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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction Industrial electronics is the phrase usually employed to cover the use of vacuum tubes in fields outside of communication. The term was originally applied to the Tungar Rectifier (about 1915) and the use of phototubes (about 1927). By 1930 Industrial Electronics became a growing business. However, its early growth was slow, because there was a general mistrust about the dependability of tubes. Wider use of thyratrons that could handle currents in amperes was an important contribution; the development of ignitron tubes and the use of steel envelopes for them were considerable factors; also, such new applications as high frequency for induction and dielectric heating helped in the advancement (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4066827). We will never know Industrial Electronics as we know it today if not because of the persons who made impossible things possible due to their inventions. These persons have such great minds of making our life easier today. Nikola Tesler invents the alternating current generator & Electric Motor (1888). He was one of the great pioneers of the use of alternating current electricity. Alternating current electricity changes in strength cyclically over time and is the type of electricity that power companies supply to homes today. His alternating current motors were used to power machinery in all industries. The Invention of the Vacuum Tube (1905) by Sir John Ambrose Fleming made the first diode tube, the Fleming valve. The device had three leads, two for the heater/cathode and the other for the plate. In 1907 Lee De Forest added a grid electrode to Flemings valve and created a triode, later improved and called the Audion. In 1921 Albert W. Hull, an American engineer, invented a vacuum tube oscillator called it a magnetron. The magnetron was the first device that could efficiently produce

microwaves. Radar, which was developed gradually during the 1920's and 1930's, provided the first widespread use of microwaves. The introduction of Vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics. The vacuum tube era reached its peak with the completion of the first general purpose electronic digital computer in 1945. This huge machine, called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was built by the two engineers at the University of Pennsylvania, J. Presper Eckert Jr. and John W. Mauchly. The Solid State Transformation by the three American physicists John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley invented the transistor in 1947. The transistor has now almost completely replaced the vacuum tube and most of its applications. Incorporating an arrangement of semiconductor materials and of electrical contacts, the transistor provides the same functions as the vacuum to but at a reduced cost, weight, size, and power consumption and with higher reliability. Transistors revolutionized the electronics industry, dramatically reducing the size of computers and other equipment. Transistors were used as amplifiers in hearing aids and pocket-sized radios and the early 1950's. By the 1960's, semiconductor diodes and transistors had replaced vacuum tubes in many types of equipment. Integrated circuits developed from transistor technology as scientists sought ways to build more transistors into a circuit. The first integrated circuits were patented in 1959 by two Americans, Jack Kilby, an engineer, and Robert Noyce, a physicist. Some integrated circuits were fabricated on a single crystal of silicon. Integrated circuits (ICs) make the microcomputer possible; without them, individual circuits and their components would take up far too much space for a compact computer design. The typical IC consists of elements such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors packed on a single piece of silicon. Microprocessors (invented by Robert Noyce, Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin and Stan Mazor) were introduced in the late 1960s, many scientists had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip, but nearly everyone felt that integrated circuit technology was not ready to support such a chip. In 1971, an Intel team

developed the so called 4004 microprocessor. With its 4-bit CPU, command register, decoder, decoding control, control monitoring of machine commands and interim register, the 4004 was a great invention. It was used to build the first hand-held calculator. Suddenly, scientists and engineers could carry the computational power of a computer with them to job sites, classrooms, and laboratories Electronics). Technology changes the man's perception about living. Due to the rapid growth of technology here and abroad we are challenged to discover new things. Industry nowadays is far away from the industry before. Industrial Electronics is all about the application of electronic circuits in the industry. The student's awareness and skills in assembling circuits and its application is comparable to other universities due to the lack of application in the field. Industrial Electronics curricula are often viewed by the students as theoretical and highly strenuous subject. Students are often unable to relate the theory to applications in reality. The evident solution to this problem is to include laboratory experiments in the curriculum. In using different statistical methods, we came up to a solution by providing a laboratory module that will resolve this kind of problem. It is a set of experiments that will explain principles related in Industrial Electronics and will provide definite instructions on how to perform those experiments. This manual will introduce students to the actual and practice of industrial electronics systems. Topics will be discussed clearly. This segment is followed by which materials to be used, and standard operating procedures. The laboratory and lecture modules will enhance the students skills and awareness in the subject. It will give the readers knowledge with the advances of semiconductor technology and new applications in microelectronics and industrial power electronic equipment, such as variable-speed motor drivers, uninterruptible power supplies, robotics, electric cars, and other. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/43611027/Brief-History-of-Industrial-

Statement of the Problem The design aims to establish a set of laboratory modules in parallel to lecture modules that will enhance the learning of the students taking the subject. In addition, aims to satisfy the demand for an effective and efficient learning. It is advisable to determine first the possible problems that may be encountered in order to make this study possible. Specifically, the designer intends to find answer to the following problems 1. In establishing the laboratory and lecture modules, the proponents must be aware to all the aspect of considerations under the subject description. 2. The software(s) chosen must be user-friendly.

Null Hypotheses Suppose, we have a hypothesis that implementing laboratory and lecture modules on Industrial Electronics subject have no significant effect on the enhancement of the students learning and comprehension about the subject matter.

Conceptual framework of the study This study will focuses on the evaluation of student's performance in Industrial Electronics Laboratory upon the implementation of the laboratory modules and the effect of the lecture modules provided in this study to the professor's way of teaching.

Figure1. Conceptual Framework of the implementation of laboratory modules

Figure2. Conceptual Framework of the Implementation of lecture modules The illustrations show the simple concept what will be the advantage gained upon the implementation of the laboratory and lecture modules. The development starts when the laboratory modules and lecture modules are provided by the institution. Upon implementing those manuals in the laboratory the students will acquire the basic skills and knowledge required in industrial electronics specifically the construction of circuits. The professors will acquire easy and comfortable way of teaching each laboratory experiment in the class.

Objectives of the Study The proposal aims to enhance the learning of the students about Industrial Electronics. It also seeks to evaluate the student performance after the implementation of Industrial Electronics laboratory and lecture modules. Specifically, the proposal seeks to achieve the following objectives. To establish a set of experiments intended to relate industrial electronics theories to practical application. To provide the Software(s) needed to conduct each experiments Proteus Multisim To provide an audio and video demonstration of the laboratory manuals. To provide a Power Point Presentation for the lecture modules. To provide handouts for the lecture modules.

Significance of the Study This study will attempt to provide a Industrial electronics module to be used to have an exposure to a wide variety of technical, managerial, and organizational issues essential to the provision of information technology for commercial application of electronics. The following stakeholders will benefit from the study: Students The competitive response of the students with regards to industrial electronics is comparable because of lack of hands-on experience. Professors Professors are having difficulties in explaining the theoretical principles within the subject because of the absence of specific laboratory manuals. University The percentage of the graduate students with ample understanding in the application of industrial electronics is not as much as compared to other universities.

The study is expected to enhance the understanding of the concepts discussed in a variety of electronic books. It will also reinforce fundamental concepts and theories associated with the subject. It will also provide a pictorial overview about the construction and simulation of each laboratory experiments.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study The study will focus on establishing a laboratory module for engineering students and will focus on providing the necessary software(s) needed to conduct the experiments. The design will also concentrate on providing necessary lecture modules covering the basic principles and application under the subject description. The evaluation of the advantages gained from the implementation of the study will be provided by data to be gathered from the stakeholders. However, the project will be limited to the assessment of industrial electronics in the corporate world. The design is also limited to the comparison of other laboratory subjects implemented in the university and other related institution.

CHAPTER 2 RELATED OF LITERATURE Foreign Study The NI Electronics Education Platform: A Case Study

This application note details how instructors can use an integrated laboratory to enhance their electronics courses. We begin by outlining a typical method for teaching circuits, and continue with a discussion of the elements of the integrated laboratory and how it can solve many of the challenges that students must face when conducting laboratory experiments, bridging the gap between theory and the real-world. Through a detailed case study using an actual experiment used in a recognized University, we see first hand the benefits that an integrated solution provides..

Throughout institutions world-wide, the approach to teaching electronics has generally remained the same for many years. Students learn circuit theory by participating in lectures, and gain a deeper fundamental understanding through complimentary experiments. The laboratory experiment presents a design challenge that requires students to apply theory from lectures using hand calculations, conduct simulations, create and measure their designs, and then compare their results with expected values. All of this work culminates in a deliverable report, detailing the students experience.

Benefits of the authority

The integrated platform provides an uninterrupted flow of data from simulation to prototyping and measurement, bridging the gap between theory and hands-on learning. This platform will allow students quick and easy access to measurements. Through instruments in the simulated environment students gain a better understanding of the purpose simulation, and how to use the results they get when evaluating real circuitry.

An integrated laboratory presents a unified platform for simulation, prototyping, measurement and comparison. With a consistent approach and the power of computer-based measurement, students will quickly and easily understand how to develop their schematics, carry out powerful simulations, and take important measurements.A great amount of time is spent while students try to compare measured data with simulation. Frequently measurements taken using sophisticated instruments are transcribed manually and entered into a spreadsheet for analyses. Much time is spent on the logistics of comparison rather than trying to understand why differences exist.

National Instruments and Electronics Workbench are committed to providing a powerful integrated solution for electronics education. The platform currently consists of Electronics Workbench Multisim for schematic capture and SPICE simulation, National Instruments ELVIS for prototyping, and LabVIEW and SignalExpress for measurement and comparison. Figure 1 below illustrates the integrated laboratory.

Figure 1. A Conceptual View of the Integrated Platform

With the power and flexibility provided by Multisim, students gain the advantages of an industry-caliber, easy-to-use circuit simulator. Multisim includes powerful virtual instruments, which are simulated instruments found in the lab such as oscilloscopes, multimeters, function generators, among many others. These instruments provide students with a fast and intuitive method for obtaining simulation results while preparing them for the instruments they will use in thelab. Figure 2 below shows an example screen capture of the Multisim environment.

Figure 2. Multisim Schematic to take Simulated Measurements

Multisim is rich with features invaluable to academia such as rated components that will break should their maximum values are exceeded and interactive components whose values can be changed while the simulation is running. Experimental prototypes are typically built on solder-less breadboards. Students must rely on datasheets and visual inspection to ensure that their prototypes will function correctly. A significant amount of time is often spent by lab instructors and teaching assistants correcting simple wiring mistakes there is a need for a computer-aided prototyping tool. Multisim delivers a 3D virtual bread boarding environment. Students will learn prototyping through a virtual NI ELVIS breadboard that gives feedback on completion and correctness. The virtual environment looks and feels exactly like the real NI ELVIS workstation. The NI ELVIS workstation contains several built-in instruments to carry-out measurements on prototyped circuits. The workstation comes equipped with a removable prototyping board, and connects directly to the PC to communicate measurements to a common interface. The instruments such as an oscilloscope and bode analyzer are easy-to-use and function just like traditional bench-top instruments. Figure 3 below shows the NI ELIVS system. (http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/3004 )

International

Assessment

of

Research

and

Development

in

Simulation-based Engineering and Science

The use of computer simulation in engineering systems began many decades ago. Only in the last decade or so has it become an essential scientific methodology for research and education in nearly all areas of engineering and in many branches of science. There are several reasons for this remarkable progress. First, and perhaps foremost, is the steady advance in computational

science that made it possible to vastly extend the range and depth of applications of simulation as a key methodology. Second, almost in all areas of engineering and science, computer simulation has enabled the researchers to study and predict the physical events, as an extension of their theoretical investigations. In many cases, it also provides a powerful alternative to the experimental science when phenomena are not observable or measurements are impractical or too expensive. A third reason is the rapid advances in computer and networking technologies and their associated software innovations that allowed simulation to become a powerful and ubiquitous tool for engineers and scientists. Supercomputing at teraflop/s levels is now readily available at the desktop, either as a dedicated simulation tool or as a shared facility via a high-speed network for collaborative research among researchers at a distance. New, emerging developments in computing, networking, and data storage promise to further revolutionize how SBES will be done in the future. A recent report by the NSF Blue Ribbon Panel on SBES* recognizes these advances and trends. Among its key findings, the Panel concludes that SBES is indispensable to the nation's continued leadership in science and engineering and that computer simulation is central to advances in biomedicine, manufacturing, homeland security, microelectronics, energy and environmental sciences, advanced materials, and product development? In short, future . advances in SBES research and education will significantly impact virtually every aspect of human experience. In the same NSF report, the Panel also concludes that, despite our past accomplishments, our nation's leadership in computational science and engineering, particularly in areas key to SBES, is rapidly eroding? . This erosion is caused by multiple developments both here and abroad, as documented by the Blue-Ribbon Panel's report and WTEC reports on several other related studies. These developments and trends point to the need for a comprehensive assessment of activities abroad, as a timely, informative data point for formulating a strategic R&D investment plan of our own in the SBE&S area.

Purpose and Benefits This study will use WTEC's methodology of an expert panel to conduct site visits to overseas laboratories where the best work in SBE&S is done. This effort will be combined with the Panel's own research and assessments. The findings of this study will result in deliverables consisting of briefings to sponsors, public workshops, and a final report. Collectively they should provide a comprehensive, peer-reviewed set of evaluations of SBE&S R&D overseas, compared to those in the United States. There are a number of expected benefits from such a study. One important benefit will come from the process itself. Interested programs across NSF and from other agencies will be working together to better define the field and its needs together. Using the findings of this study and other inputs they can collectively work out a roadmap for future SBE&S research and education. A new strategic vision and level of energy may emerge from the government and research community as a result. There will be other tangible benefits. For example, the study is a great vehicle to address some of the key issues of critical importance to programs officers and the research community, including: 1. What is the position of foreign R&D in SBE&S relative to the United States? 1. What are the barriers and gaps of research in SBE&S we can learn

from overseas? 2. What are the major innovations and emerging ideas that are worth

exploring here in the United States? 3. What are the opportunities for international collaboration to tackle

bigger technical challenges by combining complementary resources and strengths?

Scopes To obtain the intended benefits, this study will focus on a range of issues whose R&D activities abroad will best inform our own government programs and the research community of the challenges, barriers, and opportunities in SBE&S. The study panel, under the guidance of the sponsors, will be instrumental in helping to develop a definitive scope of the study. As a preliminary guide, technical and strategic topics for this study may include, but are not limited to: Advances in SBE&S research and development, both in academe

and in industrial laboratories, including: the challenge of multi-scale modeling and simulation; the emergence of massive and distributed data in simulation; the innovation in next-generation computational algorithms and software tools for multi-scale, multi-physics based simulation; and the role of full-scale dynamic visualization and interface technologies in simulation. Coupling of advances in computer/networking technologies and

latest work in modeling and simulation. This includes the assessment of impacts of next-generation supercomputing platforms, network middleware, and distributed and sharable databases, as enablers for SBE&S. Coupling of SBE&S as a scientific methodology and research tool

with work in domain sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, environmental sciences, materials, biomedicine, and others. Also included is the coupling of SBE&S in all and across various engineering disciplines. Evidence (e.g., via case studies) of academic restructuring (e.g.,

curricular developments, funding changes) in universities or national laboratories that has been implemented or underway to enable more effective multi-disciplinary research and education required of SBE&S.

Evidence (e.g., via case studies) of the use of SBE&S for industrial

research and development: from concept generation, product design, engineering and manufacture, to consumer marketing. Measurable impacts of SBE&S research and education on society

and citizens' well-being, including economic competitiveness, national security, environmental protection, health care and so on. levels. Strategic plans, infrastructures, and programs of public investments Models of interdisciplinary, cross-agency, multi-government

in SBE&S for research and education at the national and multi-national initiatives in SBE&S are of particular interest. http://www.wtec.org/sbes/

LOCAL STUDIES In the Philippine system, industrial technology is typical of foreign capital leading industrialization. The Philippines wants to develop the supporting industries for electronics in order to localize the industry. The Philippine government wishes to foster the development of Industrial electronics, and wishes to strengthen the backwards linkage to promote further development in the Philippines. This paper, describes how Industrial Electronics get involved in global competition and explain that localities does not have the capability to compete at present with the other countries who are more developed. Considering the potential development path for industrial electronics in the country reflect upon the role of local capitalists and nationalism in the advancement of the global economy. The Philippine electronics industry began in the mid-seventies when industrialized nations relocated their production facilities to third world countries in order to control the escalating cost of production. The Philippines was an ideal relocation site due to its cost competitive, highly-educated and English-speaking labor. Other factors included the countrys geographical location (being at the crossroads of international trade), and attractive government incentives. The

conditions that encouraged foreign electronics companies to turn to the Philippines have remained and have been further enhanced by the countrys political transition to popular democracy in 1986. Since then, the industry has grown rapidly and overtook agriculture as the leading export earning industry in 1996 (http://csanad.hubpages.com/hub/Semiconductor-Industry). The industrial electronics today plays a vital and important role in the development of most nations as it has grown substantially and strongly over the past decades. This industry moves closer to the center and drives of the rapid economic development of the world, staking its place in the heart of one country after another.

During the early years, in the field of electronics industry, some of the worlds top electronics companies, looking for ways to be more competitive, decided to set up their assembly plants in Asia, particularly in Association of Southeast East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries where they found a large pool of highly skilled workers and where they could operate at a very competitive cost. Most of them were multinational companies based in North America, Europe and Japan. The relocation proved to be good for these companies, so good that many of them now operate their largest assembly plants in ASEAN. Not only they maintained their operations in these countries, they have also expanded them as their markets grew. With the entry of these large multinational companies, plus the set-up of homegrown companies in ASEAN, the electronics industry in no time became the number one export industry of most ASEAN countries, particularly Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines. For so many years now, it has been these countries top export products. The ASEAN countries, through its initiative of ASEAN Free Trade Area, or AFTA, laid out a comprehensive program of regional tariff reduction, to be carried out in different phase years (siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPHILIPPINES).

Over the course of the next several years, the program of tariff reductions was broadened and accelerated, and a host of "AFTA Plus" activities were initiated, including efforts to eliminate non-tariff barriers and quantitative restrictions, and harmonize customs nomenclature, valuation, and procedures, and develop common product certification standards. The Philippine electronics industry is made up of over 700 firms of which around 75% are foreign-owned and 25% domestically. Companies in the finished electronic products sector are classified into two: large companies that are either subsidiaries of trans-national or joint ventures, and small or medium Filipino owned firms. In the electronic components sector there are the third party subcontractors, which are mainly Filipino owned, and the multinational plants which cater to the requirements of their parent companies. Electronics output declined by an estimated 3.9% in 2008 to US$13.5 billion and was primarily due to a 12.3% fall in the production of computers and related equipment. Further declines in computer production and a 12% decline in semiconductor output will result in electronics output declining by 10.6% in 2009. Output is forecast to increase by 15.7% in 2010 led by a strong recovery in both the computer and semiconductor segments. The biggest subsector of the industrial electronics consists of

manufacturers of integrated circuits (ICs), transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, coils, transformers, PCBs and other components. Fairchild Philippines.html). Semiconductors, Major players etc include the Philippine subsidiaries of Intel, Texas Instruments, Philips, Amkor, (http://www.electronics.ca/publications/products/Electronics-Industry-in-

Synthesis Industrial Electronics is power electronics in industrial setting. It involves

the study of electronic circuits intended to control the flow of electrical energy. There are many universities who have been pioneer and offer the Industrial Electronics Engineering. To apply the principles of Industrial Electronics, hands-on activities in accordance with the subject matter is necessary. Industrial Electronics has heavy impact on the overall infrastructure of energy distribution. Industrial Electronics influences and enable system for intelligent automation and motion control, for efficient and clear automobile and transport systems with communication capabilities. In general, awareness of the students to the fundamentals of Industrial Electronics with emphasis on design and implementation will contribute to maximize the skills and capabilities of students in terms of electronics design. Chapter 3 Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the overall structure of the method to procedures used in the study. It discusses the procedure used in data gathering, the population frame and sample, the instrumentation, the subjects of the study, the data collection methods and procedures, and the statistical treatment of data.

Research Design In order to ensure accomplishment of the objectives of this study, the summative evaluation form of the experimental research method shall be used. Specifically, the study utilizes the survey and content analysis techniques. The survey technique shall be used to gather facts on the academic needs of the students in the subject and the availability of the tools (software) necessary to implement the subject. The content analysis technique shall likewise be used to

gather data from the existing curriculum design, inventory of hardware and software, schedule of classes and the like. This design shall determine how a laboratory module in parallel to a lecture module affects the students performance and learning in the subject. The evaluation of the students performance will be used for comparison. Survey results about the students opinion will be revealed and organized accordingly. Population Frame and Sample Forty-five (45) respondents shall be involved in this investigation: students in Electronics and Communications Engineering. The study intends to solicit the participation of Electronics and Communications Engineering students. A stratified sampling scheme shall be used to select the student sample. A representative sample for each shall be drawn based on the proportions of the study population strata. To ensure adequacy of sample size, a three percent (3%) margin error shall be utilized. The respondents shall be selected by an arbitrary method. This method is decided on the basis of available information thought to be representative of the total study population on the basis of criteria deemed to be self-evident. Description of Respondents The respondents of the study shall be the students of ECE department of the institution. They shall be described according to their year level. The gathered data shall be presented into tables and figures for further visualization of distribution. Instrumentation The study will make used of various instruments to answer the main and sub-problems posed on the study. Chi-Square Test for Independence shall be administered to determine the respondents attitudes and feelings towards the

implementation of laboratory modules in the enhancement /advancement of their learning and performance in the subject. Validation of Instrument Used The researcher-made questionnaire is a non-standard research

instrument. Consequently, it should adhere certain principles of validation prior to administration to the respondents. To verify the validity of the questions, the researchers subjected to the following subsequent procedures. 1. Expert Validation This will ensure that the content of the questionnaire are relevant

and pertinent to the subject matter. To accomplish this, the researchers established the users familiarity with the study- purpose and direction in answering the questions. The instrument was shown to the adviser and other expert in questionnaires construction, suggestion and recommendation were also incorporated. 2. Trial Run Before gathering data from the respondents, the researcher-made questionnaire underwent a trial-run to a group who were not actually included in the study. Mass printing and administration then followed. Data Gathering Procedures Before the distribution of the researcher-made questionnaire,

permission was secured from our adviser. The researcher administered questionnaires to the respondents, the objectives of the study were explained as well as the instructions on how to answer the questionnaires were provided. No time limit was observed. The answered questionnaire is collected as soon as the respondent is done. Statistical treatment of Data

In this process of researching or investigating, the system analyst acquired the required amount of information. The real challenge for the researchers lies in the selecting the most important knowledge and in drawing balanced conclusions from the data gathered and presented (Estolas et aL, 1995). The treatment of data is therefore an important aspect in research. The researchers used the Chi-square Distribution Method in analyzing the data gathered. Chi-square Distribution is a statistical tool used to analyze data in descriptive research. It determines the association of observed and expected frequencies of independent variables (Statistics for Secondary Students, 2006)

X2= where: X2= Chi-square O= observed frequency E= expected frequency

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION This chapter signifies the collected data and its analysis and interpretation. The test for the hypothesis is also shown in this chapter. Raw Data Gathered Table 1. Scores achieved from the respondents for the improvement in ECE Laboratory Modules especially in Industrial Electronics 4TH yr ECE NO YES TOTAL 46 90 136 4TH yr ET 50 55 105 TOTAL 96 145 241

Table 2. Scores obtained from the respondents comprehension in the subject Industrial Electronics

4TH yr ECE NO YES TOTAL 56 80 136

4TH yr ET 51 54 105

TOTAL 107 134 241

Table 1 and Table 2 showed the summary of the gathered data for the awareness of the respondents of in the improvement of Industrial Electronics in terms of laboratory modules and proper lectures and for the comprehension of the said subject. The scores acquired were from a sample size of 241 respondents, from the departments of ECE and ET respectively. These scores will be used as the observed frequencies for the statistical treatment of data.

Data Analysis Table 3. The observed and expected values from the respondents awareness in the improvement in ECE Laboratory Modules especially in Industrial Electronics OBSERVED (O) YES NO TOTAL 46 50 90 55 241 EXPECTED (E) 54.17 41.83 81.83 63.17 241 |O E| -8.17 8.17 8.17 -8.17 (O E)2 66.82 66.82 66.82 66.82 (O E)2 / E 1.23 1.60 0.82 1.06 4.71

Table 4. The observed and expected values for the comprehension of students in the subject Industrial Electronics

OBSERVED (O) YES NO TOTAL 56 51 80 54 241

EXPECTED (E) 60.38 46.62 75.62 58.38 241

|O E| -4.38 4.38 4.38 -4.38

(O E)

(O E)2 / E 0.32 0.41 0.25 0.33 1.31

19.20 19.20 19.20 19.20

Table 3 and 4 represents the observed and expected frequencies gathered from the scores given by the respondents. This is to analyze and test the hypothesis for the awareness of Pneumatics in the industry. . The statistical treatment to be used is the Chi-square test for

independence since the proposed study shall be quantitative in approach. Chi-square computed value for the implementation is X2 =6.02. It is the summation of the chi-square of the improvement in ECE Laboratory Modules especially in Industrial Electronics and the comprehension of students in the subject Industrial Electronics; the computed values for the 4th year ECE and ET respectively. Table 5. Hypothesis Testing X2 Awareness in the improvement in ECE Laboratory Modules especially in Industrial Electronics Comprehension of students in the subject Industrial Electronics 1.31 1 4.71 Df

TOTAL

6.02

Figure 3. Chi-square Distribution Table

As shown in the figure above, it was found that the tabular value for 5% level of significance and 1 as degree of freedom (df) is 3.841 (http://www.medcalc.org/manual/chi-square-table.php). The computed chi-square (X2) 6.02, for the implementation is greater than the tabular value which is 3.841; therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of implementing Industrial Electronics Laboratory Module on the enhancement of the students ability in learning the theories of the subject is rejected. Moreover, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect on the students comprehension in the subject without proper existing laboratory modules is also rejected since the computed value is also greater than the tabular value. Both are at 5% level of significance and 1 as the degree of freedom.

The findings for the data gathered from the respondents show that the effect of the implementation of this study on students learning and the use of proper laboratory modules are both significant.

CHAPTER V FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter represents the review of findings in the data analysis, the generalizations in the form of conclusions and the solutions to the problems offered in the form of recommendations. Research Findings After a series of testing and data analysis made by the proponents, it was learned that: 1. The implementation of the project study entitled Development and Implementation of Laboratory and Lecture Modules in Industrial Electronics is highly expected to be of help in achieving the desired improvement in the course curriculum for ECE and ET. 2. Among the 241 respondents comprising of 136 respondents for the 4 th year ECE and 105 respondents for the ET students, 90 (66%) respondents for the 4th year ECE and 55 (52%) respondents of the ET students, with a total percentage of 40%, agree that the implementation of this study will be of great help in the development of the students theoretical skills by improving our ECE Laboratory Modules especially in Industrial Electronics. 3. 105 out of the 241 respondents, or 44%, agreed that the students comprehension in the theories of the subject Industrial Electronics will be enhanced with proper laboratory modules. 4. At 5% level of significance and 1 as the degree of freedom, the Chi-square computed value, X2 =6.02, is greater than the tabular value, 3.841; therefore the effect of this study is significant.

Conclusions Based on the foregoing results, the proponents have come up with the following conclusions: 1. The Development and Implementation of Industrial Electronics Laboratory and Lecture Module will play a significant role in improving the ECE and ET course curriculum particularly associated to Industrial Electronics. 2. The implementation of the said laboratory will help enhance and develop the students' theoretical knowledge and comprehension specifically in Industrial Electronics.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books Calderon, Jose F.; Gonzales, Expectacion C. (1993) Methods of Research and Thesis Writing; National Bookstore Inc., Metro Manila, 263 pages Sevilla, Consuelo G.; Ochave, Jesus A.; Punzalan, Twila G.;Regalla, Bella P.; Uriarte, Gabriel G. (1992) Research Methods, Revised Edition; Rex Printing Company Inc., Quezon City, Zulueta, Francisco M.; Costales, Nestor Edilberto Jr. B. (1550, 2006 Reprint) Methods of Research Thesis-Writing and Applied Statistics; National Bookstore Inc., Mandaluyong City

Online Databases / Internet (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4066827) http://www.medcalc.org/manual/chi-square-table.php http://www.yahoo.com http://www.google.com (http://www.scribd.com/doc/43611027/Brief-History-of-Industrial-Electronics) (http://tdworld.com/mag/power_power_electronics_milestone/ ) (http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php)

APPROVAL SHEET
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science Major in Electronics and Communications Engineering. This design entitled Development and Implementation of Industrial Electronics Lecture and Laboratory Modules has been prepared and submitted by the following students: Factoran, Catherine A. Sopero, John Carlo Surell, Eunice V. Magwad, Jayson Villaruel, George Aragones, Zeus Torres, Ghirly C Obin, Nestor G Larita, Ailyn G Obin, Jones G ___________________________ Engr. Wilfredo Timajo Adviser _________________________ Engr. Carisa Javier Department Head, Electronics and Communications Engineering and Technology Department ______________________ Dr. Eugenia Yangco Dean, College of Engineering and Industrial Technology Approved as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science Major in Electronics and Communications Engineering with the grade of ___________.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study will not be possible without the help of some people, who, in one way or another have showed us their interest and utmost support. First of all, we thank God for being with us at all times and for giving us the strength, patience, and wisdom. To our professor, Engr. Wilfredo Timajo, for sharing his knowledge to us and for all the motivations he brought us and for the inspirations in making this project possible. To the following institutions for providing us the information that we needed for this design: 1. 2. Electronics and Communications Engineering Students Society (ECETTS) Rizal Technological University (RTU)

To our beloved parents and guardians for the endless moral and financial support they have given us. To our friends and other professionals for sharing their ideas and suggestions, and giving their support and words of encouragement to keep us going throughout the study. To acknowledge them is our way of saying thank you and your help is very much appreciated.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page Approval Sheet Acknowledgement Table of Contents Chapter 1 : Overview of the Design Introduction Statement of the problem Objectives Significance of the study Scopes and Delimitation of the study 5 I. Scope II. Delimitation 5 6 Definition of Terms Chapter 2. Overview of the Design Province of Rizal Chapter 3. Research Methodology I. 17 II. FM Broadcasting 18 AM Broadcasting 10 2 3 4 4 5 i ii iii iv

Chapter 4. Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation Chapter 5. Findings, Conclusions and Delimitation