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POLYETHYLENE/RUBBER BLENDS WITH DESVULCANIZATED WASTE TIRE VIA MICROWAVE

Jlia R. Gouveia1*, Fabiula D. B. de Sousa1 and Carlos H. Scuracchio1

Centro de Engenharia Modelagem e Cincias Sociais Aplicadas CECS, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC Rua Santa Adlia, 166. Bairro Bangu. Santo Andr - SP - Brasil CEP 09.210-170 Tel/Fax: +55 11 4996-0146 juliargouveia@gmail.com fabiulasousa@gmail.com A particular challenge in Materials Science has been the search for new materials with specific properties to meet the rising demand for high performance materials combined with environmental preservation. Accordingly, this paper studies the development of blends of polyethylene (matrix phase) and waste tires (dispersed phase), beyond the effects cause by the addiction of clay. For this, the rubber was previously devulcanized by micro-waves method. With the analysis the torque during processing, we have that the dispersed phase passes through dynamic ulcanization. Thus, the study provides a possible alternative for the disposal of waste from the automotive industry. Introduction In recent years, the reclaiming of rubber has received considerable attention on the scientific community [1]. Rubbers require a long period of time to degrade naturally by its structure of crosslinks and the presence of stabilizers and other additives. The final disposal of tires is a difficult problem, they are objects that occupy a large volume that must be stored in appropriate conditions to avoid fire hazards and spread of insects and rodents [2]. There are several technology that have been applied to reuse the rubber, however this activities are low cost, making the recycling a not attractive process, since the raw material has a high added value. An interesting alternative to the use of waste rubber is the study of development of blends with polyethylene. Accordingly, this study aims to develop a new application for this material, and to study the method of microwave devulcanization, which has been widely used in rubber recycling in order to improve the interaction with the component virgin. This process makes the rubber can be reprocessed and undergo a new vulcanization as if it were a new material. The devulcanization treatment causes the loss of crosslinking, which is what allows the material to be molded again. In addition, there are breaks in the main chain branching and other appearance of changes in the overall structure of the polymer. Therefore, it is extremely important to know the influence of process conditions on devulcanizated material, so that it is possible to find an appropriate application for this material. Composites are materials containing two or more different components of different classes, where there is a physical or chemical interaction between the phases. The function of the dispersed phase is to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of the matrix phase. The mechanical properties of such compounds depend upon the modulus and concentration of GRT, polymer matrix type and adhesion between the GRT and polymer matrix, as well as the dispersion and interaction between them [3]. For this, two blends were made at each concentration, with and without clay. The technology of polymer blending has emerged as a useful tool in tailoring polymers to the needs of the end users. Accordingly, blending with waste rubber is important both from the point of view of disposal of waste and the reduction in the product cost [4]. Experimental Material It was used waste tire (GTR Ground Tire Rubber) from industries of the branch, already separated of components does not elastomeric. The clay used was Cloisite 20A, thats is a very common additive for polymers. Devulcanization

13th International Seminar on Elastomers ISE 2012

In a microwave oven common used in residences, was adapted a stirrer stem. The samples tire particulate were exposed in different time to microwaves. Mixture with additives and sulfur To that occurred the dynamic vulcanyzation, after the procedure of micro-waves, the rubber was mixed with sulfur powder and additives. This mixture was made in two-roll mill, for 5 minutes. Processing of the blends Blends were made on a Thermo Haaake Rheomix - PolylabSystem. The processs temperature was set at 160 C and a rotor speed of 80 rpm. The mixture was made on two different concentrations for every sample of different times of devulcanization. Results and Discussion In Table 1, we compare the maximum torque and the time required to reach 90% of this value. It is visible that generally, the maximum torque increases as the devulcanization time, except on the samples GTR 5 and GTR 3-3. This suggests a decrease in the amount of crosslinking in these samples, since the peaks on the torque is proportional to revulcanization[5]. A possible explanation for this is the degradation of the material that happens with the break links in the main chain. Table 1- Values of Mmax, and t90 of the samples with 20% of HDPE and 80%of GTR. Amostra 20HDPE/80GTR0 AD 20HDPE/80GTR1 AD 20HDPE/80GTR2 AD 20HDPE/80GTR3 AD 20HDPE/80GTR4 AD 20HDPE/80GTR5 AD 20HDPE/80GTR2-2 AD 20HDPE/80GTR2-2-2 AD 20HDPE/80GTR3-3 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR0 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR1 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR2 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR3 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR4 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR5 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR2-2 AD t90 MH (min) (dN.m) 1,17 0,95 0,65 1,15 1,13 1,01 0,8 0,75 1,05 1,03 0,78 1 0,75 0,95 1,11 0,95 133 135 134 117 118 81,1 131 118 69 134 134 131 125 118 99,3 130

20HDPE 20A/80GTR2-2-2 AD 20HDPE 20A/80GTR3-3 AD

0,8 1,1

119 72,8

We also can see that generally, the samples with the clay has a shorter time to reach the maximum torque, beyond this being gerater when compared with the samples without the additive. That suggests that the clay help on the compatibility between the matrix fase and the dispersed fase. That indicate we have a better processability with the clay acting like a interfacial material. Conclusions Was noticed that the devulcanization is a promising process in the recycling of material, because it allows the waste tire is processed as if they were new materials, solving a problem environmentally and financially. However, it still needs more detailed study involving the morphology and material compatibility tests to determine the optimal time that the rubber must remain in the microwave. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Pirelli and Brasken for the material donation, Materials Department of USP and DEMa UFSCar for the laboratory facilities. References [1] B. Adhikari and De D. Maiti, Prog. Polym. Sci., 25, 909 (2000). [2] Avaliable at: <http://www.resol.com.br/textos/Reciclagem%20de %20pneus.pdf>. Acesso em 6/12/09. [3] R. D. Deanin and S. M. Hashemiolya, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 57, 212 (1987). [4] ISAYEV, A.i.; HONG, Chang Kook. Plastic/Rubber Blends of Ultrasonically Devulcanized GRT with HDPE. Journal Of Elastomers, Akron, n. , p.47-70, 28 jul. 2010. [5] P. R. Fbio, et al. PVC/NBR blends by reactive processing I: in situ dynamic vulcanization process, Polmeros, 2007, 2.

13th International Seminar on Elastomers ISE 2012