brie da3as



farab 3iet meahte obram

Gt faran (inf) GtytX OHG maht Gt anbar

fare yet might other


Gt baug Gt bar Gt austr


bow there east


Seminar 4. Old English phonetics. Vowels Topics for discussion in class

1. The system of Old English vowels and their origin. 2. Assimilative changes of vowels (breaking, palatal mutation) and their traces in Modern English.

Questions and assignments

Make a list of Old English vowels and analyse the differentiating features between them (in quality and quantity). 2. Describe the Old English diphthongs and comment upon their phonological status. 3. Explain the origin of short diphthongs in Old English: eald (New English old), tealde (New English told), earm (New English arm), feohtan (New English fight). 4. What are the phonetic conditions of palatal mutation? Give some Old English or reconstructed forms showing these conditions. Analyse the results of palatal mutation: (a) in form-building of nouns in the root-stem declension, e.g. Old English fot fgt (New English foot feet), mUS mys (New English mouse mice)', (b) in word-building of weak verbs of class 1 from noun and adjective stems, e.g. Old English dom deman (New English doom deem), fod fedan (New English food feed), ful fyllan (New English full fill).




Read and translate the text below into Modern English / Russian (part 1). Make the phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 3 (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

From the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle A. 1013

The Old English Chronicle, sometimes called the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, contains the history of Britain from the time of Caesars invasion to the reign of Henry II (1154). It presents the original and authentic testimony of contemporary writers to the most important events in the history of the country, including many interesting facts relative to architecture, agriculture, coinage, commerce, naval and military events, laws, liberty ana religion. This ancient record is believed to be the second great phenomenon in the history of mankind after the Old Testament, pi there is no other work, ancient or modern, which exhibits at one view a regular and chronological panorama of a people, described in rapw succession by different writers, through so many ages, in their own vernacular language. That is why it may be considered not only as the primaeval source of factual material for all subsequent historians oj England, but also as a faithful depository of the national idiom, providing a very interesting, and extraordinary example of the changes incident to a language, as well as to a nation, in its historical progress. The writers of the Chronicle are not known, probably they were monks, as MSS come from different monasteries. The dialect of the extract given below is West Saxon. It describes the time of Scandinavian Invasions in Britain and the fall of the Saxon dynasty. (Part I)

On asftran se arcebiscop wass 3emartyrod, se cynin3 3esette Lyfine biscop to Cantwarabvrh t5 6am arcest5le; and on pissum ylcan , toforan pam Augustus, com Swe3en mid his flotan to SandwTc, and wende pa swi6e


abutan Eastenglum into Humbra muban. and swa upweard andlang Trentan, 66 he com to 3enesburuh; and ba sona beah Uhtred eori and ealle Nor6hymbre to 'him; and eall baet folc on Lindesi3e, and si65an baet folc into Flfburhingum. and baes eall here be \Vsetlin3a straete, and him man sealde 3islas of aelcere sclre. Sy66an he unde^eat bast eall folc him to 3ebogen was, pa bead he {)set man sceolde his here mettian and horsian; and he 5a wende sybban su6weard mid fulre fyrde, and betsehte f>a scipu and ba 3islas Cnute his suna; and sy66an he com ofer Wstlinga strEete, worhton baet maeste yfel bast here don mihte. Wende pa to Oxenforda, and seo buruhwaru sona beah and 3'slude, and banon to Winceastre, and hi pat ylce dydon. Wende fra banon eastwerd to Lundene, and mycel his folces adrang on Temese, for6am be hi nanre ne cepton.
(Part 2)

f*a he to com, ba nolde seo burhwaru heoldan mid fullan wi3e . for5an waes inne se cyng ^belred and Purkyl mid him. wende Swe3en cyng banon to Wealingforda, and swa ofer Temese westweard to Baban, and sast ba5r mid his fyrde. And com 1 ealdorman byder, and 5a westernan mid him, and 130 ealle to Swe3ene, and hi 3sludon. I>a he 5us 3efaren heefde. wende ba nor5weard to his scipum, and eall peodscype hine haefde ba for fulne cyng; and seo buruhwaru after 5am on Lundene beah and 3islude, forSon hi QJDdredon baet he hT fordon wolde. Pa wses se cyning vEbelred sume hwTle mid bam flotan be on Temese. 1, and seo hla3fdi3e gewende ba ofer sae to hire Ricarde, and se cyning gewende ba fram 5am flotan to bam middanwintra to Wihtlande, and waes ba tTd; and sefter tide wende ofer 5a see to Ricarde, and wses mid him ob bone byre be(: Swe3en wear6 dead.


Seminar 5. Old English phonetics. Consonants

Topics for discussion in class
1. The system of Old English consonants and their origin. 2. Grimm's law, Verner's law; voicing, devoicing, hardening . and rhotacism in Old English.

Questions and assignments

Make a list of Old English consonants and analyse the differentiating features between them. 2. What consonant correlations may be observed between words in English and any other Germanic languages? 3. Find in the text examples showing that voiced and voiceless fricative consonants (f/v, 0/6, s/z) were conditioned variants (allophones) of the same phonemes. 4. Read and translate the text above into Modern English / Russian (part 2). Make the phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 3 (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key. 1.



Seminar 6. Old English grammar. Noun Topics for discussion in class

1 Old English nominal system. Means of form-building. 2. Grammatical categories of nouns, adjectives and pronouns. 3. Morphological classification of Old English nouns (types of declensions). 4. Traces of the Old English declensions in Modern English. 5. Degrees of comparison of adjectives in Old English and their further history.

Questions and assignments

12. 3. 4. 5. What form-building means were used in the Old English nominal system? Enumerate the grammatical categories of nouns, adjectives and pronouns and state the difference between them. Into what types of declensions did the Old English nouns fall? Why are they termed "stems"? Look through the noun paradigm and find instances of different means used in form-building. Copy and learn the declension of an a-stem, masculine (e.g.

Stan, New English stone), a root-Stem (e.g. man. New English man)
and an n-stem (e.g. nama. New English name) noun. Point out the forms or endings which have survived in Modern English. Explain the difference between the groupings of nouns into types of declension and the two declensions of adjectives.





Define the case, number and gender of nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the following: foa wildan hranas; ealra norbmonna; hiera lande; his yldran sunu; mine da3as; to him Study the model of grammar and vocabulary analysis of an Old English text. Consult the text and your translation notes

for Seminar 3 (Ohthere's account of his first


Continue the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model given below. Check your variant with the key.

Model of grammar and vocabulary analysis

Words as used in the text Analysis notes Corresponding New English word Translation

Ohthere sa;de

noun proper, nominative singular verb, person singular, past tense, indicative mood of secgan. weak verb, class III pronoun personal, person singular, masculine, genitive noun, dative singular of hlaford, masculine, a-stem noun proper, dative singular noun, dative singular of cynin3, masculine, a-stem




hlaforde /Elfrede

lord Alfred king

(to) his lord Alfred the King


paet he

conjunction pronoun personal, 3^ person singular, masculine, nominative pronoun indefinite, plural, genitive of eal noun, genitive plural of Nor5monn, masculine, root-stem adverb verb, 3 rd person singular, past tense, indicative or subjunctive mood of buan. anomalous verb verb, 3rd person singular, past tense, indicative mood of cwse6an, strong verb, class V conjunction
see above

that he

that he

ealra Nor6monna

all northmen

of all Northmen (Scandinavians) to the north lived (or had lived)

! bude



obs. quoth




that lived (or had livedj

o n


on the


pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, masculine of se. seo. pact noun, dative singular of land, neuter, a-stem land northward


land to the North

norjbweardum adjective, dative singular, neuter of noroward. used adverbially whp P preposition


of that (the)

pronoun demonstrative, that accusative singular, feminine of se. seo. feast



Westsaj beah

noun proper, accusative singular of Westsse, feminine, i-stem conjunction conjunction pronoun demonstrative, nominative singular, neuter of se. seo, past noun, nominative singular, neuter, a-stem verb, 3"1 person singular, present tense, subjunctive mood of beon. suppletive verb adverb adjective, nominative singular, neuter, strong declension adverb adverb conjunction pronoun personal, 3 r i person singular, neuter, nominative verb, 3 rd person singular, present tense, indicative mood of beon, irregular verb pronoun/adverb adjective, nominative singular, neuter, strong declension conjunction
see above

west sea though that that land be

Atlantic Ocean also that that land is

baet land



long north thence it is

very long north from there but it is

hit is

eal weste buton

all but on

all uninhabited (waste) but on/in/at



feawum Stowum styccemaelum wlciad

adjective, dative plural of few feaw, strong declension noun, dative plural of Stow st5w. feminine, wo-stem adverb verb, person plural, present tense, indicative mood of wTcian, weak verb, class II stockmeal

few places here and there live


noun proper, nominative Finn plural of Finn, masculine, a-stem preposition noun, dative singular of huntoS. masculine, a-stem
see above

(the) Finns



on/by hunting



on/in winter

noun, dative singular of winter winter, masculine, u-stem conjunction

see above



on/in summer



noun, dative singular of sumor/er. masculine, u-stem noun, dative singular of fisco57a6. masculine, a-stem preposition





by/from that

pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, feminine of se. seo. f>a;t noun, dative singular of , feminine, i-stem






Seminar 7. Old English grammar. Verb

Topics for discussion in class
1. 2. 3. 4. Old English verbal system. Means of form-building. Grammatical categories of finite and non-finite forms of the verb. Morphological classification of Old English verbs. Traces of the Old English verb conjugation in Modern English.

Questions and assignments

Enumerate the grammatical categories of the finite and nonfinite forms, indicating the number of members within each category. 2. Look through the verb paradigm and find instances of different form-building means used. 3. What are the main differences between the weak and the strong verbs? 4. Why did the strong verbs fall into seven classes? Point out the differences between them. 5. Copy and learn the principal forms of the strong verbs of class 1 (e.g. writan. New English write), class 3 (e.g. drincajl, 1.

helpan. New English drink, help), class 5 (e.g. wesan, New English


Account for the division of the weak verbs into classes and point out the differences between them.



Copy the conjugation of a weak verb (e.g. locaian. New

English look or macian. New English make) in the present and

past tenses of the indicative mood and say by what means the verb distinguished person, number and tenses. 8. Define the person, number, tense, mood and the morphological class of the verb in the following: he saide; Ohthere bad; he hwa?5; ba aras he; buhte me; clypode he; pa Isaac ealdode; bu 3esihst; his bystrodon Read the text in Seminar 4 (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle). Consult your translation notes for Seminars 45. Make the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model given in Seminar 6. Check your variant with the key.




Seminar 8. Old English. Discussion

Topics for discussion in class
1. Chronological division in the history of English. 2. Old English. Outer and inner history of the period. 3. Principal features of the Old English phonetic system. 4. Principal features of the Old English grammar system.

Questions and assignments

1. With what languages of Europe is the English language most closely connected? Describe these relations in more detail. 2. What is meant by runes? Have any runic letters been admitted to the English alphabet? 3. What Old English phonemes no longer exist in New English? Give examples from the set of Old English vowels and consonants. 4. What grammatical categories of Old English no longer exist in New English? Give examples from the nominal and verbal paradigm. 5. Read and translate the text below into Modern English / Russian. Make a complete phonetic, grammar and vocabulary analysis of the text following the models of Seminar 3 and Seminar 6. Hand in your written work as Part 1 of your course project.



From ^Elfric's Translation of the Genesis; ab. 1000 A.D.

Aelfiic, the most outstanding author of the clerical prose of late Old English, was abbot of the Ensham Benedictine monastery and a native ofWessex. His chief writings are numerous Homilies, his translation of The Lives of Saints" and from the Old Testament as well as of the book "Ars Grammatica" by Donatus Aurelius (Latin, IV century) The extract given below is "The Story of Jakob's Deceit" (Old Testament, Genesis 27) and represents the classical Late West Saxon dialect.

The Story of Jacob's Deceit

I. Da Isaac ealdode and his bystrodon, f>aet he ne mihte nan bin3 3eseon, pa clypode he Esau, his yldran sunu, 2. and cwae6 to him: ' M 3esihst Jjaet ic ealdi3e, and ic nat hwasnne Kline da3as beod. 3. Nim bin 3esceot, binne cocur and pinne , and ut; and, bonne bu be3ite baes-be f>u wene 4. paet me Iyci3e, me, paet ic ete and ic pe bletsi3e, r-bam-be ic swelte.' 5. Da Rebecca paet 3ehTrde and Esau uta3an wass, 6. ba cwseb heo to Iacobe, hire suna: 'Ic 3ehlrde past pin fasder ^ to Esauwe, pmum : 7. " me of binum hunto6e, paet ic bletsi3e beforan drihtne, ic swelte." 8. Sunu mm, hlyste mTnre lare: 9. far to heorde and me twa ba betstan tyccenu, baet ic maci3e mete pinum feeder -of, and he ytt lustllce. 10. Donne 6u 6a in brin3St, he ytt and bletsab be, aer he swelte.' 11. Da cwae6 he to hire: 'J>u wast bast Esau, mm , ys ruh, and ic eom sme6e. 12. 3if mm fasder me handla6 and me 3ecnaew6 ic ondraBde baet he wene baet ic hine wylle beswTcan and baat he wiri3e me, nass na bletsi3e.' 13. Da cwasd seo modor to him: 'Sunu mm, S13 seo wiri3nys ofer me! Do swa ic be : far and P a pin3 be ic be bead.'


14. He ferde pa and brohte and sealde hit hys meder, and heo hit 3earwode, swa heo wiste past his feeder llcode. 15. And heo scrydde Iacob mid bam deorwurpustan reafe pe heo aet ham mid hire haefde; 16. and befeold his handa mid pasra tyccena fellum; and his swuran, pair he nacod waes, heo befeold. 17. And heo sealde him pone mete pe heo seap, and hlaf; and he brohte past his faeder 18. and cwas5: 'Faeder mini' He andswarode and cwas5: 'Hwset eart , sunu mln?' 19. And Iacob cwae5: 'Ic eom Esau, pin frum-cenneda sunu. Ic dyde swa me bebude. ArTs upp and site, and et of mlnum hunto5e, past pu me bletsi3e.' 20. Eft Isaac cwas6 to his suna: 'Sunu mm, hu mihtest hit swa hraedllce findan?' Pa andswarode he and cwae5: 'Hit waes 3odes willa, bast me hrasdlice com past ic wolde.' 21. And Isaac cwas6: '3a hider near, past ic aethrine pin, sunu mm, and fandi3e hwas5er S13 mln sunu Esau, pe ne S13.' 22. He eode to pam faeder; and Isaac cwa?5, pa pa he hyne 3e3rapod hasfde: 'WitodlTce seo stemn ys Iacobes stefn, and pa handa synd Esauwes handa.' 23. And he ne 3ecneow hine, for-pam pa ruwan handa wseron swilce paes yldran bropur. He hyne bletsode pa 24. and cwasb: 'Eart pu Esau, mm sunu?' And he cwse6: 'la leof, ic hit eom.' 25. M cweed 'Brin3 me mete of blnum hunto6e past ic pe bletsi3e.' Pa he pone mete brohte, he brohte him eac win. Pa he hasfde 3edruncen, 26. ba cwae6 h i to him: 'Sunu mm, hider and cysse me.' 27. He nealeahte and cyste hine. Sona, swa he hyne on3eat, he bletsode hine and cw3s6: 'Nfl ys mines suna stenc, swilce pass landes stenc pe drihten bletsode. 28. Sylle pe 3od of heofenes deawe and of fastnisse, and micelnysse hwastes and wines. 29. And beowion pe eall folc, and 3eeadmedun pe ealle . pu pinra brof)ra hlaford and sin pinre modur suna 3ebi3ed beforan be. Se wiri3e, si he awiri3ed; and, se pe be bletsi3e, si he mid bletsun3e 3efylled.'



9. General characteristics of the Middle English period 10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels 11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants 12. Middle English grammar. Noun 13. Middle English grammar. Verb 14. Middle English. Discussion

The pilgrims outside the walls of the city of Canterbury, an early 14"' century illustration


Seminar 9. General characteristics of the Middle English period Topics for discussion in class
1. Historical events affecting the English language (the Scandinavian invasion and the Norman conquest). 2. Changes in Middle English word-stock as compared with Old English. 3. Innovations in spelling in Middle English as compared with Old English. 4. Middle English written records.

Questions and assignments

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Comment on the position of French in the 12th13' centuries. Speak of the role of foreign influence in Middle English. Comment on the peculiarities of Middle English borrowings, their character and distinctive features. What new letters and digraphs denoting consonants appeared in Middle English? Comment on the origin of the underlined letters and digraphs in the examples below: with, that, shoures, droughte, every, Zeghirus Find more examples of this kind in the text assigned for the seminar. Study the rules of reading a Middle English text (see the



table below). What new spelling devices denoting vowels appeared in Middle English? Use the following examples from the text below as illustrations: a) shoures, foweles, yonge; b) soote, breeth; c) droghte. 7. Study the model of phonetic analysis of a Middle English text. Read and translate the text into Modern English / Russian (part 1, lines 118). Continue the phonetic analysis following the model (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

Reading of Middle English texts

Letters & Sounds Examples

/. Vowels 1.1. Single letters a e i u [a] [a:] [e] [e:] [i] [i:] [u] [u:] whan, and bathed, maken ende, wende slepen, seken his, first inspired, shires nature, vertu but



[o] [o:] [u] [i] [i:] 1.2. Digraphs

croppes, from spoken, open sonne, come fyngres nyne, ryght


[e:] [i:] Co:] [uO [ou] [au] [ai] [ei]

breeth, eek grief root, soote shoures, how soule, know straunge, lawe fair, day wey, reysed

ou , ow au , aw ai, ay ei, ey

2. Consonants 2.1. Single letters g f


[s] [g] >] [f] [v] [s]

courage^ licour, Caunterbury certain, perced goon, goos engendred, corages, pilgrimages fowels, bifil, y-falle veyne, vertu, devout his, is, soundry seson, devyse


2.2. Digraphs sh ch th gh wh

shoures, shires, shortly chaumbres, everichon that, thinketh, the bathed, worthy nyght, ryght, knight whan, what



From Chaucer's Prologue to his "Canterbury Tales"; ab. 13841400

Geoffrey Chaucer (? ab. 13401400) was a bom Londoner. His father and relatives had some associations with the wine trade and with the Court. For his early schooling he was sent to St. Paul's Almony and later went on to be a page in the household of the Countess of Ulster. There he acquired the finest education in good manners, a matter of great importance not only in his career as a courtier but also in his career as a poet. Later in his life he was many times sent abroad on some commercial and diplomatic missions and finally became a Comptroller of the customs and Justice of the Peace. He had a passion for books and read a lot in Latin, French, AngloNorman and Italian. He made himself a considerable expert in contemporaiy sciences astronomy, medicine, physics and alchemy. He was a man of Renaissance and he heralded the beginning of English Renaissance in literature. Chaucer's writings are numerous and diverse in subject and literary manner but "The Canterbury Tales" are his greatest work. It is a narrative of a pilgrimage that led to the outskirts of Canterbury to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket (the archbishop of Canterbury in the XII century, murdered by the order of the king and canonized by the Catholic Church). "The Canterbuiy Tales" are not


finished. They consist of a Prologue and 24 stories told by the persons described in the Prologue. These people are of different degrees of the medieval English society. The Prologue is the portrait of an entire nation, high and low, old and young, lay and clerical, town and country. The tales these pilgrims tell come from all over Europe, from Chaucer's contemporaries (Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarch), from the ancients, from the Orient. Geoffrey Chaucer was the most outstanding figure of his time. He is considered to be "the Father of English Poetry", the founder of literary language. He wrote in the London dialect which had by that time acquired prevailing East Midland features with a considerable Southern dialectal element. As it was the rise of national English standard various forms coexisted, both dialectal, old and new (e.g. for to seke for to seken; soote sweete; y-ronne; spoken; hem, her(<OE) they (Sc.)), hi bis rhymes (the meter is iambic pentameter); there are many e-forms (Southern dialectal features descending from Kentish).

The Prologue
i Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote. And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour: Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre cropes, and the vonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halve cours y-ronne, And srnale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open ye So priketh hem nature in here corages Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes,









To feme halwes, couthe in sondry londes; And specially, from every shires ende Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende, The hooly. blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke: Bifil that in that seson on a day. In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage To Caunterbury with ful devout corage, At nyght were come into that hostelrye Wei nyne and twenty in a compaignye Of sondry folk by aventure y-falle In felaweshioe, and pilgrimes were they alle, That toward Caunterbury wolde ryde. The chaumbres and the stables weren wyde. And wel we weren esed atte beste. And shortly, whan the sonne was to reste, So hadde I spoken with hem everichon, That I was of her felaweshipe anon, And made forward erly for to ryse. To take oure wey ther, as I yow devyse. But natheless, whil I have tyme and space, Er that I ferther in this tale pace. Me thynketh it acordaunt to resoun To telle yow al the condicioun Of ech of hem, so as it semed me, And whiche they were, and of what degree. And eek in what array that they were inne; And at a khyght than wol I first bigynne.



Model of phonetic analysis

Word as used in the text Changes of spelling and sounds Old English Middle English New English


[hw] hw

[hw] > [a]

replaced by

> >

[w] [e] w [ae] [5]


past []
x p


> >

> [a] > [6] replaced by a replaced by th


[6] p replaced by

with > []

> [3]

his shoures (shour)



> [z]


u replaced by ou/ow sc replaced by sh

>m [u:rl
> [e:]




soote droghte


swote/sweete droght(e)/ drought

sweet > :] drought

> []

> [u:] [u:] u replaced by o/ou 3 replaced by gh




[c:] + vocalized | r)> [IQ]







> Iu:] > [u] before a dental cons. > [el] > W


bathed (bathen)

[a] (open syl.) > [a:] [ode] > [ede] th 5 replaced by SWilc [k'J replaced by >





swich/s(w)uch such [tfl > tu] > []


[k'l > [ [hw] (hwj hw replaced by wh replaced by ch



which >
> [wj

vertu flour

fi] + vocalized [r]> [:]



[u:] + vocalized [r]> []





Seminar 10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels

Topics for discussion in class
1. 2. Qualitative changes of long and short vowels in Middle English. Quantitative changes of vowels in Middle English: lengthening and shortening.

Questions and assignments

1. What phonetic conditions affected the length of vowels in Middle English? 2. What change affected the Old English monophthongs in Middle English? Were the changes positional or independent? Give examples from the text to illustrate points 1 and 2. 3. What changes did the unstressed vowels undergo in Middle English? How did it affect the grammatical endings? 4. Comment on the changes of the short monophthongs [as] and [y] and long monophthongs [], [], [] in Middle English. 5. Speak of the Old English diphthongs in Middle English. 6. Read and translate the text above into Modern English / Russian (part 2, lines 1942). Make the phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 9 (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.



Seminar 11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants

Topics for discussion in class
1 Consonant changes in Middle English. The rise of sibilants and affricates. 2. Development of diphthongs due to vocalisation of consonants.

Questions and assignments

1- What is the origin of the Modern English consonant phonemes []"], [tf], $3] in native words? 2- Account for the underlined consonants in: ship, child, bridge. 3 - What is the origin of the diphthongs [ai], [au], [ou] in day, now, owe? 4. Read and translate the following text into Modern English / Russian. Make the phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 9 (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

From Trevisa's Translation of "The Polychronicon"; 1387

John de Trevisa {1326 1412) of Cornwall, though educated at Oxford, lived most of his life in Gloucestershire (South West of England) serving as chaplain.


Trevisa's "The Polychronicon" is the translation from Latin of a world history written by the English monk Ranulf Higden in the mum of the 14"1 century. In his translation Trevisa inserted his own commem marking it by his name (Trevisa), and by (R) the continuation oj Higden's text. The extract below shows the language situation in England in tm tlteE s Late Middle English period and the role of French in ^ fl society of the time: the 14"' century witnessed the ascendancy ofbngus in public life; whereas the practice had been to use French as saw language (so Higden tells us in his Polychronicon), by the tune J Trevisa English also gained a new place in the schools. Trevisa's English of the Polychronicon combines Midland and South Western dialectal forms, (typical South Western dialect features are we ending of the Present tense, Plural -eth< OE -ath; the form oj Participle II (e.g. i-meddled); /y/ > /u/(e.g. burthe < OE ge-byrd).

About the languages of the inhabitants Chapter 59

As it is i-knowe how meny manere peple beef) in faS ilfiSS' pere beep also so many dyvers longages and tonge_s; nopeles Walsche men and Scottes, f>at beep nou3t i-medled wip sfcsl naciouns, holdefc wel nyh hir firste longage and speche,; but 3 1 1 the Scottes pat were somtyme confederat and wonede wip Pe Pictes drawe somwhat after hir speche; but pe Flemmynges bat wonep in pe weste side of Wales havep i-left her straunge speche and spekep Saxonliche i-now. Also Englische men, pey hadde from the bygynnynge pre manere speche, norperne, sowjieffle' and middel speche in pe myddel of pe lond, as pey come of f>re manere peple of Germania, nopeles by comyxtioun and mellynge firste wip Danes and afterward wip Normans, in meny pe contray. longage is apayred, and som usep straunge wlafferynge, chiterynge, harrynge, and garrynge grisbayting. This apayrynge of the burbe of pe tunge is bycause of tweie pinges; oon is for



children, in scole aqenst pe usage and manere of alle opere naciouns beef) compelled for to leve hire owne langage, and for to construe hir lessouns and- here pynges in Frensche, and so pey havej> sep pe Normans come first in to Engelond. Also gentil men children beef) i-tau^t to speke Frensche from pe tyme pat pey beep i-rokked in here cradel. and kunnep speke and playe wip a Sbiides broche: and uplondisshe men wil likne hym self to gentil men, and fondep wip greet besynesse for to speke Frensche, for to be btojde of. Pis manere was moche i-used to for firste deth and is sippe sumdel i-chaunged; for John Cornwaile, a maister of grammer, chaunged pe lore in gramer scole and construccioun of Frensche in to Englische; and Richard Pencriche lerned pe manere techynge of hym and of opere men of Pencrich; so pat flow, pe of pure Lorde a powsand pre hundred and foure Score and fyve, and of pe secounde kyng Richard after pe conquest nyne. in alle pe gramere scoles of Engelond, children ievep Frensche and construep and lernep an Englische, and hauep {)erby avauntage in oon side and disavauntage in anoper side; here avauntage is pat pey lernep her gramer in lasse tyme pan children were i-woned to doo; disavauntage is pat now children f gramer scole connep na more Frensche pan can hir lift heele. a nd pat is harme for hem and bey schulle passe pe see and travaille in straunge landes and in many oper places.



Seminar 12. Middle English grammar. Noun Topics for discussion in class
Simplification of the case system and types of declension in Middle English. 2. Means of form-building in Middle English. 3. Rise of the article. 1.

Questions and assignments

Describe and account for the loss of inflexions in English nouns, speak about the remaining inflexions. 2. Discuss the grammatical elements of the words children's; leaves; men; brethren's; ships 3. Speak of the changes in the adjective paradigm in Middle English. 4. Study the model of grammar and vocabulary analysis of a Middle English text. Consult your translation notes for Seminars 910 (Chaucer, The Prologue). Continue the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model. Check your variant with the key. 1.



Model of grammatical and ethymological analysis

wnan that Aprille with


OE hwsenne
(adverb/pronoun) pffit (pronoun)

when that

noun proper preposition pronoun possessive, masculine, 3rd person singular noun, common case, plural adjective, plural definite article noun, common case, singular preposition noun proper verb, present perfect, 31X| person, singular of percen. weak verb, class 2 preposition noun, common case, singular conjunction

OF avrill, L aprilis

April with

shoures soote

OE his (pronoun personal)

shower sweet

OE sciir OE swote/swete OE se, seo, pset OE drii3o6 ftEof OF mars, march (dial.), L martius OE habban OF percier



March hath perced


pierce (has


OE to OSk rot OE and







verb, present perfect OE ba6ian (hath bathed), 3rd person, singular of bathen. weak verb, class 2 pronoun indefinite nolin, common case, singular preposition pronoun indefinite noun, common case, singular preposition pronoun indefinite /interrogative noun, common case, singular OE aefre OE veine 0in OE swilc OF licur, L liquor

bathe {has bathed)

every veyne

every vein

swich licour

(moisture) Of


which vertu

OE hwilc OF vertu



engendred is verb, passive voice, rd

OF engendrer, present tense, 3 person L ingenerane singular of engendren. OE is weak verb, class 2 noun, common case, singular OF four

(is engendered)






Seminar 13. Middle English grammar. Verb

Topics for discussion in class
1. Historical changes in the verbal system. History of the Old English categories of tense, number, mood and person. 2. Development of analytical forms and new grammatical categories in Middle English.

Questions and assignments

1- Give two examples each of (i) strong verbs which have acquired the weak-type conjugation; (ii) weak verbs which have acquired the strong-type conjugation. 2. Account for the present and past tense forms of the principal auxiliary verbs. 3- Account for the past tense forms of the following verbs: taught, sold, sought, fed, felt, caught 4- Mention some verbs that, being originally preterites, have come to be used as presents, and account for their usage. 5. Read the text in Seminar 11 (Trevisa, About the languages of the inhabitants). Consult your translation notes for the Seminar. Make the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model given in Seminar 12. Check your variant with the key.



Seminar 14. Middle English. Discussion

Topics for discussion in class
1. Middle English. Outer and inner history of the period. 2. Changes in the Middle English spelling system. 3. Changes in the Middle English phonetic system. 4. Changes in the Middle English grammar system. 5. Changes in the Middle English vocabulary.

Questions and assignments

1. What new spelling devices appeared in Middle English? 2. What environment allowed a stressed vowel to preserve its Old English quantity? 3. What were the sources for the appearance of new categorial forms? Give exampes from the nominal and verbal paradigm. 4. Speak on the principal sources of enriching the vocabulary m Middle English. 5. Read and translate the text below into Modern English / Russian. Make a complete phonetic, grammar and vocabulary analysis of the text following the models or Seminar 9 and Seminar 12. Hand in your written work as Part 2 of your course project.



From Capgrave's Chronicle of England; ab. 1463

John Capgrave (13931463) was a friar of the Augustinian Order in England. He obtained a theological university education and was regarded as one of the most learned men of his time. Capgrave resided most of his life in the friary at King"s Lynn, where he wrote in Latin and English sermons, theological works and commentaries to many books of scripture. Among his books is a chronicle of English history, which is of considerable importance as an early English prose work "The Chronicle of England" starts from the Creation of the World and ends with the year 1417, evidently stopped by the death of the author. It is written in the London dialect bearing but few traces of other late Middle English dialects.

[1393] In the month of Auguste was it proclamed thorowoute Ynglond that alle Erishmen be at hom, in her owne lond, in the fest of Nativite of oure Lady, in peyne of lesing of her hed. It was proved be experiens that there were com to Ynglond so many Erischmen that the Erisch cuntre, whech longeth to the king of Ynglond, was so voyded fro his dwelleris that the wilde Erisch were com in, and had dominacioune of al that cuntre. And, more ovyr, it was noted, that in Kyng Edward tyme the Thirde, whan he had set there his bank, his juges, and his chekyr, he received every XXX M. pound: and now the kyng Richard was fayn to paye 1 to defens of the same cuntre XXX M. mark. (In this , in the XXI. day of Aprile, was that frere bore whech mad these Annotaciones.) And in the same Kyng Richard went into Erland, with the duke of Glouceter, and erles March, Notingham and Ruthland. Many of the Erisch lordis wold ha lettid his comyng;


but her power was ovyr weyk. Ther was he fro the Nativite of oure Lady onto Esterne. And in that tyme were sent onto him, be the clergi of this lond, the archbishop of York and the bishop of London, praying him that he wold come horn ageyn to oppresse the malice of Lollardis. For thei laboured sore to take away alle the possessiones of the Cherch, and aftir to distroye alle the lawes that were mad to favoure of the Cherch. Whan the kyng herd this, he hastid him in al goodly maner to com horn ageyn. [1394] In the XVIII. the kyng held his Parlement at Dulyn, and thidir com alle the lordes that had mad subjeccion onto him. And in that same tyme, Edmund, duke of York, Keper of Ynglond, held a Parlement at London; to whech Parlement cam the duke of Gloucetir fro Yrlond, expressing the kyngis costid in Yrlond: and his legacion was so acceptabil, that the clergy graunted him a dyme, and the lay fe a fiftene. In this tyme the Lolardis set up scrowis at Westminster and at Poules, with abhominable accusaciones of hem that long to the Cherch, whech sounded in destruccioune of the Sacramentis, ana of statutes of the Cherch. The meynteyneris of the puple that were so infect were these: Richard Storry, Lodewik Clifford, Thomas Latymer, Jon Mountagw. Thei were principal instraetouris of heretikes. The kyng, whan he had conceyved the malice of these men, he cleped hem to his presens, and snybbed hem; forbad hem eke thei schuld no more meynten no swech materes. Of Richard Story he took a hooth; for he swore on a book that he schuld nevyr meynten no swech opiniones. And aftir this hooth the kyng saide: "And I swere here onto the, If evyr thou breke thin ooth, thou schal deye a foul deth." Thei that were gilty in this mater withdraw gretly her oterauns of malys.


15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. General characteristics of the New English period New English. Phonetics. Vowels New English. Phonetics. Consonants New English Grammar. Noun New English Grammar. Verb English wordstock Vocabulary layers Modern regular and irregular noun and verb forms

William Shakespeare the engraving for the First Folio (1623)



Seminar 15. General characteristics of the New English period

Topics for discussion in class
1. Formation of the British nation and the English national language in the Early New English period. 2. Expansion of English overseas. Contacts with other languages. 3. Early New English vocabulary. New means of wordformation (conversion). 4. Influence of Latin and other languages in the New English period. Etymological doublets. 5. New English spelling. Principal ways of indicating the sounds in Modern English.

Questions and assignments

1. Compare the effect of different outside contacts upon the English language. 2. Speak of the ways of enriching the vocabulary of a language. Which of them were more important for the New English period? 3. Speak of "mute" letters in New English. 4. What digraphs are used in New English? Give examples and explain their pronunciation. 5. What sounds are denoted by the following letters in New English: a, e, i, o, u? Which of them are the oldest and which are the newest?



Study the model of phonetic analysis of a New English text. Read and translate the text into Modern English / Russian (part 1). Continue the phonetic analysis following the model (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

William Shakespeare; ab. 1600

William Shakespeare (15651616) was born at Stratford-on-Avon. His father was engaged in various kinds of trade and held various municipal offices. Shakespeare was educated at a grammar school learning to read and write and studying the works of some classical historians, moralists and poets, but he did not go to the university. He married at the age of 18. How Shakespeare spent the next 8 years or so until his name begins to appear in London theatre records is not known. By 1592 he seems to have attracted the attention of the Earl of Southampton. It was very important for him: although the puritanical tity of London was generally hostile to the theatre many of the nobility were good patrons of the drama and friends of actors. From 1594 onward he was a recognised member of the Lord Chamberlain s Company of players: they had the best theatre, the Globe, and the best dramatist, Shakespeare. He became a full-time professional man of his own theatre. For 20 years Shakespeare devoted himself to his art, writing more than a million words of poetic drama. Shakespeare lived at a time when ideas and social structure established in Middle Ages still influenced man 's thought and behaviour. Alongside that, economic and social orders were disturbed by the rise of capitalism, expansion of education and by the new wealth from the discovery of new lands. An interplay of new and old ideas was typical of the time (in "Hamlet" discussions on man, belief, a "rotten" state, and times "out of joint" clearly reflect a growing disquiet and scepticism.) It is a usual and reasonable opinion that Shakespeare's greatness is nowhere more visible than in the series of tragedies "Hamlet", "Othello", "King Lear". With a few exceptions Shakespeare did not invent the plot of his plays. Sometimes he used old stories ("Hamlet"), sometimes he worked from the stories of comparatively recent Italian writers, the chronicles,


the popular prose fiction of his contemporaries. The source of the plot ("Tragical History of Hamlet, prince of Denmark") was probably the Icelandic saga of Amleth narrated by Saxo Grammaticus in his history of Denmark, in "Hamlet" the drama of revenge acquired new philosophic aspects introduced by the genius of the author. Given below is an extract from "Hamlet" (mostly MS 2-nd quarto, published in 1604) which is the Performance "The Murder o] Gonzago " played by the actors at Hamlet's request. The language of Shakespeare's plays gives a full representation </ ? the literary language of the Elizabethan Age (the age of literary Renaissance in Early New English). In Shakespeare's day the syntax and other aspects of English grammar and vocabulary1 were in a state of transition from an earlier, highly inflected language. The loss oj endings obscured the distinguishing marks of various parts of speec and the result was not so much confusion as freedom. Shakespeare's ability to create new words and use the living ones in the full range of their polysemy, his versatile grammar are general^ typical of the Early New English period and sometimes are specificall) Shakespearean (e.g. more than one negation in the sentence "nor it not strange"; one stem used as both Past Tense and Participle ' "begunn "; placing a simple verb before the subject in questions Wha means this...?"; subject-verb semantic agreement "the fruit...sticks.. fall..."; polysemy of words when all the meanings of the word 'worn at a time, e.g. posie 1) poetry, 2) a motto, a short inscription, mich(ing) 1) to skulk or retire from view, 2) to steal small things, D to pilfer, 4) to play truant, etc.)

From Hamlet, Act III, Scene II. The Performance

(pan 1) The Trumpets sounds. Dumbe show followes: Enter a King and a Oueene. the Queene embracing him, and he. her, he takes her vp, and declines his head vpon her , he lyes him downe upon a bancke of flowers, she seeing him asleepe, leaues him: anori come in an other man, takes off his crowne. kisses it,


poyson in the sleepers eares. and leaues him; the Queene returne.i finds the King dead, makes passionate action, the poysner with some- three or foure come in againe, seeme to condole with her, the dead body is carried away, the poysner wooes the Queene with gifts, shee seemes harsh awhile, but in the end accepts hue. Oph. Ham. OphHam. Oph. Ham. What meanes this my Lord? Marry that munching Mallico, it meanes mischiefe. Belike this show imports the argument of the play. We shall know by this fellow, [Enter Prologue.] The Players cannot keepe, they'le tell . Will a tell vs what this show meant? I, or any show that you will show him, be not you ash am'd to show, heele not shame to tell you what it meanes. You are naught, you are naught. He mark the play. For vs and for our Tragedie, Heere stooping to your clemencie, We begge your hearing patiently. Is this a Prologue, or the posie of a ring? Tis breefe my Lord. As womans loue. Enter King and Queene. Full thirtie times hath Phebus cart gone round Neptunes saj wash, and Tellus orb'd the ground, And thirtie dosen Moones with borrowed sheene About the world haue times twelue thirties beene Since loue our harts, and Hymen did our hands Vnite comutuall in most sacred bands.

Oph. Prol.

Ham. Oph. Ham. King.



So many iourneyes may the Sunne and Moone Make vs againe count ore ere loue be doone, But woe is me, you are so sicke of late, So farre from cheere. and from our former state, That I distrust you, yet though I distrust, Discomfort you my Lord it nothing must. For women feare too much, euen as they loue. And womens feare and loue hold quantitie, Eyther none, in neither ought, or in extremitie. Now what my Lord is proofe hath made you know, And as my loue is ciz'd, my feare is so, Where loue is great, the litlest doubts are feare. Where little feares grow great, great loue growes there. Faith I must leaue thee loue, and shortly to, My operant powers their functions leaue to do And thou shalt Hue in this faire world behind. Honour'd. belou'd, and haply one as kind. For husband shalt thou.


(part 2)


confound the rest, Such loue must needes be treason in my brest, In second husband let me be accurst. None wed the second, but who kild the first. Ham. That's wormwood The instances that second marriage moue Are base respects of thrift, but none of loue, A second time I kill my husband dead, When second husband kisses me in bed. I doe belieue you thinke what now you speake. But what we doe determine, oft we breake, Purpose is but the slaue to memorie,



Of violent birth, but poore validitie, Which now the fruite vnripe sticks on the tree. But faH vnshaken when they mellow bee. Most necessary tis that we forget To gay our selues what to our selues is debt. What to our selues in passion we propose, The passion ending, doth the purpose lose. The violence of eyther, griefe. or ioy, Their owne ennactures with themselues destroy, Where ioy most reuels, griefe doth most lament, Greefe ioy, ioy griefes, on slender accedent, This world is not for aye, nor tis not strange. That euen our loues should with our fortunes change: For tis a question left vs yet to proue. Whether loue lead fortune, or els fortune loue. The great man downe, you marke his fauourite flyes, The poore aduaunc'd. makes friends of enemies, And hetherto doth loue on fortune tend, For who not needes, shall neuer lacke a friend, And who in want a hollow friend doth try, Directly seasons him his enemy. But orderly to end where I begunne. Our wills and fates doe so contrary runne. That our deuises still are ouerthrowne. Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our owne, So thinke thou wilt no second husband wed, But die thy thoughts when thy first Lord is dead.



Model of phonetic analysis

Word as used in the text Changes of spelling and sounds Old English Middle English New English




[u] > [] - a ME spelling device

sound dumbe

[u] u replaced by

[u:] >




[u] > [] [b] lost in NE - a ME spelling device


rel. to v. sceaw(ian) . shewe [sk1] >

sc replaced by sh

show > enter king

enter king


fn/entre(n) kyng

unstressed [e] + vocalised [r] > []

> [i] (East Midland dialect) replaced by




> [i:l qu

[e:] > [e:] cw replaced by


inf. embrace

> [ci]


he her take(s)


> [e:]

> [i:l > [i-]


her/e taken

her take

[e] + vocalised [r] > [:]

inf. takan
[a] replaced by

[a:] open syllable > [ei]

decline(s) his head

his [s] head


inf. declynen

> [ai]

his [s] head

> [e:]

his > M head

> [e] before a dental consonant



> ]

> M





> []

[u:] > [u:] u replaced by ou/ow

bancke flower(s)


> []



[u:] + vocalised [r] > [] ou replaced by ow


inf. seon

> [e:] >







> [i'-l

[ffi] > [e:] replaced by '


inf. ISfan


> [i:l ea

[:] > [e:] replaced by f replaced by v


Seminar 16. New English. Phonetics. Vowels

Topics for discussion in class
1 2. Quantitative and qualitative changes of vowels in Early New English. The Great Vowel shift and other New English vowel changes; their effect on Modern English.

Questions and assignments

' What phonetic conditions affected the length of vowels in Early New English? 2. What change affected the monophthongs [a] and [u] in New English? Were the changes positional or independent? Give examples from the text to illustrate points 1 and 2. Make a list of vowels that underwent the Great Vowel shift. What is the general direction of the shift? What changes did the unstressed vowels undergo in New English? How did it affect the grammatical endings? Copy the principal forms of the Old English verb wrltan and the paradigm of the Old English noun stan and trace the endings to New English. Write out words from the text to show the different spelling of the sounds [ae], [e:], [ou], [ei], [], [], [i:] and explain the origin of the sounds and spelling. Account historically for the differences in the sound value of the same letter or digraph, such as "ow", "ea", V \ "i" (in stressed position). Find words in the text to illustrate your answer.

3. 4. 5.




Read and translate the text above into Modern English / Russian (part 2). Make the phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 15 (analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.


Seminar 17. New English. Phonetics. Consonants

Topics for discussion in class
1. 2. Early New English consonant changes. The rise of sibilants and affricates in Early New English.

Questions and assignments

12. What is the origin of the Modern English consonant phonemes ], [3], [tfl, 3] in borrowed words? Account for the underlined consonants in: a) b) 3. 4. 5. literature, Asia, soldier, measure. shall, drudgery, occasion, nature

Account for the spelling of the fricatives and find examples in the text to illustrate the same spelling and/or sound. Find words in the text to illustrate the so-called "Verner's Law" in New English. Account for the "mute" letters "gh", "k" and "1", "r" before "n" and at the end of words, position of stress in native and borrowed words. Read and translate the text below into Russian. Make the phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 15.




Ben Jonson; ab. 16061607

Ben Jonson (15721637) began to work as player and playwright in 1597. He was a very prolific writer, and his plays were given, among many others, by Shakespeare's company, some with William Shakespeare in the cast. Ben Jonson is mostly known for court masques dramatic entertainments involving dances and disquises, and comedies which often had a morale in them. "Volpone, or The Fox" is a comedy first acted in 1606 and printed a year later. Volpone, a rich Venetian without children, feigns that he is dying, in order to draw gifts from his would-be heirs. Mosca, his parasite and confederate, persuades each of these in turn that he is to be the heir, and thus extracts costly presents from them. One of the victims of their deceit is Voltore.

From "Volpone, or The Fox"

MOSCA. You still are what you were, sir. Only you, Of all the rest, are he, commands his love; And you do wisely to preserve it thus With early visitation, and kind notes Of your good meaning to him, which, I know, Cannot but come most grateful. Patron! sir! Here's Signior Voltore is come VOLPONE. What say you? MOSCA. Sir, Signior Voltore is come this morning To visit you. VOLPONE. I thank him. MOSCA. And hath brought A piece of antique plate, bought of Saint Mark, With which he here presents you.


VOLPONE. He is welcome. Pray him to come more often. MOSCA. Yes. VOLTORE. What says he? MOSCA. He thanks you, and desires you see him often. VOLPONE. Mosca. MOSCA. My patron! VOLPONE. Bring him near; where is he? I long to feel his hand. MOSCA. The plate is here, sir. VOLTORE. How fare you, sir? VOLPONE. I thank you, Signior Voltore. Where is the plate? mine eyes are bad. VOLTORE. I'm sorry To see you still thus weak. MOSCA. That he is not weaker. VOLPONE. You are too munificent. VOLTORE. No, sir, would to Heaven, I could as well give health to you, as that plate! VOLPONE. You give, sir, what you can. I thank you. Your love Hath taste in this, and shall not be unanswered. I pray you see me often. VOLTORE. Yes. I shall, sir. VOLPONE. Be not far from me. MOSCA. Do you observe that, sir? VOLPONE. Hearken unto me still. It will concern you. MOSCA. You are a happy man, sir; know your good. VOLPONE. I cannot now last long


MOSCA. You are his heir, sir. VOLTORE. Am I? VOLPONE. I feel me going Uhluh! uh! uh! I'm sailing to my port Uh! uh! uh! uh! And I am glad I am so near my haven. MOSCA. Alas, kind gentleman! Well, we must all go VOLTORE. But, Mosca MOSCA. Age will conquer. VOLTORE. Pray thee, hear me. Am I inscribed his heir for certain? MOSCA. Are you! I do beseech you, sir, you will vouchsafe To write me i' your family. All my hopes Depend upon your worship. I am lost, Except the rising sun do shine on me. VOLTORE. It shall both shine and warm thee, Mosca. MOSCA. Sir. I am a man that hath not done your love All the worst offices: here I wear your keys, See all your coffers,.and your caskets locked, Keep the poor inventory of your jewels, Your plate and monies: am your steward, sir, Husband your goods here. VOLTORE. But am I sole heir?



Seminar 18. New English. Grammar. Noun

Topics for discussion in class
Historical changes in the nominal system. History of the Old English categories of case, number and gender. 2- Origin of modern categorial forms. 3. Development of personal and demonstrative pronouns. '

Questions and assignments

12. What form-building means are used in New English as compared to those in Old English? What is the origin of the Modern English plural ending "es" and the genitive ending "s" in: lessons, mother's? Speak of the changes in the number of cases of nouns and personal pronouns in Middle English and New English. What new personal and possessive pronouns appeared in English in the course of history? Write out the personal and possessive pronouns from the text below and account for their origin. Speak of the degrees of comparison of the adjectives in the text below. Study the model of grammar and vocabulary analysis of a New English text. Consult your translation notes for Seminars 1516. Continue the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model. Check your variant with the key.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


Model of grammatical and ethymological analysis

Words as used in the text Corresponding NE word, translation

trumpets sounds

noun, genitive case, plural

ME trompette, OF Irompette

trumpet(S ) SOUnd(s) (oboes play)

n. common case, ME soun; OF soun plural

dumbe show


OE dumb; ME domb




n. common case, ME sheue, rel. to show singular OE sceawian (v); ME shaven (v) verb, present OE fo^ian, weak, 2; follow(s) tense, 3"1 person, ME followen (The dumb singular ot show enters) follow verb, present ME entren weak, 2\ OF entrer enter tense, plural of enter article, indefinite OE an; ME a/an n. common case OE ; ME kyng singular conjunction OE and; ME and a king and queen (actors playing the roles of the King and the Queen)

a king and queene

n. common case OE cwen; ME queen singular



the queene embracing absolute

ME embracen, weak 2:

the queen embracing

participial OF embracer. construction (nominative with participle I) him pronoun personal, objective case, 3'* person, singular, masculine OE him, hire; ME him him


pronoun OE he; ME he personal, nominative case, 3rd person, singular, masculine pronoun personal, objective case, 3 person, singular, feminine OE hire; ME her(e)





verb, present OE takan, sir. 6; ME taken tense, 3|U person, singular of take adverb OE up, upp; ME up



up (raises her from the knees) decline


verb, present ME declynen; OF decliner tense, 3' J person, singular of decline pronoun possessive, 3rd person, singular, masculine OE his; ME his





head Vpon

n. common case, OE heafod; ME heed case, singular preposition OE uppon; ME upon

head upon neck (on her shoulder) lie

. common case, OE hnecca; ME nekke singular verb, present OE , sir. 5; ME lyen tense, 3rJ person, singular of lie adverb OE of-dfme; ME a-doune


downe bancke Of flowers she

down bank (bed) of flower(s) she

n. common case, ME banke singular preposition OE of; ME of

n. common case, OF flour plural pronoun OE heo; ME he/she personal, nominative case, 3rf person, singular, feminine v., participle 1 of see adjective v., present tense, 3"* person, singular of leave OE seon, sir. 5; ME seen OE on-slajp; ME on sleep, asleep OE lsefan, weak, 1; ME leven

seeing asleepe leaues

seeing' asleep leave(s)



Seminar 19. New English. Grammar. Verb

Topics for discussion in class
' Historical changes in the verbal system. History of the Old English categories of tense, number, mood and person. 2- Development of analytical forms and new grammatical categories in Early New English. 3- Origin of the main groups of standard and non-standard verb-forms.

Questions and assignments

What form-building means are used in New English as compared to those in Old English? 2. Write out the analytical verb-forms from the text and account for their origin. 3- Speak of the origin of non-finite verb forms: the infinitive, the participles, the gerund. 4- Read the text (Ben Jonson, Volpone, or The Fox). Consult your translation notes for Seminar 17. Make the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model given in Seminar 18. '



Seminar 20. English wordstock

Topics for discussion in class
1. Historical changes in English wordstock.

Questions and assignments

1. Write out from the text examples of native English words, French (or Latin) and Scandinavian borrowings and trace them back to the Middle English or Old English periods. 2. Analyse the word-building elements in the following words and comment on their origin: favourable, miscalled, nominally, recall, good-natured 3. Account for the etymological layers in the English wordstock which you discover in the text by describing the relevant events in the history of Britain. 4. Speak of phonetic marks and components in the morphological structure of the word helping to distinguish etymological layers in the English word-stock. 5. Give examples from the text of hybrids with different etymological components. 6. Read and translate the text given below into Modern English / Russian. Make a complete phonetic, grammar and vocabulary analysis of the text following the models or Seminar 15 and Seminar 18. Check your variant with the key.



William Shakespeare, Sonnets, ab. 1600

Another form of literary work at which Shakespeare excelled was the writing of sonnets, lyric verse fashionable in Elizabethan England. It is justly said that there were few poetic compositions of any author or age that have evoked so much admiration as Shakespeare's sonnets. Most of them were probably written between 1593 and 1599 and were first published as a collection in 1609.

Sonnet #153
Cupid laid by his brand, and fell asleep: A maid of Dian's this advantage found, And his love-kindling fire did quickly steep In a cold valley-fountain of that ground; Which boirow'd from this holy fire of Love A dateless lively heat, still to endure, And grew a seething bath, which yet men prove Against strange maladies a sovereign cure. But at my mistress' eye Love's brand new-fired, The boy for trial needs would touch my breast; I, sick withal, the help of bath desired, And thither hied, a sad distemper'd guest, But found no cure: the bath for my help lies Where Cupid got new fire my mistress's eyes.



Seminar 21. Vocabulary layers

Topics for discussion in class
1. 2. Geographical expansion of English in the course of history. Etymological strata in New English vocabulary and their historical explanation. 3. Influence of Latin on English in different periods. 4. Influence of the French language on English in different periods. 5. Latin and French word-building elements in English.

Questions and assignments

1. From what languages and when did the English language received the following words: orange, receive, street, chess, kiln, sovereign, potato, fetish? Prove your point of view. 2. Give five examples each of Latin words borrowed to Englisn directly and via French and state the time of the borrowing3. What are word-hybrids? Give examples of word-hybrids consisting of three or more elements different by origin. 4. Read and translate the text given below into Russian. Make a grammar and vocabulary analysis of the text following t n e model of Seminar 18. Pay particular attention to foreign word-building elements. Check your variant with the key.



Ch. Dickens, "David Copperfield", a. 1850

Charles Dickens (18121870), the son of a government clerk, underwent in early life, as the result of his family's poverty resulting from his father's imprisonment, experiences similar to some of those depicted in "David Copperfield", and received little education. He became newspaper reporter of debates in the House of Commons and contributed to other periodicals, the articles that were subsequently republished as "Sketches of Boz, Illustrative of Every-Day Life and Every-Day People" (183637). These were immediately followed by "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club", where Dickens reached the plentitude of his power and achieved success and financial ease. "David Coppetfield" appeared in monthly numbers in 184950. Later Dickens was to write of it: "Of all my books I like this the best. "

Extract from Chapter 4

Shall I ever forget those lessons! They were presided over nominally by my mother, but really by Mr. Murdstone and his sister, who were always present, and found them a favourable occasion for giving my mother lessons in that miscalled firmness, which was the bane of both our lives. I believe I was kept at home for that purpose. I had been apt enough to learn and willing enough, when my mother and I had lived alone together. I can faintly remember learning the alphabet at her knee. To this day, when I look upon the fat black letters of the primer, the puzzling novelty of their shapes, and the easy good nature of and Q and S seem to present themselves again before me as they used to do. But they recall no feeling of disgust or reluctance. On the contrary, I seem to have walked along a path of flowers as far as the crocodile-book, and to have been cheered by the gentleness of my mother's voice and manner all the way. But these solemn


lessons which succeeded those, I remember as the death-blow at my peace, and a grievous daily drudgery and misery. They were very long, very numerous, very hard perfectly unintelligible, some of them, to me and I was generally as much bewildered by them as I believe my poor mother was herself. Let me remember how it used to be, and bring one morning back again.


Seminar 22. Modern regular and irregular noun and verb forms
Topics for discussion in class
1 Origin of New English irregular noun forms. 2. Groups of modern non-standard verbs descending from Old English weak verbs. 3. Groups of modern non-standard verbs descending from Old English strong verbs.

Questions and assignments

What traces of the Old English n-stem and root-stem declensions can we find in New English plural forms of nouns? 2. Comment on the forms of nouns: foot feet; child children; deer deer; ox oxen; axis axes 3. Speak of the peculiarities of modal verbs (former preteritepresent) and the verb "to be". 4. Group all verbs in the text below into regular and irregular. Trace them back to Old English and determine whether they were weak or strong. 5. Say if the modern division of the verbs into regular and irregular corresponds to the Old English division into strong and weak, give examples from your list of verbs to confirm your answers. 6. Read and translate the text given below into Russian. Make a



complete phonetic, grammar and vocabulary analysis of the text following the models of Seminar 15 and Seminar 18. Hand in your-written work as Part 3 of your course project.

D. Chrystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, 1995

David Crystal, a former professor of linguistics at the University tf Reading, is a well-known writer, editor, lecturer and broadcaster divides Ins time between work on language and work on gener reference publishing. He has written over 40 books on languag > C xbr including "Linguistics", "Clinical Linguistics" and "The f 3^e Encyclopedia of Language". In one of his latest books, Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language ", he exPi0> , various aspects of the history, structure, variety and range of u s .Jf. English worldwide, writing about difficult concepts in a language a and accessible to all.

Many observations concerning the English language have been based on the analysis of language data samples collecte together as a corpus. Compiling a corpus is very different the traditional practices of citation-gathering or word-watching which have guided work on dictionaries since the time of v\Johnson. Corpora are large and systematic enterprises: whole texts or whole sections of text are included, such a conversations, magazine articles, brochures, newspapeis, lectures, sermons,, broadcasts and chapters of novels. Considerable thought is given to the selection of material so that, in the most general case, the corpus can stand as a reasonably representative sample of the language as a whole a general, standard corpus. A well-constructed general corpus turns out to be useful in several ways. It enables investigators to make more objective an


confident descriptions of usage that would be possible through introspection. It allows them to make statements about frequency of usage in the language as a whole, as well as comparative statements about usage in different varieties. It permits them, in principle, to arrive at a total account of the linguistic features in any of the texts contained in the corpus. And it provides them with a source of hypotheses about the way the language works. In addition, a corpus which is widely accessible enables researchers in separate locations to collaborate in the analysis of particular problems, and means that results from a range of projects are likely to be somewhat more comparable than if different corpora had been employed.

An early printing shop

Source: The New Uiihvrslty Library, 1973

Key to Seminars 3 & 6. Ohthere's account of his first voyage Key to Seminars 4,5 & 7. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Key to Seminars 9, 10 & 12. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales Key to Seminars 11 & 13. Trevisa, About thelanguages of the inhabitants Key to Seminars 15,16 & 18. Shakespeare, Hamlet Key to Seminar 20. Shakespeare, Sonnet Key to Seminar 21. Dickens, David Copperfield

283 301 316 338 359 396 405

Key to Seminars 3 & 6 Ohthere's account of his first voyage

Ohthere told his lord, King Alfred, that he lived the furthest north of all Norwegians. He said that he lived in the north of Norway on the coast of the Atlantic. He also said that the land extends very far north beyond that point, but it is all uninhabited, except for a few places here and there where the Finns have their camps, hunting in winter, and in summerfishingin the sea. He told how he once wished to find out how far the land extended due north, or whether anyone lived to the north of the unpopulated area. He went due north along the coast, keeping the uninhabited land to starboard and the open sea to port continuously for three days. He was then as far north as the whale hunters go at their furthest. He then continued due north as far as he could reach in the second three days. There the land turned due east, or the sea penetrated the land he did not know which but he knew that he waited there for a west-north-west wind, and then sailed east along the coast as far as he could sail in four days. There he had to wait for a due northern wind, because there the land turned due south, or the sea penetrated the land he did not know which. Then from there he sailed due south along the coast as far as he could sail in five days. A great river went up into the land there. They turned up into the river, not daring to sail beyond it without permission, since the land on the far side of the river was fully settled. He had not previously come across any settled district since he left his own home. The Beormas told him many stories both about their own country and about the lands which surrounded them, but he did not know how much of it was true because he had not seen it for himself. "It seemed to him that the Finnas and the Beormas spoke almost the same language. His main reason for going there, apart from exploring the


land, was for the walruses, because they have very fine ivory in their tusks they brought some of these tusks to the king and their hide.

Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text SJEde Analysis . Parallels from NE word cognate languages or I related OE words said

[s] voiceless initially; OE S&^de [ae] lengthening of [ffi] (variant form) due to loss of [g] [] palatal mutation of OHG kuning [u] caused by [i]; later [yl>[i] [ea] breaking of [] Gt alls before [l]+consonant, [ae] fromPGfa] -monn: [p]=[a] from PG[a],later[a>a>e] [a] before nasal consonants; [a] from PG[a],later[a>a>2e] [ea]fromPG[au] Gt mann(a) Gfland

ealra Nor5monna Iande

king all Norman land

beah swibe



[T] lengthening due to Gt swinbe loss of [n] before a fricative

Stycce fiscal cirre norbryhte

[y 1 palatal mutation of OHG Stukki rel. to Stock [u] caused by [i] {!] from [p]by R rel to fish Grimm's Law [i] framfie] OSkerrian (v) char monophthongisation of diphthongs in EOE -ryht:[y] from[ie]monophthpngisation of diphthongs in EOE





[] voiced intervocally, Gt hvabar M fromPG[a] palatal mutation of cp OE an [a] caused by [i] steonfio] from PG fiuj; bord: [d] hardening of [9] []from PG [a] ml. to Gt stiurjan (v) Cf. OSk OSk bak

whether any star-board


-bord tine *a3aS Wffis firrest

back three days was farther

[0Jfrom[t] by / Grimm's Law [a] is caused by a back Gt dagos vowel in the next syllable [se] fromPG[a] OHG was [i]palatal mutation of jE'OE'fierest [eo] (feor) caused by [i] (-ist)suffix of superlative degree: [eo>ie>i] [a]fromPG[o] Gtfaran(inf) ] _ (Wess) from PG [e] Gt 3et - diphthongisation after palatal ] [eal breaking of [] O F G m a h t before [h]: [a>se>ea] lengthening due to the loss of [n] before a fricative [&]fromPGfau] initially voiceless

fara|> 3iet

fai yet



[]from PG [a];

Gt atfyar


bSr east bad

Gt baug

bow there east rel. to bide

r g ] _ froinPG[a],[0] G^bar [ e a ] ~fromPG [] [a]fromPGfai]


Gfaustr Grbaid


sceolde bidan ff ] an unfribe healfe ham wsron hwait 3eseah |buhte

[eo] diphthongisation Angl scolde of [ o l after [skp] HfromPG[e+i] Gfbeidanp] [T] lengthening due to G/fimf the loss of [m] before a fricative [a;]fromPG[a] fa]fromPG[a+i] Gf lag Gt ains

should bide five rel. to lay one half own home were what saw thought

[6] in the intervocal OSkfridr position [ea] breaking of [ael OSk halfr before [1+consonant]: [>>] [a]~fromPG[a+i] [a]fromPG[a+i] G/aiginf/7) Grhaims

[r]rhotacismof[z],M cf.Gt wesum - voicing of [s] by Verner's Law [ae] fromPG[a] (Wess.)[ea] breaking of [] before [h] [o] lengthening due to the loss of [n] before a fricative [eo] from PG [iu] [ea]fromPG[au] [ea]fromPG [] [bb] West Germanic gennination (*hafjan > nabban) [6] in the intervocal position [el palatal mutation of [o] caused by [i]

O^hvat Angl saeh cf. Gt bahta (<*6a*)Xta) Gff>iuda rel. to OSk skauwon (v) OSfchafa

3e-eode to- sceawun3e habba5 tobum te6

rel. to show have tooth teeth

rel. to Gt aukan e k e


brohton hyd

[6]fromPG [a]

Gi brahta

brought hide

y] palatal mutation of OHG hut ] caused by [i]

Grammar analysis
Words as used in the text Ohthere siSde Analysis notes noun proper, nominative singular verb, 3 rd person singular, past tense, indicative mood of sec5an, weak verb, class III pronoun personal, 3lxl person singular, masculine, genitive noun, dative singular of hlaford, masculine, a-stem Corresponding New English word Translation


Ohthere (name) said

his hlaforde ^Elfirede cynirnje P t he

e a ffi

his lord

(to) his lord Alfred the King that he of all Northmen (Scandinavians)

noun proper, dative Alfred singular noun, dative singular of king cynin3. masculine, a-stem conjunction pronoun personal, rd 3 person singular, masculine, nominative pronoun indefinite, plural, genitive of gal noun, genitive plural of , masculine, root-stem

that he all northmen





adverb verb, 3^ person singular, past tense, indicative or subjunctive mood of buan. anomalous verb verb, 3"1 person singular, past tense, indicative mood of cwa5an, strong verb, class V conjunction preposition


to the north lived (or had lived)



obs. quoth






on the
land to the North

pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, masculine of se, seo. past noun, dative singular of land, neuter, a-stem adjective, dative singular, neuter of noroward, used adverbially preposition land northward





that (the)


pronoun demonstrative, that accusative singular, feminine of se, seo. pset noun proper, accusative west sea singular of Westssg. feminine, i-stem conjunction conjunction though that

Atlantic Ocean also that that

t>eah fccBt t>aet


pronoun demonstrative, that nominative singular, neuter of se, seo. paet noun, nominative singular, neuter, a-stem





verb, 3 person singular, present tense, subjunctive mood of beon. supplelive verb adverb adjective, nominative singular, neuter, strong declension adverb adverb conjunction pronoun personal, 3rd person singular, neuter, nominative




swibe '^


very long

| 1 0

north thence it

north from there but it

jbonan ac hit



verb, 3"1 person singular, is present tense, indicative mood of beon, irregular verb pronoun/adverb all adjective, nominative singular, neuter, strong declension conjunction


all uninhabited (waste) but few places


buton feawum Stowum


adjective, dative plural of few feaw. strong declension noun, dative plural of stow, feminine, wo-stem stOW

styecemaslum Wicia5



present tense, indicative mood ofwician.weak verb, class II

verb, 3"1 person plural,

here and there live


noun proper, nominative Finn plural ofFinn, masculine, a-stem preposition 289 on

(the) Finns

o n




noun, dative singular of hunto6, masculine, a-stem



wintra and sumera

noun, dative singular of winter winter, masculine, u-stem conjunction noun, dative singular of sumor/er, masculine, u-stem noun, dative singular of fiscooVad. masculine, a-slem preposition by pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, feminine of se. seo. ftaet noun, dative singular of s e a sje, feminine, i-stem preposition at pronoun/adjective, some indefinite, dative singular of sum, strong declension noun, dative singular of char cyr/cir. masculine, i-stem verb, 3 person singular, would past tense, indicative moodofwillan, anomalous verb verb, infinitive of fandian, weak verb, class II adverb adverb noun, nominative singular of land, neuter, a-stem how long land

winter and summer

and summer

fisca|)e be pxre


fishing by/from that

SEE ast sumum cirre wolde

sea at/for some time



fandian to 1 land

to explore how long land



norbryhte 1


north right

right (straight) to the north lay

verb, 3'J person singular, lie past tense, subjunctive mood of , strong verb, class V conjunction conjunction pronoun indefinite [cf.an) noun, nominative singular of man, masculine, root-stem preposition whether any

| hwae5er 13 mon

whether any



benordan ba?m westenne ba for


to the north (of) that uninhabited land then went/sailed

pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular of JMgt, neuter noun, dative singular of westen. neuter, ja-stem adverb verb, 3rd person singular, fare past tense, indicative mood of faran, strong verb, class VI preposition

be let


along let

verb, 3 person singular, let past tense, indicative mood of laetan, strong verb, class VII pronoun personal, 3rd person singular, masculine, nominative adverb him always

him ealnewe3 weste

him always uninhabited (waste)

adjective, accusative singular of weste, neuter, strong declension



land steor-bord

noun, accusative singular land of land, neuter, a-stem noun, accusative singular star-board of steor-bord. neuter, a-stem pronoun demonstrative, that accusative singular of seo. feminine noun, accusative singular wide sea ofwid-sae, feminine, i-stem noun, accusative singular back board of bacc-bord. neuter, a-stem numeral, nominative three /accusative of prie noun, nominative day /accusative plural of das3.. masculine, a-stem adverb

land star-board


that (the)

w!d-sa3 baec-bord

wide sea backboard (port Side) three days then was

brie da3as ba W32S

verb, 3 person singular, was past tense, indicative mood of wesan. strong verb, class V conjunction adverb adverb so far north

swa... s w a feor norb ba hwselhuntan firrest farab

(so) as ... as far (to the) north those whalemen farthest go/sail

pronoun demonstrative, those nominative plural of |>a noun, nominative plural whale hunt of hwaelhunta. masculine; n-stem adverb, superlative farthest degree of feor/fyr verb, plural, present fare tense, indicative mood of faran, strong verb, class VI


ballet meahte



yet could

verb, 3 person singular, might past tense, indicative mood ofma?an. preterite-present verb pronoun demonstrative, those dative plural of past pronoun indefinite, dative other plural of numeral, dative of three

bsem obrum frrlrn da3um 3esi3lan ba

those other three days (to) sail then curved (bowed) there right to the east that (the)

noun, dative plural of days da?3, masculine, a-stem verb, indefinite of siglan, sail weak verb, class I (3eprefix) adverb verb, 3"* person singular, bow past tense, indicative mood of biigan. strong verb, class adverb adverb there east

bisr eastryhte seo


pronoun demonstrative, that (the) nominative singular of sgo, feminine preposition



in did not know


= ne wisse: verb, 3" wit person singular, past tense, indicative mood of witan. preterite-present verb conjunction

buton Wisse


but knew

verb, 3 person singular, wit past tense, indicative mood of witan. preterite present verb





there waited (for)

verb, 3rf person singular, bide past tense, indicative mood of bidan, strong verb, class I noun, genetive singular of wcstan-wind, masculine, a-stem adverb/adjective adverb west wind


wind from the west a little from the north

hwon norban


east be swa-swa feower da3um SCeolde for-daem beet bair subryhte *J seo bonan fif ba

adverb =bi: adverb/preposition conjunction numeral

east by so four

to the east by/along so...as four days should (had to) as that there right

noun, dative plural of day ds3, masculine, a-stem verb, singular, past tense, should of sculan. preterite present verb conjunction pronoun demonstrative, that nominative singular of past, neuter adverb adverb there south

pronoun demonstrative, that nominative singular, feminine adverb numeral adverb


right. (straight) to the south that from there fi


thence five




verb, 3 rt person singular, lay past tense, indicative mood of licgan, strong verb, class V numeral adjective one much

lay (was)

e a

one big river u p in turned they that river not dared

noun, nominative ' singular of ga, feminine, root-stem (anom.) adverb u p in

up-in cirdon 3 oa 6& ne dorston

verb, plural, past tense, char indicative mood of cyrran, weak verb, class I pronoun personal, 3"1 person nominative plural pronoun demonstrative, that accusative singular of sgo, feminine noun, accusative singular of ga, feminine, root stem (anom.) particle verb, plural, past tense, dare indicative mood of durran. preterite-present verb adverb forth

forp pSre ea f r unfripe;

pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular of sgo, feminine noun, dative singular of ga, feminine, root-stem (anom.) conjunction for noun, dative singular of on-frifl. masculine, a-stem

forth (forward) that river for (out of) hostility



verb, person singular, was past tense, indicative mood of wesan. strong verb, class V pronoun indefinite, singular, nominative of eal verb, participle II of buan. anomalous verb pronoun indefinite, singular, accusative of oper all other


eall ofcre healfe fcalre Sas neraette

all uninhabited other half (of) that river did not m e e t (had not met) till then (llOt one) since from his own home many

noun, accusative singular half of heal f. feminine, o-stem pronoun demonstrative, that genitive singular of seo, feminine noun, genitive singular o f ga, feminine, root-stem (anom.) verb, 3 r d person singular, meet past tense, indicative mood of metan, weak verb, class I adverb = ne+an: see above an pronoun conjunction/adverb adverb/preposition pronoun personal, person singular, masculine, genitive of he adjective, dative singular of noun, dative singular of ham, masculine, a-slem adjective/adverb

asr nan si|5f>an from his ham fela

ere (none) since from his own home


spella . him SiEdon

noun, genitive plural of spell, neuter, a-stem pronoun personal, 3rd person singular, masculine, dative of he verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of sec3an. weak verb, class III nominative plural

spell him say

stories him said

ba Beormas of hiera atrium lande landum be ymb hie titan wEEron

pronoun demonstrative, those noun proper plural preposition pronoun personal, 3rd person plural genitive adjective, dative singular of noun, dative singular of land, neuter, a-stem pronoun demonstrative, dative plural noun, dative plural of land, neuter, a-stem conjunction prcposiiion/adverb Permians either of own land land

those Permians either ...or of/about their own land those lands that about/around them on (from) the outside were

a^fcer ... conjunction/pronoun

pronoun personal, plural, accusative adverb out verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of wesan. strong verb, class V conjunction







= ne wiste: verb, 3"1 wit person singular, past tense, indicative mood of witan, preterite-present verb pronoun interrogative/ indefinite what

did not know

hwast f)aes

what that

pronoun demonstrative, genitive singular of baet. neuter noun, genitive singular of sooth sob, neuter, a-stcm verb, 31 person singular, was past tense, indicative mood of wesan, strong verb, class V see above pronoun personal singular, neuter, accusative pronoun

sdpes waes

truth was

fbr- hit self 3eseah

aS it self it himself did (not) see

verb, 3 person singular, see past tense, indicative mood of seon. strong verb, class V pronoun demonstrative, those nominative plural verb, plural, past tense, speak indicative mood of sprecan, strong verb, class V adverb numeral/adjective near one

pa spraecon

those speak

neah an 3epeode SWIDOSt

nearly one language mostly

noun, accusative singular of -'beode. neuter, ja-stem adverb, superlative degree



dider to- pses Iandes sceawur^e 'or hors-hwaslum hie habbad

adverb adverb/preposition


pronoun demonstrative, genitive singular of fojgt, neuter noun, genitive singular of land land, neuter, a-stem noun, genitive singular of showing sceawun.3. feminine, o-stcm conjunction for pronoun demonstrative, dative plural noun, dative plural of hors-hw-cl, masculine, a-stem whale

there (to thai place) in addition (to) that land's survey/ exploration because of those walruses they have

pronoun personal, 3rd person plural, nominative verb, plural, present have tense, indicative mood of habhan. weak verb, class III adverb adjective

swipe aepele ban hiora tobum P^ tso

very excellent bone their teeth those teeth

noun, accusative singular bone of ban, neuter, a-stem pronoun personal, plural, dative noun, dative plural of teeth iojj, masculine, root-stem pronoun demonstrative, those accusative plural noun, accusative plural of teeth lofe, masculine, root-stem



verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of . strong-weak verb pronoun/adjective accusative of sum



sume balm


some (to) that

pronoun demonstrative, dative singular of sj, masculine noun, dative singular of king cynin3. masculine, a-stem noun, accusative plural hide ofhyd, feminine, l-stem


king hide (skins)

Key to Seminars 4, 5 & 7

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A. D. 1013

The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the king appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And in the same year, before the month August, came King Sweyne with his fleet to Sandwich; and very soon went about East-Anglia into the Humbermouth, and so upward along the Trent, until he came to Gainsborough. Then soon submitted to him Earl Utred, and all the Northumbrians, and all the people of Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and soon after all the army to the north of Watling-street; and hostages were given him from each shire. When he understood that all the people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army should have provision and horses; and he then went southward with his main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son Knute. And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the greatest mischief that any army could do. Then he went to Oxford; and the population soon submitted, and gave hostages; thence to Winchester, where they did the same. Thence went they eastward to London; and many of the party sunk in the Thames, because they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city, the population would not submit; but held their ground in full fight against him, because therein was King Ethelred, and Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne thence to Wallingford; and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode with his army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western thanes with him, and all submitted to Sweyne, and gave hostages. When he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and all the population fully received him, and considered him full king. The population of London also after this submitted to him, and gave hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them. Then King


Ethelred abode some while with the fleet that lay in the Thames; and the lady went aftei"vvards over sea to her brother Richard. Then went the king from the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight; and there abode for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard, with whom he abode till the time when Sweyne died.

Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text Analysis NE word Parallels from cognate languages or related OE words

sefteran year wses (Cantware) (dative case) swlde East(englum) up-weard andlang

lac]from PGlal

rel. to Gt aftaro

after OHG fix

[] diphthoneisation of [ after U ] [a]fromPG [a] Gt was

was king . borough month EastAnglia mouth

[] palatal mutation of OHG kuning [uj caused by [i]; later ly>[i] [y] palatal mutation of OE buvh [u] caused by [i] (. case) [] from PG [a] OHG manod

[I] lengthening due lo Gt swings loss of In] before a fricative [ea] from PG [au] rel. to Gt austr [] lengthening due to Gt munf)s loss of [n] before a fricative breaking of [aj before [r+consonant] [a] from PG [a] before a nasal consonant

rel. in Gt wards upward(s) OsklungY along


sona bean eorl ealle FTf(bui3um)

[ojfromPGla] |] from PG[au]

OHGsan Gt baug

soon bow earl all five

[eo] breaking of [e] OSaxerl before [r+consonant] [ea] breaking of [a] Grails before [11] [I] lengthening due to Gffimf loss of [m] before a fricative [S]fromLat[a] [S] from PG [a] before a nasal consonant; later [a]>[a]>[ae]. Lat strata Gt mann(a)

straete man

street man sold sell

sealde (Wess) [ea] breaking of fa] cf. Angl salde (past bid. of before [1+consonant] Gt say an Sellan) ' [e] palatal mutation of [a] caused by ] 1 doubling due to loss 1 of[j] 3ebogen bead sceolde [o] LPG mutation of vowels [eaJfromPG[au] Gt bugans Gt baud

bow should rel. to teach over evil any rel. to drink

[eo] diphthongisation AnWscolde of [o] after [sk'3 ; betffihte (past [ palatal mutation of cf. OE tacen ii]d.ofh&z [a] caused by [j] (Mi? token) tsecan) ofer yfel 32 adran3 [v] voicing in the intervocal position [v] voicing in the intervocal position ] palatal mutation of cf. OE an [a] caused by [j] [a] before nasal consonants


f>sr ealdor(man) 3efaren

[ea] ~ diphthongisation OHG of [x] after [j] ingangene [6] voicing in the intervocal position [ie]fromPG[a] [8] voiceless initially [eaj breaking of [a] before [1+consonant] [a] from PG [o] Gt f>ar OHGbk Gt farans G/habaida


there old rel. to fare had

h&fde (past [v] voicing in the uul. o/naboani intervocal position [ae] from PG [a] |)eodscipe ondrsedon dead wear6 [eo] from PG [iu] [a;]fromPG [a] [ea]fromPG [au] [ea] breaking of [a] before [r+consonant]



dread dead

OHGintratan Gt daufcs Gt warfc

Grammar analysis
Words as used Analysis in the text notes On preposition Corresponding New English word Oil Translation

( ) (that) the


pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, neuter offset preposition after noun, dative singular of year 3ar, neuter, a-stem relative particle/ conjunction

asfteran f>e

after when



pronoun demonstrative, that (the) masculine of se nominative singular noun, nominative singular of arcebiscop. masculine, a-stem archbishop

that (the) archbishop

w a e s

verb, 3rd person singular, was past tense, indicative mood of wesan. anomalous verb verb, participle II of 3emartvrian, weak verb, class If martyr


3emartyrod 3esette

martyred king set (placed)

noun, nominative king singular of cynin3, , masculine, a-stem verb, 3* person singular, set past tense, indicative mood of -settan. weak verb, class I

Lyfinc biscop t barn arcestole bissum ylcan


Lifing bishop to Canterbury that archiepiscopal seat this same

noun, accusative singular bishop of biscop, masculine, a-stem preposition to Canterbury

Cantwarebyrij noun proper

pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, masculine of se noun, dative singular of re), to archarcestol. mascuhne, bishop a-stem pronoun demonstrative, this dative singular, masculine of fees filca, pronoun indefinite, ilk (in: of that dative singular, weak ilk, archaic) declension


toforan monSe Augustus com


before month August came

noun, dative singular of month . masculine, t-stem noun proper



verb, 3" person singular, come past tense, indicative mood of cuman. strong verb, class IV noun proper


Sweyne (the king of Denmark) with his

mid his


pronoun personal, his 3 rd person singular, masculine, genitive of he > possessive pronoun noun, dative singular of flota. masculine, n-stem noun proper float Sandwich

flotan SandwTc

fleet Sandwich (a town in Kent) went


verb, 3 rd person singular, wend past tense, indicative mood of wendan. weak verb, class I adverb adverb adverb / preposition noun proper, dative preposition noun proper, genitive rather about .East Anglia into Humber

SWl6e rade abutan Eastenglum into Humbra SW

^!]', exceedingly quickly, soon about East Anglia into Humber

noun, dative singular of mouth . masculine, n-stem adverb / preposition / conjunction


?^ I (of the rivet)




upweard andlang Trenton o "e 3enesburuh sona beah

adverb preposition noun proper

upward along Trent

upwards along Trent until he Gainsborough (a town on the Trent) soon bowed (surrendered) Utred chief (earl) all Northumbnans him all that folk (people) Lindsey (in

preposition / conjunction pronoun personal, 3M person singular, masculine, nominative noun proper adverb he Gainsborough soon

verb, 3rd person singular, bow past tense, indicative mood of bG^an. strong verb, classTl noun proper noun, nominative singular ofeorl. masculine, a-stem earl

Uhtred ^


pronoun indefinite, plural all noun nominative plural ofNor6-hvmbre. masculine, i-slem pronoun personal, 3 rd person singular, masculine, dative of he Northumbria him

Nor5hymbre T1 ^4 P^l

pronoun indefinite, all singular pronoun demonstrative, that nominative singular, neuter of bjet noun, nominative singular of fojc, neuter, a-stem noun proper

folk Lindsey




adverb noun proper, dative plural of Fifburhinxas

since rel. to Five Boroughs

afterwards the five shires or this (the enemy's/ Danish) army to the north Watling street (the road built <n the Romans) (man) one gave

FFfbunum baes here -nordan Wa&tlin3an strSte man sealde

pronoun demonstrative, this nominative singular, masculine of bes noun, nominative singular of here, masculine,ja-stem adverb noun proper noun, dative singular of street, feminine, o-stem pronoun indefinite north Watling street man

verb, 3rd person singular, sell past tense, indicative mood of sellan. weak verb, class I, irregular noun, nominative / accusative plural of 1, masculine, a-stem preposition of

3islas of ailcere sclre under3eat

hostages of (from)

e a c n pronoun indefinite, each singular, dative of l i e noun, dative singular of shire province sclr.feminine,o-stem verb, 3 d person singular, rel. to under, get understood past tense, indicative mood of UQdeisietajL, weak verb, class III

3ebogen bead

verb, past participle of . strong verb, class II



subjugate ordered

verb, 3 person singular, past tense, indicative mood of be-beodan, strong verb, class II


iM sceolde



that should

verb, singular, past tense, should subjunctive mood of sculan. preterite-present verb noun, accusative singular of here, masculine, ja-stem verb, infinitive of mettian. weak verb, class II verb, infinitive of horsian. weak verb, class II adverb preposition rel. to meat




(to) supply With food (to) supply V^Vh horses southwards with

horsian sudweard * "M fyrde betashte

rel. to horse southwards filll

adjective, dative singular of ful, strong declension noun, dative singular of fyrd_, feminine, i-stem

full army (military expedition) put in trust

verb, 3* person singular, rel. to teach past tense, indicative mood of betaecan. weak verb, class I, irregular pronoun demonstrative, those accusative plural of ] noun, accusative plural ship of scip. neuter, a-stem noun, accusative plural of?isel. masculine, a-stem noun proper, dative pronoun possessive, rd 3 person singular, masculine noun, dative singular of sunu, masculine, u-stem

i?3 SCipu 3islas Cnute


those ships hostages Knute


his son

s u n a




ofer worhton

preposition verb, plural, pasl lense, indicative mood of wircan. weak verb, class I, irregular conjunction adjective, accusative singular, superlative degree qCmyccl. weak declension of yfeb neuter, i-siem

over work

over (they) , performed (.did) that... that most

fret... mzESte


that most

yfel don mihte

noun, accusative singular evil pronoun indefinite any

evil any (to) do might

verb, infinitive of don, do anomalous verb verb, singular, past tense, might indicative mood of ma^an, preterite-present verb noun proper, dative pronoun demonstrative, nominative singular, feminine of sgo noun (collective), nominative singular of buruhwaru. feminine, o-slem Oxford rel. to t h e rel. to b o r o u g h

Oxenaforde SCO buruhwaru

Oxford the citizens ("J " town) gave Hostages thence (from there) Winchester they



verb, 3rd person singular, past tense, indicative mood of3islian. weak verb, class II adverb thence noun proper pronoun personal, 3"1 person plural, nominative of 111

Winceastre Hf




verb, past tense, plural, indicative mood of don. anomalous verb adverb noun proper adverb noun, genitive singular of folc, neuter, a-stem

that ilk

(just) the same


eastwerd Lundene

eastwards London much folk

eastwards London much (many folk drowned


folces adi-

verb, 3ixi person singular, rel. to drink, past tense, indicative drench mood of adrincan. strong verb, class III noun proper conjunction; 6am dative of bjst negative, genitive/dative singular, strong declension noun, genitive/dative singular of hiyS3. feminine, o-stem Thames rel. to that

Temese for 6 a m p e

Thames as


=ne+anre, pronoun

not one

(not a single)

no one




negative particle not verb, plural, past tense, k e e p indicative mood of S&pjn^weak verb, class I conjunction/adverb

(did not) keep (guarded) w h e n . . . then that town (castle) did not want (wish)

pa . . . p a u nolde

pronoun demonstrative, that dative singular, feminine of seo noun, dative singular of borough hurh, feminine, root-stem =ne+wolde, verb, singular, past tense, singular, indicative mood of-Willan, anomalous verb 311


ac heoldan

verb, infinitive of , t>OW strong verb, class II conjunction

to surrender but held

=heoldon, verb, plural, hold past tense, indicative mood of healdan, strong verb, class VII preposition (+ dative of the noun)

mid fullan \vI3e forjjan inne >urcyl

(with) filfl battle against because there in Ethelred Thurkill (a Danish freebooter allied with Sweyne) Wallingford SO over westwards Bath (a town) sat

adjective, dative singular iull of M i weak declension noun, dative singular of WT3. neuter, a-stem adverb =fcan,conjunction adverb adverb noun proper noun proper against rel. to that there in

Weallingaforda noun proper, dative swa ofer westweard Bajpan saet adverb adverb/preposition adverb noun proper, dative

Wallingford SO over westwards Bath

verb, 3 ri person singulai-, sit past tense, indicative mood of sittan. strong verb, class V noun proper






un, nominative singular of ealdorman. masculine, root-stem


chief (alderdman) there (to that place) western

Mer waesternan P e 3enas


adverb adjective, nominative plural of western, weak declension noun, nominative plural ofpegen. masculine, a-stem verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of . strong verb, class II yerb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of ^islan. weak verb, class II conjunction adverb

thither western


rnen . (warriors) surrendered



gave hostages



when thus had gone

3efaren hasfde / -verb, participle II fare of faraiL-Strong verb, class VI; lU hffifde verb, 3 person had singular, past tense, indicative mood of habban. wpak verb, class III scipum noun, dative plural of scip, neuter, a-stem ship


m e

noun, nominative
singular of peod-scype pronoun personal, 3 rd person singular, masculine, accusative adjective, accusative singular of M , strong declension preposition

full after


people (tribe)
him fuH after

suffix rel. to -ship

fi 1



6am ondrsedon

pronoun demonstrative, those dative plural of jba preposition verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of oib drasdan, strong verb, class VII conjunction pronoun personal, 3rd person plural, accusative of hie . dread

those tt ) ^ (dreaaea; that them (to) destroy would (Wisnecy some while that (the) which (that) lay

fraet hi fordon wolde sume hwfle f)am be laeg


verb, infinitive offordon rel. to do verb, past tense, singular would of willan. anomalous verb pronoun indefinite, some accusative singular noun, accusative singular while ofhwil, feminine, i-stem pronoun demonstrative, that (the) dative singular, masculine of sg conjunction

verb, 3" person singular, lie past tense, indicative mood of liejajL.strong verb, class V noun, nominative singular of hlafdlge. feminine, n-stem lady

hlaefdi3e Sffi hire

lady sea her brother

noun, accusative singular sea of jg, feminine, i-stem pronoun personal, her ^""person singular, feminine, dative of hgo noun, dative singular of brother brajbor, masculine, r-stem



Ricarde fraw middanwintre

noun proper preposition

Richard from

Richard from midwinter

noun, dative singular of - midwinter -winter, masculine, u-stem noun proper, dative pronoun demonstrative Whitland that

Wihtlande "

Whitland that period (of time) that period (of time) till (until) the time (period)

P I e ^
0 9

noun, nominative tide singular of ud, feminine, o-stem pronoun demonstrative, that dative/genitive singular, feminine of sgo noun, dative/genitive tide singular offid,feminine, o-stem conjunction pronoun demonstrative, that (the) accusative singular, masculine of se noun, accusative singular, masculine of byife). i-stem or ja-stem adjective, nominative singular, strong declension

bye "eacl weat-


dead became (was)

verb, 3' person singular, - past tense, indicative mood of weordan. strong verb, class III

Key to Seminars 9, 10 & 12 From Chaucer's Prologue to "Canterbury Tales"

1 When in April the sweet showers fall Andpierce the drought of March to the root, and all The veins are bathed in liquor of such power As brings about the engendering of the flower, 5 When also Zephyrus with his sweet breath Exhales an air in every grove and heath Upon the tebder shoots, and the young sun His half-course in the sign of the Ram has run, And the small fowl are making melody 10 That sleep away the night with open eye (So nature pricks them and their heart engages) Then people long to go on pilgrimages And palmers long to seek the stranger strands Of far-off saints, hallowed in sundry lands, 15 And specially, from every shire's end Of England, down to Canterbury they wend To seek the holy blissful martyr, quick To give his help to them when they were sickIt happened in that season that one day 20 In Southwark, at The Tabard, as I lay Ready to go on pilgrimage nd start For Canterbury, most devout at heart, At night there came into that hostelry Some nine and twenty in a company 25 Of sundry folk happening then to fall In fellowship, and they were pilgrims all That towards Canterbury meant to ride. The rooms and stables of the inn were wide;





They made us easy, all was of the best. And, briefly, when the sun had gone to rest, I'd spoken to them all upon the trip And was soon one with them in fellowship, Pledged to rise early and to take the way To Canterbury, as you heard me say. But none the less, while I have time and space, Before my story takes a further pace, It seems a reasonable thing to say What their condition was, the full array Of each of them, as it appeared to me, According to profession and degree, And what apparel they were riding in; And at a Knight I therefore will begin.



, , , , , , , , , , , ; , ,







, , . "", , ; . . ; . , "" , . , . , , , , : , , ; .



Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text Changes of spelling and sounds Old English [hw] [] hw Middle English [hw] > [a]

New English




> [w] > [e] replaced by w




fae] > [9] > replaced by p replaced by

fa] [9] a th


> [as] > [6]



wib re] ,


with > [Q]


with >

replaced by


his [s]

his [s]

his > M
> . > []

>] [u:r] u replaced by ou/ow sc replaced by sh

soote droghte


> []

> [i:]



nerced fpercen) r o o j ; e bathed (bathen) v

[u:] > [u:] > u replaced by o/ou 3 replaced by gh percen [e:]+vocalized [r]> rote/roote [o:] > [u:] > ba6ode bathed [a] (open syl.) > [a:] [ode] > [ede] d replaced by th

pierce [19] root [u] before a dental cons.

bathed > [ei] > [d]



swilc PC]
replaced by

swich/s(w)uch such > [ >

[] ch > []


hwilc Ik']

[hw] hw replaced by replaced by

which > Ml
[hw] wh ch


which > Ufl


vertu flour eek breeth


[i] + vocalized [r>


flour eek

> []

[u:] + vocalized [r]> [] [ea:] > [] replaced by k


[x:] replaced by replaced by >

[e:] ee/ea th

> [e] before a dental cons,



[i:] + vocalized [r]>

[aia] > [i:]


[:] > [e:] as replaced by ee/ea replaced by th [u:] > fu] 3 replaced by replaced by o/ou







sonne halfe cours

sunne healf

sunne/sonne half cours

sun half

[:] > [] > [] replaced by before n or retained > [a] > [a:] [1] lost in NE


[u:l + vocalized [r]> [o:]





()- [u] > u replaced by smael [] > replaced by

(y)-ronne [u] before n smal [a] before U a

run > [] small1 > [o:] fowl > [] make > [ei] sleep

foweles (fowel) maken slepen

firsjol fowel/foul [uy] > [u:] replaced by ow macia6 [a] slaipa6 x replaced by maken slepen e al(le) > [aj before H. nyght/night open syll. > [a:]


eal [ea]

all > [o:] night open > [ou] eye > [ai] nature > [ei] > [tja] courage > [] then > [e]

nyght open ye nature corages


neaht/niht h replaced by open fo] open syll. > [eaTj > 3 replaced by


gh open [o:] // [e:] [i:] nature [a:] [tjur] corage Iu] 6 banne/bsenne thanne a]/[e] > [a]


replaced by

> []

> [6]

folk palmeres

folc [o] palm [a]

folk folk > [o] before Ik > [o:] > [ou] palmere > [a:] before I palmer > [a:] [1J lost in NE




secan [e:] > replaced by e replaced by syndri3 [y] 3

seken/seeken [e:] straunge [] >[:]

seek > [i:] strange > [ei] sundry []

straunge sondry

sondry > [u] South West Midland dial.

replaced by replaced by



land > [] especially >

londes specially shires (shire)

land [a]

lond/land > [a] specially [sj]

scTr [ski > [i:] > sc replaced by hali3 [a:] . > fo] > a replaced by 3 replaced by martyr [a] [tir]

shire shire [ > [fl [.] [ai] + vocalized M> [aia] sh hooly [o:] ' holy > [ouj > [I]




martir/martyr martyr > [a] + vocalized [r]> [a:] > [tir] > [19] final r vocalized in NE

were seeke bifil (bifallen)

wa?ron were(n) were [a;:] > [e:] + vocalized [r]> [:] se replaced by e seoc seek/sek/sik [eo:] > [e:] . replaced by be-feallan bifallen [ea] > [a] before ea replaced by a sick > [i:] befall > [o:]


e 322 replaced by



day I lay devout come nyne compaignye wolde


[ay] > [ai] 3 replaced by ay

day I

> [ei]


> [ai]



[ay] > [ai] replaced by ay


> [ei]


cumen ni3on
[i] open syl.

[u] > [u] u replaced by before m

come nyne



> [] > []


come nine

> [i:]

> [ai]


compaignye/ companye

> []


[o] before Jd > [o:]


> [u:] > [u] before a dental cons. [1] losl in NE


ryde chaumbre(s) stable(s) wyde we esed (esen) shortly

[i:] >

[1:] >


[i:] >

chaumbre /chambre
[au:] [a:]

> [ci]

> [a:]

stable wyd(e)
[i:J >

> [ei]



> te:]

we ease

> [i:]>[i-l
> [i:]

scort-llce [sk1]


shortly >

replaced by

lo] + vocalized (i']> sh

shortly >



wffis ] > [s] > x replaced by

was ] [s] a

was after [w] > > [z]



[a] > [a] [f] losl in ME replaced by a


> []


spoken made forward erly for ryse(n) take(n) oure wey ther


spoken |o:J
> [a:] > [den]

spoken > [oul

> [ei] > [d]


replaced by

[a] open syl. [codon]

mad(en) forward

made forward

[o] [ea]

> [o] + vocalized [r]> [o:] > [a] + vocalized [r]> []

[:] > [e:] + vocalized [r]> [:] ae replaced by a

-lTce for


early for rise take

for risen taken

> [o] + vocalized [r]> [oO > [i:] > [ai] [] unstressed lost in NE > [ei]


tacan ure we3 baer se:] ;e]

[a] open syl. > [a:] replaced by

our(e) wey/way

our way

[u:] > [u:] + vocalized [r]> [] u replaced by ou [e+jT > [ei] 3 replaced by ' ) replaced by as replaced by th e

> [e:] + vocalized [r]> [] J

ther/there >

there > [9]



devyse but whil

butan [u:]



replaced by 1 but but > [u:] > [u] before > [] a dental cons. whil/while M [hw] wh have [a] [v] tyme

> N

have tyme

hvwl m > [hw] > hw replaced by habbe [a] > [bb] > fima [i:] >

while > [ai] > [w] have > [as] > [v]

time fa > [ai] replaced by i

er ferther this tale pace thynketh


[ei] ere [] further [a:] [6]

m > ser er(e) [a?:] > [e:] + vocalized [rl> x replaced by e fyira ferther/further [y] > [el + vocalized [r]> [6] > feis this 0] > [6] p replaced by th talu ' tale [a] opensyl. > [a:] [u] unstressed > [] pace fa:]

this > [] tale > [ei] lost in NE pace > fei] thinks > [i] reason > [i:] > faj

thenketh /thynketh [e] > p, replaced by tn resoun e:] fu] unstressed 325



_ _ _ _ _


_ aslc > [a::l > [1] BE replaced by semede [e:l > [e] >


condition tion each [tj] [i:] seemed [i:] loslinNE they PI what [o] [w]


, > P

semed they what

cioun replaced by ech/eech [tjl > [e:] > lost in M E ee/ea semed [e:] > [] they [9] > hwffit what [x] > [a] after [w]> [hw] > [hw] > hw replaced by wh cniht [i] degree [e:f airay [ai]

degree an-ay khyght

degree > array > [ei] knight > [ai] > [n] will > [i]

knyght > [i:J due to loss of[h'] [kn] > [kn] replaced by h replaced by gh wille [i] will(e)/wull(e) > [i] Lo]




fyrst fy]

first first > [i] (East Midland dial.) + vocalized [r]> [:] replaced by i fel begin . k_ lost in Nfa


be-3inne bigynne 01 > Igl [e] unstressed > []



Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words as used in the text whan that Analysis notes conjunction OE or foreign prototype OEhwaenne (adverb/pronoun) p<t {pronoun) OFayrill, L aprilis Qfiwip Corresponding NE word, translation when that (when) April with

Aprille with his

noun proper preposition pronoun possessive, masculine, 3"1 person singular noun, common case, plural

OE his (pronoun his personal) OE scur shower


soote the droghte

adjective, plural definite article noun, common case, singular

OE swote/swete OE se, seo, pset OE dni^od

sweet the drought

of March hath perced

preposition noun proper verb, present perfect, 3"1 person, singular of percen. weak verb, class 2 preposition noun, common case, singular

OE of


OF mars, march March (dial.), L martius OE habban pierce (has OF percier pierced) OE to OSk rot to root

to roote

and bathed


OE and

and bathe (bathed)

verb, present perfect OE badian (hath bathed), person, singular of bathen. weak verb, class 2



every veyne h swich licour

pronoun indefinite noun, common case, singular preposition pronoun indefinite noun, common case, singular

OE sefre OE veine 0in OEswilc

every vein in such

OF licur, L liquor liquor (moisture) OE of OE hwilc OF vertu OF engendrer, L ingenerane OF four L zephyrus OEEac
see above SOOte

of which vertu engendred is

preposition pronoun indefinite /interrogative noun, common case, singular verb, passive voice, present tense, 3"1 person singular of engendren, weak verb, class 2 noun, common case, singular noun proper adverb
see above SOOte

of which virtue (force) engender (is engendered) flower (blossoming) Zephyr eke (too)

flour Zephirus eek


breeth inspired hath

noun, common case, singular verb, present perfect, rd 3 person, singular of inspiren, weak verb, class 2 noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular adjective noun, common case, plural

OE OF inspirer L inspirare OE holt OE ha5 OF tendre OE crop

breath inspire (has inspired) holt heath tender crop

holt heeth tendre croppes


yonge sonne hath y-ronne

adjective, definite declension, singular noun, common case, singular verb, present perfect, 3rd person, singular of rynen. strong verb, class 3 noun proper

OE OE sunne

young sun (has run)

OE habban ran OE ()-


OE ram n-ansl. from Ram (in the L Aries Ram first sign of the Zodiac) GEhealf OF cours, L cursus OEsmasl OE fu3ol OE macian OF melodie L melodia OE past OE slaipen half course (half of his course small fowl (birds) make melody (phrasal unit i j

halve cours smale foweles maken melodye that slepen

i i

adjective, definite declension noun, common case, singular adjective, plural noun, common case, plural verb, present tense, plural, indicative mood of maken. weak verb,
c l a s s 2

noun, common case, singular pronoun, relative verb, present tense, plural, indicative mood of slepen. strong verb, class 7 pronoun indefinite' noun, common case, singular adjective, indefinite declension


that sleep

al nyght open

OE eal OE nihl OE west

all night open





r.uiar m o n c a s e adjective/conjunction verb, present tense, 3rd person, singular, indicative mood of priken. weak verb, class 2 pronoun personal, objective case, plural noun, common case, singular pronoun possessive, plural noun, common case, plural adverb/conjunction verb, present tense, plural, indicative mood of longen, weak verb, class 2 noun, common case verb, infinitive of goon. anomalous verb preposition noun, common case, plural

eye open-a mediaeval belief) OE swa OE prician

s 0


SO priketh


hem nature here corages thanne longen

OE hie, him OF nature, L naffira OE hira, heora, hiera, hyra OFcorage, reimbior OE panne OE Ian3ian

them nature their courage (hearts) then l n S

folk to goon pilgrimages

OE folc OE OE on OF pelegrinage . derived from ME pilgrym

t 0

o n e


for toseken

noun, common case,

p U r a

OF palmier
OE for


Palestine) f r to seek


verb, infinitive of seken. OE secan weak verb, class 1, irregular



straunge Strondes to feme halwes couthe

adjective noun, common case, plural preposition adjective noun, common case, plural verb, participle 2 of connen, preterite-present verb, or adjectivised participle adjective noun, common case, plural adverb preposition noun, genitive case, singular noun, common case, singular noun proper noun proper pronoun personal, 3 person, plural verb, present tense, plural, indicative mood of wendeju weak verb, class 1 adjective adjective noun, common case, singular

OF estrange, L extraneus OE strand OE to OE fyrn OE Ocunan, OE cu5 OE syndri3 OE land

strange (foreign) Strand to old, far-off hallow (saints) (un)couth (well-known, hallowed) sundry land

SOndry londes specially from shires ende Engelond Caunterbury they wende

'<?'. to OF especial especially (adj.), L specialis QEfram OE scir OE ende OE Engla-land OSc jbeir OE wendan from shire end England they wend (go)

0Cantwarabyri3 Canterbury

hooly blisfi.il martir

QEhali3 holy rel. to OE blis (n) blissful OE martyr, L martyr (StTJiomas a Becket of Canterbury)


hath holpen

verb, present perfect, 3td person, singular of helpen, strong verb, class 3

OE habban, help (has OE holpen (pan. 2) helped vvere sick befall (it so happened)

were(n) seeke bifil

verb, past tense, plural, OE wSron indicative mood of been. suppletive verb adjective verb, past tense, indicative mood of bifallen. strong verb, class 7 noun, common case, singular preposition article, indefinite noun, common case, singular noun proper preposition noun proper OE seoc OE be-feallan

seson = sesoun a day Southwerk at Tabard

OF seson, L satio season (time, season) OEon OJSan OE dx3 a day (one day) Southward (outskirts oj London) at Tabard (here: the name of a London inn; tabard a sort of cloak) as I lay (stayed) ready my

OE set OF tabard

as I

adjective/conjunction pronoun personal, lsl person singular, nominative case

0eal-swa OE ic

lay redy my

verb, past tense, singular, OE indicative mood of lyen, strong verb, class 5 adjective pronoun possessive, 1sl person, singular

O^raede QEmTn


fill devout corage were come into that hostelrye wel nyne twenty compaignye by aventure y-falle

adjective/adverb adjective . noun, common case, singular verb, past perfect of comen. strong verb, class 4 preposition

OEM OF devot see above OE wesan OE cuman, cumen (pan. 2) OE in-to

full (most, very) devout courage (heart) were come (there came) into that hostelry well (almost) nine twenty (nine and twenty = twenty-nine) company by adventure (happening) fall fellowship pilgrims were all

pronoun demonstrative, OE se, seo, bast singular noun, common case, OF hostellerie singular adverb Cwel numeral, cardinal numeral, cardinal noun, common case, singular preposition/adverb noun, common case, singular verb, infinitive of failefn). strong verb, class 7 noun, common case, singular OE ni3on OE twen-ti3 OF companie OF aventure, L adventfira Ofeallan OSc felagi

felaweshipe pilgrimes were alle=al

noun, common case, OF pelegrin, plural t peregnnus verb, past tense, plural, OE wieron indicative mood of been, suppletive verb pronoun indefinite

OE eal


toward wolde(n) ryde chaumbres Stables

pronoun relative



verb, past tense, plural of OE willan, would willen. anomalous verb wolden {past plural) verb, infinitive of riden, strong verb, class 1 noun, common case, plural noun, common case, plural OEfidan OF chambre L camera OF cstable L stabulum OEvnd OE wcl wide well we ease ride chamber stable

wyde wel we esed

adjective adverb

pronoun personal, OEwe 1sl person plural verb, passive voice, past OF eser tense of esen, weak verb, class 2 see above adjective, superlative degree of good see above OE god; belsl (super!, degree) OE scort-lTce OE reslan

atte=at the beste

at the best

shortly to reste


shortly to rest

verb, infinitive of resten. weak verb, class 1 hadde spoken verb, past perfect of spcken, strong verb, class 4 everichon

OE habban; had spoken liaefde (past tense) OE sprccan; sprecen (part. 2) OE Sfre aelc
OE t>32t

pronoun indefinite

every (all)

anon made(n)

adverb verb, past tense, plural, indicative mood of maken, weak verb, class 2 noun, common case, singular

OE on an OE macian; macodon (past plural) OE forc-weard

anon (at once) made


forward (made an agreement)


erly fbrtoryse to take oure wey

adverb verb, infinitive of risen, strong verb, class 1 verb, infinitive of taken. strong verb, class 6 pronoun possessive, 1sl person, plural noun, common case, singular

OE xr-llce OEtlsan OE tacan OE Ore OE we3

early to rise to take our way

ther yow devyse


there you devise (say, describe) but nevertheless while have

pronoun personal, plural, OE eow objective case verb, present tense, OF deviser singular of devvsen, weak verb, class 2 conjunction adverb conjunction/adverb verb, present tense, l s l person, singular of haven, weak verb, class 3 noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular OE butan OE na-|)y-laes OEhwil OE habban

but natheless whil have

tyrne Space

OE tlma OF espace, L spatium OEisr OE feor; fyrra (comp, degree) OE bis

time Space

er ferther ibis tale Pac6

adverb/conjunction adjective

ere (before) JSltfter, . this tale pace

pronoun demonstrative, singular noun, common case, OE talu singular

verb, present tense, OF passer singular of paccn/passen. weak verb, class 2 335


. _


impersonal construction OE me, of the verb thenken. OE bencan weak verb, class 1; rd 3 person, singular, present tense pronoun personal, objective case, singular, neuter adjective preposition noun, common case, singular verb, infinitive of tellen. weak verb, class 1, irregular noun, common case, singular pronoun indefinite OE hit

think (/ think)



acordaunt to resoun totelle

OF accordant OE to OF raison L ratio OEtellan

accordant (according) to reason to tell

condicioun ech Semed

OF condicion

condition each seem

verb, past tense, singular OE seman of semen, weak verb, class 2 pronoun indefinite /interrogative pronoun indefinite /interrogative noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular OE hwilc


which (what kind of people) what degree array

what degree array

OE hwael OF degnSt L de+gradus OF arrai

inne khyght than

adverb noun, common case, singular adverb/conjunction

OE in OE cnihl OE fmnne

in khight then




verb, present tense, 1 person, singular of willen, anomalous verb adverb verb, infinitive of bigynnen/begvnnen. strong verb, class 3



first bigynne

OE fyrst OE be-3innan

first begin

Key to Seminars 11 & 13 TVevisa, About the languages of the inhabitants

As it is known how many kinds of people live on this island, there are also as many diverse languages and tongues; nevertheless, Welshmen and Scots that are not in the least mixed with other nations, hold very near their first language and speech; except that the Scots who were once confederate and dwelled with the Picts, draw after their speech; but the Flemings who dwelled in the west side of Wales have left their foreign speech and speak quite like Saxons. Also Englishmen had from the beginning three kinds of speech, Northern, Southern and middle speech in the middle of the land, as they came from three kinds of people of Germany; nevertheless, by mixing and mingling first with Danes and afterwards with Normans, in many respects the country language is impaired, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing of teeth. This impairing of the birth of the tongue is because of two things; one is because, unlike the situation in all other countries, schoolboys aie compelled to abandon their own language, and to leam their lessons in French, and that has gone on since the Normans first came to England. Also children of the gentry are taught to speak French from the time that they are rocked in their cradle and can speak and play with a child's brooch; and country people want to liken themselves to the gentry and try very hard to speak French to be held as such. This method was much in use before the Great Sickness, but has since been somewhat changed; for John Cornwalle, a master of grammar, changed the learning in grammar school from French into English, Richard Penrich learned the way of teachning from him and from other men of Penrich; so that now, in the year of our Lord 1385, and in the ninth year of the reign of the second king Richard after the conquest, m all grammar schools in England boys abandon French, and conduct


their studies in English, which leads to an advantage on the one hand, and a disadvantage on the other. Their advantage is that they- learn their grammar in shorter time than boys used to do. The disadvantage is that boys in grammar schools know no more French than their left heel, and that is harmful for them if they should cross the sea and travel in foreign, countries, and in many other places, too.

Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text Old English

Changes of spelling and sounds Middle English New English







lost in NE > fn]

[:] fie] he] > [I] [kn] > [kn] 3 replaced by J replaced by




> [au]

[u:] > [u:] u replaced by ow

meny=many peple


> [a] >



> .





> [] > ! f, replaced by th




> [a] > N + s under the influence or isle



las:] x



> [e:] + vocalized [r] > [] p replaced by th replaced by e




> [ai] [e] +vocalized [r]> [] replaced by i

longage(s) tonges

langage tonge

language tongue

[a] > [x] + [w] under the influence of lingua (Lat) [u] > [u] > [] 3 replaced by g u replaced by (a ME spelling device)



Welsh >

Welsh >


> [e:] (Kentish dial.] > [e]

sc replaced by



> [a]

> [x]

[6] ot>er

> M
p replaced by




> to:]>[u:]>[u] > W unstressed [el + vocalized [r] > [a] 5/p replaced by th

nacioun(s) hold(ef)) nyh=neer

heald(an) neah

[a:] [sjun]

> [ei] > [?]

hold(en) neer

> [ou]

[ea] > [a] > [a:] before Jd > [o:]


> [e:] >[i:] + vocalized [r]> [is]







[i] + vocalized [r]> [:] [] > [i] (East Midland dial.) replaced by i




> [i:] > [tj]

[] > [e:] [k'] > [tj] [r] lost in ME replaced by e replaced by ch

but were


> [u]

> []

[ae:] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [:] se replaced by e





[u] u



> [u] > [] [i:] > > replaced by (a ME spelling device) replaced by i




> [:]

[a+j] > [] 3 replaced by w

side straunge Englische

side Er^Usc [sk']

side > straunge


side > M strange

> [ei]

3 hadde

replaced by

Englische > [fl


English >
had > [se]

ha3fd(on) hadde [a] > [a] [v] lost in ME a replaced by a




bygynn(ynge) manere sowberne

0] > 3 replaced by

begynninge manere sowberne

beginning manner southern

[g] (Scand. influence) > [g] g

[u:] u

fa] > [ae] unstressed [e] + vocalized [r]> [] > [u] > [] unstressed [e] + vocalized [r]> [] replaced by ow/ou 6/b replaced by th





[e] > [a] under the influence ofDani (Lat) [a] > [a:] (open syllable) > [ei] [s] > [z|





> [a] > [a:] before [ft] unstressed [e] + vocalized [r]> [] [ea] > [a]+vocalized [r]> [a:] after [w]>[o:] ae replaced by a

Norman(s) contray= countree som burbe=birthe

sum (3e-)byrd
[y] [y] > >

Norman countree [u] som(e) burbe/birthe

Norman country > [] some birth

[o] +vocalized [r]> [o:]

[u] > [u] > [] u replaced by (a ME spelling device) [u:] South West Midland dial. [i] East Midland dial.+vocalized[r]>[9:] p replaced by th

bycause oon



> [:]



>[o:n] > [u:n] > [wu:n] > [\]


child(ren) scole a3enst

[k ]

> [tj] >



> [o:]

> [u:]

[ea:] 3

ayeyiies/a3enst/agayn against

> fe:] - [ai}> [ei] [gj (Scand. influence) replaced by g

alle leve


> [a] before U

> [o:]



> [i:]

[:] > le:] f replaced by v-



> [ou]

[a:+j] > [ou] 3 ' replaced by w

havep i-tau3t


> [a] >


:1 > [] before [hi [h] lost in M E h replaced by gh



> [o:]




speke(n) ..


[ei] > te:] open syllable > [i:] [r] lost in ME ' replaced by

cradel playe child(es)




> [a:] open syllable > [ei]


playe(n)/pleye(n) play
> [ei] > [eil


> >

[tj] [ai]

[k'] > [tj] [i] > Li:] before lid] replaced by ch 343


broche greet



> [ou]


> [el]

tea:] > [e:] 3 replaced by g


[y] [y]



> [i] East Midland dial> [I] > [u:] South West Midland dial, retained in NE spelling

(i-)tolde moche


told moche/muchel

told much
> []

> [a:] before [ld]>lo:]>[ou]

trade deaf)
tea:] f> replaced by


> [e:] th

> [el before a dental cons.

i-chaunged maister

_ master

[au]>[a:] >




[a] (loss of [j]) > [a:] unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] >


lore ^ ^ ^

lore grammar

> [o:] + vocalized [r]> [o:] [a] > N M unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > l a i



[u] tsjun]

> W > [M



t ]



[e] + vocalized [r]> [:]




t s c a n (inf)


> [i:l > [tfl

[:] > [e:] [k'l > [tfl ae replaced by e/ea

now oure Lord(e) t>owsand


now oure L(h)overd/lord fcowsand/thousand


> []

[u:] > [u:] u replaced by ow

year our lord thousand


[ea:] 3

> [e:] + vocalized [r] > [:] replaced by

ure hlaford

[u:] > [u:] +vocalized [r]> [] u replaced by ou > [o:] +vocalized [r]> [:]


[u:l > [u:] unstressed [a] > [] p replaced by u replaced by ow/ou

hundred score


> [u]





> [o:] open syllable + vocalized[r]> [or] > [i:] >

fyve ff fyve five


[y] > [i] East Midland dial. > [I] replaced by

cynin 3

kyng > doo

> [o:] 345 >

.king nine > fal] do

> [ U

3 don




na=no more' can heele harme schulle passe see


> [o:]

> [ou]


more can
> [a]

more can
> [ae]

> [o:] + vocalized [r] > [o:]



> [e:]

> [i:]


harme shulle

harm pass
> [a:] before [ss]

> [a] + vocalized [r] > [a:]





> M

[] , J L > [e:l replaced by ee/ea



> [ei]

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words as used in the text as it Analysis notes conjunction pronoun personal, 3rd person singular, neuter, nominative case OE or foreign prototype <?eal-swa OE hit Corresponding NE word, translation -


verb, 3rd person singular, OE wesan (inf) present tense, indicative OE is (Present tense) mood of been, suppletive verb 346


i-knowe how meny manere PSple beep

adjective/participle 2 of knowen, strong verb, class 7 adverb adjective/pronoun noun, common case noun, common case verb, 3rd person plural, present tense, indicative mood of been, suppletive verb preposition

OE cnawan (in0 OE (3e-)cnawen (part. 2) OEM OE mani^ OF mankre OF pueple L populus OE

known how many manner (sorts, kinds of) people are

OE in

in this island there also so language


ilond pere lso SO longages


pronoun demonstrative, <9bis singular, neuter noun, common case, -\ singular conjunction adverb adverb noun, common case, plural conjunction noun, common case, plural adverb adjective noun, common case, plural noun proper, common case, plural

0eal-swa 0swa OFlangagelangue L lingua OEhnd OE tun3e OE na-py-ISs O^Wylisc OE men OE Scot

and tonges nopeles Walsche rosn Scottes

and tongue nevertheless Welsh n^0 Scot


pat noint

conjunction adverb, negative adjective/participle 2 of medlen, weak verb, class 2 preposition pronoun indefinite noun, common case, plural verb, plural, present tense, indicative mood of holden, strong verb, class 7 adverb preposition / adverb / adjective pronoun possessive, plural adjective noun, common case, singular conjunction conjunction definite article conjunction

OE pxl OE na-with OFmedler

that not (not in the least) meddle (mingled) with Other


wib naciouns holdep

OE wifi OE

OF nacion nation L natio OE healdan (inf) hold OE healdajb (pres. tense plural) OEwd OE neah OE hyra/hira OE fyrst OE sprsc OE butan OEyf OE se, seo, pffit OEpaet well (very) near their first speech but if(except) the that (who) were

wel nyh hir firste speche but 3if the pat were

verb, plural, past tense, OE waeron indicative mood of been, suppletive verb adverb adjective OEsume-timan L conibederatus

somtyme confederat

sometime confederate




verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of wonen, weak verb, class 2 definite article noun proper, common case, plural verb, present tense, indicative mood of drawen, strong verb, class 6 noun proper, common case, plural

OE wunian (inf) dwell OE wunodon (pas; (remained) tense plural) OE se, seo, past OE Pkt OE dra3an (inf) OE dra3a6 the Pict draw after (imitated)

be Pictes drawe after

Flemmynges wonep


verb, plural, present OE wunian (inf) dwell tense, indicative mood of OE wunia5 wonen, weak verb, (present tense plural) class 2 preposition adjective noun, common case, singular OE in OE wesi OE side west side

weste side

Of Wales havebi-left

preposition noun proper, common case verb, present perfect plural Of leven, weak

OEof OE Wealas

of Wales

verb, class 1

(participle 2)

OE habba6 have left (present tense plural)




sgange speak

verb, plural, present OE sprecan (inf) tense, indicative mood of OE spreca6

speken, Strong verb, class 4 (present tense plural)






v e rb


Englische men bey hadde

adjective noun, common case, plural pronoun personal, 3rd person plural

OE En^lhc OE men OScpeir

English men they had

verb, past tense, OE habban <inl) indicative mood of OE hajfdon (pasi haven, weak verb, class 3 tense plural) preposition strong verb, class 3 OEfrom (inf) $ OE OE siifierne middel OE middel OE lond OE cuman (inf) OE comon (past tense plural verbal noun of bigynnen, OE be- numeral, cardinal adjective adjective adjective noun, common case noun, common case, singular verb, plural, past tense, indicative mood of comen, strong verb, class 4 noun proper preposition noun, common case verbal noun of medlen, mellen, weak verb, class 2 adverb noun proper, common case, plural adverb

from bygynnynge {>ie middel myddel lond come

from beginning three northern southern middle middle land came

Germania by comyxtioun mellynge firste Danes afterward

Germany OF commistion OF medler. OE fyrst OE Dane OE sefter-weard by mixture mingling first Dane afterwards


Normans roeny

noun proper, common case, plural adjective/pronoun

OF Norman OSc OE

Norman many (in many things, in many respects) country impaired

contray apayred

noun, common case, singular adjective/participle 2 of empeiren, weak verb, class 2 pronoun indefinite

OF contree OF empeirer


OE sum

some use



verb, plural, present OF user tense, indicative mood of usen, weak verb, class 2 gerund of wlaffen, weak verb, class 2 OE wlaffian (inf)

Wlafferynge chiterynge harrynge garrynge grisbayting

stammering chirping with rolling [r] growling gristbiting (gritting of teeth) this impairing birth

gerund of chiteren, weak (imit.) verb, class 2 gerund of harren, weak verb participle 1 of garren, weak verb noun, common case (imit.) rcl. to OE

OE 3rist-betun3

this apayiynge burpe bycause = (by) cause

pronoun demonstrative, OE pis singular verbal noun of empeiren, of empeirer (inf.) weak verb, class 2 noun, common case OE -byrd /-byrdu OF cause, L causa OE twa/

by - preposition; cause - noun, common case numeral, cardinal





fringes for children scole a3enst usage alle opere beef) compelled

noun, common case, plural numeral, cardinal conjunction noun, common case, plural noun, common case, singular preposition noun, common case pronoun indefinite pronoun indefinite

OE bin3 OE an OE for 0cildru

thing one for children

OE scol, L scola, school OF escole - OF usage OE oder against usage (custom) all other are compelled

toleve OWne to construe lessouns

verb, passive voice, OFcompeller plural, present tense, indicative mood of compellen, weak verb, class 2 verb, infinitive of leven, weak verb, class 1 adjective, definite OE declension verb, infinitive of L construere construen, weak verb, class 2 noun, common case, plural

to leave own to construe

OF lecon, L lectio lesson

havef) sep first Engelond

noun, common case,


have since first England

plurai verb^ plural, present OE tense, indicative mood of haven, weak verb, class 2 conjunction adverb noun proper 352 OE si69an OE fyrst OEngla-land


gentil (-) men i-tau3t

noun, genitive case, plural verb, passive voice, plural, present tense, indicative mood of techen, weak verb, class 1

ef. F gentilhomme gentlemen OE tascan (inf) {^-)\ (participle 2) taught

to speke tyme

verb, infinitive of speken, OE sprecan strong verb, class 4 noun, common case QEtima OE roccian (inf) OE (-) roccod (participle 2)

to speak time are rocked

beep i-rokked verb, passive voice, plural, present tense, indicative mood of rokken, weak verb, class 2 cradel kunnep playe a childes broche' uplondisshe wil

noun, common case, OE cradol cradle singular verb, plural, present tense OE cunnan (inf) can of connen, preterite OE cunnon present verb (present tense plural) verb, infinitive of pleyen, 0ple3ian weak verb, class 2 article, indefinite noun, genitive case, singular noun, common case, singular adjective OE an OEcild OE broche OE -lendisc a child brooch uplandish play

verb, plural, present OE willan (inf) will (would) tense, indicative mood or OE willa6 (present present subjunctive of indicative) willen, anomalous verb OE willen (present

likne hym(-)self

verb, infinitive of rei. to OE -lTc likne(n), weak verb, (adjective) class 2 pronoun, reflexive

liken himself (themselves)




verb, plural, present OE fandian (inf) tense, indicative mood of OE fandiab fonden, weak verb, class 2 adjective noun, common case OEyeai OE bisknes


greet besynesse

great business (very hard) to be told of (to be held / rated highly as such) was used much too for first death (till the end of the period until lately) somewhat

to be i-tolde of verb, infinitive passive of OE beon <inf) lellen, weak verb, class 1, OE tellan (inf) irregular OE tald/teald (participle 2) was i-used moche to for firsts deth verb, passive voice, OE waes singular, past tense of OF user usen, weak verb, class 2 L iisare adverb adverb preposition noun, genitive case, singular noun, common case, singular adverb verb, passive voice, singular, present tense, indicative mood of chaungen, weak verb, class 2 conjunction noun proper noun proper noun, common case, singular

QEmicle OE to OE for OE first OE dead

sumdel isi-chaunged

OE sumne dael

OE wesan (inf) is changed OE is (present tense singular) OF changier OEfor for John Cornwall OE ma^ister, from master OF maistre, L magister

for John Cornwaile maister


gramer chaunged

noun, common case verb, past tense, indicative mood of" chaungen, weak verb, class 2 noun, common case noun, common case preposition noun, common case noun proper noun proper

OFgrammaire L grammaliea Gr grammatike OFchangier

grammar changed

lore constmccioun in(-)to Englische Richard Pencriche lemed

OE lar F construction OE \r\-\.o rei. to OE En3lisc


lore construction (interpretation) into English


Richard Pencrich learn

techynge hym now 3ere ' Lorde fiowsand f)re hundred

verb, past tense, OE leornian (inf) indicative mood of OE leornode (past lernen, weak verb, class 2 tense singular) gerund of techen, weak OE tajcan (inf) verb, class 1, irregular pronoun personal, 02? him, hine rd 3 person singular, masculine, objective case adverb OE nu noun, common case, OE singular pronoun possessive, sl l person plural noun, common case, OE hlaford singular numeral (subst.) numeral, cardinal noun, common case, singular

teaching him now year OUT Lord thousand three hundred

OE pusend QEpri/ OE hund-rcd

PART 3. KEYS foure score fyve secounde kyng numeral, cardinal noun, common case, singular numeral, cardinal numeral, ordinal noun, common case, singular Richard conquest nyne noun proper noun, common case, singular numeral, cardinal OF conqueste OEfeower OE scoru ' <?fif OF second L secundus OE cynins five four

score (two lens) (the yearofl385) second king

Richard conquest nine (the ninth year of the reign of the second king Richard after the Conquest) leave


verb, plural, present OE laifan (inf) tense, indicative mood of OE laefad (present leven, weak verb, class 1 tense plural) verb, plural, present L construere tense, indicative mood of construen, weak verb, class 2




verb, plural, present OE leornian (inf) learn tense, indicative mood of OE leorniaO lernen, weak verb, class 2 (present tense plural) preposition adverb noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular 356 OE an=on - OF avantage OE side OF disavantage on (in) thereby advantage side disadvantage

an | avauntage side disavauntage


anoper lasse pan i-woned to d o o connep

pronoun indefinite adjective, comparative degree of litel conjunction participle 2 of wonen, weak verb, class 2 verb, infinitive of doon, anomalous verb

OE + OE lalssa OE panne

another less than wont (accustomed)

OE don

to d o

verb, plural, present tense OE cunnan (inf) know indicative mood of OE cunnon connen, preterite-present (present tense plural) verb negative particle adjective, comparative degree of michel OE OE more knows

na more can

verb, singular, present OE cunnan (inf) tense, indicative mood of OE can (present connen, preterite-present tense singular) verb adjective noun, common case, singular pronoun demonstrative noun, common case preposition pronoun personal, 3rd person plural, objective case verb, plural, present tense, preterite-present verb verb, infinitive of passe(n), weak verb, class 2

lift heele fiat harme for hem

OElyft/left OE hela OE pat OE hearm OE for OZJhim/heom

left heel that harm for them


OE sculan (inf) have to OE sculon (present tense plural) OF passer pass/pace



see travaille

noun, common case, singular verb, infinitive of travaill(en), weak verb, class 2 noun, common case. plural noun, common case, plural

OE sae OF travail lier

sea travel

landes places

OE land OF place, L platea

land place

Key to Seminars 15,16 & 18 Shakespeare, Hamlet

Hautboys play. The dumb-show enters. Enter a King and a Queen very lovingly; the Queen embracing him, and he her. She kneels, and makes show of protestation unto him. He takes her up, and declines his head upon her neck: lays him down upon a bank of flowers: she, seeing him asleep, leaves him. Anon comes in a fellow, takes off his crown, kisses it, and pours poison in the King's ears, and exit. The Queen returns; finds the King dead, and makes passionate action. The Poisoner, with some two or three Mutes, comes in again, seeming to lament with her. The dead body is carried away. The Poisoner wooes the Queen with gifts: she seems loath and unwilling awhile, but in the end accepts his love. Exeunt Ophelia What means this, my lord? Hamlet Marry, this is miching mallecho; it means mischief. Oph Belike this show imports the argument of the play. Enter Prologue Ham We shall know by this fellow: the players cannot keep counsel; they'll tell all. Oph Will he tell us what this show meant? Ham Ay, or any show that you'll show him: be not you ashamed to show, he'll not shame to tell you what it means. Oph You are naught, you are naught: I'll mark the play.




For us, and for our tragedy, Here stooping to your clemency, We beg your hearing patiently.

Ham Is this a prologue, or the posy of a ring? Oph Tis brief, my lord. Ham As woman's love. Enter two Players, King and Queen Player King Full thirty times hath Phoebus' cart gone round Neptune's salt wash and Tellus' orbed ground, And thirty dozen moons with borrow'd sheen About the world have times twelve thirties been, Since love our hearts and Hymen did our hands Unite commutual in most sacred bands. Player Queen So many journeys may the sun and moon Make us again count o'er ere love be done! But, woe is me, you are so sick of late, So far from cheer and from your former state, That I distrust you. Yet, though I distrust, Discomfort you, my lord, it nothing must: For women's fear and love holds quantity; In neither aught, or in extremity. Now, what my love is, proof hath made you know; And as my love is sized, my fear is so: Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear; Where little fears grow great, great love grows there. Player King 'Faith, I must leave thee, love, and shortly too; My operant powers their functions leave to do: And thou shalt live in this fair world behind, Honour'd, beloved; and haply one as kind For husband shalt thou


Player Queen 0, confound the rest! Such love must needs be treason in my breast: In second husband let me be accurst! None wed the second but who kill'd the first. Ham [Aside] Wormwood, wormwood. Player Queen The instances that second marriage move Are base respects of thrift, but none of love: A second time I kill my husband dead, When second husband kisses me in bed. Player King I do believe you tliink what now you speak; But what we do determine oft we break. Purpose is but the slave to memory, Of violent birth, but poor validity; Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree; But fall, unshaken, when they mellow be. Most necessary 'tis that we forget To pay ourselves what to ourselves is debt: What to ourselves in passion we propose, The passion ending, doth the purpose lose. The violence of either grief or joy Their own enactures with themselves destroy: Where joy most revels, grief doth most lament; Griefjoys, joy grieves, on slender accident. This world is not for aye, nor 'tis not strange That even our loves should with our fortunes change; For 'tis a question left us yet to prove, Whether love lead fortune, or else fortune love. The great man down, you mark his favourite flies; The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. And hitherto doth love on fortune tend; For who not needs shall never lack a friend, And who in want a hollow friend doth try,


Directly seasons him his enemy. But, orderly to end where 1 begun, Our wills and fates do so contrary run That our devices still are overthrown; Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own: So think thou wilt no second husband wed; But die thy thoughts when thy first lord is dead. . . ; , . . ; ; , , , . , , , . , . , , , , . . ; , . . , ? , "". , ? . ; ; . , , ?


, , ; , , . , ! . .

(.) : ? , . .

. - , , , . - , ! , , , , . ; : . ; . , ; , .


- , , ; ; ; , , ... - , ! , ! , . ( ) , ! - , , , ; , , - , , , . : , ; , , . , ; , , , . , , ; , , ; . , , ; , : , ?


, ; , ; ; , , , . : , ; , ; , .
translated by M.Lozinsky

Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text Changes of spelling and sounds

Old English

Middle English

New English

trumpet sound dumbe

[u] u replaced by

[u] > [] a ME spelling device


trumpet sound


> []

[u] > [] [b] lost in NE a ME spelling device





/ </ to v. sceaw(ian) ?. n. shewe show [sk1] > > sc replaced by sn /Vi/entre(n) enter unstressed [e] + vocalised [r] > (]



[y] replaced by



[i] (Easl Midland dialect)


queene embracing he her take(s) decline(s) his head lye(s) down bancke flower(s) see(ing) asleep

[c:j > cw replaced by


> [i:] qu

he lc:J hire

,/ embrace

> [ei]

he > [e:] her/e taken


he [i:l>[i-l her

[e] + vocalised [r] > |:] [a:] open syllable >


inf. takan his


[a] replaced by


inf. declynen



> [z]


> [e:]

head He
> [aO

> [e] before a dental consonant

inf. of-dflne inf. seon



a-doune banke

> ]

[u:] > [u:] u replaced by ou/ow

> []


[u:] + vocalised [r] > [] ou replaced byow




on-slsep asleep [] > [e:l x replaced by ec


asleep > 1= 11



inf. lasfan

[:] > f replaced by

[e:] replaced by v



fi:] ea



[] > [a] after | w] [hw] > [hw] hw replaced by wh a? replaced by a



> >

[o] [w]

meanes this


> [e:] e/ca >


replaced by

bis 01 s]'
j replaced by

this > [01 > is]


this > [ > M my

> [ai]

my lord that

{i:] > >



[o:] + vocalized fr]>

[o:] >

[] > [a] x replaced by a p replaced by th




mischiefe belike

impoit(s) play we shall

mischiefe mischief [e:] > rel. /- y-Iich/lik (be)like , . > > M 3 replaced by replaced by rel. to port port [o] + vocalized [r] > [o:] ! pley/play play fe+j] > [a] > tei] 3 replaced by we we we
[ea] > [sk1] > se replaced by



> [e:]
[a] sn 367


> [i:]>|i-]
> fa] >




cnavvan (inf) [a:] > [kn] > replaced by can [a]

knowen [o:] [kn]

know > [ou] > [n] can > [x] keep > [i:]

can(not) keepe

can > [al

cepan (inf) keepen > [e:] replaced by e replaced by eal [ea]

all any be

aValle all > [al before 1 > [o:] 1 > any

eni/any [ar.] > [e:] > [a] ae replaced by a beo [eo:] be > [e:]

be > fi:]>[i-]

(a)sham('d) rel. to scamean (inf) shamen [a] > [a] > [a:] open syll.

mark our heere hearing

A sc replaced by mearc(ian) (inf) [ea] > replaced by


sh mark(en) mark [a] + vocalized [r] > [a:]


shame > [ei]

Ore our our [u:] > [u:] > [] + vocalized [] >[] u replaced by ou her [e:] heer here > [e:] > (i:] + vocalized [r] > [is] heringfe) hearing [e:] (Kent) > [i:]+ vocalized [r]> [is] e/ea g

[y:] > replaced by 3 replaced by

patiently , . breefe thirtie

rel. to patient (adj)


Ltjentl breer



> IJnt] brief

prlti3 Yu] > p replaced by 3 replaced by


thritty/bnty thirty [i] + vocalized [r] > [e:] th

. time(s) gone round salt wash tlma [i:]

TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION tyme > time > [ai] gone > :] round > [] salt before > [] wash > [o] > ground > [] moon > [u:]>[u] sheen

31 gon(e) :] > for] 3 replaced by g sealt [ea] round [u:] salt > [a]

wassc [se]1 > [sk ] > EC replaced by sc replaced by 3rund [u] > 3 replaced by u replaced by mona [o:] scyne abutan [u:] woruld [o] heorte [eo] hand [a]

wassh [a] after w a sh ground [u:] before nd g ou


moon(es) sheene about world harts hand(s) sacred band(s) many

i iS

mone > [o:] shene



about(en) > [u:]

about > []

world(e) world > [o] + vocalized [r] > [s:] after w herte heart > [e] [er] > lar] > [a] + vocalized [r] > [a:] hand > [a] ret. to sacren (inf) M band [a] hand > [] sacred > [ei] band > [as] many > [as]

mante many [a] > [a] 3 replaced by 369



[ae+jj > [ai] se replaced by a 3 replaced by


> [el]


sunne count ore doone sicke farre cheere former distrust must feare hold aught

sunne aer

sonne counten

sun count
> []

[u] > [u] > [] u replaced by (a ME spelling device)

[:] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [] ae replaced by e




> [o:]>[u:]>[u] >


seoc feor

seek fer cheer former

> [i:] > [i] before

[eo:] > [e:] replaced by

far cheer former

> [e] [er] > [ar] > [aj + vocalized [r] > la:] [e:] > [i:] + vocalized [r] > [is]


> [o] +vocalized [r]> [o:] unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > []


dis+trust [u] moste/muste

> [o:]> [u:] > [u]

distrust > W must

> []

[:] > [e:] > [i:] + vocalized [r] > [ia] x replaced by e/ea

fseran (inf)



healdan (inf)
[ea] >

hoolden aughte

> [o:]


[a:+h] > [au+h] a replaced by au h replaced by gh 370

awiht, aht



now made where

nu macode

now made
> [a:] open syll. >

> []

fu:J > fu:] u replaced by ow


[a] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [] [hw] > [hw] > fw] hw replaced by wh






> [] b. in NE under the influence of Lat. dubitare



grow there


replaced by





se:l > '6] > i replaced by a replaced by

[e:] + vocalized [r] > [] [9] > [6] th e



I thee

I thee

[i] + vocalized [tj> [i:]>[M] e:] > [e:] '9] > [9] j replaced by th > [i:] > [6]


scort-llce 1 [sk ] to

short+lich(e)/shortly shortly > >


[o] > [o] +vocalized [r]> sc replaced by sh

to power(s) do

> [o:J

> [u:]


power doon
> [o:J

power do
> [u:l>|u]

[u:] > [] + vocalized [r] > [|





u:] > hi:] 6] > [9] ) replaced by th


> [] > (fll



[+j] > [ai] > [ei] + vocalized [r] > [] replaced by a 3 replaced by i




behind honour('d) one kind husband confound need(es) treason accurst who

[i] >

[i:] before nd >



honouren oon kynde

> [i:] before nd

honour one kind

> [ai]

unstressed fu] + vocalized [r] > [] [h]lostinNE > [o:] > [u:] > [wu:] > [wu] > [WA|


Mjr unstressed []

> [u] > [] >


nyde rel. w cursian (inf) hwa

[u] >


> []

nede tresoun [e:]

unstressed [u]

> [i:]

[y:l , > [e:] (Kent) replaced by e/ee

treason > r ,
> []

cursen who
> >

curse who
[u:]>fu] [w]

[u] + vocalized [r] > [e:]

[a:] > [or] [hw] > [hw] hw replaced by wh

first wormwood

[y] >

first wormwud /wermode


first wormwood

[i] (East Midland) + vocalized [r] > [W [o]/[e]+vocalized [r]>|e:] [o:] >



belieue speake

be-lyfan bileven [v:] > [e:](Kent) f replaced by u/v sprecan [e] > e replaced by replaced by

believe > [i:]

speken speak [e:] open syllable > [i!] e/ea determynen determine fe] + vocalized [r] > [e:] slaue/slave [a:] slave > [ei]

determine slaue birth poore which

(3e)-byrd birthe birth [fj > [i] + vocalized [r] > [e:] replaced by i hwilc poore/poure which poor which [o:} > [u:] + vocalized [] > []

[hw] > [hw] > fw] hw replaced by wh vnripe/umipe un-rlpe unripe uraipe ^ [i:] F > [i:] ^ > [ai] ^ tree treo tree tree [eo:] > [e:J > fall feallan fallen fall [ea] > [a] before U > [o] vnshaken rel. to scacan shaken shake ] > > [a] > [a:] open syllable > [ei] sc replaced by sh replaced by forget for-xitan forgeten forget [i] > [ej > [e] |j] replaced by [g] irom Sc. pay payen pay fai] > [ei] debt dette debt [e] > [ej h in NE under the influence of Lai. debeta 373



lose griefe their

|o] >

fu] + vocalized [r)>


[o:] open syllable>


greef fe:l faeir

c:] +vocalized |r)> [] 0] > [fll ) replaced by ih >

grief > fi:] their

owne slender strange euen



[a:+y] > 3 replaced by

[ou] w


s(c)lendre straunge

slender strange
> [ci]

unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > []

[e] > replaced by scolde [sk1] lo] > >


[c:] open syllable > v


sholde should [fl > (ji U>:1 before ! d > [ u : ] > f u : ] > [ u l before a dental cons. UlloslinNE



[o] + vocalized [r]> [tjun] >

[0:1 Itfnl

question proue lead

profian laidan
[as:l > replaced by [o] > f replaced by


> [el]

[tju:n] >

|tjn] [u:]

proven leden
[e:J c/ca

fo:] open syllable > v >

prove lead




> [a:] [d] in NE under the influence of Latin


friend(s) hetherto neuer


> []

> []

[se:] x f

hider-to never(e)

hitherto never

fd] > [6] in the vicinity of [r]


> [e:] > [e] unstressed [e] + vocalized fr] > [] replaced by e replaced by v

lacke want season(s) order(ly) begunne



> [a]

[a] after [w] [e:] unstressed [u]

> [o] > [i:] > fa]

sesounen (inf)


[o] +vocalized [r]> [0:1 unstressed [e] + vocalized fr] > []





[ul > M > [] [y] replaced by [g] under Scand. influence 3 replaced by g

mnne deuise(s) ouerthrowne

[o] f p

ronn(en) devys

run device
> [ai]

[u] > [u] > [] u replaced by (a ME spelling device)


> [o:] open syllable > [po] unstressed [e] + vocalized fr] > [] [a:] > to:] > ]oul replaced by v replaced by th


. overthrow


boht fo+h']
p h

replaced by replaced by

tliought > louhf

lh gh 375

thought > [o:J





i] > [i:J open syllable > ;] > [] > ) replaced by th


[ai] []

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words as used in the text in the text the trumpets sounds dumbe show Analysis notes Ethymology, Ethyvnology, prototype Corresponding Corresponding NEword, NEword, translation translation the trumpet(S) sound(s) (oboes play) dumb show

article, definite noun, genitive case, plural noun, common case, plural adjective noun, common case, singular verb, present tense, rd 3 person, singular of verb, present tense, plural of enter

OE se, seo, paet; ME pat / that ME trompette, OF trompette ME soun; OF soun OE dumb; ME domb ME sheue, rel. to OE sceawian (v); ME shaven (v) OE fokian, weak, 2; ME followen follow ME entren weak, 2; OFentrer OE an; ME a/an OE '; ME kyng


follow(s) (The dumb show enters} enter


a king

article, indefinite noun, common case, singular

a king

and queene

conjunction noun, common case, singular

OE and; ME and OE cwen; ME queen

and queen (actors playtnS the roles of tlU King and the Queen)



the queene absolute participial ME embracen, weak, 2; the queen embracing construction OFembracer embracing (nominative with participle I) of embrace him pronoun personal, objective case, * person, singular, masculine pronoun personal, nominative case, 3rd person, singular, masculine pronoun personal, objective case, 3 person, singular, feminine verb, present tense, 3rd person, singular of take adverb verb, present tense, 3rd person, singular of decline .pronoun possessive, 3rd person, singular, masculine noun, common case, singular Vpon lyes downe bancke of preposition noun, common case case, singular verb, present tense, 3rd person, singular of he adverb noun, common case, singular preposition OE uppon; ME upon upon OE hnecca; ME nekke neck (on her shoulder) OE , str. 5; lie ME lyen OE of-dune; down ME a-doune ME banke, OSc banke bank (bed) OE of; ME of

OE him, hire; ME him



OE he; ME he



OE hire; ME her(e)


takes vp declines his head

OE takan, str. 6; ME taken OE up, upp; ME up ME declynen, OF decliner; L declmare OE his; ME his OE heafod; ME heed

take up (raises her from the knees) decline his head



flowers she

noun, common case, plural pronoun personal, nominative case, 3rd person, singular, feminine verb, participle 1 of see adjective verb, present tense, 3"1 person, singular of leave pronoun interrogative verb, present tense, 3"1 person, singular of mean

ME flour; OF flour; L florem, ace. o/flos OE heo; ME he/she

flower(s) she

seeing asleepe leaues

OE seon, sir. 5; ME seen OE on-slEep; ME on sleep, asleep OE liefan, weak, ) ; ME leven OE hwast, ME what OE , weak, I; ME menen

seeing asleep leave(s)

what meanes

what rnean(s)

this my lord

pronoun demonstrative OE fcis; ME this pronoun possessive, l sl person, singular noun, common case, singular interjection


OE mTn; ME myn(e)/my my OE hlaford; ME lord lord " 7 ^ does it mean, my lordO ME%(ano$ by St.Mary)


ME marie


verb, participle 1 ofmiche

ME mychen, weak; OFmuchier

munching (now dial.skulking, | stealing up to) malice that mischief belike (probably, evidently)

mallico it = that mischiefe belike

noun proper, common case conjunction noun, common case, singular modal word

OF malice; L malicia OEpset ME meschief; OF meschief rel. to OE -lic, adj.; ME y-lich 378


show imports argument play we Shall

noun, common case. singular verb, present tense, 3rd person, singular of import noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular pronoun personal, Is1 person plural, nominative case verb, future tense, I s1 person, indicative mood of know preposition noun, common case, singular noun, common case, plural


rel. to OE sceawian, weak, 2; ME shewen

show import(s) argument (plot) play we

rel. to OF porter,L portare ME argument; OF argument OE !,- ME pley /play OE we; ME we

by fellow players cannot keepe they '11 tell

OE sculan (inf), sceal shall know (pres. sing.), pret.-pres., ME shal; OE cnawan, strong, 7; ME knowen OE bl; ME by by (from) ME fellawe; rel. to Sc felagi rel. to OE pje3ian, weak,2; ME playen fellow player(s) (actors)

verb, modal + negative OE cunnan (inf), can can+not (pres. sing.), pret.-pres.,; ME can verb, infinitive OE cepan, weak, 2; keep of keep MJSkepen (secrets) pronoun personal, OB hie; ME they they 3 rd person plural, nominative case verb, future tense,

OE willan, anom. verb; (they)'ll tell ME will; OE tellan, weak, 1 irreg.; ME tellen OE eal; M E al/alle OE us; ME us

(=will tell) 3 person, indicative mood of tejl all VS pronoun indefinite pronoun personal, nti 2 person plural, objective case

all US



verb, past tense, indicative mood of mean particle pronoun indefinite pronoun personal, 2nd person, nominative case verb, future tense, 2 nJ person, indicative mood of show verb, infinitive negative particle adjective

OE msnan, weak, I; ME menen 0 ; M ye OE ; ME any OE eow; ME you

meant (yes) any you

I (yea) any you will show

OE willan, anom. verb; will show ME will OE sceawian, weak, 2; ME showen OE beon, beo (imper.); be ME been, be (imper.) OE na-wiht; ME not rel. to OE scamian, weak, 2; ME shamen not ashamed (don't be ashamed) he'll

be not asham'd

heel = pronoun personal, OE he; ME he hee( 1)= (he 3 rd person singular, will) masculine, nominative case shame are naught Tie t = I( 11) (shall) mark for our verb, infinitive verb, present tense, plural of be adjective pronoun personal, 1sl person singular, nominative case verb, future tense, l s l person, indicative mood of mark preposition pronoun possessive, l s l person plural OE scamian, weak, 2; ME shamen OE wesan (inf), earon /ar (pres. tense), suppletive; ME am rel to OE na-wiht; ME naught OE ic; ME icIiA

shame (be ashamed) are naught (naughty) 1('

OE mearcian, weak, 2; mark MEmarken (see, watcti) OE for; ME for OE fire; ME our

tor our



noun, common case

OE tragedie; ME tragedie


heere Stooping

adverb verb, participle I of stoop

OE her; ME heer OE stupian, weak, 1; ME stoupen OE to; ME to

here Stooping

to your clemencie begge heaiing

preposition pronoun possessive, 2nd person noun, common case, singular verb, present tense, plural, indicative mood of beg verb, gerund/verbal noun of hear


OE eower; ME your(e) your L dementia ME beggen, weak, 2; OF begger, noun rel. to OE hyran, weak 1, or OE hyrin3, noun; ME hering(e), noun rel. to ME patient, adjective, OF patient, L patens, noun OE wesan, infinitive; OE is; ME is ME poesie=poete; OF poesie=poete; L poeta OE hnny, ME ryng clemency beg hearing



patiently (we beg that you hear patiently) is


verb, present tense, 3lJ person singular of be noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular


poesy (motto, short inscription) ring it is

ring tis = it is breefe


ME breef; OF brief; L brevis


as WOmans loue

conjunction noun, genitive case, singular noun, common case, singular

OE eal-swa; ME as OEwTf-ma'n; ME womman OE Iufu


as WOman('s) love



full thirtie times hath gone

adjeclive numeral cardinal noun, common case, plural verb, present perfect perfect of go

OEM; MEM OE bri-; ME thritty /pirty OE tTma; ME tyme

full thirty time(s)

OE habban, weak, 3; has gone ME haven; OE 3n (inf); ME goon (inf) L Phoebus OE crat; rel. to OSc kartr rel. to ME round, adj., OF roont L Neptunus OE sealt; ME salt OE wsesc; ME wassh L Tellus OF orbe; L orbis Phoebus( s) cart round Neptune( S) salt wash (waters) Tellus orbed

Phebus noun proper, genitive = Phoebus case, singular" cart round Neptunes salt wash Tellus orb'd ground noun, common case, singular adverb/preposition noun proper, genitive case, singular adjective noun, common case, singular noun proper, common case, singular adjective noun, common case, singular

OE srund; ME ground ground , (Tellus - barm in Roman mythology) ME dosayn OE mona; ME mone rel. to OE borgian, weak, 2; ME borwen rel. to OE scyne, adj.; ME shene, adj. OE abutan; ME abouten

dosen moones boiTOwed sheene about

noun, common case, singular noun, common case, plural adjective / participle 2 of borrow noun, common case, singular preposition

dozen moon(s) borrow(ed) Sheen about


noun, common case, singular haue beene verb, present perfect of be twelue since halts Hymen did unite hands comutuall numeral, cardinal conjunction


OE woruld; ME worlde world OE habban (inf); OEbeon(inf) OE twelf; ME twelve twelve heart(s) Hymen (did) unite hand(s) mutual (since love united our hearts and Hymen - our hands) most sacred band(s) SO many OE si65an; ME sith(e) since have been

noun, common case, OE heorte; ME herte plural noun, proper, common L Hymen case, singular verb, past tense, L Qmt indicative mood of unite noun, common case, plural adjective OE hand; ME hond F com-; OF -mutuel; L mutuus

most sacred bands so many ioumeyes may sunne

adjective / pronoun, superlative degree of much adjective noun, common case, plural adverb adjective noun, common case, plural verb, present tense, of may noun, common case, singular

OE maest; ME moost rel to ME sacren, weak, 2; OF sacrer ME band, Sc band OE swa; ME so QE ; ME many

ME journee; journey(s) OF journee OE ma^an (inf), ? may (pres. sing.), pret-pres., ME may OE sunne; ME sonne




make count

verb, infinitive verb, infinitive

OE macian, weak, 2; ME maken ME counten, weak, 2 OF corner; Lcomputare

make count (max the Sun and the Moon make us count again as many journeys) ere (before)



OE sr; ME er/or

be doone = done woe (woe) is

verb, present tense, OE bion (inf); OE beo be subjunctive, singular (pres. subj. sing.) of be verb, participle 2 of do OE don (inf), anom. done verb; OE -don (part. 2); ME doon (inf); ME y-doon (part. 2) noun, common case, OE wa, ME wo singular interjection (phrasal unit) adjective adjective adjective preposition noun, common case, singular OE seoc; ME seek OE last; ME lat OE feor; ME fer OE Mm; ME from ME cheer; OF chere woe woe is me! sick late far from cheer

sicke late farre from cheere

former State distrust adjective noun, common case, singular verb, present tense of distrust OE forma; ME former OF estat, L statum

former State

ME dis- + trust, , distrust re/ to OSc traust, (/a/ vwmed about you)



03lt; ME yet



though discomfort nothing must

conjunction verb, infinitive of discomfort pronoun indefinite verb, present tense of must noun, common case, plural verb, present tense,

OE beah; ME though


ME disconforten, weak, discomfort 2; OF desconforter OE nan-; ME no-thing nothing

OE mot, most (past), must (it must pret.-pres.,; ME moot, not discomfort most(e), must (past) you, milord) OE wTf-men; ME wommen OE fSran, weak, I; women fear

women feare

indicative mood of fear ME feren (inf) too much euen loue womens feare hold quantitie adverb adverb adverb OE to; ME to too

OE micle; ME much(el) much OE efne; ME even(e) even love (women fear as much as they love) women('s) fear

verb, present tense, OE lufian; ME loven indicative mood of love noun, genitive case, plural noun, common case, singular OE wff-manna; ME wommen(e)s OE iaer; ME feer

verb, present tense, OE healdan, strong, 7; hold indicative mood of hold ME heold(en) noun, common case, singular conjunction ME quantitee; OF quantite OE a3-hwa26er; ME either pronoun, negative conjunction pronoun OE nan; ME noon QE +-hwaeaer; ME neither OE a-wiht; aht; ME aht, aght, aught

quantity {correspond to each other) either


none neither aught

none neither aught (anything)

/' J. KEYS

extremitie noun, common case, singular

ME cxtremyiee; OF extremite

extremity (both fear and love are extreme) now proof has made know (you /' the proof of it)

now proofe hath made know

adverb noun, common case, singular verb, present perfect oi make verb, infinitive

OE nu; ME now ME prove; OF preuve OE macod. pan.2; ME made OE cnawan; ME knowen

ciz'd = siz'd verb, participle 2 of size where great litlest doubts grow adverb adjective adjective, superlative degree of UteJ. noun, common case, plural

ME (a)ssis(en), vrraA',2; size(d) /r/. / OF assisen (my fear is me size of my love) OE hwSr; M wher(e) OE 1; ME greet where great

0Z? lytel, ISscst (snperl. least degree); ME litel, lestc (smallest) ME doute; OF doute doubt(s) grow

verb, present tense, OE 3rowan, strong, 7; plural, indicative mood ME growen of grow verb, present tense, 3'd person, singular of grow adverb noun, common case, pronoun personal, 2"d person singular, objective case adverb adverb adjective see above



there faith thee Shortly to operant

OE \\ ME ther, thar ME fcith; OF fcid; L (Ides OE f)e, pec; ME thee scort-lice; ME shortly OE 16; ME to L operant

there faith (excl.: by my faith!) thee shortly too operant (effective)


powers functions

noun, common case, plural noun, common case, plural

ME power; OF poeir /pouer F foriclion; L functio

power(s) fimction(s) (my body will stop doing its functions) thou


pronoun personal, 2"d person singular, nominative case verb, modal

OE pii; ME thou


OE sculan (inf), sceait shall (pres. tense, 2"d person), pret.-pres. OE libban, weak, 3; ME liven live


verb, infinitive

faire behind honour'd belou'd haplv ^


adjective adverb verb, participle 2 of honour verb, participle 2 of love adjective

OE fa^er; ME f air OE be-hindan; ME be-hynden ME honour(en), weak, 2; OF honorer rel. to OE lufian, weak, 2; ME loven rel. to ME hap, noun; OSchapp

failbehind (after I'm gone)' honour(ecft beloved (probably)

one kind for husband

numeral, cardinal adjective preposition noun, common case, singular

OE an; ME oon OE cynde; ME kynde 0jEfor;MEfor OE hus-bond; ME husbonde; OSc htisb.6ndi

one kind for husband (honoured, beloved and probably someone as kind as I am for a husband 'you'll...) confound


verb, imperative mood of confound

ME confounden, F confondrc, L confundcre 387

weak, 2; ME cursen

(let me oe cursed if I marry a second husband) wed who kill(ed) first (let no one wed the second husband but she who killed the first one)

wed who kild first

verb, subjunctive mood of wed pronoun, interrogative / indefinite / relative verb, past tense, indicative mood of numeral, ordinal

OE weddian, weak, 1; ME wedden OE hwa; ME who OE cyllan, weak, 1; ME killen OE fyrst, adjective; ME first

w o r m w o o d noun, common case, singular instances noun, common case, plural noun, common case, singular

OE wermwod; wormwood ME wermode (corrupted form), wormwud ME instaunce; OF instance ME manage; OF mariage

instance(s) (motives, reasons) marriage




verb, present tense, indicative mood of move adjective noun, common case, plural noun, common case, singular adverb

ME mov(en), weak, 2; OF movoir ME bas; OF bas ME respect; OF respect ME thrift; OSC priu OE hwanne/hwaenne; ME whan(ne)


base respects thrift when kisses

base respect(s) thrift ('tonconsiderations when kiss(es)

verb, present tense, OE cyssan, weak, 1; 3rd person, singular, ME kissen indicative mood of kiss noun, common case, singular OE bed; ME bed /bedde see above verb, present tense, indicative mood of believe verb, present tense, indicative mood of think verb, present tense, indicative mood of speak verb, present tense, indicative mood of determine adverb verb, present tense, indicative mood of break noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular OE be-Iyfan, weak, I; ME bileven

bed doe=do belieue

bed do believe


OE jbencan, weak, 1, think irregular; ME thynken OE sprecan, strong, 5; speak ME speken ME determynen, determine weak, 2; OF determiner, Ldeterminare OE oft; ME oft/often OE brecan, strong, 4; ME breken ME purpos; OF pourpos; L propositum oft/often break purpose



oft breake purpose


ME sclaue; OF esclave; slave 5c sclyaff; L sclavus



memorie violent birth

noun, common case, singular adjective noun, common case, singular adjective noun, common case, singular pronoun, relative adjective noun, common case, singular adjective

ME mcnioric; OF memorie; L memoria


ME violent'; OF violent violent OE -byrd; ME birlhe birth (which bornmorm full of life) ME povre/poure; poor OF povre F validite; L validitas validity (hWis " short-lived) OE hvvile; ME which which

pOOre validitie which like fruite vnripe sticks tree fall vnshaken mellow bee necessary forget

OE -llc; ME y-lich, lik like ME fruit; OF fruit; ftuit L fructus OE un-ripe; ME unripe unripe stick(s) tree fall unshaken mellow (ripe)

verb, present tense, OE stician, weak, 2; 3"1 person, singular, ME stiken indicative mood of stick noun, common case, singular OE trco; ME tree

verb, present tense, OE feallan, strong, 7; indicative mood of fail .ME fallen adjective / participle 2 OE +-scacen; of shake OE sc'acan, strong, 6; ME shaken adjective verb, present tense, subjunctive mood, plural of be adjective verb, present tense, indicative mood f JoEggt ME mclwe, rel. to OE melu, noun

OE beon (inf/prps. be subj. plural); ME been ME ncccssarie; OF neccssaire necessary

OE -1, strong, 5; forget OSc gefen; (we most ME (brgeten necessarily



pay ourselues debt passion propose

verb, infinitive pronoun, reflexive

noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular verb, present tense, indicative mood of propose.

forge)) ME payen, weak l/2\ to pay Ofpaier ' J OE Ore+self(ves); ourselves ME ourselves ME deile; OF dette; debt dt'bita ME passioun; passion OF passion; L passio F proposer; propose pro+poser (promise, propose to do) ending

verb, participle I of e_nd_( OE endian, weak, 2; ' ME enden (the passion absolute predicative ending) construction (nominative with the participle) doth lose violence griefe their owne verb, present tense, 3"1 person, singular, indicative mood of do verb, present tense, indicative mood of Josg noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular noun, common case, singular pronoun possessive, 3rd person plural adjective


OE don, anomal. verb; do(es) ME doon OE losian, weak, 1; ME losen ME violence; OF violence; t. violcntia lose violence (the extremes)

ME greef; OF gref, grief (taj.; L gravis Afjoyc;0Fjoie; joy l> gauqia OE hira/heara; their ME beir(e); OSc pejra OE ; ME ovven own rel, to ME enacten, verb enactments

ennactures noun, common case, plural themselues pronoun, reflexive

ME beim/them+sclves; themselves OSc peim



verb, present tense, indicative mood

ME destroyen; OF deslruire

destroy (prevent mem destroy then')


verb, present tense, ME revelen, weak, 2 3 rJ person, singular, OF reveler indicative mood of revel noun, common case, singular


lament ioyes griefes slender accedent

rel. to F lamenter, verb lament joy(s) grieve(s) slender Fcid&^ohtest (by a *Wm chance)

verb, present tense, ME joyen, weak, 2; 3rf person, singular, OF jour indicative mood of joy verb, present tense, ME greven, weak, 2; 3rd person, singular, OF grever; L gravare indicative mood of grieve adjective noun, common case, singular ME s(c)lendre; OF esclendre ME accident; OF accident

nor strange

conjunction adjective

ME ay; OSC ei/ey

OE na-hwper; ME nor ME straunge; OF estrange; L extraneus OE efne; ME evne /evene OE lufu; ME love ME fortune; OF fortune; L fortiina

(and) Strange fjjj no wonder) even love(s) fortune(s)

euen loues fortunes should change

adverb noun, common case, plural noun, common case, plural

verb, subjunctive mood OE scolde (past subj.)\ should of change MEsholde change ME chaungen, weak, 2; OF changier


question left to proue lead els=else downe

noun, common case,. singular verb, participle 2 of leave verb, infinitive

ME questioun; question OF question OE lsefan, weak, 1; left OE laft (part. 2); ME left to prove lead else down (when a great man gets down, becomes a nobody) favourite fly (leave him)

OE profian, weak, 2; ME proven verb, present tense, OE ljedan, weak, !; indicative mood of lead ME leden adverb adverb OE elles; ME elles/els OE of-dune; ME a-doune

fauourite flyes poore

noun, common case, singular verb, present tense, 3"1 person, singular, indicative mood of fly

jF/avorit OE , strong, 2; MEflyen

noun (substantivised adjective) aduaunc'd. verb, subjunctive mood of advance makes friends enemies

ME povre/poure, adj.; poor OF povre ME avauncen, weak, 2; advance(d) OF avancer (if the poor advanced, had luck) make(s) friend(s) enemy(-ies) hitherto tend (love depends on fortune)

verb, present tense, OE macian, weak, 2; 3"1 person, singular, ME maken indicative mood of make noun, common case, plural noun, common case, plural OE freond; ME trend ME enemy; OF enemi

hetherto adverb ME hider-to =hitherto. tend verb, present tense, ME tendcn, weak, 2; indicative mood of tend OF lendre




verb, present tense, OE nydan, weak, I; 3rd person, singular, ME neden indicative mood of need adverb verb, infinitive noun, common case, singular adjective verb, infinitive adverb verb, present tense, 3rd person, singular, indicative mood of season adjective ME lakken, weak, 2

need(s){u7w is not in need)

neuer lacke want hollow try directly seasons

OE nsfre; ME never(e) never lack

ME want(e); OSc vant want ret. to OE holh, noun: ME \\o\ow, adj. ME tryen, weak, 2; OF traer rei. to ME direct, adj.; OF direct ME sesounen; OF satsonner hollow (false) try directly season(s) (finds)

orderly to end bcgunne

ret. to ME brdre, noun; orderly OF ordre verb, infinitive OE cndian, weak, 2; to end ME cnden verb, participle 2 (used 0 be-3innan; begun as past tense)of begin ME bcgynnen; (began) OE be-3unnen; ME bcgunne nouri; common case, plural noun, common case, plural adjective #!wi!la;MEwillc will(s)

wills fates contrary

runne=run verb, infinitive dcuiscs noun, common case, plural

ME fate; OF fat; fate(s) L falum, ' ME contrarie; contrary OF contrarie OE rinnan, strong, 3; run ME rinnen; ME ronncn,
part. 2

Ate devys; OF devis

device(s) (plans)

TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION Still are ouertnrowne thoughts ours ends adverb verb, passive vpice, present tense; plural" of overthrow noun, comrnpn ease, plural pronoun possessive, Is'person plural noun, common case, plural verb, future tense, 2"a person, singular of wed verb, present tense, indicative mood of die pronoun possessive, 2"" person singular .<>stille;MsliIIe OE ofcr+branan, strong, 7; ME overihrowen ()t>ohl/3e-poht: ME thought OE fire; ME ours QE ende; ME ende '" Still (constantly) are over thrown

thought(s) ours end(s) (their ends are not ours)

wilt wed

QE willan, anonu verb; will wed OE wilt ipres. sine.); willen, ME wilt ^ a person, pres. sing.) ME deyen/dicn, went; die OSc deyja , (? bin; /WE thyn(e) /thy thy

die %

Key to Seminar 20 Shakespeare, Sonnet

, . , . , , , . , , . , , . , .
Translated by /L Fyodtirov

Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text Changes of spelling and sounds

Old English
Word as used
in the text 1

Middle English

New English
1 " "

Changes of spelling and sounds Old English


[e] + vocalized [y]> [el] replaced by ei/ai

Middle English


New English >



[i:] > i replaced by


> [ai]


his brand and fell



> [s]



> [a] >



> [a]

> []

[eo] onslSpe [o] > [as] > replaced by

asieep/aslepe [e:]

asleep > M > D O maid > [el] (his > [6]

> [e:] shortened before >[]


mae3den mayde(n) [x] + vocalized fy]> [ai] replaced by ay bis [8] this > [9]


advantage found love

fund(on) lufti

avauntage found love

advantage found
> []

[au] > fa:] d on analogy with Lat. ad; (prefix) [u] > [u:] before nd u replaced by ou [u] > [u] [u] > [e] u replaced by f replaced by v

> W lost in NE

fire steep quicidy

[y:] > [i:] + vocalized [r]> [] replaced by i





- lice > . - ly cw replaced by qu replaced by k/ck 397

stepe []> quykly

steep m quickly

PART 3. KEYS cold cald (Merc), ceald (WS) cold [eaj>[a]>[a:]beforeld>l:] past [as] > [0] > p replaced by sc replaced by 31-und [u] > 3 replaced by u replaced by hwile [hw] hw replaced by replaced by that [a] [9] th a ground [u:J before nd g ou cold > l u l that > [tc] > [fl]




ground > []


which > [hw]

which > [w]


> ftf]
wh ch

> Ufl holy

> lou] dateless > [ei] heat > [i:l seething > [i:] bath > [a:]



M > [o:] i3 replaced by dateless heat date+less [a:]

hsltu hete [:] > [e:] replaced by e/ea seo5an sethen |eo:J > [e:] 9 replaced by th 5 > replaced by 5 replaced by bath [a] a th




profean proven [o:] > [o:] f replaced by v

prove > [u:]


Straunge strange [au]> [a:] > [el] au replaced by a 398


my eye


> [':] >



> [ai]

lca:l > [c:]>[i:] 3 replaced by

for needs would



for need(s) > M would

> | o ] +vocalized [r]> [o:]

nyd/ned need |y:]>|e:](A'cw;> fe:] wolde


> [o:] before Id > [u:] > [u] before a dental consonant [I] lost in N13 replaced by ou


toudh breast desired thither

breost [eo:l ic


> []

bresl > fc:] I

breast > IeJ 1 > desire(d)


[i] + vocalized (> I'M desiren bider thider

[i:] +vocalized [r]>



p replaced by

> [0]


[d] in the vicinity of lr] > [o]

hied sad

[i] + vocalized [y]>[i:] 3 replaced by y/i




saed []
x replaced by

sad(e) >

sad >






[se:] > [hw] > hw replaced by replaced by 333t [se]


[e:] +vocalized |ii> [] [hw] > fw] wh e



gat > [a]>[a:]>[o:]

got > [o] before a dental consonant

[3I > [gl from OSc. 3 replaced by g

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words as used in the text Cupid laid Analysis notes noun proper OE or foreign prototype Corresponding NE word, translation Cupid (Veiws's son) laid

Lat Cupldo, CupidonTs


verb, past tense OE 1 (inf.) weak, I; OE legae (past tense, sing.); ME leide (past tense) adverb pronoun possessive, rd 3 person, singular noun, common case, singular conjunction OE be; ME be/by OE his (pronoun personal, 3"'person, sing., masculine, genitive case); ME his (pronoun possessive) OE brand; ME brand OE and; ME and

by his

by his

brand and fell asleep a

brand (torch, flare) and fell asleep a

verb, past tense OE feallan (inf.) strong, 7; OE feoll (past tense, sing.); MEM] adjective art. indefinite OE onslffipe; ME asleep /aslepe OE an; ME a/an


maid Of Dian's

noun, common case, singular prep. noun proper, genitive case pronoun demonstrative noun, common case, singular

OE madden; ME mayde(n) 0of L Diana

maid (priestess) .Of Diane's (Jupiter's daughter) this advantage found lovekindling fire did steep quickly il cold Valley. fountain that ground which borrow(ed)

this advantage found lovekmdling fire did steep quickly h cold valleyfountain that ground which borrow'd

OE pis (pronoun demonst, sing., neuter); ME this ME avauntage; OF a vantage

verb, past tense OE findan (inf.) strong, 3; OE fond; Affifand adjective OE lufu; MElove (composite) ME kindel (inf.) rel. to OSc kynd-a noun, common OEfyrjMEfir case verb, past tense OE don (inf.) anom. verb; OE dyde; ME dide ME stepe rel. to OE stiepan adverb preposition adjective rel. to OE cwic (adverb) (+lfce);AEBqUyk(+ly> OE in

OE chid (Merc), \();' Afficold noun, composite, ME valeie; OF valee common case, ME fontayne; OF fontaine; singular L fontana pronoun OE bset (se, seo); ME that demonstrative noun, common OE 3iund; ME ground case pronoun relative QShwilc; ME which verb, past tense OE bor3ian (inf.) weak, 2; OE bor3ode (past tense); ME borwian (inf.)



from holy dateless Ijvely = living heat Still to endure grew

preposition adjective adjective adjective /participle I noun, common case adverb verb, infinitive

OE fram OE \, ME holy

from holy

rel. to ME date+less (OE leas); dateless OF date/daltc; L data rel. to OE Whhan (inf.) weak, 3 (lively) living! /Hfian; AfiElyven OE hietu; MEhclc OE stille; / stille 4 cndure(n), weak 2; OF endurer: rel. to L durare heat Still to endure

verb, past tense OE 3rowari (inf.) strong, 7; grew OE 3reow (past tense sing.); ME, growen. (inf.); ME grew(e) adjective /participle I of seethe noun, common case, singular OE seocten (inf.) strong, 2; ME selhen OE bazd'; ME bath seething




yet men

adverb noun, common case, plural verb, present tense, plural

$yv, ME yel



OE man (root-stem, masculine, men i'?pj; OE men (plural); ME men OE profean weak, 2; prove (test,, ME proven OE on-jean; ME agayn ME- slraunge; OF estrange; L eselraneus F"maladie;MEmaIadie ME sovercyng; OF soverian ME cure, OF cure, L ciira OFbutan, Mfibul402 use) against Strange (difficult, severe) malady(-ies) sovereign cure but

against Strange

preposition adjective

maladies sovereign cure but

noun, common case, plural adjective noun, common case, singular conjunction



preposition pronoun possessive, 1"' person, singular

OE xl, ME at OE mm (pen. pronoun, I" person, genitive case, sing.), ME myn(e)/my

at my


love's new-fired toe boy for trial needs Would touch breast I

noun, genitive ME maystresse, mistress('s) case, singular OF maistrcsse noun, common OE , ME eye/ye eye case, singular noun, genitive OE lufu, ME love Jove('s) case (composite) OE newe (adj.), ME newe newfire(d) participle 2 of rel. to OE fyr (noun), (new) fire ME fire (noun), ME firen (verb) article definite noun, common preposition noun, common case noun, common case, plural verb, past tense of will verb, infinitive noun, common case, singular pronoun personal, Is1 person, singular adjective adverb noun, common case OE se, seo, pan ME pe, peo, past / the ME boy (origin obscure), <? for/fore, ME for rel. to ME tryen, verA, weak, 2; OF trier OE nyd, ME need OE wttan(ittf.)pret.-pres. verb, OE wolde, ? wolde ME touchen, weak, 2; OF techier OE breost, ME brest

the boy tor trial ('/z; need(s) would touch breast I

case, singular re/. ? OFris. boi/boy

sick Withal help

OE seoc, ME seek ? wi6+eal, iWE withal OE help, ME help


sick withal help


desired thither hied sad

verb, past tense ME desiren, weak, 2;_ OF desirer, L desTderare adverb G l i d e r , ME thider

desire(d) thither hie(d) (hurried poet, arch.) Sad distempered guest lie(s)

verb, past tense OE hi3ian (inf), OE hi3ede, ME hyede adjective OE seed, ME sad(e) ME distempere(d) rel. to OF distempre (noun) OE 3iest rel to OSc gestr; ME guest

distemper'd adjective guest lies Where got noun, common case, singular

pronoun OE no, ME no indefinite verb, present OE strong, 5, tense, 3"1 person, ME liggan/lyen singular adverb 0J5hwser,Mwher(e)

where got (get - inf)

verb, past tense ME geten (inf.), ME gat strong, 5; OSc geta, OE 3ytan/3etan, OE 3aet (past stem, singular) noun, common case, plural OE , OE eagan, ME eye(s)



Key to Seminar 21 Dickens, David Copperfield - ? , , , , . , . , . , . ' , , , , 3 , . , . , , , , , . . , , , , , , . , , , , , , . , , .

translated by A, Krivtsova



Phonetic analysis
Word as used in the text Old English Changes of spelling and sounds Middle English New English



> [a]

> (]

sc replaced by

> m

> m
> [ai)

ic [k'l aefre

I ttfl ever(e)

[i] + vocalized [tj> [i:]



> [e:] > [e] unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > [] replaced by e f replaced by' v



> [for] > [e] fj] replaced by [g] from Sc. 3 replaced by g [a:] [6]


> [:] > [fa] > [e]




> [o:] > [0]

tho, thos

> [ou:] > [6] > M


were by mother


weren by
> [i:]

were by
> [ai]

> [:] + vocalized [r] > [e:]


[o:] [d] [or]

> [o:] > [u:] > [] > [d] > [er] replaced by [i] from Sc. > [eri 406

> [] > [6] > [! th



swuster/suster /sister

> Is]



[a:] > to:] fhw] > fhw] hw replaced by. wh



> >


fu:]>[u| [wj


> [a] before! [wej] > [wei] ea replaced by a [u] > fu:] u replaced by ou



> [o:] > [wez]


found occcasion for giv(ing) that



> [ao]





for yivert/given
[g] from Sc.

for give that

> > fa;] [fl]

> [o] + vocalized fr] > [0:]

3yfan fat


[] > M [0] > [9] replaced by a p replaced by th


[hw] > [hw] livy. replaced by wh

hvwlc ft1]

which > 1 bane

> [w]

which >1 bane

bane our lives (pi), life


> [a:] opensyll.



[u:] > [u:] > [] + vocalized [] >[] u replaced by 6u


our life


> [i:]

> [al]




> [0:] > fz|

[] > [a] after w ls| > [s] replaced by a



home learn when


> [o:J

> [ou]


> [e] + vocalized [r] > [e:]

lemen whan

leam when


> [a] > [e] [hw] > [hw] > [w] hw replaced by wh x replaced by a replaced by e tea] fa:]



> (a] > [o:]


> [] > [ou] > [i:] > [n]



[eo:] > [e:] [kn] . > {kn] replaced by [>] >'] ae replaced by a 3 replaced by






> [el]


fat black

faet M
replaced by

fat > [a] black >,[a]


fat > M black > N shape

> [el] >

blaec N




tea] > [a]>(a:] [sk'l , '> sc replaced by ,sh

easy good

xod To:]



3 replaced by

good >'fo:]

good >.[u:]



nature seem (re)call feel(ing) walked path


nature [tj] ..semen

> fe:]


nature Ml seem

> [i:]


> [a] before

>. (o:]


> [e:]

> [i:] > [:]

[eal > [a] before Ik replaced by


, walken




> [a:] before [8]

[] > [a] x replaced by /, a .' 5 replaced by th

far book

feor boc

[eo] -

> ] [er] > [ar] > fa] + vocalfeed [r] > fa:]

..,. fer


[o:] > fo:] replaced by -


> [u:]>[u] before


cheered all death hard some



>[i:] + vocalized [r] > [is]

>' [a] before!! >


[ea:] >[] replaced by th [ea]



> [e] before [0]




> [a] f vocalized [r] > [a:]


hai-d some

[u] > [u]" . u replaced by 409



> []



mice I lk'1

michel/muchel much > [ > Ml [u] > [] believe > [i:] ie


be-lyfan bileven [y:] > [c:] replaced by f replaced by v


povre/poure /poor poor [o:] >[u:l +vocalized (r]> [us] hineself herself > [i:] + vocalized {r] > [e:] back > [ac]

herself back

here-self p:]

bsec back > [a] ac replaced by a replaced by ck

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words as used in the text lessons, letters, shapes, flowers mother's Old English forms Middle English/Early New English forms -es / - (e)s (common case, plural)

- as (n-stem declension, masculine gender, nominative/accusative plural) - e s (n-stem declension, masculine gender, genitive singular) ic (pronoun personal, I" person singular, nominative)

-es / - (e)'s (possessive case, singular)

pronouns I

(ich) i / 1 (pronoun personal, I person singular, nominative)



me, mec {pronoun me / me (pronoun personal, V person personal, /" person singular, accusative/dative) singular, objective) mm (pronoun personal, myn(e), my / mine/my I"person singular, genitive) (pronoun possessive, ]" person singular) hire, hie (pronoun personal, 3"' person singular, feminine, accusative/dative) here, her / her (pronoun personal, 3"' person singular, feminine, objective)




hie (pronoun personal, 3rd. hie, they/they person plural'nominative) (pronoun personal, 3"' person plural, nominative) him, heom (phmoun hem, them / them personal, 3"1 person plural, (pronoun personal, 3"' accusative/dative) person plural, objective) bis (pronoun demonstrative, nominative/accusative singular, neuter) fjas (pronoun danou.stijiiiiic', nominative/accusative plural) bajf (pronoun demonstrative, nominative/accusative singular, neuter) $& (pronoun demonstrative, nominative/accusative plural) an (numeral, indefinite pronoun) se, seo, baet (demonstrative pronoun)



this / this (pronoun demonstrative, singular)


thes(e) / these (pronoun demonstrative, plural)


that / that (pronoun demonstrative, singular)


tho, thos(e) / these (pronoun demonstrative, plural)


an, a (indefinite article) the (definite article)



verbs shall forget

sceal (present singular of sculan. preterite-present verb) + forsietanfstmng verb, 5 class) (free word-combimation) beon/wesan (weorjjan) + participle 2 of intransitive verbs (free ward-combinations) habban (hasfde, hsefdon) + direct object + participle 2 beon/wesan + participle 2 of intransitive verbs (free word-combinations)

shal forgeten / shall forget (analytical future tense farm) been (was, waren) + participle 2 / be (was, were) + participle 2 (analytical passive voice farms) haven (hadde) + participle 2 / have (had) + participle 2 been + participle 2 of intransitive verbs / be + participle 2 of verbs of movement (analytical perfect forms) verbal morpheme + ing (gerund) -en / (zero ending) to -en/ to {zero ending) (particle + infinitive)

were presided was kept was bewildered

had been had lived

giving learning to present to nave walked to have been cheered

verbal noun / participle 1 (overlapping of syntactic functions) -an to -enne (preposition + infinitive, declined, used in various syntactic functions) (to) beon + participle 2 (passive infinitive)

(td) ben / (to) be + participle 2 (passive infinitive) participle 2 (perfect infinitive)

(t6)han/(to)have + (to) han been/(to) have

been 4 participle 2 (perfect passive infinitive)


Regular and irregular verbs used in the text

Words used in the text regular verbs Old English Middle English

believe leam live

belyfan (weak, 1) leornian (weak, 2) libban (weak, 3)

presiden (F)
biliven lernen lyfen

look seem
use walk

locian (weak, 2) seman (weak, l)

loken semen

meaning influenced by Sc. usen (F) wealcan (strong, 7) walken

bewilder (re)call cheer succeed puzzle irregular verbs shall forget were
find give

bewildrian (weak, 2) -ceallian (weak, 2) sceal, o/sculan


bewildren (re)callen cheerenfFJ succeeden (F) apposailen (etym. doubtful) shal foryeten / forgeten
f-geten under the influence

for-3ietan (strong, 5) wseron, past plural of wesan (strong, 5/ suppletive)

findan (strong, 3) 3ifan (strong, 5)

o/ScJ weren

finden yuven / gyven fgy ven under the influence ofSc.)


cepan (weak, 1)



can have (had) bring

can, present singular of can Clinnan (preterite-present) habban (weak, 3), ha?fde, haven, hadde past singular (anomalous) bryngen

Principal forms of the verbs used in the text

OE wesan/beon ME been be
OE ME NE OE ME NE OE ME NE OE ME NE OE ME NE OE ME NE OE ME NE OE ME NE findan finden find 3jefan given give cepan kepen keep habban haven have bringen bring

waes was was

fand fond 3eaf gav(e) gave cepte kept(e) kept haefde hadd(e) had brohte. brought(e) brought

waeron weren were

ftindon founden found 3eafan geven

weren been been

ftmden founden found 3Jfen given given cept kept kept ha?fd hadd had broht brought brought cunnen/cud . couth /i-coua belyfod behved believed learnod lemed learned/ learro

cunnan cude (can- pres. sing.) connen couthe can (pres. sing.) could belyfan belyfode behven behved(e) believe believed learnian lemen learn

learnode lerned(e) learned/learnt




Iibban liven live locian looken look

lifde lived(e) lived locode looked(e) looked

~ -

lifd lived lived. locod looked looked

Bofwwedwprdsjised in the text

Scandinavian they < jDeir tnem<.beim both < babe (mis)called, (re)called < ceallian (see word-hybrids) French lesson < OF lcssoun L lectionem favourable < F, XIV Miscellaneous apt < L opius alphabet < L alpabetum Gk pVa

occasion < OF occasioun -Loecasionem reluctance < L reluct " '" + F -ance (see wordpurpose < OF pourpos hybrids) - L propositum puzzle < ME mister ,< OFmaistre apposailen (etyni. doubtful) nominal < F nominal L nominalis present < OF present - L prasscntfaintly < OF fcindre - L fingcre primer < OF primer - L primus novelty < OF novelte - L nouellitatem easy < OF ese nature < OF nature - L natura numerous < F miniewux, L numerosus + F ous (see word-hybrids)


crocodile < F crocodile - L crocodTlus - Gk 80

contrary < OF contrarie

- L contrarius flower< OF flour - L florem preside < F presider (XV c.) - L prjesiderc manner < OF maniere - L maneria disgust < F desgouster (XVI c.) - L ais+gustare voice < Anglo-French voice, cf. OF vois grievous < OF grever (v) - L grauare very < OF verai - L uerus misery < OF miserie - L miserari gentleness < OF gentil - L gentilis (see word-hybrids) use < OF user - L usare cheer < OF chere - L cara succeed < OF succeder - L succedere remember < OF remembrer - L rememorarf

really nominally firmness real (F) + ly (native, OE lie; nominal (t) + ly (native, OE He) firm (L) + ness (native, OE nis;



faint (F) + ly (native, OE hcj

good-nature(d) good (native) + nature (F) recall drudgery gentleness themselves generally reluctance miscall(ed) perfectly unintelligible re (L) + call (Sc) drudge (native) + ry (F) gentle (F) + ness (native, OE nis) them (Sc) + selves (native) general (F) + ly (native, OE lie; reluct (L) + ance (F) mis (native) + call (Sc) perfect (F) + ly (native, OE llcj un (native, OE unj + intelligible (F)

Tart 4. Glossary

A University Scholar
Source: The New University Lilmity. 197$


The words in the Dictionary are given in the usual alphabetical order; the letters a, ae and a are treated as the same letter a; the letters g and 3 - as g; the letter b (d) follows t. For ease of reference the alphabetical order is shown on the top of each odd page.

Principal abbreviations and symbols

adj.-adjective adv. adverb anom. - anomalous art. - article cf. - confer, compare . - comparative conj. - conjunction ENE - Early New English F French fem. feminine OFris - Old Frisian gen. - genitive G k - Greek imit. -imitative indef.-indefinite L - Latin masc. masculine ME-Middle English n. - noun N E - New English neut. - neuter num.-numeral -Old English O F - O l d French OSc -Old Scandinavian part.-participle prep. - preposition pron. - pronoun superl. - superlative v. str. - strong verb v. weak - weak verb > - developed into < - developed from 0 - phrases and word-combinations with the vocabulary entry as the head word


chemist in his laboratory


, own, adj.; OE a?enst. against, prep.; ME; < OE - a g e v n . again, adv.; ME; < OE - ^ ^ 3, either (either ... or), conjJpron.;OE al=ail, all, pron. indef. ; ME; < alas, interjection, NE; < ME/OF alas 0 a! las = wretched that I am! selc. each, pron. indef, sing.; OE all, pron. indef; NE; < OE eal; ~Mal/alle a l l o w , v.; NE; < ME alowen; OF alouer alone, adv.; NE< ME al one, aloon along, prep.; NE; < OE andlang; ME along alphabet, .; NE; < L alpabetum; Gk c&cpa also, also, adv.; ME; < OE eal-swa always, adv.; NE; < OE ealne-we3; ME alwey am, see be; NE an, on (in), prep.; ME; < OE an=on an, one, numJadj.;OE analysis. /,; NE; < L analysis

annotacioun, annotation (note), .; M; < L annotatio anon, anon (at once), adv.; ME; <
0 E On Sn

anofcer, another, pron. indef.; ME; < OEan+oser antique, adj.; NE; < F antique; ~^uus , pron. indef.; NE; < OE aeni3;
ME a n y


apayred, impaired, adjJpart. 2, see empeiren a Payrynge, impairing, verb, ., see em eiren P ^ l e , (excellent),adj.;OE agt, adj.; NE; < L aptus jgr, ere (till then), adv.; OE arcebiscop, archbishop, ., masc, a-stem; OE arcestob (archiepiscopal seat), ., masc, a-stem; OE archbishop, archbishop, .; ME; < 0 E ^rc-bisC0P are, see be; NE argument, .; NE; < ME argument; 0 F af gument M i a n , arise, v.,str. 1;OE ^ , array, n,ME; < OF arrai

and, , MEJNE; < OE and andjang, along, prep.; OE andswarian, answer, v., weak 2; _ , . , . Eenig, any, pron. Dirfe/!; OE

j c l e . .; NE; < L articulus ar-pam-pe. (before), conj.; OE ^ a S j adjJconJA <0 E eai.SWa ME. as, conj.; NE;<OE eal-swa; ME as ' J

asham'd. adj.; NE; < rel. to OE scamian, v., weak 2; ME shamen asleep. adj.;NE; < OE on-slaJp; ME on sleep, asleep asleepe. see asleep, ENE at, at, prep.; ME, NE; < OE xt avauntage. advantage, .; ME, < OF avantage aventure. adventure (happening), .; ME; < OF aventure; L adventura away, away, adv.; ME; < OE on-we3 awyrgan, (curse, damn), v., weak 2; OE

set, at, prep.; OE ,, _ ' , . , ave, ever, adv.; NE; < ME ay; OSc aethnnan. (touch, move), v., str. 1; / J OE aught, (anything), pron.; NE; < OE a-wiht; aht; ME aht, aght, aught



read baking

b a e o b o r d . back board (barboard, port side), ., neut., a-stem; OE back, adv.; NE; < OE base; ME bak bad, adj.; NE; < ME badde; OE ban, bone, ., neut., a-stem; OE bancke. bank (bed), .; NE; < ME banke band, .; NE; < ME band; 5c band bane, .; NE; < OE bana; ME bane bank, bank, .; ME; < F banque base, adj.; NE; < ME bas; OF bas base, v.; NE; < F baser bath. .; NE; < OE ; ME bath bathen, bathe, v., weak 2; ME; < OE badian be. by (along), prep.; OE be. v. anom.; NE; < OE beon; ME been bead, see be-beodan; OE beah, see ; OE

be-beodan. bid (order, command), v.,str.2;OE bebude. see be-beodan; OE bed, .; NE; < OE bed; ME bed/ bedde bee, see be, v. ENE been, be, suppl. v.; ME; < OE beon beef), (are), see been befealdan. fold (cover), v., str. 7; OE beforan. before, adv./prep.; OE


OE beforan; ME biforen, biforn

adv./prep.; NE; <

begge, beg, v., ENE; < ME beggen, v., weak 2; OF begger, noun begin, v.; NE; <; < OE be-3innan, v., str. 3; ME begynnen begitan, beget (get, obtain, find), v., str. 5; OE begunne. part. 2 (may be used as past tense), see begin, ENE behind, adv.; NE; < OE be-hindan; ME be-hynden

a(a,e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t- J b(d)-u-v-w-x-y-z
beHeue, see believe, ENE believe, v.; NE; < OE be-lyfan, v., weak 1; MZ? bileven belike, (probably, evidently), modal word, ENE; < rel. to OE -llc, adjective; ME y-lich J J birth, .; NE; < OE -byrd;
> birthe

bJSCOp, bishop, ., masc, a-stem; OE bishop, bishop, .; ME; < OE biscop ,, , ,. .. _ , . ,, , 4 ; NE; < OE blac, bl<ec; MEblak -+ ., , _ , bletsian. bless, v., weak 2; OE , blessing, n.fem., o-stem;

belou'd. beloved, part. 2, see love, EHE -. north (northwards), Ot/ advJprep.; OE beon. be, v., anom. (pres. t. sing. ^ blissful, adj.; ME; < rel. to o t b h s beo, bist, bis; pi. beon; past t. ' " wass, etc. - see wesanj; OE blow, .; NE; < ME blowe (origin b e r e n . bear, v., str. 4; ME; < obscure) OE beran boga, bow, n. masc, n-stem; OE beseech, v.; NE; < OE besecan, v., weak 1; ME besechen book, .; ME, NE; < OE boc; ME book

beste. best, adj., superl. degr., see bore, see beren ; ME good , borrow, v.; NE; < OE bor3ian, v., beswican. (deceive, betray), v., weak 2; ME borwen str.l;OE , ,,_ borrow'd, adj. I part. 2 of borrow, besynesse. business , .; Mb; < NE;seehorrow OE bisi^nes , _ , . both, pron.; NE; < ME babe; beteecan. (put in trust), v., weak 1, { S c irreg. ; OE > rel. to NE teach , ._, , , boy, .; NE; < ME boy (origin beteehte, v., past t.; see betscan; obscure), rel. to OFris. boi/boy , , , brand, (torch, flare); .; NE; < betst. best, adj. /adv., superl. degr., Q E b r a n d ; b r a n d see 3od; OE , .,j , , -,J breake, break, v., ENE; < bewilder v.; NE; < OE bewildnan, , v., str. 4; ME breken v., weak 2; ME bewildren . ., , . . , . , , , breast, .; NE; < OE breost, bldan, bide (wait), v., str. 1; 0 iiffibrest b i f a l l e n , befall (0 bifil - i t so b r e e f e , brief, ,/;., ; < happened , v., str. 7; M^; < M breef; OF brief; L brevis OE be-feallan bjgyjmen,begyj2nen,begm,v.,,m breeth, b r e a t h '.;-,< 3; ME; < OE be-3innan 425


breken, break, v>., str. 4; ME; < OE brecan brest, see breast, ., ENE . -i ,_t , b r ^ e r , ., see brobor; OE b r i l ^ v.;NE; <Obrin3an,onom. v.; M bryngen , bring, v., .--; OE
b r

burh, borough (town, castle), ., fem., root-stem; OE buruhwaru, (citizens of a town), ., fem., 5-stem; OE > rel. to ^ b'orough birth M E <0 E 3 e . b y r d / sTbyrdu ^ conj. m m . < QE

^ F d K a S t . '4- NElft E< b r 5 d ' bQtan, bflton, but,conj.;OE ME brood, adj. + ME casten, v.; ' OSc kasta buy, v.; NE; < OE , v., weak b r o c h e . brooch, .; ME; < /; M buggen, biggen 0broche bjl, prep./adv.; NE; < OE bl, be; brochure. .; NE; < rel. to ME also bz F brocher, v. bycause = (by) cause, because,

1, brough, ,,m , Pl, m


** *

; Oh br&orMoth^rmscr-stennOE brjC3,bridge,.,fem.,o-stem;OE bflan, (stay, inhabit), v.,anom.\OE bude. v., past t. sing. Ind. or sub]. mood; see buan; OE b u g a n , bow (curve, subjugate, surrender), v., str. 2; OE bugon, v.,pl.,pastt.;see;OE

(bjd, incline, subject), v.. b y g y n n y n g e . beginning, verbal noun, see bigynnen byr(e), (time, period), /;., i-stem orjustem; OE by rig, /?., dat. sing.; see burh; OE


arpenter with his tools of trade

can, can (know), see connen; ME cheere, cheer, ., ENE; < , n . ME cheer; OF chere can, v. modal, NE; < OE cunnan (inf), can (pres. sing.), pret.-pres.; chekyr, (exchequer, .; ME; < ME can OF eschequier cart, .; NE; < OE erst; rel. to cherch, church, .; ME; < OSc kartr OE cirice; Gk c a s e , .; NE; < ME cas, caas; child, child,.;ME; < OEcild OF cas; L casus children, children, ., pi.; ME; < c a s k e t , .; NE; < Span casco, OEcMvu confused with F cassette (small c h i t e r e n c h i r p ? v-> w m k 2. ME. < box ) (imit.) cepan, keep (guard), v., weak 1; OE c h i t e r v n g e c h i r p i n g f gemnd> s e e certain, adj.; NE; < OF certein, chiteren certain; L certus + stiff, -anus citation, .; NE; < ME citacion; change, v.; NE; < ME chaungen, i'., L citation weak 2; OF changier dz'd = MA, part. 2; see size, ENE , .; NE; < ME chapitte c l e m e n c j e > c l e m e n c y > ENE < chapitre; OF chapitre, tia Lclemen L capitulum, cf. L caput i . . . .7. ^ clepen. (call, summon), v., weak 2; c h a " m u b r t ' c ^ m b e r ' "" ; ME' < ~ < OE clipian > re/, ro OF chambre;L camera yclept, arf/ { * " | ' c I ? a n S e - v., weaft 2; ME; d e ; c l e r g v , clergy, /.; ME; < < OF changwsr OFclergie;Z,clericus cheer, y.; /V; < c/. ME cheere, f?F chiere, n.


clypian, (call), v., weak 2;0E> to NE yclept, adj.


concern, v.; NE; < F concerner; L concernere conceven, conceive, v., weak 2; ME; < OF concevir; L concipere COndicioun, condition, .; ME; < OF condicion confederate confederate, adj.; ME; < L confoederatus confident, adj.; NE; < L confident confound. v.,; NE; < ME confounden; F confondre; L confundere COMien, can (know), v., pret.-pres.; ME; < OE cunnan conquer, v.; NE; < ME conqueren; OF conquerre; L conquirere c o n q u e s t , conquest, .; ME; < OF conqueste

c n a w a n , know (recognise), v., strong 7; OE COCUr. (case for arrows), n. masc, astem; OE coffer, .; NE; < ME/OF cofre; L cophinum; Gk kdqnvocr cold, adj.; NE; < OE cald (Merc), c^d(WS); ME cold c o l l a b o r a t e , v.; NE; < rel. to F collaborer; L collaborare collect, v.; NE; < OF collecter; L collectare come, v.; NE; < OE cuman, v., str. 4; ME comen c o m e n , come, v., str. 4; ME; < OE cuman command, v.-.NE: <Fcommander, L commendare compaignye. company, .; ME; < OFcompanie comparable, adj.; NE; < rel. to F comparer, v.; L comparare + OF -able; L -abilis

L considerabilis

adj.; NE; <

construccioun, construction

(interpretation), .; ME; <



L comparatlvus

adj.; NE; <

COmpellen, compel, v., weak 2; ME;<OF compeller compile, v.; NE; < F compiler; Lcompflare COmutuall, mutual, adj., ENE; < Fcom-;OF-mutuel;Imutuus c o m y n g , coming, verb, noun / gerund, see comen; ME comyxtioun, mixture, .; ME; < OF commistion

construct. v.;NE; <L construct construen. construe, v., weak 2; ME; <L construere < ME conteinen; c o n t a m , v . ; NE; OFcontenir contrary, adj.; NE; < ME contrarie; OF contrarie c o n t r a y , country, .; Mb, < OF contree .; NE; < c n n v e r S a t i o n . ME conuersacion; OF conversation; L conversation corage, courage (heart), .; ME; < OF corage; rel. to L cor


a(a,e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(5)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-j[3(6)--u-v-w-x-y-z corpora, . plur.; see corpus; NE

corpus, .; NE; < L corpus cost, cost, .; ME; < rel. to OF coster, v.; L constare count, v.; NE; < ME counten, v., weak 2; OF conter; L computare cours. course, .; ME; < OF cours; L cursus COuthe. (un)couth (well-known, hallowed), part. 2, see connen; ME; < OE cunan; OE cradel. cradle, .; ME; < OE cradol crocodile, .; NE; < F crocodile; L crocodilus; Gk croppe, crop, ., pi.; ME; < OE crop cuman, come, v., str. 4; OE
CUntre, country, .; ME; <

OF countree

cure, .; NE; < ME cure, OF cure, L cura CWae5, quoth (obs., said), v., past t. sing.; see cwe6an; OE cwaedan. (say), v., str. 5; OE CVnin5, king, ., masc, a-stem; OE . cir, char, chore (odd job), ., masc, i-stem; OE > rel. toNE char in charwoman cyrran, char (do a turn of work, perform), v., weak 1;OE> rel. to NE char in charwoman cyssan, kiss, v., weak 1; OE


octor visiting his patients

d a g , day, ., masc, astern; OE daily, adj.; NE; < OE ds 3 -lic; MEdayly data, .; NE; < ME/OF date; L data d a t e l e s s , adj.; NE; < rel. to

depend, v.; NE; < OF dependre; Pendere description, .; NE; < rel. to f* ^ ^ * ;0 F ^ ^ ' ' L descrTbere . NV. . ME d e s i f e n v., !

L d e

day, , ME, NE; < OE d , 3 ; ^ w ^ ^ < < ^ ^ ME also dffii destrutre dead, dead, adj.; OE destruccioun destruction, .; ME; J ' <OF destruction death, n.;NE;<OEde*s;MEdeth < d e t e r m i n e > v.; NE; deaw., dew, n. masc/neut, wa-stem; ME determynen, v., weak 2, OE OF determiner debt, .; NE; < ME dette; OF dette; deth, death, .; ME; < OE dea6 L debita deuise. device (plan), ., ENE; < decline, (bend aside), v.; NE; < ME devys; OF devis
y f fdeclmaren e " ' F L -HS deCUner;


date/datt; L d3ta +


devout,y o tdevout, adj.; ME; < QF d e


w n S 5 f, ;


* dewsen. devise (say, describe), v., "

OF defense; L defensa ~ ^ 2 ; M; < OF deviser degree, degree, n.;ME;< OF d&gr6t; d e v e n die v w e a J f e ; M?; < Lde+gradus fejeyia deorwurde, dearworth (precious), dictionary, .; NE; < L dictionarius adj; OE

a(a,e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-{3(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z die, v.; NE; < ME deyen/dien, v., dorston. dare, v., past t. pi., (see weak; OSc deyja durranj; OE different, adj.: NE: < F different: dosen, dozen, .; NE; < L different(em) ME dosayn; OF dosaine d i r e c t l y , adv.; NE; < rel. to doth, does, see do, ENE ME direct, of/; OF direct .; NE; < ME doute; d o u b t . disavauntage. disadvantage. /;.: OF doute ME; < OF disavantage downe. down, adv., ENE; < OE ofdiscomfort. .; NE; < dune; ME a-doune ME disconforten, v., weak 2; d r a w e n d r a w , v < OF desconforter 0dra 3 an; 0 draw after - imitate disgust ; ; < / desgouster; d r i h t e n { . , d) fl. Ldis+gustare Sl^OE -Stemper'd, g ; ; < drmcan, drink, v.,^-.J;OF MF distempere(d) re/, to ' OFdistempre,. droghte, drought, /.; ME; < u3 d i s t r o y e n . destroy, v., weak 2; MF; < OF distruire drudgery, .; NE; < rel. to OE distrust, v.; NE; < ME dis- + trust, *%&* v - ^ 2 ; M + /., rel. to OSc traust, /. A , - j j duke, duke, /;.; MF; < OF due; do, v.; NF; < OE don, anomal. v.; ^Ux MF doon J * ,,^/. J * d u m b e , dumb, adj., ENE; < doctor, .; NE; < ME/OF doctour; 0 Fdurnb; ME domb L doctor , , durran. dare, v.. pret.-pres.: OE doe, do, v., FiVF; see do ^ . . . . . . dweller, dweller, .; ME; < rel. to dommacioune, domination, .; OEdwelkn v ME; < OF dominacion; L dominatio dydon, did, v., past t., pi. (see d5n;; don, do, v., anom.; OE , dyme, dime (one-tenth). /;.: ME; < I / r n>,j.n doon, do, anom. v.; ME; < OE don " ^ F d i s m e ; L decima doone, done, part. 2; see do, ENE


0 E

mily - a personification of spring

, (river), n.Jem., root-stem (anom.); , eke (also, as well), adv.; OE eadmedan. (show submission), v.. ^aTVOE ea^e,eye,n.neut.,n-stem;OE *-' J eald, old,flflf/.(. yldra; sup. yWeSt;; E ealdian, (grow) old, v., weak 2; OE ealdorman. alderdman, (chief), ., masc, root-stem; OE eall. all,pron. indef. sing.; OE ealle. pron. indef., pi. (see eallj; OE ealne W J , always, adv.; OE egril, adjJadv, NE; < OE a>rllce; ME erly eart,^wesan;OE east, east, adv.; OE

easy, adj.; NE; < ME esy; OF ese

ech. each, pron. indef.; ME; < OE %\c , , , , , -~ 5 eek. eke (too), adv.; ME; < OE eac . . . . . , , .,. np > eft, (again, afterwards), ?v.; CiJ > rel. to NE after , , , . . ni? UPSejs = else, adv.; NE; < OE ell, M elles/els embrace, v.; iV; < M embracen, v., weak 2; OF embracer empeiren, impair, v., weak 2; ME; < OF empeirer employ. v.\ NE; < F employer enable, v.; NE; < ME enablen, en- +
0 Fable;L habilis


"^ ' < 0

e n d e n

end, v.; NE; < OE endian, v., weak I, ^ > e n d ' "' ; ME' < 0 Ldurare
e n e m v E

eastryhte, east right (to the east),

eastwerd, eastward, (eastwards),
adv 0E


NE- < ME enemy;



a(a,a3)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-^(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z engendren, engender,.v., weak 2; esterne. Easter, .; ME; < ME; < OF engendrer; L ingenerane OE Eastru ennacture. (enactment),' ., ENE; < etan, eat, v., str. 5; OE rel. to ME enacten, v.; NE enact ^ ^ ^ ^ < Q enough, adv.; NE; < OE 3enoh, ME evne/even(e) ; ME inoh, enogh ^ ^ ady. m < QE _ f r e . ^ f2, Ot entrer - O F ^
entre E

^ ^

" "" Wmk

e v e r i c h o n

< QE

- ^r e -J c Pron. indef, -f

enterprise, .; NE; < OF enterprise ^ ^ p w n . . < eode. (went), v. anom., past t., see OE asfre n 0E 3* '> evyr. ever, adv.: ME: < OE eefre eojn, e wesan; O experiens. experience, .; ME; < eorl, earl, (chief), ., masc, a-stem; OE OF experience eorde, earth,n. fern.,n-stem; OE , , . ,. er, ere (before), adv/conj.; ME; < OExr ere, see our, OE i , v /? 1 erles. earl, .; ME; < OE eorl ~ ___ ,. erlj:, early, adv.; ME; < OE aer-lice esen. ease, v., weak 2; ME; < OF eser expressen, express, v., weak 2; ME;<OFexpresser;Lexpressare extremme. extremity, ., ENE; < ME extremytee; OF extremite _ SS& .; NE; < OE ea^, ME eye/yo ^~ _ eyther. either, cow..ENE: < OEhwe5er; ME either



riar- a pillar of his Order

faeder, father, . masc, r-stem; OE faintly, adv.; NE; < ME feint; OF feint + ly (OE licj

fauourite, favourite, ., ENE; <

MF favorit; Lfau6fem

ad,, ENE; < OE

favourable, adj. ;NE;<OF favour; L f*3er; ** ^ 0&L*

Mth, 7;< ME feith; OF feid;

OI t a v o u r t a v o r L fides; 0 ri.; by my faith! ' fain M l , v.; NE; < OE feallan, v., 5. 7 ^ ' ' * ; ^ ! < E f ^ n ME fallen fe, fee, .; ME; < OE feoh; OF fe f a l l e ( n ) . fall, v., str. 7; ME; < feare. fear, ., ENE; < OE fSr; 0 feallan ME feet fandian. (explore, try, prove), v., weak feare, fear, v., ENE; < OE , V:-. 2; OE weak 1; ME feren

^ ^ ^ " "^ ^ '


ar,adj./adv.;NE;<OEfeor;MEkr faran. fare (go, travel), v., str. 6; OE

f e a t u r e , .; NE; < ME feture,

featUre; OF


f fare, v.; NE; < OE faran, v., str. 6; > >adJ-'0E ME faren feeling, .; NE; < rel. to OE felatt, , see fa, ENE v., weak 1; ME Men fat nAi MF- * nv ten- M P <v fel, (skin, hide), n. neut., a-stem; OE tat, adj.,Nb,< Ub rastt; Mb tat r ^ (Q NE f e e j < fate F ; 13 ^^' '' fe ' (^my),adjyadv.;OE jy-. . r . felaweshipe, fellowship,.; ME; < tffitniS, fatness,n.fem.,jo-stem; OE O~ScWaS~


a(a,s)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-.j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-jj(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z fellow. n.\ NE; < ME fellawe; rel. to follow, v.; NE; < OE fo^ian, v., weak Sc felagi 2; ME followen feor, far,adv.;OE fonden, (try), v., weak 2; ME; < "miMer, four, num.; OE <W flndian f e m e , (old, far-off), adj, ME; < MJor (because of), co,ijSPrep,;OE, OE fyrn ' iWfi, * ^.u * M. J- **r? forbeden, forbid, v., str. 2; ME; < , farther, further, adj.; ME; < OEfor-kodm OE feor; fyrra (comp. degree) fest, feast, .; ME; < OF feste; ferdon, (destroy), v.; J e e do; ^ L festa forget v.; NE; < OE for-3ytan, v., trt r,-, str. 5; OSc geten; ME forgeten III, five, num.; OE fj f - ntx _. t , ~.t ,. former, a<//.; ME; < (? forma; tlttene. fifteen (one-fifteenth), /ZHHI.; M/? former ME; < OE fif-tyne " . , .._, __, ,. , fortune, .; A^g; < ME fortune; hM, v. NE; < OE findan; 6F fortune; fortuna ME fynden findan, find, ,,st,3;OE todb, toth. o*.;OT fire, ,^;<^ryr;Mfir ^MmU, ^),conj,OE firmness. , iV^; < ME, OF ferme; ferfean, (because), c . n ; , ^ Lfirmus+ 0 # -nisj forward, forward, n.; ME; < OE fore~ . , , , weard Iirrest. farthest, adv., superl. d.; see fio7; OE foul, foul (ugly), adj.; ME; < OE ful first, num. / adj. /adv.; ME, NE; < fountain, n.; NE; < ME fontayne; OE fyrst; ME also firste OF fontaine; L fontana fiscad. fiscod, (fishing),., /nflJC, a- foure, four, ;iwn.; Af; < OE feower rt'w; ^ ^ fowel. fowl (bird),.; M; <OE firjol jSote, float (fleet),., majc., ^; f^^^ {tomtprep_. 0E OE fre uenCV L f a flour, flower, n,ME;<OF flour q ' "-; ^ <ME r e c l u e n t iF ;

OF flour; Lflorem,ace. of flos fl^e,fly,v., O f t < Otf fleo3an, , , ^ ^ "* < E f r 5 o n d ; str. 2; ME flyen fitlfi, folk (people), ., M t . a ^ . ; to, torn,prep, ME; <0E Mm OE from, advJprep.; OE, ME, NE; < folk. n.;ME,m<OB folc OE also fAm

flower. .; NE; < ME flour; k f f J T ' ""

' <



fruite. fruit, ., ENE; < ME fruit; function, .; NE; < F fonction; OF fruit; L fructus L functio frum-cenneda, (first-born), adj.; fyllan. fill (completely satisfy), v., OE weak h OE fill, full (most, very), adj/adv.; ME; < fyrd. (army, military expedition), ., OEM fem.,i-stem;OE , full, adj.; OE full, adj.; NE; < OE, ME ful fjjvg, five, num.; ME; < OE fif

unfire diagram

gan. go, v. anom. (past t. - eodej; g e m a r t y r o d , part. 2; see OE 3emartyriart; OE garren. (growl), v., weak; ME;< rel. general adj.; NE; < OF general; to Lgeneralis gather, v.; NE; < OE 3aderian, v., generally, adv.; NE; < OF general; weak 2; ME gaderen L generalise OE lie 3 | a , yea (yes), particle; OE gentilMman. gentleman, .; ME; < /. F gentilhomme _ , year, ., neut., a-stem; OE , . ; . , gentle, adj.; NE; < OF gentil; g e a r w i a n . (make ready, make, ^ gen tilis clothe), v., weak 2; OE A1 gentleman, e gentle, man ^ebl^ed. see bv^an; OE *~ ., n r .., ** , J ' i gentleness. .; ; < OF gentil; ^ebogen. part. 2; see ; OE XgentTlis + (? nis gebfln. part. 2; see bQan; OE gecneow. see cnawan; OF, gedruncen. see drincan; OE qeeadmedun, see eadmedan; OE Seferen, part. 2; see faran; 0 * , see fyllan; O SeSEipian, see 3rapian; O Sehlrde, see hyran ; gemartyrian. martyr, v, weak 2; OE > rel. to NE martvr gere. year, /.; Affi1; < OE gerly. yearly,flrfv.;ME; < OE 3Sai- +

s e s e a h saw, v., past t., sing.; see seon; OE g e s g o n . s e e s6on; 0 ? e s e t t a n . set, v., weak V; g e . s i ? I a n , s a i I ,,,, 1; OE ^ ^ > ^



get, v.;iVE;<03ytan/3etan, v.,str. 5; OSc geta; ME geten 5efoeode. (language), ., neut., jastem; OE 3if, if (except), conj.', ME; < OE 3 if

grateful, adj.; NE; < OF grat-; L gratus + - ful (E) graunten, grant, v., weak 2; ME', < OF graanter, creanter; L creantare, K; credentia >"


3 i s ^ (hostage), ., masc, astern;


^Veef'' ^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ .


< 0 E

' ^

311, (givehostages),., , ^ 2 ;
2ive vNE-< OE ^ifan v 5-

griefe> 8rief' "-

< ^


glad, *; m < OE 5; ME glad

go. v.; ^; < OE , suppl.; MB goon f&i^ 3Od, god, masc, a-steml OE 5od. good, arf/. {decrees of .: betera, betst); OE good, good, adj./.; ME, NE; < OE 3od; betst (superl. degree) g o o d l y , goodly, adj.; ME; < OE 3od-Hc goon, go, verb, anom. v.; ME; < OE^an gramer, grammar, .; ME; < OF graniraaire; L grammatica; Gk ) 5 r 5 p i a n . grope (touch, feel by. touch), v., weak 2; OE

^ '

- ^ f

OF grever; Lgravare grievous. ^.; MJ; < rZ. OF grever, v.; L grauare -. grisbayting. grist biting (gritting of teeth), .; ME; < OE 3rist-betun3 g r o u n d , .; NE; < OE 3 n d ; ME ground grow, v.:NE; < OE?rowan, v., str. 7; ME growen g u e s t .; NE; < OE 3iest; rel. to OSc gestr; ME guest g u i d e , v.; NE; < ME gyden; OF guier; F guider


habban. have, v., weak3; OE had, see han, haven ; ME.. hadde. had, see haven

harrynge. (with rolling "r"), gerund, see harren

hart heart, ., ENE; < OE theorte; ME herte haefde, had; see habban; OE hasten, hasten, v., weak 2; ME; < halve, half,aclj.;ME;,<OEhmlf "' OF haster halwe. hallow, (saint), .; ME; < hath, see have, ENE OEhal^a . . ,' haue, see have, ENE. ham, home, n.,ntosc, a-stem; OE have, v.; ; < OE habban; v., wea/c han. haven, have, v., weak 3;>ME; 3; ME haven ., <Ohabb.an .. haven, have, v.. weak 3: ME: < hand, hand, n.fenu u-stern; OE O habban : hand, .:NE\ < \MEhond haven, n.\NR\ < OE haifan, ' hasfene; ME havene handjign, handle, v., weaA; 2; OE . , ., he, he, /?ran. pera. (. hme, a/. haply, (probably), &"., ; < rel. , him, *ei*. hisj; OE . to hap, noun; OSc happ . he, he, pron. pars.; ME, NE; < happy, adj.; NE; < rel. to ME hap, QE he ""SchapP head, .; NE; < OE hSafod; h a r d , adj.; NE; < OE heard; i heed ME hard healdan. heoldon. hold, v., str. 7; harme. harm, .; ME; < OE hearm QE harren. (speak with rolling "r"), v., healf, half, n.Jem., o-stem; OE . weak; ME; < (imit.)


health, .; NE; < OF , hS15u;

ME h d t h e

here, adv.; NE; < OE her; ME heer here, their, pron. pass., pi; ME; < 02?hira,heora,hiera,hyra . _ u . 7- <

hearing, gerund/verbal .; NE; < rel. to OE hyran, v., weak 1; or

OEhyrin3)n,MEhering(e),. 1 ^ 5: ; S h^2f h e r C n i a n '

v.,weak2,MEbatea heat, .; NE; < OE hstu; ME hete h e a v e n , .; NE; < OE heofon, hefon; ME heuen hed. head, .; ME; < OE heafod heeje = he4L;V2? heele. heel,.; M; < 1 hgere, here, adv., ; < OE her; ME heer heeth. heath,.; ME; < heir, .; NEj < ME/OF heir; L herem, heredem held, held, see holden,; M hebrt.;^;<Ohelp,MEhelp

**%&? V" " ^ ' ' heretik. heretic, .; ME; <

" ^ " h e r e t i q u e ; L haereticus; GA: aipenKo? herself, pron. reflex.; NE; see her, + OE, ME, NE self hetherto. hitherto, adv., ENE; < OE, ME hider-to , Me ( t h e y ) , / ; ^ . ^ ^ ; ^ ^ ' hither'adv- 0 E vr.p. hie, (hurried - poet, arch.), v., hye6& < 0 E h i 3 i a n ('& ME b t a , (their),pron.per*.,seebM*, , p/wi. pen.; ME, ;.< OB him,

hme,(him),pr O n.pm.;^h5;^

feelphan1P' " ' " - ^'


, (their)^^./,^,,^^,!^ , heir, P , Pos,, pi, ME; <

> h i s ' p r o n ' p e r s A s e e '> _, . his, his, pron. poss., masc; ME, NE;
< 0 E h i s (prO7h perS }


? b * h T m ' ' O T - * ''


OE hyra/hira hke^Pro,per*,seeMo;OE

heofon, heaven, n. masc, astern; OE her, (their), pron. pers.; ME; < OE hie her, pron. pers.; NE; < OE hire; ME her(e). herd, heard, see heren,; ME here, (army), ., masc.Ja-stem; OE

' hit, it, pron. pers. (dot. him, genhis ); O i ? ' . _, hlaf, loaf (bread), n. masc, a-stem; Oh hlaefdfoe, lady, n.,fem., n-stem; OE hlaford, lord,., masc, astern; OE


_a(a,^)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-|3C5)-u-v-w.-x-v-z hlvstan. listen, v., weak 1; OE huntod, (hunting), ., masc, a-stem; OE

hold, v.; NE; < OE healdan, v., str. 7; ME heold(en) husband, .; NE; < OE hus-bond; ME husbonde; OSc hiisb6ndi h o l d e n . hold, v., str. 7; ME; < OE healdan hwaelhunta, whale hunt(er), (whaleman), ., masc, n-stem; OE hollow, adj.; NE; < rel. to OE holh, .; ME holow, adj. hwaenne, when, adverb; OE holt, holt, .; ME; < OE holt holy, adj.; NE; < OE ; ME holy hom, h o o m . home, .; ME; < OEhmn home, .; NE; < OE ham; ME hoom

hwaet, what, pron. intenog. /indef.; OE hwaite, wheat, n. masc, ja-stem; OE hwaeder, whether, conj.; OE hwll while,n.,fem., i-stem;OE

honour, v.; NE; <ME honour(en), v., hwon, (a little), adv/adj.; OE weak 2; OF honorer hy. hi , (they), pron. pers. (dat. him, gen. hyra, hiera, heoraj; OE hooly. holy, adj.; ME; < OE hali3 hyd. hide (skin), ., fern., i-stem; OE booth, see ooth ; ME hojje, .; NE; < OE hopa; ME hope hym. him, pron. pers.; ME; < OE him, hine hors-hwael. whale (walrus), ., masc, hymMself. himself (themselves), a-stem; OE pron. reflexive; ME; < horsian. (supply with horses), v., OE him+self weak 2; OE > rel. to NE horse hyne. hind (member of a household, k o s t e l r y e . hostelry, .; ME; < farm worker, etc.), masc, OF hostellerie n-stem; OE how, adv.; ME, NE; < OE hypothesis; .; NE; < L hypothesis; Gk wcoQeaiq hraedlice. (quickly, soon), adj.; OE , how, adv.; OE h u n d r e d , hundred, .; ME; < OE hund-red iiyran, hear, v., weak 1; OE hys, his (its), pron. pers.; see he and hit; OE


.nnkeeper serving a meal

I, pron. pen.; ME, NE; < OE ic; ME also: ich L see yen

infecten. infect, v., weak 2; ME; < rel. to OF infect, past part.) L infectus

im in adv ME & see 3 ea; OE ^' ' '> > < 0E i n 1c, I, pron. pers. (ace. mec, me, dot. '^^in'adv/'0E me, gen. minj; OE i-now. enough, adv.; ME; < OE 3 e " 1-chaunged. changed, part. 2; see chaungen inscribe, v.; NE; < L inscrlbere idel. idle (vain, empty), adj.; ME; < inspiren. inspire, v., weak 2; ME; < OE Idel OF inspirer; L inspirare if, conj.; ME, NE; < OE $.f; ME also instance, n.; NE; < ME instaunce; 3if OF instance i-knowe. known, adjJpart. 2; see instructour, instructor, n.; ME; < knowen L instructor 3L!ie = r i l ; ENE into, into, prep.; OE, ME, NE i-leffc Mt,part. 2;seeleven introspection. .; NE; < rel. to L llond. island, .; ME; < 0Z?I3-land i^spicere, v. MHedJed, meddled (mingled), adj./ i n v e n t o r y , w.; NE; < rel. to B part. 2; see medlen * J F mventer; L muent+are

import ,;NE;<rel. to OF porter;

L portare in, in, prep.; OE, ME, NE include, v.; NE; < L includere



^ investrgator; cf. F investigated iourneve. see journey, ENE

a(a,a&)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-i3(9)-u-v-w-x-y-z iflX> joy, ., ENE; < ME joye; l-tau^t taught, pdrt.2,,see techen; ftFjoie;Z,gaudia MB i2X> joy, v., ENE) < ME joyen, v., i-tolde, told, part. 2; see tellen; MB . W e ^ 2 ; 0 F J"our Wised, used, port. 2; J e e usen; M 1, see be; iV; been; M ^ j.woned. wont (accustomed), part. iir it, pron. pers., neut:, ME, NE; < 2; see wonien; ME OEhit


esters amusing the king

jest. .; NE; < ME/OF geste; L gesta; 0 ME tell a "geste" - tell tales like a professional storyteller, "gestour"

^ W i ^ S a "


' 0We ' ;

joye. joy, .; ME; < OF joie; L gaudia . . . , n. MF-< JOVen, rejoice, v.; weak 2; Mil, < OF jour; L gaiudere

J W judge, , ME; < OF juge;


journey, .; A^E; < ME journee; OFjournee


ight infallarmour

liE, V.; NE; < OE cepan, v., weak kiss, v.; NE; < OE cyssan* v., weak 2; ME kepen 1\ ME kissen feggge, see keep, v., ENE knee, .; A^; < OE cneo; M cneo, k e g e r , keeper, n.; MJE; < cf. OScepan -, .T_ __ ,_,_, Kgy, /?.; A^JS; < OE CBB3; M keye mi rr ^.r. n / gm,v.;NE';<OEcyllan,v.,weakl] ME1 killen M kynde kindling, adj.; NE; < ME kindel finf.) rel. to OSc kynd-a king. n.;ME, NE; < OE cynin3

know, v.: NE; < OE cnawaru v.. str.


Ioiowen, kno^y) v., j/r. 7; ME; < 0E cn g wan kunnep. can, see connen; ME kyng, king,.; ME; < OE cynin3

M M , a*'.; ^ ; < OS cynde; tattStt Wght.n.;MB;<OTcnihr


awyer- servant of Justice

labouren. labour, v., weak 2; ME; < OF labourer; L laborare lacke, lack, v., ENE; < ME lakken, V Weak 2 " lady, lady, n.; ME; < OE hla;fdl3e; ME also ladye l a m e n t n.; NE; < rel. to F lamenter, verb land, land, n., eM?., a-stem; OE land, land, n.;ME;<OEland

Iawe, law, n.; ME; < OE Ia3u; e/j OSc log lay., lay, adj.; ME; < OF lai; L laicusj lav, v,: A^JB; < 0 E Iec3an, v., we^ 1; past t. Xz^de, ; ME leggen; leyen; past t. leide lead, v.; NE; < OE lffidan, v., weak 1\ iWEleden ,r learn, v.; NE', < OE leornian, v., weak 2;M:iernen

lar, lore (teaching), n. fern., o-stem;


legacJOUS. legation, n.\ ME; < OF legation; L legatio



iMf, Hef (dear, beloved), ^ ; , ^ -f

1123311, lie (tell lies), v.,str.2;OE > l e r n e n , learn, v., weak 2; ME; < 0E l e o r n i a n '' lesen. lose, v., sfr. 2; ME; >f Oleosan lesing. losing (loss, perdition), J^nd, see lesen; ME

lasse. less, adj., comp. degree of litel; ME; < OE laessa last, v.; NE; < OE testan, v., weak 1; ME lasten, lesten iltan,let,v.,^.7;O^ i * i- ATT- /ji t , , late, adj.; NE; < OE 1st; ME lat

ifiSSfin, n.\ NE; < ME lessoun; location, n.;NE: <Llocation OFle9on;Z,lectionem Joj, v.; M?; < OE lucan, v., ,m 2; ifiSSOun, lesson, n.; ME; < ME lokken OFkgo^L lectio ]ond, land, , ME; <OE fond let, v. A; < 0E Uetan; Affi leten ^ m ,ong M g ^ .m . <m Mm, Hv.,str. 7i-m<0El**m l o n g a g e . i a n g u a g e , .. M E ; < ifiiler, .; NE; < ME lettre; OF langage, langue; L lingua OFlettre;Llittera . . . longe. l o n g . ^ v . : ^ mm, leave, v., weak 1; ME; < [ongen, long (belong), v., weak 2; uziaztan ME; < OE lanyan llcsan, lie (rest), v., str. 5; OE j fiO j ; v . ^ g . < 0 : 1Scian> v-> w g a j t fician, like (please), v-.H'^/t ;;>" 2;Affiloken Ikpur, liquor (moisture),.; M^; < lord, .; A?; < O hlaford; OF licur,L liquor MSIorde Ue, (rest) v.; MJ; < OE lic^n v., j/r. Ifirde, lord, .; MB; < O" hlaford 5, ME liggan/lyen lore, lore, n.; ME; < <?^ lar Mt, left, #.; ME1; < OE lyffleft j 0 J g ) v>. NE; < 0E ] o s i a n ) v>> weak j . iikg, fl^-.; NE; < OE 3e-lTc; ME yME losen lic h. Hk .. toue, jee love,., EiVE likely, arfv.; MB; < OE 3e-lic; ME y- j o u e see h E m " lich, lik + OE -lie, ME -ly " ... , 1/p ,, love, /;.; WE; < OE lufu; ME love llkne. liken, v.. weak 2; ME; < rel. to OE 3e-llc, adj. love, v.; NE; <; < OE lufian, v., weak linguistic, ail; NE; < F linguiste 2; ME loven (L lingua + ist) + OE-Tc love-Kindlmg. i narfy. (composite), litlest, (least, smallest), ^ ; . ^ H . ^ l o ^ k d l i " ofe^. <7/litel, EiVE; < OE lytel; test lustllce. lustily (willingly, gladly), (superldegr.); ME litel, leste adv.; OE Hue, see live, v., EiVE l^e, lie, v., ENE; < OE Iic3an, v., str. live, v.;NE;<OElibban,v.,weak3; 5;ME\yen ME liven lyen. lie (stay), v., j^r. 5; ME; < OE I i c a n lively je living, ENE 3 livingl adj./part. 1, NE; < rel. to #Elibban v., weak 3 I; lifian; ME lyven


.agician consulting the stars

macian, make, v., weak 2; OE mad(e). see maken,; ME made(n).madcpastt...yeemaken made, part. 2 see make. NE

man, man (one),pron. indef.; OE man, man, ., masc, root-stem; OE m a n , man, .; OE, ME* NE; < OE also man

magazine, .; NE; < F magasin masgd. (kin, clan, tribe), n. fem., o-stem; OE maid, maid (priestess), .; NE; < OE m^en; ME mayde(n) mas,er, , ME; < 3 ^ * '"" " * * ' m a t e make, v . wefl/c 2 ; . < Ub macian . m a l a d y , .; NE; < F maladie;

m a n n e r

. .. NE; < OF maniere; Lmanena many, adj. I adv. /pron,) MB, NE; < ^ ,,,. M . < 0 E m a r c ^ < m e a r o i a n , v ., weafc 2; MJS marken

marriage, .; NE; < ME manage;: <?F manage i n t e r j e c t i o i i , NE; < m a r r y . M marie 0 used in ME as an oath by St.Mary Mmaladie martir,martyr,.;;<O:,martyr; malice, malice, .; ME; < Lmartyr OF malice; L malitia, malicia g e s t e , most, adj., superl. degr.; seet m m a l l i c o , malice, ., ENE; < mycel;OE OF malice; L malicia m a t e r ( e ) , matter, .; ME; < malvs, see malice ; ME OF matiere; L materia

a{a,a)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-K5)'U-v-w-x-y-z ^^Snal, n.,NE; < ME materyal; micel, much (big), adj.; OE materialis . , , micelnvs, (greatness, size; fflay, v.; NE; < OE m&ym (in/), mae3 multitude), n. fern., jo-stem; OE (pres. sing.),Pret.-pres-ME may m M ^ 0$. ME; < OEmiek , m,mQ,Pron.pers,seeic;OE ^A^i^prep-OE



UE m




ffl^flte, might,v.,p^f.; Je ema 3 an;

"iM^nwinter.midwinter, n.,masc, u-stem; OE < m i d d e l m i d d l e > adu ME; . OE middel

mMe m i g h t V past ^^ME'menen E m*mU' ^ "** ' ' " "' Se m^m' ffi^ins, n.; NE; < ret. to mM%, mi&ty,adj.; OE vb masnan, v., weak 1; *' MBmenenmln, mine (my), prpn. posses., sing.; 0E fflgdiai, meilen. (mingle), v., weak 2; ME; < OF medler mine, mine (my), pron. posses., mpii.,,, .. . ,. A?J?. . plural,seemin; OE IHEUOW, (ripe), adj.; NE; < ^ _ ME melwe, rel. to OE melu,. mine, pron. poss.; NE; < OE min; ME mellxnge, mingling, verbal noun; a see medlen miscall, v.; NE; < OE mis + , , ,, OSc kalla; OEceallian,v., weak2; m m e l o d i e , melody, n.; ME; < j^caiien OF melodie; L melodia; 0 maken . . . . ,. . .,.. melodye - sing (phrasal unit) mischiefe, mischief, n., tNt; < ; _ . _,.,-, ^ M'meschief;?i 'meschief n i e m o r i e , memory, ., ENE; < , . MiB memorie; OF memorie; misery, /.; A^^; < OF misene; Lmemoria LmiserM meny. many, adj./pron.; ME; < mister, n.;NE; < OF maistre O m5ni3 mistress,.; NE; < ME maystresse, metan. meet, v., weak 1;OE OF maistresse mete, meat (food), n. masc, i-stem; moche, much, adv.; ME; < OE micle OE modor, mother, n.fem., r-stem; OE mettian, (supply withfood),v., weak ( m^n) QE 2;OE> ret. to NE meat ' \ , , . . .,. > * meyntenen. maintain (aid), v., weak monas-month, n., masc, t-stem; OE 2; ME; < OF maintenir; L manu money, n.; NE; < ME moneye; tenere ("hold in the hand") OF moneie; L moneta



monies, see money month, month, n.; ME; < OE monaf) m o o n , n.; NE; < OE mona; ME mone

munching, {now dial - s k ^ m g ' stealing up to), n.; Nh; < ME mychen, weak; OF muchier

munificent, adj.; NE; <rd-J

F munificence, n.; L mumdicenQa

more, adj. /adv.; ME, NE; < OE mar m u s t , v.; NE; < OE mot, most (pafi, pret.-pres.; ME moot, mostW, morning. .; NE\ < OE mor3en, morwen + OE uny, must (past) ME morwen, morn(e) + ing mu5a. mouth (ofthe river), n.,mash most, adj. I pron.; NE; < OE maest; n-stem; OE ME moost my. pron. poss.; ME, NE; < OE nun; m o t h e r , n.; NE; < OE modor; ME also myn(e) ME moder o u e . move, v., ENE; < mycel. much (many of), advJadj:, OE ME mov(en), v., weak 2; myddel. middle,.; ME; <OE*M& OF movoir m u c h , adv.; NE; < OE micle; ME much(el)


US, no," adv. /neg. part; OE " HaU no, negat. particle; ME; < OE na nacjjoun, nation, .; MJE; < Of nacion; natio aacod, naked off.; 6>J? neah, nigh, near (nearly), adj. /adv. / prep.; OE; see also near nealaecan, (approach), v., we/t /; _ . , nealeante, see nealascan; OE DME, 1 ^- / a<iv - ; Arj?= < 0 : n6ar J MJE nerre _ nea, mgh, near (nearly) adj. /adv. / fian = ne+an, not one, (no one, not a siniie),^7. /**; ^ Mnre = ne+anre, not one, (no one, ^^oTashTglel^n.n^.j^nan; necessary, iV5; < arfy.; & r Qg ME necessane; OF necessaire nan sins, nothing, n. neut., a-stem; n e ^ , neck, n., ENE; < OE hnecca; -Qjg*' M& nekke rises. = ne wais, see wesan; 6>J? need, n.; NE; < OE nyd, AflS need nat = ne+wat see wltan; OE neede, need, v., ENE; < OE nydan, , , ,. v., weak I; ME neden natheless, nevertheless, adv.; ME; <OEni-bv-lSs needes, needs, adv., ENE; < <c/inapy O: nyde; ME nede(s) nativite, nativity, n.; ME; < ... OF nativite; L natlvitas neitner, con].; NE; < OE ne+a33 . hwa}3er; ME neither nature, .; ME, NE; < OF nature; XTnltura neuer,_ never, adv., ENE; < ,. n.in i <? naefre; ME never(e) naught, naughty, arf;., W; < rel. to OE na-wiht; ME naught nevyr. never, adv.; ME; < OE naefre ne not, neg. part.; OE new, adj.; NE; < OE newe, ME newe
' 451


new-fired, part. 2 (composite) of (new) fire (v), NE; see new, fire news, (tidings), n.,NE translation (caique) ofF nouvelles newspaper, ., see news, paper; NE niman, (take), v., str. 4; OE . pron. indef.; NE; < OE no, ME no nolde = ne+WOlde. v.; see willan; OE

not, negat. particle, NE; < OE nawiht; ME not note, .; NE; < F note; L nota noten. note, v.; ME; < OF nqter; L notare nojteles, nevertheless, q'dv.; ME. < OE na-fiy-ljes

nothing, pron. indef.; NE; <

OE ; ME no-thing nomt. not (not in the least), adv.; ME; <0Ena-with

nominally, adv.; NE; < F nominal; n o v e l , .; NE; < It novella; L nominalis + OE He F nouvelle none, pron. neg.; NE; < OE nan; novelty, .; NE' < OF noveliteit; ME noon L nouellitatem nor, conj.; NE; < OE na-hwas5er; now. adv.;ME,NE;<OEm ME nor nfl, now, adv.; OE norf), north, adv.; OE numerous. adj.;NE;< F numereiw, norban. north (from the north), adv.; L numerosus + F ous OE nyght. night, .; ME; < OE nib . northern, adj.; ME\ < nyh, near,prep./adv. /adj.; ME;< ? OE neah norfjmest.riorthmost,adv.; OE nyne. nine, num.; ME; < OE < norforyhte. north right (straight to the nysse = ne wisse. v,; see witan; OE north), adv.; OE norf)Ward. northward, adj., used nyste = ne wiste. v.; see witan; OjE adverbially; OE


bservance of Sunday fl

obiective,arf/.;A^;<tobjectTvus k MI?

o n l i , adj.; NE; < OE an-lic; Meoonlicn g g ^ one> numAME; < OE an QQ^ o a t h ) fl . M ; < 0 a S

~ff<2vsSe!ianj S'ME observed onto, onto, pre/;.; ME; < OE unto

v.; F observer; I observare gbgervg, v.; NE; <OF observer;

iobseruare open, open, adj.; ME; < OE open y flccas oh. n.; NE; < OF occas.oun; " * ' ; ^ it occasionem fififrant, (effective), arfj.; NE; < _ iT_, I. operant; fre/,tooperate, v)



opinion, , ME; <

LQierj, over, advJprep.; OE OF opinion; L opTnio Office, n.; NE; < ME office; o p p r e s s e n o p p r e s s e ) v-i w e a ^ 2; , officium ME; < OF oppresser; L opressare oft, see often, adv., ENE Oj^ conj-. # # . < ^ a-hw^er, awjier; ME other, outher, auther o f ten< adv) tffc < ^ oft; ME oft/ often gvtf&,adj.;NE;<OFoTbQ;Lorbis on, on (in, by), prep, /adv.; OE, ME, o r d e r l y adj . NE. < rd w M NE ordre, n.; OF ordre gngrgdall,dread,v,str.7;OE S& e r e ( b e f o r e ) j conj^ ENE. < one, ;; A*; < OE Sn>ME o o n o3Mtt a 2 a i n ' against, rfv. /prep.; ^jjfi ^ y ^ (grasp, perceive,
0E S r ; M l e r / o r

Oterauns. outeraunce. utterance (extremity), .; ME; < rel. to OEKadv,MEo^co,nP.de8.

+t ance



od, (till, until), prep, /conj.; OE , other, pron. indef.; OE Oper, Opere. other, pron. indef.; ME; < OE Oppe, (or), conj.; OE ouerthrowe. v., ENE; < OE ofer+jpriman, v., str. 7; ME over-throwen ought see owe, ENE ought, v. modal, NE; < OE a^an (inf), ahte (past), pret.-pres.; ME aughte, oughte our, pron. poss.; NE; < OE ure; ME our pure, our, pron. poss.; ME; < OE ure

Ours, pron. poss.; NE; < OE ure; ME ours OUrselues. ourselves, pron. reflex., ENE; < OE Ore+self(ves); ME ourselves Out, adv.; NE; < OE ut; ME out over, adv. /prep.; NE; <OE.ofer, ME ouer o v y r , over (too), adv.; ME; < OE ofer Owe, (possess), v.; NE; < OE ; ME , awen, owen OWne. own, adj.; ME; ENE; < OE ; ME also owen



rioress on a pilgrimage

, , v., weak 2; ME; < OF passer ' mimer, paImer,/i.;Af;<0Fpalmier ,

.; OE, ME, NE; <

peace, .; NE; < ME, OF pais; ipacem peple, people, .;ME; < OFpueple; L populus percen, pierce, v., ><^ 2; ME; < OFpercier perfectly adv.; NE; < ME perfit; 0 F P a r f i t ; L Perfectus+ OE he permit, v.; NE; < OF permettre; L permittere peyne, pain, .; ME; < OF peine; L Poena piece, .; NE; < ME/OF piece p i l g r i m , pilgrim, .; ; < OF pelegrin; L peregrmus pilgrimage, pilgrimage, .; ME; < OF pelegrinage or derived from MEpilgrym place, place, .; ME; < OF place; L platea plate, .; NE; < ME/OF plate; L platta play, .; NE; < OE 1; ME pley/ play

papyrus; G*ramupogfrwZ>.of WrL W Barlement. parliament, .; ME; < OFparlement particular arfy.; ^; < ME particuler; OF particulier passen pass/pace, v., weak 2; ME; ^OF'passer Passion, /.; ME; < MiS passioun; OF passion; L passio path, .; NE; < OE ; ME path Patiently, adv.; NE; < rel. to ME patient, adj., OF patient, L patens, n. p a t r o n , .; NE; < F patron; L patronum pay. V.;NE;<ME payen, weak 1 or 2; OF paier , pay. " weak J o r 2'< M E > < (5Fpaier


playen. pleyen. play, v., weak 2; p r e s e n t , v.; NE; < OF presenter; ME; < OE ple3ian L prassentare player, player (actor), .; NE; < rel. preserve, v.; NE; < OF preserver; to OE ple3ian, v., weak 2; L pra-seruare ME playen p r e s i d e , v.; NE; < OF presider; poor, adj.; NE; < ME povre/poure; L prassidare OF vre P p r i k e n . prick, v., weak 2; ME; < poore. poor, n. (substantivised OEprician adj.), ENE; < ME povre/poure, p r j m e r . N; < OF primer; adjective; OF povre L p]flmus pjort, n.; NE; < F porte; L porta p r i n c i p a l , principal, adj.; ME; < posie. poesy (motto, short OF principal; L principalis inscription), n., ENE; < principle, n.: NE; < ME pryncipal; ME poesie = poete; OF principal; L principalis OF poesie = poete; L poeta ,, _ *ir/p . ^ p r o b l e m . .; NE; < ME/F p o s s e s s i o u n . possesssion, .; probleme;Lproblema ME; < OF possession, , . . t, ?. L possessio p r o c l a m e n , proclaim, v., weak 2, ME; < OF proclamer, possible, adj.; NE; < ME possyble, L proclamare

TpoiiMfc, F
L pOndO

P SSiMe;

W ^ g t , ..; NE: < jr p.ojec,

Lprojectum ,uENE<< {e f> ME preve; OF preuve p r o p o s e . v i V . < ^ prO p OS er; Lpro+poser p r o u e . prove, v ,. ENE;' < * o F profian, v., weak 2; ME proven proven, prove, v., weak 2; ME; < OE pr 5fi a n; rel. to OF proven; L Prob3re provide, v.; NE; < L providere puple, see pgple ; ME XTr, %jrr, p u r p o s e , n.; NE; < ME purposs; OF pourpos; Z- propositum < MjB apposailen puzzIe NE

POUM.pound, n.; ME; < OB pwdi p o w e r , .; ME, NE; < OF poeir/


p r a c l i c e , n.; NE; < ME practise, rel. to practise, v.; OF practiser; Lpractizere pray., v.; NE; < ME preyen, v., weak 2;OFprener;Lprecan p r a y e n , preyen. pray, v., weak 2; ME; < OF preiier; L precari p r e s e n s , presence, .; ME; < OF presence; L praesentia, praesens p r e s e n t , aJy.; iVE; < OF present;



uarrel at a tournament

, ., ME; < F qualite; L qualitas, qualitatem (ace.) l, ., NE; < ME/OF querele; Z-querela fluantitie. quantity, ., ENE; < ME quantitee; OF quantite

q u e e n e , queen, ., ENE; < OE cwen; ME queen question, .; NE; < ME questioun; Of question quickly, adv.; NE; rel. to OE cwic (adv.) (+hce); ME quyk (+ly)


ive- a steward supervising the estates and tenants for the landowner

ra5e, rather, adv.; OE range, v.; NE; < F ranger, rel. to OF reng, ., OHG hrinc; cf. OE (NE ring) reaf. (garment, clothing, armour), n. neut., a-stem; OE really, adv.; NE; < OF reel; L realis + ly (native, OE \xc)

researcher, .; NE; < OF/L re- + ME serche; OF cerchier + OE/ME -er resoun. reason, .; ME; < OF raison; L ratio r e s p e c t .; NE; < ME respect; OF respect rest, .; NE; < OF reste; L restare, v. r e s t e n . rest, v., weak 1; ME; < OE restan result, .; NE; < rel. to F resulter, v., L resultare reuel. revel, v., ENE; < ME revelen, v., weak 2; OF reveler riden. ride, v., str. 1;ME; < OE ndan ring, .; NE; < OE hrin3; ME ryng rise, v.; NE; < OE rlsan, v., str. 1; ME risen rokken, rock, v. weak 2; ME; < OE roccian roote, root, .; ME; < OSc rot round, adv. /prep.; NE; < rel. to ME round, adj., OF roont


ME resoun, .; OF raison; L ratio + OF -able; L -abilis + OE -lie; ME -lich, -ly


NE; <

recall, v.; NE; < L re + OSc kalla; OE ceallian, v., weak 2; ME callen r e c e i v e n . receive, v., weak 2; ME; < OF receivre; L recipere redy. ready, adj.; ME; < OE rede reluctance, .; NE; < L reluct + F -ance remember. v.; NE; OF remembrer; L rememoran <

representative, adj.; NE; <

OF/F representatif; L reprasentatlv(us)

a(a,ae)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-{3(d)-u-v-w-x-y-2 ruh, rough, adj.; OE M.IO xrr. ,,J-- r . , / , p rule, n., NE; < ME reule, nwle; OF riule, reule; L regula run5v.>^;<O^rinnan,,,^5; ME rinnen
JTUWan. see ruh fw ^e/(?re vovvefaj; 0

ryht-norfoan-wind,rightnorth wind (direct north wind), n., masc, aK s(em. QE ' rM2!run,,J^i;M^;<^rinnan rysen, rise, v., str. 1; ME; < OE ffsan



quire dressed in all his finery

Sjg, sea, n.Jem., i-stem; OE s a c r a m e n t , sacrament, n.: ME: < L sacramentum s a c r e d , adj.; NE; < rel. to MBsacren, v., weak 2; OF sacrer sad, adj.; NE; < OE ssed, ME sad(e) ~ safe, adj.; NE; < ME sauf; L saluum saide. see seven ; ME sajl, v.; NE; < OE si3lan, v., weak 1 andse$ian, v., weak2; MEseiten saint, n. / a # ; NE; < ME seint, saint; OF seint; L sanctum
cnlt n,v, MI?- ^ nj? coni*. TUIV ann

schal. see schulle ; ME schuld. see schulle; ME s c h u l l e . shall (have to), pret.-pres. verb; ME; < OE sculan . . . . ^,M./IF scip. ship,., neut., a-stem; UP _ .. . . , f , ? vtemSCiJC, shire (province), n.Jem., a-stem, OE scote. school, >.; M^; < OE scol;
L s c o l a ; 0 F CSCole

score, score (two tens), .', Wo; < O^scoru scrowe. (scroll, roll of parchment,
written document), n.; ME; <

salt, adj., NE; < / / 7 sealt; ME salt < OE W ! ; M Sm ^^m^w ' ' ^

^ < W ^ * ^JBfeJ!?^* ' "

Mil seggen sceawun^. (survey.exploration), ., fem.,o-stem;OE sceolde. should, v., past t. sing, (see sculanj; OE flflld,v..pr*.:<.llan;flS s e a s o n , v.; ME1; < M sesounen;
OF s a i s o n n e ! t


Sc sami, O ^ same

scrvddan. shroud (cover and

conceal), v., weaJt 7; OE

QF e s c r Q u e > rd w m



S^UfelH, shall,v.,^.-p.,;OF'm that p

M see sgoflan; O


a(a,e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(?;)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-br5)-u-v-w-x-v-z secganT say, v., weak 3; OE , ,, , Second, num.; NE; < ME secounde; OF second j ,,-, secounde, second, num.; ME; < OF second; L secundus .. . , . section, n.; NE; < L sechon(em) see n.; NE; < OE seon, v., str. 5; ME seen see, sea, n.; ME; < OE see seeke, sick, adj.; ME; < OE seoc seem, v.; NE; < OE seman, v., weak 1 (meaning influenced by Sc); MB semen seethe, v.; NE; < OE seosan, v.; str. 2; ME sethen seething, adjJpart. 1, see seethe, NE seken, seek, v., weak 1, img.\ME;< OE secan selectioji,.; NE; <I sciecti6n(em) self,self(hims<zlf),pwji.;OE sellan sell (give, hand over), u., weak 1, irrcgA OE semen seem, i'., weak 2; ME; < OEskman send en send, v., weak 1; ME;, < OE scndan eo (that), pron. demonstr.fetn., see S s'e; OZ? > /. NE the Sgon see,v.,str.5i.0E seoSan, seethe (boil, cook, by -polling), v.. -y""- 2<0E ggggratg, oajf.; NE; < ME separate; t separatus sermon, n.; NE; < ME sermun, sermoun; OF sermon; L Serm5nem segon = Sgsoun, season (time),.; ME; < 0F s e s o n ; L s a t i o setten, set, v., weak 1; ME; < tfzTsettan ^ sinC6) . ME. < 0E s i a 5 a n several, adj.; NE; < F several; ZTseparal seyjen, say, v., weak 3; ME; < OE sec3an } i a ;] v . NE; < 0E s c u l a n (in^ s sceal (pres. sing.), pret.-pres.; ME shal shalt. see shall, ENE shame, v.; NE; < OE scamian, v., weak 2; ME shamen s h a p e n . NE. < 0E 3e.sceap; ME i-shape M pwn pgr^ NE; < QE h e o . ME he/she sheene, sheen, n., ENE; < rel. to OE scyne, adj; ME shene, adj. shine.' v.; NE; < OE sclnan, v., str. 1; M shynen shjre, shire,.; ME; < 02? scir shortly, adv.; ME, NE; < OE scortlice s h o u I d . V-. ^ ; < 0E s c u I a n f W f scolde f/sr subjunct.j;
ME sholde

shoure, shower, it.; ME; < OE scur ishow. n.; NE; < ME sheue, /. to 0/j sceawian, v., weak 2; ME shaven/shewen/showen



show, v.; NE; < OE sceawian, v., weak 2; ME shaven/shewen/ showen _ SI, see beon, wesan; OE sick, adj.; NE; < OE seoc, ME seek sjcke, sick, adj., ENE,see sick . A a ., , _, Side, side, n.; ME; < OE side Sje, beon, wesan; O^ SJ3, see beon, wesan; O Sin, see beon, wesan; OE Since, con;.; ME; < OE si3San; ME sith(e) SJT, .; iVS; < short for sire, F sire;

solemn, adj.; NE; < ME, OFsolempne;L solemnem som, some, pron. indef.; ME;< OE sum s o m e , pron.; NE; < OE sum; Msom somewhat. /?ron. / adv.; NE; < OE sum hwxt; ME som-what ^^

somtvme. sometime, adv.; ME; < OE sume-timan sona, soon, arfv.; OE s o n d r v . sundry, aJ/.; ME: (?syndri3 sonne. sun,.; ME; < OE sunne L senior soote. sweet, adj.; ME; < OE swotfe/ Sister, n.; NE; < OE sweostor; swete ME suster (form influenced by QX& s o r e ( h a r d ) > adv / adj.. ME;k bc) OEsare SJttan,sit,v.,^r.5;O o r r v . adj.; NE; < OE saris; S si55an. since (afterwards), advJeonj.; ME sory 0E SO t h a t . conj.,NE; < OE swa; Size, v.; NE; < ME (a)ssis(en)i v., ME swo, so + OEfcaet; Affi that., wea^ 2; rel. to OF assisen ^ s o o t h ( t r u t h ) > n#> n e M t ) a.stemslaue. slave, n., JEWE; < ME sclaue; 0# OFesclave; 5c sclyaff; L sclavus n.; NE; < ME soun; S0Und. slender, adj.; NE; < ME s(c)lendre; OF soun OF esclendre sounden. sounen. sound, v., weak s l e p e n . sleep, v., str. 7; ME; < 2;ME; < OF suner; L sonare OFslSpen s o u r c e , n.; NE; < ME source; smale. small, adj.; ME; < OE smasl OF sours smede, smooth,adj.; OE sovereign, adj.; NE; '< , , ,, ME sovereyng; OF spvenan snybben. snubben. snub, v., weak . ,_ 2; ME; < Sc snibbe, snubba sowperne. southern, adj.; ME; < OE suoerne SO, conjJadv.; ME, NE; < OE swa ,,_ . * space, space, n.; ME; < OF espace; SOlg, adj.; NE; < OF sol; L solum Lspatium

a(a,e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-}j(d)-u-v-w-x-y-2 stoop, n.\ NE;'< OE stupian, v., weak J; ME stoupen stow, stow (place),., fern., wo-stem; OE Strange, adj.; NE; < ME straunge; OF estrange; L extraneus street, street (the road built by the Romans), n.,fern., o-stem;OE s t r a u n g e , strange (foreign), adj.; ME; < OF estrange! L extraneus OE strond, strand (shore), n.; ME; < sprecan. speak, v., str. 5; OE OE strand Stable, stable, n.; ME; < OF estable; stycce- mSIum. stockmeal (here Lstabulum and there), adv.; 02? stand, v.;NE;<OEstandan,v.,str. s u b j e c c i o n . subjeccioun. 6; ME stonden subjection, n.; ME; < .rr, .. OF subjection, L subiectio J J standard, adj.; NE; < OF estandard; L standardum succeed, v.; NE; < OF succeder; L succedere r . . State. .; NE; < OF estat, L statum s u c h , pron.; NE; < OE swilc; Ijrr,ME, statement, n.; NE; < ME/OF estat; ^fE Swich/swuch L status + OF -ment ,rr, />r. t * SJUHJ some,pronJadj.;OE statut. statute, .; ME; < OF statut; ' 'y " L statutum sumdel. (somewhat), adv.; ME; < . , OE sumne dael Steep, v.; NE; < ME stepen rel. to OE stlepan, v., weak 1 sume. some, pron. indef.; OE stefn, (voice, sound), n. masc. / Sumer, sumor. summer. /;.. masc. u, neut. /fern., o-stem; OE stem; OE slgnM!, = stefn, see above; OE sun, n.; NE; < OE sunne; ME sonne stenc, stench, n. masc, i-stem; OE sunne. see sun, n., ENE 5|ggr-bord, star-board,., neut., a- sunu. son, n., masc, u-stem; OE swm 0E su|)rvhte. south right (right/straight gjgVjrardL ; NE; < OE stlweard to the south), adv.; OE stick, v.; NE; < OE stician, v., weak sudweard. southward (southwards), 2TM#stiken adv.;OE Still, adv.; NE; < OE stille; ME stille SWa, so, adv. /prep, /conj.; OE

s p e a k e . speak, v., ENE;'< OE sprecan, v., str. 5; ME speken s p e c h e . speech, n.; ME; < OE spralc specially, especially, adv.; ME; < rel. to OF especial (adj.), Ispecialis s p e k e n . speak, v., str. 4; ME; < OE sprecan spell, spell (story), n., neut., a-stem;


swa... swa. so (so as... as), conj;, OE SWTde. (very much, exceedingly),^.; OE SWech. such, pron.; ME; < OE swilc SWfjbOSt. (mostly), adv., superl. d:,see SWeltan. (die, perish), v., str. 3; OE swi6e; OE sweren, swear, v., str. 6; ME; < Swore, see sweren ; ME OE swerian swura. (neck), n. mascn-stem; OE SWete. sweet, see soote; ME sylle; see sellan; OE SWJch, such, pron. indef.; ME; < synd. see wesan; OE OE swilc SWJlc, such, pron.; OE



NE;, <

L systematic(us)

take, v.; NE; < OE takan, v., str. 6; ME taken t a k e n , take, v., str. 6; ME; < OE tacan; cf. OSc taka tale, tale, .; ; < 0 talu t a s t e , v.; NE; < ME_ tasten; OF taster; L taxitare, taxare , , ., techen, teach, v., /^ 1; ME; < OE tecan techvnge, teaching, gerund, see techen; ME tell v.; NE; < OE tellan, v., weak 1, ' 'irreg.; ME tellen tellen, tell, v., weak I, irreg.; ME; < tellan tend, v.; NE; < ME tenden, v., weak 2;'OFtendre tendre tender, adj.;ME; < OFtendr& ^ 7 ; NE; < F texte; L textus

t h a t , pron. demonstr ./pron. relat./ conj.; ME, NE;<OE ba?t (se, seo) the, art.; ME, NE; < OE se, seo, 6aet; ME also bat / that thee, pron. pers.; NE; < OE f>e, J)ec; their, pron. poss. ; M?; < 0Z? hira / heara;MEbeir(e); OScbeira v * them, see they; NE themselues, see themselves, ENE themselves, pron. reflex.; NE; < ME f>eim/them; OSc {)eim + OE self t h e r . there, adv./conj.; ME; < OE baer there, adv.; NE; < OE ; ME ther, thar these, pron. demonstr.; ME, NE; < *** M
E a l




" PL

ti^i i*?at 2; Mb tnanken ^ 1 ' ^

&%$* "* -' <ME ^

1. <thitherj d(to that place), adv.; M, O, ^ er 465



thin, thine, thy, pron. poss.; ME; <

E n

to^prep.; ME, NE; < OE to

& tO,to,prep.;OE thinke, think, v., ENE; < . , , . _,_ OE pencan, v., weak 1, irregular; & ' t 0 0 ' adv/>ME' < 0E t o ME thynken too, adv.;NE;< OE t5; ME to, too t h i r d e , third, num.; ME; < to-eacan. fin addition to). advJprep.; OE pridda OE t h i r t i e , thirty, num.; ENE; < 0F,priti3;MEthritty/pirty this, pron. demonstr.; ME, NE; < OEpis . . , A t h i t h e r , adv.; NE; < OE f>ider, M thider t h o r o w o u t e , throughout, prep.; ME; < OE frurh-ut t h o s e , pron. demonstr.; NE; < OE f)os; ME thos thou, (you), / W H . pers., ENE; < OEt>\x; ME thou t h o u g h , conj.; NE; < OE eah; ME t h o u h 8 t h o u g h t , n.; NE; < OE Jjoht / 3e-{)oht; ME thought thrift, n.; NE; < ME thrift; OSc fnift through, prep.; iVfi; < 0 f>urh; M thurgh thus, adv.; NE; < OE fws; M thus thy, (you), pron. p o ^ ; ENE; < OE $>m; ME thyn(e)/thy thynken, think, v., weak 1; ME; < O'fyncan^metnynketn-1[tnink, impers. construction tld, tide (period of time), ., /em., o-stem; OE time, n.; NE; < OE tima; M tyme Us = it is, ENE

toforan, (before),adv.;OE together, pron. demonstr.; NE; < OE to-^sedere; ME toeedere x tonge. tongue, n.; ME; < OE tun3e 777" , total. <://.; AE; < F total; L total(is) tQ&, tooth, n., ma^c, root-stem; OE touch, v.; AE; < ME touchen, v., weak2, OF tochier toward, toward(s), pron. relative; ME;<OEto-weard traditional, adj.; NE; < F traditional; L traditional(is) t r a g e d i e . tragedy, ., ENE; < 0E tragedie; ME tragedie travaillen. travel, v., weak 2; ME; < OF travaillier treason, n.; A^; < M tresoun; OF tresoun iE. "'. ME; < OiS treo; M tree trial i ; A^5 < rc/- ^ ME tryen, v., weak 2; OF trier trumpet, /!.; iV; < ME trompette, OF trompette ^ v . NE-t < ME trye^ Vi> wefl/t 2 ; OFtraer turn, v.; A'E; < <?^ turnian, v., weak 2; ME turnen; re/, to OF turner;

a(a,e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-|3(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z twa, two, num.; OE tweie. two, num.; ME; < OB trtto t w e l u e . twelve, num.; ENE; < OE twelf; ME twelve, twelue t w e n t y , twenty, num.; ME; < OEiwen-ti3 twice, num.; NE; < ME twies; O twiwa, twi3es ^^cen, (kid), neut., a-stem; OE tyme, time, n.; ME; < OE tima



hree Catholic zealots fleeing persecution

jba, (then), adv.; OE fct, (when), conj.; OE |>a, those, pron. demons*., pi; OE

p_agt vice, that ilk (just the same), Pronr' ^ j p '

M j

( w h e n " t h e n ) ' conjJadv.;

w h i c h > t h a t ) > pwn r d a t

yet, *.; ?

, foam, that (those), pron. demonstr.; see se; OE

conj. (often placed in combination with pronouns); OE

p a n , than, conj.; ME; < OE fcanne fee, the, art.; ME; < OE se, seo, |>aet

foanne, foonne, than, then (when), foeah. though, cwy.; OJB

COT;., foe5en. (warrior), ., inasc, a-stein; |>anon, thence (from there), adv.; 0? OE 5, |)Sra, there, . /conj.; OE f)eodscipe. (people, tribe),n.;OE;< , , , suffix rel. toNE-ship JJ o a e r e , that, pro/i. demonstr., dat. sing., * fem.; see seo; OE foeowian. (serve), v\; weak 2; OE |)ser-of, thereof, adv.; OE fcerby. thereby, adv.; ME; < OE > * i i fcaer-b!

pa3S, p e s , ^, /;/. demonstr.; OE fcere, paes-f>e, ^ pss, pe; OE _ _ , . . , 9get, that, co/. / pron. demonstr.; <7J5" bat, that, pro/7, demonstrJpron. relatJ conj.;ME;<OE$azt ' . __ paet... paet, that... that, conj.; OE

there, adv./conj.; ME; < pes, this, /. demonstr., masc; OE f 1 p e y , they, /. perj.; MJE ; < OScb&a Older, thither (there, to that place), adv. OE


frjn, thine, thy, pron. posses.; OE fere, three, num.; ME; < OE f>n fcing. thing, n. neut., astern; OE frrle. three, num.; OE jbing, thing, n.; ME; < OE f>in3 forim. see f>rle; OE fois. this, pro/i. demonstr.; ME; < feu, thee, thou (you), pron. pers, OE f)is sing. (ace. pec, $e, dat. e, gen. bissum. this, pron. demonstr., dat. *""* E sing., masc. (see jbes,); OE dus. thus, adv.; OE foonan. thence (from there), adv.; OE ftyder, thither (there, to that place), -done, that (the),pron. demonstr.;see _a V"' se; Oi? foystrian, (become dark), v., wea/t 2; bowsand. thousand, /. (subst.); ME; < OE fcusend



unanswered, adj.; NE; < rel. to OE un + OE andswarian, v., weak 2; ME answeren undergietan. (understand), v., weak 3; OE > rel. to NE under, get unfrid. (hostility), ., masc, astern; OE unintelligible, adj. ;NE;<OEun + Fintelligible;/, intelligibilis unite, v.; NE; < L unit unto, prep.; < rel. to und (OFries, Goth, OSax) + OE to; ME unto up, adv.; NE; < OE up, upp; ME up up-in, up in, adv.; OE uplondisshe, uplandish, adj.; ME; < OE up-lendisc u p o n , prep.; NE; < OE uppon; ME upon

upweard, upward (upwards), adv.; OE US. pron. pers.; NE; < OE us; ME us usage, usage (custom), .; ME, NE; < OF usage use, v.; NE; < F user, L Qsare useful, adj.; NE; < ME/OF us; L Osus + OE/ME -ful u s e n . use, v., weak 2; ME; < OF user; L usare fit, out, adv.; OE fltagan. (go out, go forth), v., anom.; OE Utan. out (on/from the outside), adv.; OE



irtuous wife

validitie. validity, ., ENE; < F validite; L validitas valley, .; NE; < ME valeie; OF valee

v i s i t a t i o n . .; NE; < rel. to F visiter; L uisitare + F -tion vnripe. unripe, adj., ENE; < OE unripe; ME unripe

valley-fountain, n. (composite), vnshaken, unshaken, adj. I part. 2 of shake, ENE; < OE +see valley, fountain; NE scacen; OE scacan (inf), v., str. 6; variety. n.;NE; < rel. to ME varien, ME shaken v.; OF varier; L variare; F variete, voice, .; NE; < ME, OF vois; n.;L varietas L uocem vertu. virtue (force), .; ME; < vouch, v.; NE; < MF voucher; OF vertu L uocare Very, adv.; NE; < OF verai; L ueras vouchsafe, v.; NE; see vouch, safe yeyne. vein, .; ME; < OE veine voyden. void, v., weak ; ME; < rel. Violence, .; NE; < ME violence; to OF voide, adj. OF violence; L violentia Vp. see up, ENE violent, adj.; NE; < ME violent; Vpon. see upon, ENE OF violent visit, v.; # # ; < F visiter; L uisitare
VS, see us, ENE,




walk, v.; NE; < OE wealcan, v., str. 7; ME walken want, n.; NE; < ME want(e); OSc warm, adj.:NE: < OE wearm * wasron. were, v., past t.; see wesan;

waes. was, v.,past t. (see wesan); OE y ' wash, n.; NE; < OE wsesc; ME wassh Wast, see witan; OE Western, western, adj.; OE w a t c h , v , NE; < OE wa^ccan, v., ^^Mk, (become), v., str. 3;OE weak 3; ME wacchen were(n). were, pas? f., see been; ME way, n.; NE; < OE we3; ME wey, were. seebe,NE Way w e s a n . (be), v., 5?r. 5, defective we, /?ron. perj.; ME, NE; < OE we fprej. /. sing, eom, eart, is; pi. sint, .,,ir / \rc i * /IE- synd. sindan, sindon; pcwf f. wass, 3aSi ' ^ ' ^ ^ r e t t o WCan ' wron; J M y . si, sl 3 , pi. sin; y.,w^7;M:weken beon);OE w e a r v^; yVE; < O werian, v., weak w e s t a n w i n d . west wind,., /WOK?., fl/;Mweren ' s(em.OE Weddian V ^'ME^wcdden ' "' ^ ^ weste. waste (uninhabited), arfj.; O weste, west, at//.; ME; < OE west

wel, well (almost, very), adv.; ME; < OEwel welcome, see well, come; NE well, adv.; NE; < OE, ME wel .,tU. , w e n a n . ween (think, suppose, believe), v., weak I; OE w e n d a n . wend (go), v., weak 1; OE , ,, . , , H,p. w e n d e n . wend (go), v., weak 1;ME; < OE wendan w e n t , went , past t., see wenden;

Westen. waste (uninhabited land), n., neut.,ja-stem;OE westwearri, westward (westwards), adv.;OE WJ5, way, n.; ME; <0Ewe^ 3 W WC ^ J ayk, weak, adj.;ME;<OEwac y ' S h a n , when, adv. /pron.; ME; <

willan, will (want, wish), v., mom.; OE .,, .,, , WlHen, will (would), anom. verb; ME; < OE willan win, wine, n. neut., astern; OE . . winter, winter,.. masc. u-stem: OE , , . ,. , Wircan, work (perform, do), v., weak 1, irreg.; OE wirisan. wyrgan. (outlaw, curse), ME wys + OE lie WJSSe, (knew), v., past t.; see witan; OE wiste. J g g witan; O

Shat) pron. indef./interrogative; v.,weakl;OE ME,NE;<OE^xt wisely, adv.; NE; < OE wis;
ffihech, which, pron. rel.; ME; < SJien, adv.; NE; < OE hwanne/ hwa3nne;M:whan(ne) ^


< 0E hwSr:


wit (know observe know




mn wner(e) Svlnch., /?^o/z. rel. / indef. / interrogative, ME, NE; < 0 hwile; MEflfaowhiche SEll!l,whUe,awyVflrfi.;MB;<Ofihwil S!hQ,pron. interrog./indef./rel.; NE; < OE hwa; ME who ffihole, ^ y , ^ ; < O hal; ME hal/ whole , __ V^lCian. (live), v., pea& 2; O J i ,, -J nT^ w i d e l y , arfv., A^; < OE wid; ME wyd + OE -lie, ME -ly Wld-saL wide sea, 7i., fern., i-stem; OE ~Z ._ Wlj, (battle), n., neut., a-stem; OE ... __ ... Wilde, wild,adj.;ME;<OEwide Will, .; A; <OEwilla; ME wille Will, v.; A^E; < OE willan, omwia/. v.; ME willen Willa. will, n. m , n-jton; OE

understand), v., pret.-pres. (pres. t. sing, wat, wast, wat; pi. witon; past t. wisse, wist; part. 2 witenj; 0" with, prep.; ME, NE; < OE wid; withal. Wv.; A^; < C751 wifl+eal; ^ withal Wlthdrawen. withdraw, v., str. 6; M; < >" wi3 + dra3an Wltodhc, (certain, sure), *#.; OJ? wijj, with, /;/<?/?.; OE, ME wlaffen, stammer, v., weak 2; ME; < OEwlaffian wlaifervnge. stammering, gerund; j e e wlaffen y ^ n . ^jj. < 0 wg; M wo; 0 woe is me! - interjection (phrasal Uttit > wol, will, see wilien; ME


wold, would, see willen; ME wolde, would (wished), v., past t.;see willan; OE wolde(n), would, see willen; ME; < OE willan, wolden (pastpi.) woman, .; NE; < OE wlf-man; ME womman WOnen, (dwell, remain), v., weak 2; ME; < OE wunian WOnien, (be used to, dwell, remain), v., weak 2; ME; < OE wunian Word, //.; OE, ME, NE WOrhton, v., past t.; see wircan; OE work, .; NE; < OE weorc; ME were w o r l d , .; NE; < OE woruld; ME worlde


OE wermwod; ME wermode (corrupted form)


NE;. <

w o r s h i p , .; NE; < short for worthship, OE weor5 scipe; ME worth ship Worst, adv.; NE; < OE wyrst; ME wurst, werst Would, v., see will; NE write, v.;NE; < OE wrltan, v., str. 1; ME writen wyde, wide, adj.; ME; < OE wld wylle, see willa; OE


eoman - a proper forester

y_, eye, n.; ME; < OE Ea^e. yes, particle, NE; < OE yse, 3ese; ME yis, yus .Vet, adv.; NE; < OE 3it; ME yet fcfaUe,falUee fallen; MS ,,P l . yjel, evil, n.,neut.,i-stem;OE yjc = i k , ilk (same) (0 of that ilk, archaic - the same), pron. indef.; OE yldre. elder, fli/;., comp degr., see eald;<9 ymb. (about/around),prepJadv.; OE

yonge. young, adj.; ME; < OE3eon3 YOU, pron. pers.; NE; < OE eow; ME you your, pron. poss.; NE; < OE eower; M2?your(e) y o w , you, pron. pers.; ME; < J o~E ^ow y . r o n n e . r u n ) p a r U 2 ; see r y n e n ; ME y. - IS, see wesan; OE ^ t t = 1M, jee etan; OE

Tart 5. Summary

Philosopher in his study

John Stanbridse, London, 1520

449 - 7 - 7- 9 - . 871 -901 - 9 - 878 - () 9-10 - - 1017-1042 - () 1066 - . 11-13 - - , 13 - 1258 - III 14 - . - . . 1477 - 1455-1485 - . , . 15 - 16 - 16-17 - 1649-1660 - . 1660 - 17-18 . 17-20 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 -


/. . . : , . , . 2. . - , , , , . , , , , . 3. . . , . 3.1. . : , ; , , - ; , ; - . 3.2. . . , , - , , . , ( ) - . 5.3. . , , , - . .




/. . 5 , , , . , , , - .

/./. .
. 7 , , , , - , . 1.2. . 1.2.1. , , , . , , ( ), ( ) ( ). 1.2.2. . , , . 2. . .


, . , .. . , . , , . , . , .


, / . 2.2. . - . 2.3. . , . ' , . . 2.4. . . ' . ( ) .


1. . 1.1. . , 8 11 , . , . - , , . 1.2. . 1066 . , , , , . , , , , , . 14 .




15 , - . , 11 , , , , . , . 2. . . , , . . 2.1. . , ( ) . ( ). . , . 2.2. . , . . 2.3. . , . - .


/. 11 . 15 . 1485


, , . , , . , , 1, , . 17 , , , , , . , , . ^2. . 17 , , . , . . 1.3. 17-20 . - , , . 16 : 17 - , 18 - , 19 - 20 . 300 , . 2. . , , . 2.1. . , . .



, . . , - , 2.2. . . , , , . 2.3. . - . - ( , ), (). , ( , 20 - , , ) .


/. . 1.0. , , , . /./. , , . 1.2. , , ^ : ( ) (). ^ . 1.2.1. .


1.2.2. '" . 1.2.3. , . , . .


2. 2.0. . , , , , . , .


0. , , , . , , . 1. . : , , , . 2. . : , . 2.1. : , .


. 2.2. . 2.3. : , , . . : , . , "", , . 2.4. , . . . 3. . : , , , , . , . 3.1. , . , , : , . , , . 3.2. , , , .



4. . . , . 4.1. 1 : , . , . 4.2. . , , : , . , , .


/ . , , , , , . 2. . , , . 2.1. , . . 2.2. . 2.3. . . 2.4. , . , (



), .

3. .
, . 3.1. . . , . - . . , , . 3.2. . . . . , , . , , , .


1. . 1.1. . , '[]. , . 1.2. , . 1.2.1. , , ,



. , , . 1.2.2. . , . ; , . 1.3. . [f] [1<|"] ] , . . , / (s/z, f/v, \9).

2. . 2.1. ,
, . 2.2. , . 2.2.1. , , . . , , , "", , , , , - . ([], []). ([ai], []} , , [], []. 2.2.2. [] [h], , .


2.3. . . [3] , , . 3. . , , 13-14 , , . " " "", , , , - , . , . 16 , , . , , . , . , , , , , .


/. .
: , , , , .


2. . ' . . '-1^ . , . - , . 2.1.2. . ^ : . : . 2.2. . . 2.2.1. . -; ( ). 2.2.2. . " , . 2.2.3. . , , () , . 3. . ( ) ( ). . , . , , - , , - . 4. . . - , ,



. 5. . . se, - an.


/. . ( ), ( ). . 2. 2.0. . 2.1. 2.1.1. . , , . 2.1.2. , . 2.2. . , . 2.2.1. , . 2.2.2. - .



2.3. - - ipynnbi : , ipynn . , , , - . j . . , , : , . . -


1. . 1.1. . . . , , , , . 1.2. . . 1.2.1. , . 1.2.2. , , . , , - . 2. . 2.1. . , , .



2.2.1. , . 2.2.2. ^ , . : , , . 3. . 3.1. . , . 3.2. , . 3.2.1. - . 3.2.2. . ( ), ( , 15 ), (16 ). , . ( ), , , , , .


/. . . , : , , , .


2. : . 2.1. , . 2.2. , 1 .. - ! .. 3. () . , . 3.1. ( " ); ( - ); , 7 ; , 15-16 ( " ", ). , . 3.2. 8-10 , . , . 3.3. . . , . . . , , ' - , . 4. -. , , . 5. . - , ,


. , . , , , .