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Lab 1 Review: DNA and RNA are nucleic acids polymers of nucleotides polynucleotide chains DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

cid stores the hereditary information responsible for inherited traits in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes and many viruses. RNA ribonucleic acid Messenger RNA carries instructions for assembling proteins from DNA to the ribosomes Ribosomal RNA form parts of ribosomes Transfer RNA brings amino acids to the ribosome for their assembly DNA 3 components linked by covalent bonds: - 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) - one to three phosphate groups - 1 of 4 nitrogenous base double helix: two nucleotide chains wrapped around each other right handed direction (10-12 base pairs in one turn) Each polynucleotide chain in DNA has polarity or directionality thus two ends are diferent. 5 attached to phosphate group while 3 attached to OH hydroxyl group antiparallel highly significant for the process of replication. Each base pair 0.34nm apart and turn 3.4nm. (Note 5-carbon sugar deoxyribose has H connected to 2 carbon while ribose has a OH) Nitrogenous bases: Purines (2 ring) : Adenine and Guanine Pyrimidine (one ring): Thymine Cytosine Uracil In DNA: A 2 hydrogen bondsT G 2hydrogen bonds C In RNA: AUGC

Sugar-phosphate backbone linked by phosphodiester bonds Johann Friedrich Miescher discovered Nuclein in pus filled bandages. James Watson & Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA; double helix; complementary base pairs Rosalind Franklin helical structure used X-ray diffraction Chargaffs rule equal amt of adenine to thymine and equal amt of guanine to cytosine DNA Polymerases takes single nucleotides and match the base against the base in the template strand during DNA replication. Histones positively charged proteins that DNA binds to (helps compact DNA into chromatin)

Chromatin packs of DNA Polyploidy have multiple copies of chromosomes (> 2). Central Dogma flow of genetic information. Detergent is added strawberry lysate becomes viscous because detergent denatures the DNA (unravels DNA from proteins ) making long polymer molecules making it viscous. NaCl makes DNA more viscous further by separate histones and DNA. Na (positive) attracts to DNA while Cl (negative) attracts histones. NaOH the strong base breaks the hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases making the double helix strand to become single strands. Single strands do not fluoresce as well double strand. Lab 2 Notes The Mitotic Cell Cycle Interphase: - cell grows and replicates its DNA to prep for mitosis 1) G1 growth stage, makes RNAs , proteins (no DNA synthesis, no nuclear DNA) (6 to 10 hrs) 2) S DNA replicates, DNA synthesis, as well as chromosomal proteins (10 to 12 hrs) 3) G2 continue to synthesize RNA and proteins (no DNA replication) (4 to 6 hrs) Go state of division arrest. Mitosis (1 to 4 hrs) 1)Prophase chromosomes condense. Because each chromosome was duplicated during S phase, it now consists of two identical copies called sister chromatids that are attached at a common center point called the centromere. Two structures called centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell during this phase and begin building the mitotic spindle 2)Prometaphase nuclear envelope breaks down to cause beginning of prometaphase; spindle enters former nucleus area. Protein structure called the kinetochore is associated with the centromere on each sister chromatid. Stringlike structures called microtubules grow out from the spindle and connect to the sister chromatids at their kinetochores. 3) Metaphase microtubules arrange the chromosomes in a line along the equator of the cell, known as the metaphase plate 4) Anaphase the microtubules attached to the kinetochores contract, which pulls the sister chromatids apart and toward opposite poles of the cell. At this point, each chromatid is considered a separate chromosome. 5) Telephase newly separated chromosomes reach the mitotic spindle and a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, thus creating two separate nuclei inside the same cell Karyotype complete collection of metaphase chromosomes arranged according to size.

Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm, usually follows the nuclear division stage of mitosis and produces two daughter cells. Prokaryotes binary fission (two new cells that are identical to the original cell) Eurkaryotes Mitosis or Meisosis ( sexually producing eukaryotes)

Lab 3 DNA Replication Mitosis - Mitosis is the cell division process in which a eukaryotic cell divides the chromosomes into two identical sets of two daughter nuclei in its cell nucleus. (produces somatic cells) Meiosis process of cell division that recombines DNA sequences and produces 4 genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes present in a somatic cell. Meiosis reduce chromosome number from diploid to haploid and generate genetic diversity in sexually reproducing organisms. Gametes Zygote Alleles different versions of genes

Meisos: - brings about segregation of alleles - cross over and random movement of non-homologous chromosomes form new combination of genes or new genotypes Gene specific sequences of DNA that most often encode a protein, whose expression results in a specific phenotype. However, the specific DNA sequence of a gene can vary, which can lead to different protein products with different phenotypes. The different DNA sequences of a gene are known as alleles. Getting Chi Values Interphase Oberved Expected O-E (O-E)^2 (O-E)^2 / E If Chi Value is > p-5% reject null hypothesis If Chi Value is < p5% accept null hypothesis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase/Telophase