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TOPIC:- DEVELOPING AN ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE LEVEL, ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

INTRODUCTION: An organization is a combination of necessary human beings, equipments, facilities and appurtenances, materials and tools assembled in some synthetic and effective co-ordination in order to accomplish some desired and designed objective. But when one speaks of organizations, references is usually to the body of persons who have been brought together to carry on the enterprises and who are being taught up as an entity. Hence, an organization is a formal structure of authority calculated to define, distribute and provide for the co-ordination of tasks and contributions to the whole.

TERMINOLOGY: 1) Organizational structure: It is official management of positions into patterns of working relationship that co-ordinate the efforts of workers with diverse tasks and abilities. 2) Organization charts: They show reporting relationship and communication channels. 3) Organizational Climate: It is the emotional state, perceptions and feelings shared by members of the system. It can be formal, related, defensive, courtious, accepting, trusting and so on. 4) Organizational culture: It is the sum total of an organizations beliefs, norms, values, mission, philosophies, traditions and sacred facts.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Although planning is the key to effective management, the organizational structure furnishes the formal framework in which the management process takes place. The organizational structure should provide an effective work system, a network of communications, and identity to individuals and the organization and should consequently foster job satisfaction. The organization contains both formal and informal structures.

TYPES OF ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES:


1) THE FORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: - It describes positions, tasks, responsibilities and relationships among people in their positions in the different departments in the organization and presented in diagrammatic form called Organizational Chart. 2) THE INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: - It described the personal and social relationship that does not appear on the organizational charts. - It helps members to meet their personal objectives and provides social satisfaction. - It also has its own channels of communication which may distribute information more broadly and rapidly then the formal communication system. - The informal organizational structure is important to management, thus the supervisors should be aware of its existence, study its operational techniques and use it to meet the organizational objectives.

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART:
It is a diagram that shows the different positions and departments and the relationships among them. It is used to show: The formal organizational relationships Areas of responsibility Persons to whom one is accountable Channels of communication. TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS There are 3 types of organizational charts. a) The vertical chart b) The horizontal chart c) The circular chart a) VERTICAL CHARTS It shows high level management at the top with formal lives of authority down the hierarchy most common.

Board of Directors

Hospital Administration

Director of Nursing

Supervisor of Nursing

Supervisor of Nursing

Head Nurse
SN SN

Head Nurse
SN SN

Head Nurse
SN SN

Head Nurse
SN SN

b) HORIZONTAL CHARTS It shows the high level management at the left with lower positions to the right. Shows relative length of formal lines of authority, help simplify understanding the authority and responsibility.

c) CIRCULAR CHART It shows the high level management in the centre with successive positions in the circles. It shows the outward flow of formal authority from the high level management. It reduces status implications.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART: - Be accurate, clear, simple and updated. - Show the chain of command, lines of authority, responsibility and relationships. - All members of the department should be notified when any change occurs. ADVANTAGES OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL CHART It provides a quick visual illustration of the Organizational structure. It provides help in organizational planning. It shows lines of formal authority, responsibility and accountability. It clarifies who supervises whom and to whom one is responsible. It emphasizes the important aspects of each position. It facilitates management development and training. It is used to evaluate strengths and weakness of current structure. It provides starting points for planning organizational changes. It describes channels of communication. DISADVANTAGES OF AN ORGANIZATION CHART Charts become outdated quickly Does not show informal relationship. Does not show duties and responsibilities. Poorly prepared charts might create misleading effects.

ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS:

According to the groups who serve the organization It has three levels of management. The Senior managers, Middle managers and operational managers. According to the levels of the organizational management there are: 1. Top level managers or senior manager : Since top management is the stakeholder group that has the ultimate responsibility for setting company goals and objectives and for allocating organizational resources to achieve these objectives. These individuals are at the top one. Chairperson of the Board, President, Vice president, Corporate head, CEO etc. op-level managers make decisions affecting the entirety of the firm. Top managers do not direct the day-to-day activities of the firm; rather, they set goals for the organization and direct the company to achieve them. Top managers are ultimately responsible for the performance of the organization, and often, these managers have very visible jobs. 2. Middle-level managers or middle managers: Middle-level managers are responsible for carrying out the goals set by top management. They do so by setting goals for their departments and other units. Middle managers can motivate and assist first-line managers to achieve objectives. Middle managers may also communicate upward, by offering suggestions and feedback to top managers. Because middle managers are more involved in the day-to-day workings of a company, they may provide valuable information to top managers to help improve the organization's bottom line. Jobs in middle management vary widely in terms of responsibility and salary. Depending on the size of the firm and the number of middle-level managers in the firm, middle managers may supervise only a small group of employees, or they may manage very large groups, such as an entire business location. Middle managers may be employees who were promoted from first-level manager positions within the organization, or they may have been hired from outside the firm. Some middle managers may have aspirations to hold positions in top management in the future. 3. Operational Manager or First level Managers: First-line managers are responsible for the daily management of line workersthe employees who actually produce the product or offer the service. There are first-line managers in every work unit in the organization. Although first-level managers typically do not set goals for the organization, they have a very strong influence on the company. These are the managers that most employees interact with on a daily basis, and if the managers perform poorly, employees may also perform poorly, may lack motivation, or may leave the company. They consist of the supervisors and the clerical staffs.

FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES: A structure enables an organization to get the work done. It helps ensure that the purpose, goals and objectives of the organization are achieved. The framework supported by the Magnet Recognition Program is an organizational structure that is flat, tall and decentralized, allowing decision making by the nurse closest to the delivery of care to occur.

A) HIERARCHIAL (TALL, CENTRALIZED, BEREAUERATIC) STRUCTURE: It is the oldest and simplest form of management. Levels in organization differentiate by function and authority. It is present in company larger in number of employees. It has a downward communication Pattern. It includes the following organizational structure. 1) Line Authority. 2) The Line and Staff Authority. 3) Functional Authority.

1) LINE AUTHORITY: It is a purely hierarchical chain of command in which each employee is supervised by and is responsible to a simple, clearly identified superior. The line structure consisting of vertical relationship connects the position and the tasks of each level with those above and below it. The line authority provides channels for upward and downward communications and links the various parts of activity together through appropriate connections with the ultimate point of authority in the organization e.g. The Director of Hospital and Nursing Director. Line relationship exists between a superior and the subordinates immediately and directly responsible to him. In nursing, staff nurse who performs the basic work of the nursing, that is direct patient care. The middle level manager like head nurse, supervisors are responsible for programme decision making and direction of day to day operation. The nursing personnel on the top CEO are responsible for non programmed decision making e.g. Goal setting etc.

2) LINE AND STAFF AUTHORITY: In nursing organizations, both line and staff personnel are usually professional nurses.

Line functions are those that have direct responsibility for accomplishing the objectives of a nursing department (or service or unit) For the most part, they are filled with registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and technicians. Staff functions are those that assist the line in accomplishing the primary objectives of nursing. They include clerical, personnel, Budgeting and Finance, Staff development research and specialized clinical consulting. The relationship between line and staff are a matter of authority. Line has authority for direct supervision of employees, whereas staffs provide advice and counsel. They may be line authority within staff section. Management is responsible for defining these positions clearly e.g. Assistant nursing officer is a service specialist, who serves line division by orienting and training of staff nurses. An assistant nursing officer who is in charge of planning advises line managers/supervisors in setting goals and planning of method to achieve goals. Like this, staff officers advise the line officers in planning, organising, control, directing and other managerial affairs.

3) FUNCTIONAL AUTHAORITY: This is a system of Organization in which functional departments are created at the institutional level to deal with the problems of cojncern at each successful level E.g. In a hospital. Medical Superintendent Chief Nursing Officer

Nursing Recruitment

Nursing Finance

Nursing trainers

Nursing Officer

Public Relations

Thus line and staff is that key management functions that the chief executive has no skill or time to execute well, are delegated to functional experts who can devote full time to the assigned function.

Nurse executive Director

Associate Director Manager Control

Associate Director Management Control

Line Authority

Clinical Nurse Specialist

Department Head

Department Head

Department Head

Line authority

Line authority

Line authority

Supervisor

Supervisor

Supervisor

Workers

Workers

Workers

B) MATRIX STRUCTURE: Its structure is superimposes, horizontal program management over the traditional vertical hierarchy. Personnel from various functional departments and assigned to a specific programme or project and become responsible to two bosses - a programme manager and their functional department head. Thus interdisciplinary team is created with core and extended team members. A longitudinal study of geriatrics matrix team program showed initial increased cost offset after a year by decreased acute care readmission rates, emergency room ruse and nursing home placement. Mortality was significantly decreased and the function ability of patients increased.

The matrix organization design enables timely response to external competition and facilitates efficiency and effectiveness internally through co-operation among disciplines. ADVANTAGES OF MATRIX STRUCTURE: Improved communication. Improved co-ordination between health being distracted by responsibility of day to day management of personnel and material. In functional line and staff organization the expert is responsible for a specified management function such as staffing, policies, quality improvement or staff development has authority to command line managers to implement needed actions that relate to experts specified function. Increased organizational response to changes. Increased employees satisfaction. Fewer organizational levels. Enhanced decision making at bedside Improved collegial relationships.

DISADVANTAGES OF MATRIX STRUCTURE Conflicts due to multiple line of authority, responsibility and accountability. Loss of control over functional discipline Challenge to manage.

C) DECENTRALIZATION (Flat, Horizontal, Participatory) STRUCTURE:

Authority

Decentralization

Flat Organizational structure is characteristics of decentralized management. Decentralization refers to the degree to which authority is shifted downwards within an organization to its divisions, services and units. Decentralization is delegating decision making responsibilities to the ones doing the work participatory management. Implementation of a philosophy of decentralized decision making by top management sets the stage for involving more people perhaps even the entire staff in making decisions at the level at which an action occurs. Both decentralized management and participatory management delegate authority from top managers downward to the people who report to them. In doing so, objectives or duties are assigned, authority is granted and an obligation or responsibility is created by acceptance. The employee is responsible/ accountable for results. In a decentralized participatory management structure, key attributes are integrated throughout the organisation, management and work force. Such attributes consist of trust, commitment, goal setting and autonomy.

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Organizational effectiveness is the concept of how effective an organization is in achieving the outcomes the organization intends to produce. CONCEPTS OR CRITERIA OF EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION The 3 concepts of the effectiveness are: - People/ employees - Culture - Impact 1. PEOPLE / EMPLOYEES OF AN ORGANIZATION The effectiveness of an organization also requires a focus on the human resources and organizations must help people gain the skills and self-reliance to master the new environment, to find security and support. To complete effectively organizations must attract, retain, motivate and utilize the talent of people effectively they can find. The points of employees role for effectiveness in organizations are: - Invest the organizational culture. - Passionate about the organizations desire impact. - Appropriately authentic - High value placed on interpersonal skills. - Willing to hold accountability. - Building connections with the across social networks. - Learning is a personal priority - Eager for feed back as an opportunity for growth

Using technology as an opportunity for growth

2. CULTURE/STYLES OF ORGANIZATIONS: - Organizational culture is the sum total of its beliefs norms, values, mission, philosophies, traditions etc. - They have artifacts, perspectives, values assumptions, symbols, language and behaviours that have been effective. - They include communication networks both formal and informal. It included a status / role structure that relates to characteristics of employees and customers or clients. - Management styles, whether authorative or participatory are also included. - Culture signifies distribution of leadership, continuous learning, openness and decentralization. - Points of an effective culture for effective organizations are: Consistent investment in leadership development. Leadership expressed at all levels of the organization. Emphasis on continuous learning through feedbacks. Success are celebrated and shared. Failures are opportunities for learning. Candour is encouraged and rewarded. Information is shared freely rather than hoarded. Decentralization decision-making and empowerment edges. Tom Peters: Hard is soft, soft is hard in 1980. The 7s model is divided into: 1) Hard elements strategy, structure and system. 2) Soft elements skills, staff, style and shared values. - The hard forms strategic plans to complex financial structures. - The soft stuff is relationships, leaderships, interpersonal skills. - This model thus was useful to: Improves the performance of company/ hospital. Examine the likely effects of future changes within a company. Align departments and process during a merger or acquisition. Determine how best to implement a proposed strategy. The seven values: HARD; - Strategy: The plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over competition. - Structure: The way the organization is structured and who reports to whom.

System: The daily activity and procedure that staffs engage in the get fob done. Shared values: called Super ordinate goals when the models core value that are evidenced in the corporate culture and general work ethic. Style: the leadership adopted. Staff: employees of firm Skill: The actual skills and competencies needed for employees working.

3. IMPACT/ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES: Points Included are: - Defines subject to regular review. - Systematic data-gathering and analysis. - Distinction between statistics and meaningful metrics. - Data informs but does not dictate decision making. - Data complemented by compelling stories. - Systems complemented by respect for stakeholders. - Pragmatism: Sunk cost and reasons to persist. - A vision of victory. RELATIONSHIP OF THE KEY ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS: Impact (profitable and financially sustainable and also valued stake holder) People (Staff) Culture ( an amalgam of style skills and shared values) IMPACT

PEOPLE -

CULTURE

Organizational effectiveness speaks about the relationship that exists between the elements of impact, people and culture. IMPACT

PEOPLE

CULTURE

The relationship between people and culture as that people create a culture that shapes them in turn. Future colleagues self select into an existing culture that meets their needs. For an organization to sustain the most important to recognize the dialectical nature of this relationship. An organization founder creates the initial culture, which then exerts influence on them in turn. Future colleagues are attracted to the pre-existing culture because in one way it meets their needs and so they reinforce it.

IMPACT

PEOPLE -

CULTURE

People implement the organizations and sustain a high performance culture. Plans and the culture support and amplify (or hinder and dampen their efforts.) People and culture influence the effectiveness of organizations. People implement the plans and the culture helps them to operate, helps them or hinders them. Talented people can overcome misguided strategies and sub optima systems, but they cant overturn a dysfunctional culture. IMPACT

PEOPLE

CULTURE

The organizations ability to achieve its goals affects its ability to attract and retain effective people and to sustain a high performance culture. Impact is the ability to achieve goals, fulfil the purposes and create a value of interest for stakeholders- directly affects its ability to attract and retain effective people and to build and sustain high performance level.

MODEL FOR ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS:

Flexibility & Description

Human relations

Adhocracy (open System model)

Internal Focus

External Focus

Hierarchy (Internal model)

Market/Environment (Rational goal model

Stability and Control

The above modes describe the vividness required to obtain effectivity. It was described by Rohrbaugh and Ovinm (1983). A flexible and adaptable need for rational and formal structures. A balance strikes between these attributes is necessary for organization effectiveness.

DETERMINENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS: The concept of organizational design It implies the process of developing the relationships and creating the structure to accomplish organizational purposes. Structure is thus the results of the design process. Organizational design has percreptive and action orientation. It is geared to solve problems and improvements in the performances of organizational effectiveness (Fayrl 1997) proposed an organizational design that is independent of the nature of the organization and its environment. Here certain factors like organizations size, technology, environment and social system within which the organization operates is decisive. Power control: According to Robbins 1992 power control is one of the kmost effective factors that leads to effectiveness. Organizations possess power control to manipulate and control their environment.

Environment, technology, leadership, culture, stratergic planning and design can explain the diagnostic approach. - For effectiveness, continuous evaluation of the organization is necessary: It has 4 approaches as: 1) The goal attainment approach. 2) The system resource approach. 3) The internal process approach. 4) The strategic constituency approach. According to Cameron (1978) identified the problem of determining the organizational effectiveness of institutions of higher education. He developed a conceptual framework that incorporated 3 different levels of analysis and 3 aspects of organizations. The levels of analysis are individuals, communities and organizations. The aspects include input, processes and outputs. This study shows that the organization effectiveness is due to impact of 4 variables leadership, technology, planning etc.

ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE: Organizational climate is the emotional state, perceptions and feelings shared by members of the system. It can be formal, relaxed, defensive, cautions, accepting, trusting and so on. It is the employees subjective impression or perception of their organizational. The employees of major concern to nurse managers are the practicing nurses. Practicing nurses create or at the very least contribute to the creation of the climate perceived by patients. Managers create The Climate in which practicing nurses work. If managers trust them, practicing nurses provide good information to keep their managers informed than the climate promotes the concept that; most hands on employees can perform routine management, accounting, engineering and quality tasks. Well trained, well equipped, self managed work team, the members of which are also good sales persons, can perform 90% of expert staff work. The object of expert staff is to spread knowledge quickly.

Organisational Climate relates to the personality of an organisation and can be changed. Following are the Six Sociological dimensions of Organizational Climate:1. Clarity in specifying certification of the organizational goals and policies. This is facilitated by smooth flow of information and management support of employees. 2. Commitment to goal achievement through employee involvement. 3. Standards of performances that challenge promote pride and improve individual performance. 4. Responsibility for ones own work fostered and supported by managers. 5. Recognition for doing good work. 6. Team work and a sense of belonging, mutual trust and respect.

Practicing nurses want a climate that gives them job satisfaction through good working conditions, high salaries and opportunities for professional growth through counselling and career development experiences and opportunities. Nurses achieve a job satisfaction when they are challenged and their achievements are recognized and appreciated by managers and the patients. They achieve satisfaction from a climate of collegiality with managers and other healthcare providers and in which they have input into decision making. Just as importantantly, nurses want a climate of administrative support that includes adequate staffing and shift options. Personnel shortage, frustration, failure and conflict in nursing have required sweeping changes in intrinsic and extrinsic rewards including career development programmes that increase the ability of professional nurses to develop their self-esteem through self-actualization. This is prevalent in todays environment of nursing practice. Management climate surveys; measures clarity and understanding of an organisations goals, effectiveness of decision-making process, integration, co-operation, vitality, leader effectiveness, openness and trust, job satisfaction, opportunities for growth and development, level of performance, orientation and accountability, effectiveness of teamwork and problem solving, and overall confidence in management. Surveys may be used to make a diagnosis and to achieve the following:

o Establish a new strategic direction. o Clarify an organizations mission, objectives and goals. o Identify managers and supervisors training and development needs. o Re-allocated resources. o Prepare a foundation for cultural change. o Revise hiring priorities using a patterned interview as well as interviewing to select the best fit for the unit and organisation. Many studies have been done to determine work climate within business, industry and healthcare organizations. Climate and philosophy results from the corporate culture and changing the culture leads to climate change. E.g. One head nurse designs and implements a project to motivate the nursing staff of a medical unit to better services and greater satisfaction. She designs an employee of the month motivational strategy that includes measurable performance criteria. Though the staffs were initially not interested but then they eventually gained interest. Productivity increased as did emergence of talents.

ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE A POSITIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE Develop the organizations mission, philosophy, vision, goals and objectives statements with input from practicing nurses, including their personal goals. Establish trust and openness through communication that includes prompt and frequent feedback and stimulate motivation. Provide opportunities for growth and development, including career development and continuing education programmes. Promote teamwork Ask practicing nurses to state their satisfactions and dis-satisfaction during meetings and conferences and through surveys. Market the nursing organization to the participating nurses, other employees and the public. Follow through on all activities involving practicing nurses. Analyze the compensation system for the entire nursing organization and structure it to reward competence productivity and longevity. Promote self esteem, autonomy and self fulfilment for practicing nurses, including feelings that their work experience are of high quality. Emphasize programmes to recognize practicing nurses contribution to the organization. Assess unneeded threats and punishment and eliminate them. Provide an environment of job security.

Help practicing nurses to overcome the short comings and develop their strength. Be a role model performance desire of practicing nurses.