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INDUCED DRAFT COOLING TOWERS (Fundamentals & Applications)

Power Management Institute,Noida 28 07 2008 28-07-2008 DR. S. S. KACHHWAHA Assistant Professor (Head, Training & Placement) Department of Mechanical Engineering Delhi College of Engineering,Delhi-110 042

Fundamentals Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer Design and Performance Analysis Discussions Recent Developments Conclusions

Classification Cooling Tower Zones Terminologies Heat and Mass Transfer Mechanism

Natural Draft N t l D ft Induced Draft

Cooling Tower Zones

Spray Zone Fill Zone Rain Zone

Spray Zone
Nozzle configuration for uniform distribution of water over the fill material 15% cooling in large cooling towers To develop spray pattern: Height f H i ht of spray zone = 0 45 m (18 i h) 0.45 inch)

Non-Uniformity in Spray Zone

The application of water by nozzles developing circular spray patterns results in non-uniform flow through the tower packing, thus li i i performance. h limiting f A method for determining nozzle deposition profiles resulting i optimum performance f fil lti in ti f for a specific packing configuration should be developed Both thermal performance and uniformity p should be optimized.

Non-uniformity in spray zone

Fill Zone
Classification (a) Splash Fill (b) Trickle Fill (c) Film Fill

Fill Zone Fouling

Algae and bacteria ( g (biological g g growth) ) Colloidal material transported in the recirculation water Air borne dirt or particles Silt or suspended solids i th make-up water d d lid in the k t Scaling due to dissolved materials carried in solution When selecting a particular fill for a cooling system, it is important not only to consider initial performance characteristics and cost but also the long term structural performance and fouling characteristics.

Rain Zone
Rain zone is required in a cooling tower to permit uniform airflow into the fill. Inefficient portion of the cooling tower (10 to 20% of total heat and mass interaction only in large size towers) Droplets and jets are formed due to dripping of water from the sheet of the fill. Droplet radius in rain zone is large as compared to that i th t in spray zone. For a 100 ton blow through tower: Rain zone = 0.90 m (36 inch); ( ); Fill zone = 0.90 m (36 inch); Spray zone = 0.45 m (18 inch).

Cooling Range Approach Ambient Wet bulb Temperature Cooling Load Zones of Cooling Tower

Fundamentals Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer Design and Performance Analysis Discussions Recent Developments Conclusions

Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer

Control Volume

Evaporative heat and mass transfer Convective heat transfer

Merkel Method
Enthalpy of air
dima hd a fi A fr (imasw ima ) = dz ma

Water Temperature
dt w ma 1 dima = dz m w c pw dz
MeM = hd a fi A fr L fi mw = hd a fi L fi Gw =
t wi

t wo


c pw dt w

ima )

The value of Lewis factor (Lef) relating heat and mass ( g transfer for air-water vapor system is equal to 1. The air leaving the cooling tower is saturated with water vapor and it is characterized only by its enthalpy. The reduction of water flow rate by evaporation is neglected.

Fundamentals Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer Design and Performance Analysis Discussions Recent Developments Conclusions

Design and Performance Analysis

Objectives of Model Development Development of a simple and efficient mathematical model (a) for estimating heat and mass transfer between hot water and air stream, ( ) (b) to e ab e a accu a e p ed c o o coo g tower o enable an accurate prediction of cooling o e performance and fan power simultaneously with available empirical relations for pressure drop. Beneficiaries Manufacturer (to design the cooling tower system) User (to cross check the specifications)

Induced Draft Counter Flow Cooling Tower with Geometry g

Problem Formulation
Design /Analysis
Given Water mass flow rate Inlet water temperature Cooling range g g Air inlet temperature (WBT & DBT) To calculate Air mass flow rate Fill size

Required Equations
Heat and Mass Transfer, & Energy Equations Draft Equation (with Fan Characteristics) Pressure Equation Empirical Equations Geometries

Energy Equation
The amount of heat transferred,q (J/s) to the air stream from the circulating water is expressed by energy equation as q = mw . cpwm . (twi two) = ma (imas5 ima1) imasw5 = enthalpy of saturated air-vapor at 5 ima1 = enthalpy of air-vapor at cooling tower inlet The amount of water lost due to evaporation [mw(evap)] is given by y mw(evap) = (mav5 mav1)

Draft Equation q
The Draft Equation obtained by matching fan performance curve and the flow characteristics is expressed as (Kilfi+ Krzfi+ Kfsfi+ Kfi+ Kspfi+ Kwdfi+ Kdefi+ Kctfi+ Kupfi) x (mav15/Afr)2/(2 av15) (KFs(mav5/Ac)2/ (2 av6) = 0
where K = denotes the loss coefficient and g p mav15 = average air-vapor mass flow rate between 1 and 5 Afr = frontal area of the fill av15 = harmonic mean density of air-vapor = 2 /(1/av1+1/av5) mav5 = air-vapor mass flow rate at 5 air vapor 5 Ac = area of the fan casing av6 = density of air-vapor at 6.

Loss Coefficient due to Inlet Louvers (Kilfi )

The specified loss coefficient due to inlet louvers (Kilfi ) referred to the mean conditions through the fill is Kilfi = Kil (av15/av1){(Wi.Bi) / (2H3.Wi)} (mav1/mav15)2
where Kil denotes loss coefficient for inlet louvers and av1 = density of air-vapor at 1 Wi = tower inlet width Bi = tower breadth or length H3 = tower inlet height p p mav1= air-vapor mass flow rate upstream of fill

Rain Zone Loss Coefficient (Krzfi) fi

The Rain Zone Loss Coefficient (Krzfi) referred to the mean conditions through the fill is given by Krzfi = Krz. (av15/av1). (mav1/mav15)2 where Krz = loss coefficient for the rain zone

Loss Coefficient of Fill Support Structure (Kfsfi)

( (Kfsfi) referred to the mean conditions through the fill is g g given by y Kfsfi = Kfs. (av15/av1). (mav1/mav15)2 where Kfs = loss coefficient for fill support

Loss Coefficient Correlation for Fill

Suitable fans for mechanical draft cooling towers are selected based to a large extent, on the loss coefficient of fill. fill An inaccurate representation of the loss coefficients in the form of empirical relations can have financial implications if the th cooling t li tower d does not meet d i specifications. t t design ifi ti

Fill Loss Coefficient (Kfdm) (

Kfd = adl. Lfi.Gwbdl Ga cdl G fdm

where the coeffcients adl, bdl, cdl are specified for a given fill.

Loss Coefficient Correlation For Fill (contd.)

Pressure drop is coupled with the loss coefficient pfi = Kfi . v2/2 Kfi = c1Gwc2Gac3 + c4Gwc4Gac6
(form drag) (viscous drag)

This equation will g q generally correlate measured p y pressure loss coefficients accurately for all types of fills under all types of practical operating conditions as it make provision for a spectrum of forces due to shear and drag. Film fill empirical relations: Kfdml =19.658921 Gw0.281255Ga0.175177 Kfdml =3.897830 Gw0.777271Ga0.215975 + 15.327472Gw0.215975Ga0.079696

Loss Coefficient Correlation For Fill (contd.) ( )

Precautions in selecting the correlations g Range and applicability of Gw and Ga Goodness of fit must also be supplied in the form of a correlation coefficient to compensate for any uncertainties. Same water spray system must be employed in the fill test and th subsequent application of th fill t eliminate th d the b t li ti f the to li i t the effect of drop size and elimination on the loss coefficient.

Actual Fill Loss Coefficient (Kfi )

( (Kfi ) applicable to cooling tower is g g given by y Kfi = Kfdm + [(Gav52/av5) - (Gav12/av1)] / (Gav52/av15)

where Gav1 = mass velocity of air-vapor at 1 [G = m / Afr] Gav5 = mass velocity of air-vapor at 5

Loss Coefficient through the Spray Zone (Kspfi) g p y (

( (Kspfi) above the fill referred to the mean conditions through the g fill is given by Kspfi = Lsp[0.4(Gw/Ga) + 1].(av15/av5). (mav5/mav15)2 Lsp = height of the spray zone Gw = mass velocity of water based on frontal area of fill Ga = mass velocity of dry air b l it f d i based on f t l area of th fill d frontal f the

Specified loss coefficient due to water distribution system(Kwdfi) dfi

( (Kwdfi) referred to the mean conditions through the fill is g g given by y Kwdfi = Kwd (av15/av5). (mav5/mav15)2 where Kwd = loss coefficient for water distribution system

Loss Coefficient for Drift Eliminator (Kdefi) (

( (Kdefi) based on the fill conditions is given by g y Kdefi = ade. Rybde. (av15/av5). (mav5/mav15)2 Ry = characteristic flow parameter = m / (. Afr ) In the present case, commercially available type c drift eliminator has been selected for which ade = 27.4829 bde = 0.14247

Inlet Loss Coefficient (Kct(norz) ) (

(Kct(norz) )for an induced draft, isotropically packed, rectangular cooling tower i given b li is i by Kct(norz) = 0.2339 + (3.919 x10-3 Kfie2 6.84 x10-2 Kfie + 2.5267) x exp[Wi{0.5143 0.1803 exp(0.0163 Kfi)}/H3] sinh-1[2.77 exp(0.958 Wi/H3) exp{Kfie(2.4571.015 Wi/H3) x 10-2}(ri/Wi 0.013028)] where the effective loss coefficient in the vicinity of the fill (Kfie) is given by Kfie = Kfsfi + Kfi +Kspfi + Kwdfi + Kdefi

Fan Upstream Loss Coefficient (Kupfi)

The specified fan upstream loss coefficient (Kupfi) referred to mean conditions through the fill is given by Kupfi = Kup. (av15/av5). (mav5/mav15)2.(Afr/Ac)2 where Kup = fan upstream losses

Pressure Equation
The pressure of air upstream of fan (pa5) is expressed as 5 pa5 = pa1[1(0.009754(H3 +Lfi/2)/ta1]3.5(1+w1)(1-w1/(w1+0.622)) (Kilfi+Krzfi +Kfsfi +Kfi +Kspfi +Kwdfi +Kdefi +Kctfi) x (mav15/Afr)2/ (2 av15) Here, it is assumed that the air-vapor leaving the cooling tower is saturated.

Fan Power Equations

The actual air volume flow rate (VF, m3/s) through the fan is given by VF = mav5 / av5 As actual air density and rotational speed of the fan are not the same as the reference conditions for which fan performance characteristics were specified, the relevant fan laws are employed. Accordingly, air volume flow rate (VF/dif, m3/s) is given by VF/dif = VF.(NFr/ NF) . (dFr/dF)3
where NFr = reference fan rotational speed (r/min) NF = fan rotational speed (r/min) dFr = test fan diameter (m) and dF = fan diameter (m)

Fan Power Equations (contd.)

The reference fan static pressure difference (pF/dif, N/m2) is given by pF/dif = 320.85 6.9604 VF/dif + 0.31373 VF/dif2 0.021393 VF/dif3 The actual fan static pressure difference (pFs, N/m2) is given by pFs = pF/dif.(NF/ NFr)2 . (dF/dFr)2.(av6/r) The fan shaft power at reference conditions (PF/dif, W) is given by PF/dif = 4245.1 64.134 VF/dif + 17.586 VF/dif2 0.71079 VF/dif3 The actual fan shaft power (PF,W) is given by PF= PF/dif.(NF/ NFr)3 . (dF/dFr)5.(av6/r) The static pressure rise coefficient of the fan ( F/difs) is p (K KF/difs= 2.pFs.av6 / [mav5/Ac]2

Total Transfer Coefficient

MeM = hd a fi A ffr L fi mw = hd a fi L fi Gw =
t wi t wo


c pw dt w

t wi t wo c pw1 c pw 2 c pw3 c pw 4 = + + + ima ) 4 i(1) i( 2) i(3) i( 4 )

c (t =


t wo ) 1


( 2)

( 3)

1 i( 4)

tw(1) = two + 0.1 (twi two) tw(2) = two + 0 4 (twii two) 0.4 (2) tw(3) = two + 0.6 (twi two) tw(4) = two + 0.9 (twi two) (

Formulations for Three Zones of the Cooling Tower

Transfer coefficient in Rain Zone (Merz) of the cooling tower from is ( g given by
Merz = 3 6(pa/Rv.ta.w) (D/va,in.dd) (Hrz/dd) Sc0.33 3.6(p t ).(D/v i d ).(H ).Sc x ln[(ws+ 0.622)/(w + 0.622)] /(ws w) x {5.01334.b1.a 192121.7. b2.a 2.57724 + 23.61842 0.5299 x [0.2539 (b3.va,in)1 67 + 0.18] x [0.83666 (b4. Hrz) - 0 5299 + 0.42] [0 2539 v 1.67 0 18] [0 83666 0 42] x [43.0696 (b4. dd)0.7947 + 0.52]

Formulations for three zones (contd.) ( )

Transfer coefficient in fill zone (Mefi) of cooling tower for any fill is given b i i by Mefi = ad. Lfi.Gwbd Ga cd The coefficients ad, bd and cd are taken from the fill data Transfer coefficient in spray zone (Mesp) of the cooling tower is given by Mesp = 0 2 Lsp .(Ga/Gw)0.5 0.2 (G Total transfer characteristic of cooling tower (MeT ) is given by MeT = Merz + Mefi + Mesp

Exergetic Equations g q
Limitations of conventional studies Based on law of conservation of energy. Energy analysis alone p gy y provides no information of energy transfer from the best possible way (only a quantity of energy transfer). It is insufficient to indicate some aspects of energy utilization and may be misleading.

Exergetic Equations
Law of Degradable of Energy (Exergy Analysis) Powerful concept of exergy to fulfill of incompleteness Exergy is a measure of the usefulness, quantity or potential of energy to cause change, and it appears to be an effective measure of the potential of system to impact the environment Importance This study is useful for determining the operating point of cooling tower in various inlet air conditions performing thermodynamically valuable.

Exergy of Water gy
The exergy (W) of water is given by Xw = mw[(hfw hfwr) tr.(sfw sfwr) Rv. tr .ln (r)] where r = pa.w/(0.622 + w).pvs and h and s represent enthalpy and entropy of water respectively.

Exergy of Air-Vapor gy p
Exergy of air-vapor is sum of exergy of dry air and exergy of vapor. vapor Specific exergy of dry air (J/kg) is given by a = [xa.(cpa/Ma).{ t tr tr. ln(t/tr) } + (R/Ma).tr.(p/pr) + (R/Ma) tr. xa. ln (xa/xar)] ).t Specific exergy of vapor is given by v = [xv.(cpv/Mv).{ t tr tr. ln(t/tr)} + ( [ ( ){ ( (R/Mv).tr.(p/pr) + ) (p p (R/Mv).tr. xv. ln (xv/xvr)] g q gy p Using above equations, exergy of air-vapor mixture becomes Xav = ma [a + v]

Exergy Balance
Total exergy entering = Total exergy leaving + destroyed gy exergy Total exergy entering = (Xwi + Xavi + Xwimakeup) Total exergy leaving = (Xwo + Xavo) Exergy d t ti (Xd) i given b E destruction is i by Xd = (Xwi + Xavi + Xwimakeup) (Xwo + Xavo)

Second Law Efficiency (II) y

Second law efficiency is given by II = 1 [(Xd / (Xwi + Xavi + Xwimakeup)]

Thermal Efficiency (th)

Thermal efficiency of a cooling tower or the efficiency of evaporative cooling is given by th = (twi two) / (twi twb)

Fundamentals Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer Design and Performance Analysis Discussions Recent Developments Conclusions

Input Parameters Air/water conditions Atmospheric pressure at ground level 1(Pa),pa1 Water inlet temperature (K),twi Water outlet temperature (K),two p ( ), Inlet water mass flow rate(kg/s),mw Inlet air dry bulb temperature(K),ta1 y p ( ), Inlet air wet bulb temperature(K),twb1 101325.000 314.65 303.47 412.0000 306.65 298.1500

Input Parameters (contd.)

Geometric parameters Tower height,H9 (m) Fan height,H6 (m) Tower inlet height,H3 (m) Tower inlet width,Wi (m) Tower breadth or length, Bi (m) Fill height (m),Lfi Height of the spray zone(m),Lsp Inlet rounding (m),ri Plenum chamber height (m),Hpl 12.5 9.5 4.0 12.0 12.0 1.878 0.5 0.025 Wi 2.4

Input Parameters ( p (contd.) )

Fan F parameters t Fan diameter(m),dF Fan rotational speed (r/min),NF Test fan diameter(m) dFr diameter(m),d Reference rotational speed (r/min),NFr Reference air density (kg/m3), r 8.0 120 1.536 1 536 750 1.2

Input Parameters (contd.)

Other specifications Mean droplet diameter in rain zone, dd (m) Loss coefficient for inlet louvers Kil louvers, Loss coefficient for fill support ,Kfs pp Loss coefficient for water distribution system, Kwd Fan upstream losses, Kup 0.0035 3.5 35 0.5 0.5 0.52

Input Parameters (contd.) nput Pa a ete s

Guess Values Average mass flow rate of air vapor through the air-vapor cooling tower, mav15 (kg/s) Pressure at 5, pa5, (N/m2) mw


S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 11 12. 13. 14. 15.

Calculated values (Output) Average mass flow rate of air-vapor(kg/s),mav15 Pressure of air at 5 upstream of fan(Pa),pa5 Air dry/wet bulb temperature at 5(K),ta5 Transfer coefficient for the rain zone, Merz Transfer coefficient for the fill zone, Mefi Transfer coefficient for the spray zone, Mesp Total transfer coefficient / Merkel number for the cooling tower, MeT Merkel number by Chebyshevs formula, MeC Actual fan shaft power (W),PF Water lost due to evaporation (kg/s),mwevap Mass flow rate ratio at inlet (mav1/mw ) Evaporation loss of water (kg/s), mwevap Exergy destruction (W), Xd Second law efficiency, II Thermal efficiency of the cooling tower, th 441.7592 101170.321 306.76 0.264781 0.886219 0.102264 1.253264 1.27580 69242.37 7.4834 1.0631 1 0631 1.8164 2260169.503 0.9204 0.6777

Effect of variation in wet bulb temperature of inlet air

twb1 (K) Run 1 292.15 292 15 Run 2 294.15 Run 3 296.15 Run 4 Run 5 Run 6 Run 7 298.15 300.15 302.15 303.4677 305.3476 306.7647 308.2106 309.6848 310.6714 1.0693 1.0631 1.0568 1.0503 1.0459 1.8785 1.8164 1.7535 1.6898 1.6476 69668.17 69242.37 68804.93 68355.37 68052.33 0.6044 0.6777 0.7712 0.8946 1 2877996 2260170 1646612 1039240 643454.6 0.8987 0.9204 0.9419 0.9633 0.9773 303.9592 1.0752 1.9399 70082.76 0.5455 3498385 0.877 302.5997 302 5997 1.0809 1 0809 2.0004 2 0004 70486.71 70486 71 0.4970 0 4970 4119781 0.8552 0 8552 ta5 (K) mav1/mw mwevap (%) PF (W) th Xd (W) II

Air outlet temperature v/s wet bulb temperature of inlet air

312 310 Air outle temperature(K) et 308 306 304 302 300 298 292.15 294.15 296.15 298.15 300.15 302.15 303.468 Wet bulb tem prature of inlet air(K)

Inlet mass flow rate ratio v/s wet bulb temperature of inlet air
1.09 1.08 Inlet mas flow rate ratio ss 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 1 02 292.15 294.15 296.15 298.15 300.15 302.15 303.468 Wet bulb tem prature of inlet air(K)

Thermal efficiency v/s wet bulb temperature of inlet air


Therm efficiency mal





0 292.15 294.15 296.15 298.15 300.15 302.15 303.468 Wet bulb tem prature of inlet air(K)

Exergy destruction v/s wet bulb temperature of inlet air

4500000 4000000 Exerg destruction (W) gy ) 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0

29 2. 1

29 4. 1

29 6. 1

29 8. 1

30 0. 1

30 2. 1

Wet bulb tem prature of inlet air(K)

30 3. 4


Second law efficiency v/s wet bulb temperature of inlet air

1 0.98 0.96 Secon law efficiency nd 0.94 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.8 0.78 0 78 292.15 294.15 296.15 298.15 300.15 302.15 303.468 Wet bulb tem prature of inlet air(K)

The variation of air conditions

Second law efficiency and exergy destruction to the variation of inlet dry bulb temperature.

Dry air flow rate required to the variation of inlet dry bulb temperature

Second law efficiency and exergy destruction to the variation of inlet relative humidity.

Exergy change of water and air to the variation of inlet relative humidity.

Dry air flow rate required to the variation y q of inlet relative humidity

Fundamentals Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer Design and Performance Analysis Discussions Recent Developments Conclusions

Recent Developments p
Limitations of the conventional cooling towers. Development of Shower cooling tower [SCT].

Limitations of Conventional Cooling Towers

Lower water temperature drop and performance degradation with time due to fouling. g Higher power consumption and noise of motor. Fills are easy to get blocked due to salt deposition and subsequent air flow block. block Electric fans are easy to be damaged. Unstable cooling effect. Difficulty for the fills to be replaced and cleaned. Tend to age, change, embrittle, crack and jam, so the technical equipment and the p p g are j q p piping jammed with fragment debris, g , affecting the distribution of air and water greatly.

Shower Cooling Tower (SCT)

Breakthrough Fill are eliminated completely and tiny water droplets replace the fill as the mode of heat and mass t d transfer. f Better heat and mass transfer promotion.

Performance Characteristics of SCT

In a SCT, efficient low pressure atomization devices replace the conventional fill so the resistance of the cooling medium g in the tower decreases considerably. The duration of heat transfer between the water and the air in the counter flow SCT is longer and hence, the effect on the temperature drop is better. Tiny droplets causes large contact surface area with the cool air, air so the ratio of the mass flow rate of dry air to water increases greatly. The synchronous reliability of SCT components is better, so the operation duration without repair can extend to five years years, and the operation life span can extend to 15 years.

Principle of Shower Cooling Towers(SCT)

Cooling effect of SCT depends on the following factors: The ratio of the mass flow rate of dry air to that of water (same working conditions this ratio increase 15-20% for SCT). The contact specific surface area of cool air and hot water inside the tower. The retention time of hot water droplet inside the tower.

Fundamentals Mechanism of Heat and Mass Transfer Design and Performance Analysis Discussions Recent Developments Conclusions

For a given cooling tower load (mass flow rate of water and cooling range,the model successfully predicts the air outlet conditions, fan power requirements, make up water requirements and various evaluation parameters such as mass flow rate ratio, thermal efficiency of cooling tower, exergy destruction and second law efficiency. The wet bulb temperature of inlet air plays a significant role on overall performance of the induced draft cooling tower. From parametric study, it may be concluded that increase in wet bulb temperature of inlet air causes increase in air outlet temperature, thermal efficiency and second l t t th l ffi i d d law efficiency and ffi i d decrease in inlet mass flow rate ratio,evaporation loss, fan power requirements and exergy destruction. Droplet diameter in the rain zone has no significant role in the performance of cooling tower. The present model can be successfully applied for air conditioning and power plant applications for wide range of load. load

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