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INTRODUCTION OF EDUCATION INDUSTRY

Education is the base for economic growth as well as social transformation for any country. Among all the key indicators of socio-economic development like economy's growth rate, literacy rate, birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate (IMR), the literacy rate of the country is one of the most vital one as the rise and fall of others largely depend upon country's literacy rate. In India, high literacy rate leads to low birth rate as well as low IMR and it also increases life expectancy rate. So, the importance of education industry in India can be understood. The education system in India is much more improved these days and is one of the leading ones in the world. It is also one of the biggest contributors to the economic growth of the nation. Besides various government initiatives, the role of the private institutions in the development of education industry in India cannot be denied. India's private education market was worth $40 billion in 2008, which is expected to reach $68 billion by the year 2012.

However, there are also some glooming statistics as well. Despite such rising investment in education industry, 40% of country's population is still illiterate. Only 15% of the students can go to next level to reach high school.

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The Higher Education


India has world's third largest higher secondary education system with a number of institutions. More and more students are going for higher education these days. The result gets reflected on the number of students enrolling for higher education. The number of institutions is also increasing day by day. India has got following numbers of educational institutions (as on December 31, 2007):

Institution Central University State University Institutions established through State Legislation Deemed University Institutes of National Importance Degree-granting Engineering College Polytechnic

Qty (in no.) 25 231 5 100 31 1,522 1,244

Institutions Prominent
There are a number of Indian universities/colleges/institutions that have crafted its name in the world of education through its quality of education and infrastructure. Many of those have won awards. Some of the prominent institutions that have won awards are listed below:

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World's Top 200 Universities (Times Higher Education)


Indian Institute of Technology Indian Institutes of Management Jawaharlal Nehru University

Top 20 Science and Technology Schools in Asia (Asiaweek)


Indian Institutes of Technology Birla Institute of Technology and Science

Global MBA Ranking (Financial Times, London)

Indian School of Business, Hyderabad (15th)

Medical Research and Treatment

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)

MAJOR PLAYERS

There are a number of major players in the education industry in India.

Educomp Solutions It is India's one of the fastest growing education solutions company. Educomp offers endto-end solutions to government as well as private schools. Educomp is currently growing at a great pace. It is expected that the top-line and bottom-line of the company will grow at CAGRs of 76% and 67% respectively from FY2008 to FY2010 (Estimated).

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Educomp Solutions has got the following features:

It is the market leader in Smart Class and Instruction and Computing Technologies (ICT) segment.

Well-developed content Strong Sales Team

Everonn Systems Everonn Systems is into ViTELS business. It's also a leader in the government schools business. With the growth rate that the company is going through, it is expected that the top-line and bottom-line of the company will grow at CAGRs of 52% and 28% respectively from FY2008 to FY2010 (Estimated). Following are the features of Everonn Systems:

A leader in Institutional Education and IT Infrastructure Services (IEIS) business Focus on content development Less prone to economic cyclicality Highly depends on government business

NIIT Limited NIIT Limited is the largest training company in India. The top-line and the bottom-line of the company are expected to grow at CAGRs of 21.5% and 36.4% respectively from FY2007 to FY2010 (Estimated). Features of NIIT Limited:

Have strategic initiative to shift to a 'Global Talent Development Corporation' -5-

Scalability of new businesses Strong hold in domestic IT training market in India

IT Institutes Training
IT has brought a major growth in the Indian education industry. It has also given India the much needed visibility and recognition in the global market. The overwhelming success of the Indian software industry has also helped India to build a strong economy. And for all these, the IT training industry played a major role. The revenue generated by the Indian IT training industry during FY2007 was 2,135 crore, comparing to 1, 453 crore in FY2006. The 46% growth rate in 2007 was much higher than the growth rate of 2006 (14%). Though after the dot com bust, the industry started de-growing at a CAGR of about 24% during FY2001-04. The revenue in FY2004 was also less than 45% of the revenue's of FY2001. But the scenario started changing from FY2005 onwards.

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Following are the list of leading players in IT training in India.

Company NIIT Aptech Jetking Infotrain Siemens CMS Computers SQL Star MAAC Educomp

FY2007 Revenues (in crore) 795 190 87 44 23 15 19 28

FY2006 Revenues (in crore) 450 121 63 34 15 16 5 -

New Horizon 16

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COMPANY PROFILE

About JLS (Johrari Lal Shivhare) Educational Institute

Johrari Lal Shivhare Educational Institute, Agra has been registered under Registrar of Societies, Agra Act 1860 for providing quality & skill based education to build a promising career in various disciplines & sectors which may be a complementary to both the candidate as well as to the industry. Therefore, we have through professionals from the various sectors with exhaustive experience to nurture the candidates.

Vision of JLS: To create the world of truly professionals.

Mission of JLS: Skills to Every Hand.

COURSES: There are some courses conducted by JLS which helps to enhance the creativity, capability and helps to develop the skills of an employee and a student. These courses are:

WebSpecia For being different from crowd, Get certified in Web Technologies,

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GraphixSpecia Introducing the all new Graphics tools that will make you a pure Graphics

Developer.

Accounts

Experience the power of Tally.ERP 9 at JLS

.Net

Learn exceptionally from design to deployment

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Java

Learn corporate computing web development.

Autocad

Maximize your productivity, skills with AutoCAD

Microsoft Office

Get certified in Office direct from the Microsoft

We're Social

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OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
Help employee to overcome his weakness & improve ones his strengths & thus

enable him to improve his performance & that of the department. Generate adequate feedback & guidelines from the reporting officers to the

employee. Contribution to the growth & development of the employee through helping him

in realistic goal setting. them. Generate significant, relevant, free & valid information about employees. Thus, a good Training & Development and review system should primarily focus Help in creating a desirable culture & traditions in the organization. Help identifying employees for the purpose of motivating, training & developing

on employee development.

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TRAINING
Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behavior. It attempts to prepare them for an intended job. Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those, which bring about growth of the personality help individuals in the progress towards maturity & actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but also better men & women. In organizational terms, it is intended to equip persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility. Training is for a bigger and higher job is development. In addition, this may well include not only imparting skills and knowledge but also inculcating certain personality and mental attitudes. Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic & organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge & shills for a definite purpose. Development is a long-term process, educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual & theoretical knowledge for general purpose. Training refers to instruction in technical and mechanical operations, while development refers to philosophical and theoretical educational concepts. Training is designed for non-managers, while development involves managerial personnel. Training & Development differ in four ways: What is learned? Who is learning? - 15 -

Why such learning takes place, &

When learning occurs?

The difference may be stated thus: Learning Dimensions Who? What? Training Non-managerial personnel Technical & mechanical operations Why? When? Development Managerial personnel Theoretical, Conceptual ideas

Specific job related purpose General knowledge Short-term Long-term

NEED FOR BASIC PURPOSES OF TRAINING


1. To increase productivity: - Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present assignment. Increased performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit.

2. To improve quality: - Quality increases may be in relationship to a company product or service, or in reference to the intangible organizational employment atmosphere.

3. To help a company fulfill its future personnel needs: - When the need arises, organizational vacancies can more easily be staffed from internal sources if a company initiates and maintains an adequate instructional program for both its non-supervisory & managerial employees. - 16 -

4. To improve organizational climate: - Increased morale may be due to many factors, but one of the most important of these is the current state of an organizations educational endeavor.

5. To improve health & safety: - Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees.

6. Obsolescence prevention: - Training & Development programs foster the initiative & creativity of employees & help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation, or the inability of a person to adapt him to technological changes.

7. Personal growth: An increased use of technology in production. Labor turnover. Employment of inexperienced labors. Old employees need refresher training to enable them to keep abreast of changing methods. Enabling employees to do the work in a more effective way. Reducing grievances and minimizing accident rates. Maintaining the validity of the organization & raising the morale of the employees.

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Importance of Training Training is the corner stone of sound management, for it makes employees more effective & productive. It is actively and intimately connected with all the personnel or managerial activities. It is an integral part of the whole management program, with all its many activities functionally inter-related. There is an ever present need for training men so that new and changed techniques may be taken advantage of and improvements effected in the old methods, which are woefully inefficient. Training is a practical & vital necessity because it enables employees to develop & rise within the organization, and increase there market value, earning power and job security. It moulds the employees attitudes and helps them to achieve a better co-operation with the company and a greater loyalty to it. Training, moreover, heightens the morale of the employees, for it helps in reducing dissatisfaction, complaints, grievances & absenteeism reduces the rate of turnover. Training is a widely accepted problem solving device.

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Steps in training programs

Discovering or identifying training needs (Through organizational operations manpower analysis)

Getting ready for the job

Preparation of the learner (Create, desire & prepare accordingly)

Performance try-out

Presentation of operations & knowledge (Application of training techniques)

Follow-up (Rewards and feedback)

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Objectives of Employee Training The overall objective of training program is to fill in the gap between the existing and the desired level of knowledge, skills & aptitudes. Objectives of training express the gap between the present and the desired performance levels. A well designed training program improves the personnel qualitatively. The main objectives of training may be defined as follows:1. To impart basic knowledge: - To impart the entrants the basic knowledge and skills required for efficient performance of definite tasks. It increases the skill, knowledge and operative competence of the employee, which help to increase the level of performance. 2. To function more effectively in their present position: - It assists the employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills required performing their job in a better way. 3. To build up second line of competent officers: - Whenever there is a change in a job position, the new incumbent from within can occupy the position more confidently. 4. To broaden the minds of senior managers: - It corrects the narrow outlook caused by the over specialization. 5. To reduce supervision: - It reduces the degree of supervision and makes the workers more independent & more responsible. It reduces cost of production and cost of supervision. 6. To improve the organizational environment: - The purpose of training is to generate an improved organizational environment. Proper training reduces industrial - 21 -

accidents. Proper & safer living and working environment leads to more stable mental attitude on the part of the employees. It reduces the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover.

Principles of Training A sound training program must possess the following characteristics: 1. The training program should be designed so as to achieve pre-determined objectives and needs of the organization. 2. Training program should be less expensive. 3. Training program should be developed for all in the organization and not for a particular group. 4. Training program should be pre-planned and well organized, taking in view the objectives of training program. 5. Training program should be designed according to size, nature and financial position of the concern. 6. Training program should be conducted by a senior and experienced supervisor or executive of the concern or by training director who is incharge of the training section under personnel department. 7. Theoretical and practical aspects of training should be given consideration while preparing a training program. 8. Training program should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees. 9. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups. - 22 -

10. Training program should be flexible enough so that it may be adjustable to the changing circumstances. 11. Training program should be followed by a reward, so that employees may be motivated. 12. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what the employees have learned. 13. Training program should be provided with feedback on the progress he is making in utilizing the training he has received.

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EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Evaluation is an essential feature of all programs for the training of employees. The concept of evaluation is most commonly interpreted in determining the effectiveness of program relation to its objectives. Management invests in training programs of the employees only with the expectation to see some tangible benefits derived there from. Evaluation can be done from various purposes. Objectives of training evaluation is to determine the ability of the participant in the training program to perform jobs for which they were trained, the specific nature of training deficiencies, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training, and extent of training not needed for the participants to meet the job requirements. Evaluation of the training program may be done as follows: 1. To increase the effectiveness of the training programs while it is going on. 2. To increase the effectiveness of the programs to be held next time. 3. To find out to what extent the training objectives are achieved. 4. To help participants to get feedback for their improvement and efficiency. Evaluation of the training must be based on the following principles: Evaluation specialist must be clear about goals and purposes of evaluation. Evaluation must be continuous. Evaluation must be specific. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. - 24 -

Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. A sense of urgency must be developed, but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation. There are various approaches to training evaluation. To get a valid measure of training effectiveness, the personnel manager should accurately assess trainees job performance two to four months after completion of training. The four basic categories of outcomes can be measured: Reaction: Evaluate trainees reaction to the program. Learning: Did the trainee learn the principles, skills and fact that the supervisor or trainer wanted him to learn? Behavior: Whether the trainees behavior on the job changed because of the training program? Results: What final results have been achieved?

TRAINING COURSE
Training may range from highly specified instruction in the procedures to be adapted while performing a particular job to every general instruction concerning the economy and society. Training courses in general areas usually aim at making an employee a rounded individual, a happier worker and a good citizen, and at training him for larger responsibilities and future advancement. Such training exerts a remarkable influence on production and labour. From the employees point of view, output would increase with decrease in cost of production. From the point of view of labor, the employees morale would improve; so would the rate of turnover, excessive absenteeism and accidents

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reduce. Training programs are no doubt expensive; but their worth to a growing concern cannot be over emphasized. Training in general areas is given in such subjects as general and home economics, basic english, instruction in better writing and report drafting, reading using gauges, the operation of machines, public speaking and public relations, selling and communication with people.

SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TRAINING


A variety of equipments are utilized to impart effective training. These are: 1. Lectures, conferences, seminars and staff-meetings, demonstrations, and short courses, through coaching. 2. Role-playing and job rotation. 3. Case or project studies and problem-solving sessions. 4. Use of pamphlets, charts, brouchers, booklets, handbooks, manuals, etc. 5. Graphs, pictures, books, slides, movies, projectors, film strips, tape recorders. 6. Posters, displays, notice and bulletin boards. 7. Reading rooms and libraries where specified books and journals are maintained for reference and use. 8. Under-study and visits to plants. 9. Correspondence courses under which knowledge about business law, statistics, industrial management, marketing, offices procedures, retailing and many other similar subjects may be imparted. 10. Teaching machines.

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11. Membership of personnel or trade associations, which offers new techniques and ideas to their members.

TRAINING PERIOD
The duration of training varies with the skill to be acquired, the complexity of the subject, a trainees aptitude and ability to understand, and the training media used. Generally a training period should not be unduly long; if it is, trainees may feel board, uninterested. The ideal session should not go beyond 2 to 3 hours at a stretch, with a break in between two sessions. If convenient, employees may be trained for a week or a fortnight for an hour or two, every day after work hours. The training period may extend from 3 weeks to 6 months or even more, depending upon the job requirements. The physical location of the program should be in pleasant surroundings away from the noise and tension of the work place.

TRAINING FOR DIFFERENT EMPLOYEES


Employees at different levels require training. Unskilled workers require training in improved methods of handling machines and materials to reduce the cost production and waste and to do the job in the most economical way. Such employees are given training on the job itself; and the training is imparted by their immediate superior officers. Semi-skilled workers require training to cope with the requirements of an industry arising out of the adoption of mechanization, rationalization and technical processes. These employees are giving training either in their own sections or departments, or in segregated training shops where machines and other facilities are usually available.

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Training is usually imparted by more proficient workers, bosses or inspectors. Training methods include instruction in several semi-skilled operations because training in one operation only creates difficulties in adjustments to new conditions, lend the color of specializations to a job and makes work somewhat monotonous for an individual. Skilled workers are given training through the system of apprenticeship, which varies in duration from a year to three or five years. Such training is also known as tradesman or craftsmen training, and is particularly useful for such trades in industry which require highly sophisticated skills- as in carpentry, drilling, boring, planning, etc. Such programs are usually conducted in training centers and industry itself. Supervisory staff needs training most, for they form a very important link in the chain of administration. The training programs for supervisors must be tailor-made to fit the needs of an undertaking. Their training enables supervisors to cope with the increasing demands of the enterprise in which they are employed and to develop team spirit. Supervisors training may include the supply of necessary reading material, job rotation to give them a wide in plant experience holding of staff meetings, visit to other industrial units, participation in the work of other departments, lectures and teaching, role-playing, case studies and conferences.

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TRAINING METHODS

ON THE JOB The coaching method Job Rotation Understudy Multiple management Apprenticeship Job Instruction Training (JIT)

OFF THE JOB Transactional Analysis Sensitivity Training Case study Simulation exercises Managerial grid Role playing Computer-aided Instruction Incident Method In-Basket Method Conference Lectures Vestibule Training Brainstorming Demonstration Questioning

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TECHNIQUES OF MANAGEMENT TRAINING


1. On-the-job Techniques This method of training & development has its own value. It is inexpensive and saves productive hours. Most popular techniques under this type are:

The coaching or guided method Job rotation method Participation in deliberations of the Boards and committees
The Coaching Method Coaching is a method, which is used in developing managerial thinking processes as well as operative skills. In coaching, the superior plays the role of the guide and the instructor. The coach sets some mutually agreed upon goals and tell the trainee what he wants to be done, follow up suggestions, and correct errors. It has certain advantages: It requires the least centralized staff co-ordination, for every executive can coach, his men even if no management development program exists. Periodic feedback and evaluation are also a part of coaching, which yield immediate benefits to an organization, to the coach and to the subordinate. Coaching will work well if the coach provides a good model with whom the trainee can identify; if both can be open with each other; if the coach accepts his responsibility fully; if he provides the trainee with the recognition of his improvement and suitable rewards. Job Rotation or Channel method of development It represents an excellent method of broadening the manager or potential manager, for turning specialists into generalists. It is designed for beginning level managers while - 30 -

planned progression is more likely to occur at higher managerial levels. The emphasis is on diversified instead of specialized skills and knowledge. Its advantages are: It breaks down departmental provincialism for everyone is moved from one to

another. It rather develops inter-departmental co-operation. It injects new ideas into the older departmental personnel who may otherwise fall

in a root. New concepts are infused into them and they are diffused throughout an enterprise. It ensures the avoidance of the problem, which arises when a newly promoted

manager is required to supervise his former peers. It makes possible for managers to compare one man with another, and gives

everyone an equal chance for advancement. Each managers abilities and talents are best tested in a variety of jobs, so the

enterprise can secure his best utilization in the ultimate assignment.

Understudy assignment or attachment method An understudy is a person who is under training to assume, at a future time, the full duties and responsibilities of the position currently held by his superior. A manager from amongst a large number of subordinates or several individuals may pick up an understudy. Such an understudy learns the complexities of the problems and how to solve them, learns also the process of decision making and investigation and making written recommendations to his superior. The advantages of this method are: It is practical and quick in training persons for greater responsibility for it lays

emphasis on learning by doing. - 31 -

The learners interest and motivation are high and the superior is relieved of his heavy workload.

It ensures continuity of management facilities even when the superior leaves his position.

Participation in deliberations of the junior board and committees or the multiple management technique It is a technique whereby juniors are assigned to board or committees, by the chief executive. The juniors get an opportunity to share in an managerial decision-making, to learn by watching others and to delve into specific organizational problems. It has several advantages: It gives Board members an opportunity to gain knowledge on various issues. It helps identify those who have executive talent. Multiple judgments are obtained on each individual through the board rating system. It is relatively inexpensive method of development. It permits a considerable number of managers to participate in certain activities within a reasonable period of time.

2.

Off-the-job Techniques A number of on-the-job management development programs are in vogue, they

are considered inadequate for a number of reasons. Hence, off-the-job techniques are needed. There is wealth of executive development techniques that managers can partake in off the job. Of these the more popular ones are: The case study method - 32 -

Incident method Role playing In-Basket method Business or management game Sensitivity Training Simulation Grading Training Conferences Lectures

The Case Study It is an excellent method of developing analytical skill. A case is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes in the reader the need to decide which is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are what can and should be done. It can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgmental abilities. It is rather an effective method of improving decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited information.

Incident method The central aim of this method is to stimulate self-development in a blend of understanding that is essential for productive interaction. Under this method, group members address questions to the discussion leader. The general trend of questioning is to find out about the what, when, where and how of the situation in which an incident - 33 -

developed, and who was present at that time. After the collection of data, it is necessary to isolate the most important items for decision-making.

Role playing It is the concept of creating a more realistic situation, usually one of human problems and conflicts, and then acting out the various parts. The value of role-playing is: It requires the person to carry out a thought or decision he may have reached. It permits the practice of carrying out an action and makes it clear that good human relations require skill. It makes a person aware of the feelings of others. It helps in developing a fuller appreciation of the important part by feelings.

In-Basket method Each team of the trainee is given a file of correspondence bearing on a functional area of management. Each individual studies the file and make his own recommendations on the situation. If further information is required by him, it is supplied by the members of the team. Later, the observations of each individual are compared and conclusion on different functional areas reached; and these are put down in the form of a report. The merits are: Decisions are rapid, feedback is objective, and further decisions are based on the feedback of earlier decisions. Decision-making is by a group that consists of managers and specialists from different departments.

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An abstract and complex situation is given the semblance of a real world situation, and this illusion facilities the learning process. Team co-operation can be fostered and departmental conflicts softened down and/or eliminated.

Business or Management games Business games are classroom simulation exercises in which teams of individuals compete against one another or against an environment in order to achieve a given objective. These games are designed to be representatives of real life conditions. Under these, an atmosphere is created in which the participants play a dynamic role, and enrich their skills through involvement and simulated experience. The advantages are: There is usually a great sense of enjoyment in playing the game, and helps in

developing the problem solving skills. Helps in developing leadership skills and for fostering co-operation and

teamwork. It helps in changing attitudes. The participant becomes more tolerant.

Sensitivity Training It is a group experience designed to provide opportunity for the individuals to expose their behavior, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behavior and develop awareness of self and of others. It tries to provide: Managers with increased awareness of their own behavior and of how others perceive them. - 35 -

Greater sensitivity to be of others, and increased understanding of group process. A clarification and development of personal values and goals consonant with a democratic and scientific approach to problem of social and personal decision and action.

Simulation It is a training technique, which indicates the duplication of organizational situations in a learning environment. it is a makeup of a real thing. This technique has been used for developing technical and interpersonal skills. The advantages of simulation are the opportunities to attempt to create an environment similar to real situations the managers incurred, without high cost involved should the action prove undesirable.

Grid Training The managerial grid is an organizational development technique. The grid represents several possible leadership styles. Each style represents a different combination of two basic orientations concerns for people and concern for production. The managementtraining program is built around this managerial grid. It aims at developing open confrontation of organizational problems and high-people-high-production leaders.

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TRAINING MODEL
Business strategy

Set training objectives

Assess type of training

Agree aims of training

Implement training

Evaluate the training

Implementation of Training Once the training program has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is best with certain problems. Firstly, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say no to training efforts. Secondly, there is problem of locating suitable trainers within an organization. Any training program implementation involves action on the following lines: Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. Scheduling the training program. Conducting the program. Monitoring the progress of trainees

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Why training fails? The following factors have been regarded as the main reasons for failure of training programs: The benefits of training are not clear to the management. The top management hardly rewards supervisors for carrying out effective

training. The top management rarely plans and budgets systematically for training. The middle management, without proper incentives from top management, does

not account for training in production scheduling. Without proper scheduling, first line supervisors have difficulty in production

norms if employees are attending training programs. Behavioral objectives are often imprecise. Training external to the employing unit sometimes teaches techniques on methods

contrary to the practices of the participants organization. Timely information about external programs may be difficult to obtain. Trainers provide limited counseling and counseling services to the rest of the

organization.

Improving effectiveness of training The training program can be made more effective and successful if the following hints are considered: Specific training objectives should be outlined on the basis of the type of

performance required to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

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Attempt should be made to determine if the trainee has the intelligence, maturity,

and motivation to successfully complete the training programs. The trainee should be helped to see the need for training by making him aware of

the personal benefits he can achieve through better performance. The training program should be planned so that it is related to the trainees

previous experiences and background. Attempts should be made to create organizational conditions that are conducive to

a good learning environment. If necessary, a combination of training methods should be selected so that variety

is permitted and as many of the senses as possible are utilized. It should be recognized that all the trainees do not progress at the same rate. If possible, the personal involvement or active participation of the trainee should

be got in the training program. As the trainee acquires new knowledge, skills or attitudes and applies them in job

situations, he should be significantly rewarded for his efforts. The trainee should be provided with regular, constructive feedback concerning his

progress in training and implementation of the newly acquired abilities. The trainee should be provided with personal assistance when he encounters

learning obstacles.

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DEVELOPMENT
Purpose and objective of management development Executive development is an attempt at improving an individuals managerial effectiveness through a planned and deliberate process of learning. For an individual this means a change through a process of planned learning. This should be the common and significant aim of development attempts from the point of view of the trainer and the trainee in an organizational setting. All the development is self development. It must be generated within the man himself. Development is highly individual. The development of an individual is due to his existing managers and to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future organizational needs is management development. The change in the individual must take place in those crucial areas, which can be considered as output variables: Knowledge change Attitude change Behavior change Performance change End-operational results

The organizational aims of management development are to secure the following valuable end-results: Improvement in technical performance Improvement in supervision Improvement in inter-departmental co-operation Highlighting an individuals weakness - 40 -

Attaching good men Facilitating sound promotion-from-within policies and practices. Ensuring that the qualifications of key personnel become better known. Creating reserves in management ranks Marking an organization more flexible by an increased versatility of its members. Improving organizational structure Stimulating junior executives to do better work Keeping the company abreast of technical and economic conditions Broadening key men in the middle cadre

OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT


To develop managers to perform better on their present assignments. To prepare them for higher assignments. To provide a steady source of competent persons at all levels to meet future

organizational needs. To help them grow fast. To prevent obsolescence of managers. To replace elderly executives, who have risen from the ranks, by highly

competent and academically qualified professionals. To create conditions and a climate which contribute to the growth process To create an understanding of the methods and problems of management To enable candidates to understand the problems of a business organization

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To indicate how to apply to practical problems the knowledge of the physical and

social aspects of business and management.

Causes or factors of management development The rapid rate of technological and social change in society has necessitated the

training of managers so that they may cope with these developments. The introduction of automation, intense market competition from foreign

countries, the growth of new markets in the under developed countries. Increased recognition by business and industrial leaders of the social and public

responsibilities of management has necessitated the development of managerial personnel. The increased size and complexity of most organizations-governmental,

industrial, commercial, on-profit public services-require trained managers. The frequent labor-management strife has necessitated the services of trained

personnel. The changes in socio-economic forces, including changes in public policy and the

concepts of social justice, industrial democracy.

Need for executive development in Indian context Personnel in sectors as engineering and steel, coal, fertilizer, oil and cement

industries need training not only in the functional areas of management but also need to acquire a thorough knowledge of the sector.

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Management resource mobilization towards professionalizing such public utilities

as water supply, power distribution, transport and communications for agriculture and industry are dependent on the efficient functioning of these utilities. Government and civic offices organized to render public services have been

untouched by the management movement. Management principles and techniques need to be introduced in other areas of

national economy. Management development programs for all those who are engaged in positions

above the supervisory level of operations.

Importance of Management development The development of the full potential of all those who are under their command as

a prime responsibility. Providing for the present and future needs of the firm of managerial talent by

establishing, operating and improving management training and development scheme. Taking account by regular appraisal of how successful managers are developing

their own subsidiaries. Providing opportunities for every manager to take an active part in his own

development. Developing all parts of the scheme together as a consistent an orderly whole, in

line with the companys objectives.

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS Some of these important concepts are: - 43 -

1. There is no limit for learning. Management training is not a one shot affair but continues throughout an executives whole professional career. 2. There always existing some gap between actual performance and capacity, which provides considerable opportunity for improvement. A large number of employees do operate below a pre-determined standard, which their training aptitude desires of them. If they get further training and acquire additional technical knowledge in management, in communication and in organizational affairs, they are bound to work faster and more efficiently, actively and productively. 3. There are certain forces, which may retard further growth, but these may be offset or the direction of their movement changed. 4. Increased understanding of others, their behavioral attitude and of oneself definitely aid in managing and contributing to personal development, which is needed to increase and expand managerial effectiveness. 5. Development seldom takes place in a completely peaceful and relaxed atmosphere. Growth involves stresses and strains. Adversity is the mother of invention. It is because of errors and some failures that one is implied to try and succeed in ones mission. 6. Development requires a clear-cut setting of the objectives and goals which are to be achieved or attained, and the ways and methods of achieving these. 7. Participation is essential for growth. Active learning and effort are needed. 8. Feedback from a superior to a subordinate and from a group to an individual is necessary for the recognition of shortcomings and for keeping oneself in touch with the progress that has been achieved. 9. An important responsibility in the management of personnel is that of development. - 44 -

Executive development process The object of management development is to influence and modify the behavior of the managers in operation; it is necessary that in framing a management development program for specified managerial group. The following things are involved: 1. Identify the pattern of behavior at which the program is aimed at which it seeks to influence and modify. 2. Identify the causes the impulses, horizontally up and down the enterprise, which blend to give rise to the pattern of behavior. 3. Identify the nature of the exposure- the impulses that must be introduced into the system- through the development program. 4. The program must take care to throw impulses into the system in a manner that generates the urge to behavior changes from within the trainee manager by the process of evolving rather than an imposition from outside.

FACTORS INHIBITING MANAGEMNT DEVELOPMENT


Some of the factors, which hamper a management development program, are: Job securities of the employees, its stability, and pension; these slow down the mobility of employees and check the recruitment of younger people. Supervisors at different levels, especially in the middle management, often feel trapped. Home ownership, home-sickness, close ties with ones family, community an social activities inhibit development to a large extent; and when these are accompanied by the absence of job security and chances of promotion, the employees tend to stress the non-job aspects of their lives. - 45 -

Relations between superiors and subordinate are often not conducive to management development.

Basic requisites for the success of management development programs 1. The top management should accept responsibility for getting the policy of development executed. 2. Management development is essentially a line job, it takes place on the job and involves both the man and his boss. 3. Every manager must accept direct responsibility for developing managers under his control on th job, and a high priority should be given to his task. 4. Management development must be geared to the needs of the company and the individual. 5. A policy of promotion from within is a necessary incentive for managers to develop in an organization. 6. Management development starts with the selection of the right materials for managerial ranks. It is essential to ensure that really good material is fed into the program at the entry levels. 7. There should be a realistic time-table in accordance with the needs for managerial personnel over a sufficiently long period and the resources which are available and which will be required.

Administering a management development program While administering a program, due consideration should be given to the following points: - 46 -

1. It should support a systematic career planning for managerial personnel, otherwise the frustrated trainees might seek opportunities elsewhere and the whole investment made in training program would go waste. 2. Management development does not comprise involvement in a serious of structured courses, but there should be an active interaction between the trainee and the management. 3. Training program should cover, as far as possible, every manager, capable of showing potential for growth. 4. The entire program should be properly planned. The trainees should take part in it. The company should not normally allow any manager to opt out of a training program.

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FIRST AID TRAINING


First aid Introduction: - My Safety Training First aid introduction GET MEDICAL ATTENTION FOR ALL INJURIES. It is very important for you to get immediate treatment for every injury, regardless how small you may think it is.

First Aid-Hazard Assessment: - My Safety Training Online. Com First Aid- Hazard Assessment. When you, as an employer, complete your hazard assessment for your work sites, you should also assess the hazards for the types and quantities of supplies for your first aid kits. WARNING: Always use medical exam gloves when exposed to blood or other body fluids to help prevent the spread of blood borne pathogens. First Aid the following information may provide with you some ideas for developing your kit contents. 1. Check your surroundings for potential hazards.

First aid Problem & Solution: - First aid problem & solution Amputation, dehydration, heat stroke 7 poisoning during pesticide spraying. WARNING: Always read the labels on poisons foe first aid requirements. Plastic garbage bags (Small, Medium & large) Bottled water emergency and/or poison control center number, syrup of Ipecac (use only if advised by doctor or Poison Center), two one-quart containers of clean water, tongue depressors (to stir with or for seizures), two small, plastic empty jars with tight-fitting lids, can of evaporated milk (attach opener to can with rubber band), blanket (for treating shock), plastic bandages and tape (to cover contaminated areas), disposable rubber gloves.

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First aid planning: - First aid planning look for signs of things that could cause injury in your workplace: a. Look for tripping hazards such as vines, undergrowth, loose rocks or soil when working on hills and animal burrows and potholes that can cause workers to sprain or break and ankle. b. Learn to identify poisonous plants such as poison oak. c. Look for electrical wires or fences. d. Consider machinery and tools that can amputate, cut or severely lacerate body parts.

First Aid Tips: - First Aid Tips Administer CPR if necessary. Once the victim is stable, begin to run cold water over the burns for a minimum of 30 minutes. Dont move the victim and dont scrub the burns or apply any soap, ointment, or home remedies.

NEED FOR FIRST AID TRAINING


The person giving first aid, the first-aid alder, deals with the whole situation, the injured person, and the injury or illness. He knows what not to do as well as what to do; he avoids errors that are frequently made by untrained persons through well-meant but misguided efforts. He knows too, that his first aid knowledge and skill can mean the difference between life and death, between temporary and permanent disability, and between rapid recovery and long hospitalization. Statistics show that accidents are one of the leading causes of death among persons 1 year old to 38 years old; thereafter, accidents are one of the leading causes. The annual cost of medicine attention, the loss

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earning ability due to temporary or permanent impairment, the direct property damage, and the insurance costs amount to many billions of dollars each year, not to mention the toll in pain, suffering, disability and personal tragedy. Added to the grim accident statistics is the fact that the pattern of medical care has changed. Individuals today require, and should demand, the best possible care. Equipment for diagnosis and treatment, which is needed to provide such care, is usually at a hospital. Moreover, the growing population and expanding health needs have not been balanced by a proportional increase in numbers of doctors, nurses, and allied health workers. it is not enough to say, Call the doctor ; a doctor may not be available to come to the scene of the emergency demonstration of competence.

VALUE OF FIRST AID TRAINING


First aid training is of value in both preventing and treating sudden illness or accidental injury and in caring for large numbers of persons caught in a natural disaster.

PREPARATION FOR DISASTER


First aid training is of particular importance in case of catastrophe, when medical and hospital services are limited or delayed. Catastrophe may take the form of hurricane, a flood, an earth-quake, a tornado, an explosion, or a fire. It may also take the form of a single accidental death or a life-threatening illness. Knowing what to do in an emergency helps to avoid the panic and disorganized behavior that are characteristic of unprepared persons at such times. Knowledge of first aid is a civic responsibility. It not only helps to save lives and prevent complications from injuries but also helps in setting up an orderly - 50 -

method of handling emergency problems according to their priority for treatment, so that the greatest possible good may be accomplished for the greatest number of people.

SAFETY AWARENESS
First aid training not only provides you with knowledge and skill to give life support and other emergency care but also helps you to develop safety awareness and habits that promote safety at home, at work, during recreation, and on the streets and highways. In the promotion of safety awareness, it is important to closely relate three terms: cause, effect, and prevention.

PREVENTION
A better understanding of the overall accident problem is developed, if all the circumstances surrounding various types of accidents are carefully studied, including the broad range of first aid care that may be required. With such understanding, a person is likely to think, and act more carefully, thoughtfully and wisely. He tends to become more concerned for his own personal safety, as well as that of others. He is likely to become genuinely interested in creating a safer environment on the highway, in the home, at work, in school, and at play. He will have a more responsible attitude toward accident prevention. The causes of an accident indicate what accident-producing conditions and activities require attention. Accident effects indicate why such conditions and activities deserve concerted attention. Preventive measures should include a consideration of how these conditions and activities can be eliminated, controlled or avoided.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The method adopted for carrying out any project is called as Research methodology. Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It involves the study of the various steps that are generally adopted by a research in studying the research problem along with the logic behind them. For this project the study is conducted among the employees of JLS Educational Institute, Agra.

Research methodology used in this project is based on following factors: Sources of data: - Primary (questionnaire) and secondary data (information regarding institute through internet & booklets). Data collection method & techniques: - Questionnaire and interviews. Sampling plan: Target population: - All the employees of JLS Educational Institute, Agra. Sampling method: - Random sampling Sample size: - 50 Area of population: - JLS Educational Institute, Agra.

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MEANING OF RESEARCH: Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. On e can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The advanced learners dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used is a technical sense. According to Clifford woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D.Slesinger and M.Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of social sciences define research as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Research is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of findings solutions to a problem is research the systematic approach - 54 -

concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term research refers to the systematic method formulation of a theory is also research. As such research refers to the systematic method.

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RESEARCH DESIGN
Research designs are concerned with turning the research question into a testing project. The best design depends on your research questions. Every design has its positive and negative sides. The research design has been considered as a "blueprint" for research, dealing with at least four problems: what questions to study, what data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to analyze the results. Research design can be divided into fixed and flexible research designs (Robson, 1993). Others have referred to this distinction with quantitative research designs and qualitative research designs. However, fixed designs need not be quantitative, and flexible design need not be qualitative. In fixed designs the design of the study is fixed before the main stage of data collection takes place. Fixed designs are normally theorydriven; otherwise its impossible to know in advance which variables need to be controlled and measured. Often these variables are quantitative. Flexible designs allow for more freedom during the data collection. One reason for using a flexible research design can be that the variable of interest is not quantitatively measurable, such as culture. In other cases, theory might not be available before one starts the research.

Experimental design
In an experimental design, the researcher actively tries to change the situation, circumstances or experience of participants (manipulation), which leads to a change in behavior of the participants of the study. The participants are assigned to different conditions, and variables of interest are measured. All other variables are controlled

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experiments are normally highly fixed before the data collection starts. Read more about experimental research designs here experiment.

Non-experimental research designs


Non-experimental research is almost the same as experimental research; the only difference is that non-experimental research does not involve a manipulation of the situation, circumstances or experience of the participants. Non-experimental research designs can be split up in three designs. First, relational designs, in which a range of variables is measured. These designs are also called co relational studies, since the correlation is most often used analysis. The second type is comparative designs. These designs compare two natural groups. The third type of non-experimental research is a longitudinal design. See longitudinal study.

Quasi experiment
Quasi research designs are research design that follow the experimental procedure, but do not randomly assign people to (treatment and comparison) groups.

Sampling methods Within any of the types of frame identified above, a variety of sampling methods can be employed, individually or in combination. Factors commonly influencing the choice between these designs include: Nature and quality of the frame. Availability of auxiliary information about units on the frame. - 57 -

Accuracy requirements, and the need to measure accuracy Whether detailed analysis of the sample is expected Cost/operational concerns

Simple random sampling


In a simple random sample ('SRS') of a given size, all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability. Each element of the frame thus has an equal probability of selection: the frame is not subdivided or partitioned. Furthermore, any given pair of elements has the same chance of selection as any other such pair (and similarly for triples, and so on). This minimizes bias and simplifies analysis of results. In particular, the variance between individual results within the sample is a good indicator of variance in the overall population, which makes it relatively easy to estimate the accuracy of results. However, SRS can be vulnerable to sampling error because the randomness of the selection may result in a sample that doesn't reflect the makeup of the population. For instance, a simple random sample of ten people from a given country will on average produce five men and five women, but any given trial is likely to over represent one sex and under represent the other. Systematic and stratified techniques, discussed below, attempt to overcome this problem by using information about the population to choose a more representative sample. SRS may also be cumbersome and tedious when sampling from an unusually large target population. In some cases, investigators are interested in research questions specific to subgroups of the population. For example, researchers might be interested in examining - 58 -

whether cognitive ability as a predictor of job performance is equally applicable across racial groups. SRS cannot accommodate the needs of researchers in this situation because it does not provide subsamples of the population. Stratified sampling, which is discussed below, addresses this weakness of SRS. Simple random sampling is always an EPS design, but not all EPS designs are simple random sampling.

Systematic sampling
Systematic sampling relies on arranging the target population according to some ordering scheme and then selecting elements at regular intervals through that ordered list. Systematic sampling involves a random start and then proceeds with the selection of every kth element from then onwards. In this case, k= (population size/sample size). It is important that the starting point is not automatically the first in the list, but is instead randomly chosen from within the first to the kth element in the list. A simple example would be to select every 10th name from the telephone directory (an 'every 10th' sample, also referred to as 'sampling with a skip of 10'). As long as the starting point is randomized, systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling. It is easy to implement and the stratification induced can make it efficient, if the variable by which the list is ordered is correlated with the variable of interest. 'Every 10th' sampling is especially useful for efficient sampling from databases. Example: Suppose we wish to sample people from a long street that starts in a poor district (house #1) and ends in an expensive district (house #1000). A simple random - 59 -

selection of addresses from this street could easily end up with too many from the high end and too few from the low end (or vice versa), leading to an unrepresentative sample. Selecting (e.g.) every 10th street number along the street ensures that the sample is spread evenly along the length of the street, representing all of these districts. (Note that if we always start at house #1 and end at #991, the sample is slightly biased towards the low end; by randomly selecting the start between #1 and #10, this bias is eliminated.) However, systematic sampling is especially vulnerable to periodicities in the list. If periodicity is present and the period is a multiple or factor of the interval used, the sample is especially likely to be unrepresentative of the overall population, making the scheme less accurate than simple random sampling. Example: Consider a street where the odd-numbered houses are all on the north (expensive) side of the road and the even-numbered houses are all on the south (cheap) side. Under the sampling scheme given above, it is impossible' to get a representative sample; either the houses sampled will all be from the odd-numbered, expensive side, or they will all be from the even-numbered, cheap side. Another drawback of systematic sampling is that even in scenarios where it is more accurate than SRS; its theoretical properties make it difficult to quantify that accuracy. (In the two examples of systematic sampling that are given above, much of the potential sampling error is due to variation between neighboring houses - but because this method never selects two neighboring houses, the sample will not give us any information on that variation). As described above, systematic sampling is an EPS method, because all elements have the same probability of selection (in the example given, one in ten). It is not 'simple - 60 -

random sampling' because different subsets of the same size have different selection probabilities - e.g. the set {4, 14, 24... 994} has a one-in-ten probability of selection, but the set {4, 13, 24, 34...} has zero probability of selection. Systematic sampling can also be adapted to a non-EPS approach; for an example, see discussion of PPS samples below.

Stratified sampling
Where the population embraces a number of distinct categories, the frame can be organized by these categories into separate "strata." Each stratum is then sampled as an independent sub-population, out of which individual elements can be randomly selected. There are several potential benefits to stratified sampling. First, dividing the population into distinct, independent strata can enable researchers to draw inferences about specific subgroups that may be lost in a more generalized random sample. Second, utilizing a stratified sampling method can lead to more efficient statistical estimates (provided that strata are selected based upon relevance to the criterion in question, instead of availability of the samples). Even if a stratified sampling approach does not lead to increased statistical efficiency, such a tactic will not result in less efficiency than would simple random sampling, provided that each stratum is proportional to the group's size in the population. Third, it is sometimes the case that data are more readily available for individual, preexisting strata within a population than for the overall population; in such cases, using a - 61 -

stratified sampling approach may be more convenient than aggregating data across groups (though this may potentially be at odds with the previously noted importance of utilizing criterion-relevant strata). Finally, since each stratum is treated as an independent population, different sampling approaches can be applied to different strata, potentially enabling researchers to use the approach best suited (or most cost-effective) for each identified subgroup within the population. There are, however, some potential drawbacks to using stratified sampling. First, identifying strata and implementing such an approach can increase the cost and complexity of sample selection, as well as leading to increased complexity of population estimates. Second, when examining multiple criteria, stratifying variables may be related to some, but not to others, further complicating the design, and potentially reducing the utility of the strata. Finally, in some cases (such as designs with a large number of strata, or those with a specified minimum sample size per group), stratified sampling can potentially require a larger sample than would other methods (although in most cases, the required sample size would be no larger than would be required for simple random sampling. A stratified sampling approach is most effective when three conditions are met Variability within strata are minimized Variability between strata are maximized The variables upon which the population is stratified are strongly correlated with the desired dependent variable. - 62 -

Advantages over other sampling methods: Focuses on important subpopulations and ignores irrelevant ones. Allows use of different sampling techniques for different subpopulations. Improves the accuracy/efficiency of estimation. Permits greater balancing of statistical power of tests of differences between strata by sampling equal numbers from strata varying widely in size. Disadvantages: Requires selection of relevant stratification variables which can be difficult. Is not useful when there are no homogeneous subgroups. Can be expensive to implement.

Post stratification Stratification is sometimes introduced after the sampling phase in a process called "post stratification". This approach is typically implemented due to a lack of prior knowledge of an appropriate stratifying variable or when the experimenter lacks the necessary information to create a stratifying variable during the sampling phase. Although the method is susceptible to the pitfalls of post hoc approaches, it can provide several benefits in the right situation. Implementation usually follows a simple random sample. In addition to allowing for stratification on an ancillary variable, post stratification can be used to implement weighting, which can improve the precision of a sample's estimates.

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Oversampling Choice-based sampling is one of the stratified sampling strategies. In choice-based sampling, the data are stratified on the target and a sample is taken from each stratum so that the rare target class will be more represented in the sample. The model is then built on this biased sample. The effects of the input variables on the target are often estimated with more precision with the choice-based sample even when a smaller overall sample size is taken compared to a random sample. The results usually must be adjusted to correct for the oversampling.

Probability proportional to size sampling


In some cases the sample designer has access to an "auxiliary variable" or "size measure", believed to be correlated to the variable of interest, for each element in the population. These data can be used to improve accuracy in sample design. One option is to use the auxiliary variable as a basis for stratification, as discussed above. Another option is probability-proportional-to-size ('PPS') sampling, in which the selection probability for each element is set to be proportional to its size measure, up to a maximum of 1. In a simple PPS design, these selection probabilities can then be used as the basis for Poisson sampling. However, this has the drawback of variable sample size, and different portions of the population may still be over- or under-represented due to chance variation in selections. To address this problem, PPS may be combined with a systematic approach. Example: Suppose we have six schools with populations of 150, 180, 200, 220, 260, and 490 students respectively (total 1500 students), and we want to use student - 64 -

population as the basis for a PPS sample of size three. To do this, we could allocate the first school numbers 1 to 150, the second school 151 to 330 (= 150 + 180), the third school 331 to 530, and so on to the last school (1011 to 1500). We then generate a random start between 1 and 500 (equal to 1500/3) and count through the school populations by multiples of 500. If our random start was 137, we would select the schools which have been allocated numbers 137, 637, and 1137, i.e. the first, fourth, and sixth schools. The PPS approach can improve accuracy for a given sample sizes by concentrating sample on large elements that have the greatest impact on population estimates. PPS sampling is commonly used for surveys of businesses, where element size varies greatly and auxiliary information is often available - for instance, a survey attempting to measure the number of guest-nights spent in hotels might use each hotel's number of rooms as an auxiliary variable. In some cases, an older measurement of the variable of interest can be used as an auxiliary variable when attempting to produce more current estimates.

Cluster sampling
Sometimes it is more cost-effective to select respondents in groups ('clusters'). Sampling is often clustered by geography, or by time periods. (Nearly all samples are in some sense 'clustered' in time - although this is rarely taken into account in the analysis.) For instance, if surveying households within a city, we might choose to select 100 city blocks and then interview every household within the selected blocks.

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Clustering can reduce travel and administrative costs. In the example above, an interviewer can make a single trip to visit several households in one block, rather than having to drive to a different block for each household. It also means that one does not need a sampling frame listing all elements in the target population. Instead, clusters can be chosen from a cluster-level frame, with an elementlevel frame created only for the selected clusters. In the example above, the sample only requires a block-level city map for initial selections, and then a household-level map of the 100 selected blocks, rather than a household-level map of the whole city. Cluster sampling generally increases the variability of sample estimates above that of simple random sampling, depending on how the clusters differ between themselves, as compared with the within-cluster variation. For this reason, cluster sampling requires a larger sample than SRS to achieve the same level of accuracy - but cost savings from clustering might still make this a cheaper option. Cluster sampling is commonly implemented as multistage sampling. This is a complex form of cluster sampling in which two or more levels of units are embedded one in the other. The first stage consists of constructing the clusters that will be used to sample from. In the second stage, a sample of primary units is randomly selected from each cluster (rather than using all units contained in all selected clusters). In following stages, in each of those selected clusters, additional samples of units are selected, and so on. All ultimate units (individuals, for instance) selected at the last step of this procedure are then surveyed. This technique, thus, is essentially the process of taking random subsamples of preceding random samples.

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Multistage sampling can substantially reduce sampling costs, where the complete population list would need to be constructed (before other sampling methods could be applied). By eliminating the work involved in describing clusters that are not selected, multistage sampling can reduce the large costs associated with traditional cluster sampling.

Quota sampling
In quota sampling, the population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups, just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. It is this second step which makes the technique one of non-probability sampling. In quota sampling the selection of the sample is non-random. For example interviewers might be tempted to interview those who look most helpful. The problem is that these samples may be biased because not everyone gets a chance of selection. This random element is its greatest weakness and quota versus probability has been a matter of controversy for many years.

Convenience sampling or Accidental Sampling


Convenience sampling (sometimes known as grab or opportunity sampling) is a type of non probability sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. That is, a population is selected because it is readily - 67 -

available and convenient. It may be through meeting the person or including a person in the sample when one meets them or chosen by finding them through technological means such as the internet or through phone. The researcher using such a sample cannot scientifically make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough. For example, if the interviewer were to conduct such a survey at a shopping center early in the morning on a given day, the people that he/she could interview would be limited to those given there at that given time, which would not represent the views of other members of society in such an area, if the survey were to be conducted at different times of day and several times per week. This type of sampling is most useful for pilot testing. Several important considerations for researchers using convenience samples include: Are there controls within the research design or experiment which can serve to lessen the impact of a non-random convenience sample, thereby ensuring the results will be more representative of the population? Is there good reason to believe that a particular convenience sample would or should respond or behave differently than a random sample from the same population? Is the question being asked by the research one that can adequately be answered using a convenience sample? In social science research, snowball sampling is a similar technique, where existing study subjects are used to recruit more subjects into the sample.

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Line-intercept sampling
Line-intercept sampling is a method of sampling elements in a region whereby an element is sampled if a chosen line segment, called a "transect", intersects the element.

Panel sampling
Panel sampling is the method of first selecting a group of participants through a random sampling method and then asking that group for the same information again several times over a period of time. Therefore, each participant is given the same survey or interview at two or more time points; each period of data collection is called a "wave". This longitudinal sampling-method allows estimates of changes in the population, for example with regard to chronic illness to job stress to weekly food expenditures. Panel sampling can also be used to inform researchers about within-person health changes due to age or to help explain changes in continuous dependent variables such as spousal interaction. There have been several proposed methods of analyzing panel data, including MANOVA, growth curves, and structural equation modeling with lagged effects.

Replacement of selected units


Sampling schemes may be without replacement ('WOR' - no element can be selected more than once in the same sample) or with replacement ('WR' - an element may appear multiple times in the one sample). For example, if we catch fish, measure them, and

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immediately return them to the water before continuing with the sample, this is a WR design, because we might end up catching and measuring the same fish more than once. However, if we do not return the fish to the water (e.g. if we eat the fish), this becomes a WOR design. Formulas, tables, and power function charts are well known approaches to determine sample size.

Steps for using sample size tables


Postulate the effect size of interest, , and . Check sample size table Select the table corresponding to the selected Locate the row corresponding to the desired power Locate the column corresponding to the estimated effect size. The intersection of the column and row is the minimum sample size required.

Sampling and data collection


Good data collection involves: Following the defined sampling process Keeping the data in time order Noting comments and other contextual events - 70 -

Recording non-responses Most sampling books and papers written by non-statisticians focus only in the data collection aspect, which is just a small though important part of the sampling process.

Research design Since the researcher made an attempt to measure the various contributing factors of customer satisfaction & their association with selected socio-democratic variables a descriptive research design was adopted.

Pilot study Since the researcher made a number of visits to the selected organization to find out the feasibility of carrying out his research studies. During his visits he had discussions with territory managers of BSNL. This helped the researcher to arrive at a research problem.

Universe The present research includes two thousand five hundred subscribers of BSNL cellular services.

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Sampling Design The researcher used simple random sampling technique using lottery method (probability method) to draw three hundred respondents from the customer record of BSNL in Ramanathapuram. Source of Data The source of data collection was a primary source. The information required for the study was directly collected from the respondents Secondary sources like company records were used for collecting the details of the universe.

Tools for Data Collection The researcher adopted questionnaire method to measure the customer satisfaction.

Questionnaire The questionnaire consists of the following


Personal data Influencing factors that opt for automobile sector Difficulties with service Customer care New features Other choice of services - 72 -

Suggestion for improving the service

Data Collection Process The researcher explained the purpose of the study to the customer, He also explained each and every dimension of the study questionnaire given to respondents and their responses were recorded It took nearly two months for the researcher it took two months to collect the data from the respondents.

Problems Encountered By the Researcher Difficulty confronted by the researcher in explaining about each and every dimension to customer in orders to get accurate data. Some of the respondents were not ready to part with required information readily. Researcher had to make extensive travel in the town to conduct the survey. This has delayed the data collection process to some extent.

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Objective of Study

Research Design

Sample Design

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Reporting of Findings

Descriptive Analysis: Descriptive analysis is largely the study of distribution of one variable this study provide us profile of companies, workgroups and person & other subject on any of a multitude of characteristics such as size composition.

Correlation Analysis: Correlation analysis studs the joint variation of two or more variables for determining the amount of correlation between two or more variables. - 74 -

Inferential Analysis: Inferential analysis is concerned with the various tests of significance for testing hypothesis in order to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate some conclusion.

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5 4 3 2 1 0 Very Much Not Satisfied Expected Workers Employees Top Managent

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FINDINGS
We conclude that the employees and workers know their working methods very well. But still they are not satisfied due to the conflicts between the employees. Training is a system which learns to employees how they have to face further problem. There is the significant relationship between the company and its employees. It is observed that it expenses more on training & development.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Training is helpful to fulfill the gap between Present and Future. Training is helpful to enhance the working ability. Training is important for new employees, the basic knowledge and skills require for efficient performance of definite task. Training & Development programmes should be done time to time in organization for motivating the employees. From the research study, it has been found out that the employees are very particular about the quality of training and hence they want JLS to increase the quality of the training.

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CONCLUSION

From the above report I conclude that most of the organizations use the training and development to increase the organization efficiency. Without the help of this tool it becomes impossible for any big organization to motivate the employees. Training and development helps the organization to motivate their employees to work properly as a family member.

Training and development is only the thing which most of the employees want to get. Most of employee concern that they should get training at every step of task progress and survey shows people get motivate when they get good services in training terms.

Most of organization going on progress through this strategy, they offer the training to employee according to their performance so employee get motivated and started to perform better.

Since education industry is a very competitive one it is high time for JLS to understand about their customers.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Website of JLS Educational Institute. Gupta, C.B. Human Resource Management. Sultan Chand & Sons Chapter 16, 17 Prasad, L.M. Organisation Behaviour Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology Chapter 2 Notes, Journals of management, Magazines, etc. Annexure:

Questionnaires

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QUESTIONNAIRES

RESPONDENT PROFILE: NAME DESIGNATION AGE : : :

QUESTIONNAIRE:Ques. 1:- Are you aware to the training and development programme conduct by organization? Ans: Yes No

Ques. 2:- Which type of Training and Development programme? Ans: - ON-THE-JOB
Coaching Under Study Position Rotation Project Assignment Committees Multiple Management Selected Readings Career Development

OFF-THE-JOB
Lecture Case Studies Group Discussion Conferences Role Playing Management Games In-Basket Exercise Sensitivity Training Programmed Instructions Special Meetings Transactional Analysis Any other

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Ques. 3:- In how much time period training happens? Ans: Week 6 Months Months 2-5 years

Ques. 4:- Whether he is part or not? Ans: Yes No

Ques. 5:- Which type of Training? Ans: Ques. 6:- How much is it effective? Ans: More Effective Average Ques. 7:- Are you satisfied? Ans: Very Much Expected None of these Ques. 8:- If any changes comes after the training in your attitude or not? Ans: Above Expectation Below Expectation Less Effective Not Effective

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