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A GUIDE TO MORE THAN 350 PESTS

OF HOME, GARDEN, FIELD, AND FOREST


..
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.
INsET PESTS

by GE ORGE S. F I C HT ER
M.Sc., Entomol ogy
North Carol ina State Col l ege
Ral eigh, North Carol i na
Under the Edi torshi p of
H ERBERT S . ZI M, Ph. D.
I llustrated by
NI C H OLAS S TRE KALOV S KY
A GOLDEN NATURE GUIDE
@ GOLDEN PRESS NEW YORK
Western Publ i shing Company, Inc.
Racine, Wisconsin
FOR EWOR D
Despi te modern technol ogy, man sti l l depends whol l y
on t he products of nature for survival . Hence t he battl e
to control i nsect pests i s a never-endi ng necessi ty.
Thi s book descri bes more t han 350 pests t hat are
found i n mi ddl e Nort h Ameri ca. The i l l ustrati ons, ski l l
ful l y r endered by Ni chol as Strekal ovsky, wi l l hel p i den
tif t he pest, i t s l ife stages, and the ki nd of damage i t
does. The best t i mes and methods of control are sug
gested, but as t hese vary l ocal l y, get the advi ce of an
entomol ogi st or an agri cul t ural agent before attempt i ng
maj or cont rol s. The pest groupi ngs i n t hi s
'
book are
based on where usual damage occurs . At t i mes when
t hey are abundant, however, pests become l ess se
l ective. A fel d p' est t hen, for exampl e, may become
bothersome i n gardens. I nsecti ci des are t he best means
t o get i mmedi ate resul ts, but remember: i nsecti ci des are
poi sonous. Fol l ow di recti ons and heed al l precauti ons
on the l abel .
A number of peopl e gave advi ce and assi stance i n
t he preparati on of t hi s book. These i ncl uded Dr . J . F.
Gates Cl ar ke and h i s staf at t he U. S. Nati onal Museum.
Al so of great hel p were Robert H. Nel son and members
of t he Entomol ogi cal Soci ety of Ameri ca. Dr . J ean L.
Lafoon was especi al l y hel pful , as were Dr . George
Anastos, Dr. R. M. Baranows ki , Dr . Ral ph Cr abi l l , Dr.
Ri chard l. Doutt, Dr . Ri chard C. Froesch ner, Dr . Herbert
W. Levi , Dr . Fran kl i n B. Lewi s, and Dr . Howard V.
Weems .
G. S. F.
G Copyright 1V by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved,
including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, in
eluding the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or
mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or vis
ual reproduction or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device,
unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietor.
Produced in the U.S.A. by Western Publishing Company Inc. Published by
2 Golden Press, New York. library of Congress Catalog Card Number: -ZZbVb.
CONTENTS
AN I NTRODUCTION TO I NSECT PESTS . 4
Number of i nsects, rel atives, and devel opment.
CONTROLLING I NSECTS . . . . . . . . . 10
Natural , bi ol ogi cal , mechani cal , chemi cal , and
new methods.
HOUSEHOLD PESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
INSECTS THAT BITE OR STING . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
PESTS OF PETS
,
POULTRY
,
AND LIVESTOCK 48
I NSECT PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS . . . . . . . 61
PESTS OF FLOWERS AND SHRUBS . . . . . . . . 86
FI ELD AND FORAGE CROP PESTS . . . . . . 98
PESTS OF FRUITS AND FRUI T TREES . . . . . 120
PESTS OF FOREST AND SHADE TREES . . . . . . . . 139
I NSECT PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS . . . . . 146
SCI ENTI FI C NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
I NDEX . . . . . . 157
4
Insects exist in enormous numbers. The average insect
popul ati on per square mi l e i s est i mated to be equal to
the tot al worl d popul ati on of peopl e, and in severe
outbreaks a pest speci es far exceeds its nor mal num
bers . I n one fy infestati on, experts Psti mated 1 5, 000
fi es per cow. Bi l l i ons of hungry grasshoppers may
dar ken t he s ky and devour al l vegetati on in thei r path .
I nsect destructi on of crops i n the Uni ted States ranges
from 4 bi l l i on to 15 bi l l i on dol l ars annual l y. Damage
to cotton by one insect, the Bol l Weevi l , amounts t o
mor e than 300 mi l l i on dol l ars a year . Termi tes consume
about 1 00 mi l l i on dol l ars' worth of wood structures,
whi l e forest i nsects destroy more wood than do forest
fres. I nsect damage cancel s out the total year ' s eforts
of about one mi l l i on workers .
Fort unatel y, l ess t han one percent of t he nearl y one
mi l l i on i nsect s peci es are pests of man, hi s domesti c
ani mal s, and useful pl ants. Of the 1 00, 000 i nsect spe
ci es t hat occur i n the Uni ted States, only about 600
are consi dered seri ous pests.
Damage done by i nsect pests i s easy to apprai se.
The val ue of benefci al speci es i s harder to esti mate.
Bees, wasps, fi es, butterfi es, and other i nsects pol l i nate
fowers t hat provi de us wi th fruits and vegetabl es.
Honey, wax, and s i l k are i mportant commerci al products
obtai ned from i nsects . Some i nsect speci es are vi tal
l i nks i n the food chai ns of fshes, bi rds, and other
ani mal s . Other i nsects are parasites or predators of
damagi ng pests or are scavengers of ani mal and veg
et abl e debri s. Control measures used agai nst harmful
i nsects must be wei ghed careful l y to determi ne t he u lti
mate efect on al l l ivi ng t hi ngs, i ncl udi ng man .
5
6
PARTS OF A TYPICAL I NSECT
INSECTS AND THEI R CLOSE RELATIVES are arthro
pods, or "joi nted- l egged" ani mal s, a l arge group t hat
i ncl udes more t han 85 percent of t he known s peci es
of ani mal s . About 90 percent of al l the art hropods are
i nsects. An i nsect ' s body has three di sti nct regi ons
head, t horax, and abdomen. Attached to i ts thorax
are three pairs of l egs, and in most species, two pairs
of wi ngs. Its head bears a pai r of ant ennae. Thi s com
bi nat i on of features di sti ngui shes i nsects ( cl ass I nsecta)
from such cl osel y rel ated l and ani mal s as spi ders, ti cks,
mites, centi pedes, and mi l l i pedes.
The l argest groups of i nsects are cal l ed orders. Si x
teen orders of i nsects that i ncl ude i mportant pest speci es
are s ummari zed on page 7, as are t he i dentifyi ng char
acteri sti cs of t he ot her arthropod cl asses .
Orders are divi ded i nto families and t he fami l i es i nt o
genera and species. An i nsect' s sci enti fc name usual l y
consists of two words, i t s genus and s peci es. The sci en
t i fc names of t he pests i n thi s book are l i sted on pages
154-156. The common names used i n t he t ext ar e t hose
approved by t he Entomol ogi cal Soci ety of Ameri ca.
MAJOR ORDERS OF INSECTS
CLASS NAME OF ORDER COMMON EXAMPLES WINGS, MOUTHPARTS
Thysanura silverfish, firebrots wingless; chewing
Collembola springtails wingless; chewing
Orthoptera grasshoppers, crickets, Z prs. wings or wingless;
cockroaches chewing
Dermaptera earwings Z prs. wings or wingless;
chewing
lsoptera termites Z prs. wings or wingless;
chewing
Psocoptera barklice, booklice Z prs. wings or wingless;
chewing
Mallophaga chewing lice
wingless; chewing
Anoplura
sucki ng lice Z prs. wings or wingless;
%
piercing-sucking
~
Thysanoptera thrips Z prs. wings or wingless;
L
w
rasping-sucking
m

Homoptera aphids, leafhoppers Z prs. wings or wingless;
scales, mealybugs piercing-sucking
Hemiptera bed bugs, stink bugs, wingless; piercing-sucking
chinch bugs
Coleoptera beetles, weevils Z prs. wings or wingless;
chewing
Lepidoptera moths butterflies Z prs. wings; chewing
(larvaeL sucking, or
siphoning (adults)
Hymenoptera wasps, bees, ants Z prs. wings or wingless;
sawflies chewing
Diptera mosquitoes, flies, 1 pr. wings; chewing
gnats (larvae), piercing-sucking,
or sponging (adults)
Siphonaptera fleas wingless; chewing (larvae),
ARACHNIDA
CHILOPODA
DIPLOPODA
piercing-sucking (adults)
CLASSES OF OTHER ARTHROPOD PESTS
spiders, ticks, mites,
scorpions
centipedes
millipedes
4 prs. legs; / body regions
cephalothorax and abdomen;
no antennae; chewing or suck
ing mouthparts
1 pr. of legs per body segment;
1 pr. of antennae; / body re
gions-head, trunk; body flat
tened; chewing mouthparts
Z prs. of legs per apparent
body segment; 1 pr. of anten
nae; Z body regions-head,
trunk; body rounded; chewing
mouthparts
7
egg

8
SI LVERFISH grow l arger but do not change
in appearance or struct ure.
young adul t
I NSECT DEVELOPMENT An i nsect pest can be con
trol l ed most easi l y at a speci fc stage of i ts l ife history,
someti mes not t he one in whi ch i t does its greatest dam
age. Destroyi ng t he i nsect' s eggs i s oft en t he most
efective control measure. But to do this you must know
where and when t he femal e l ays her eggs. Hence l ife
hi stori es are emphasi zed in thi s book.
Nymphs are young i nsects t hat, as soon as they
hat ch, resembl e mi ni ature adul ts. I f t he adul t has wi ngs,
wi ng buds soon appear on t he nymph ' s thorax. These
grow each ti me t he nymph s heds, or mol ts, and by t he
t i me t he i nsect i s mature, t he wi ngs are ful ly devel oped.
Nymphs are acti ve. They commonly l ive i n t he same
pl ace and have the same feedi ng habits as t he adul ts.
True bugs, grasshoppers, cockroaches, and l i ce are
among t he i nsects that have a nymph stage. These
change ( metamorphose) gradual l y t hrough t hree de
vel opment al stages-egg, nymph, and adul t . Thi s type
of metamor phosi s i s cal l ed si mpl e. Pri mitive i nsects,
such as si l verfsh and spri ngt ai l s, al so devel op by a
si mpl e metamorphosi s, but there are al most no changes
i n t hei r structure as t hey grow, onl y an i ncrease i n si ze.
Nymphs of some aquati c i nsects are cal l ed nai ads; t hey
difer consi derabl y from adul ts i n appearance and
habi ts but change from nai ads di rectl y i nt o adul ts.
egg
CHI NCH BUGS have t hree stages, Nymphs
resembl e adults, but J ack wi ngs.
nymphs
JAPANESE BEETLES devel op t hrough four
di sti nct stages, each di feri ng i n appear
This i s compl ete metamorphosis.
adul t
More kinds of insects devel op through a compl ete
metamorphosis. The insect changes in appearance and
habits from one stage t o the next t hrough four disti nct
stages-egg, l arva, pupa, and adul t . The egg hatches
into a l arva, an active, feeding stage. The mat ure l arva
forms a pupa; a resting, or nonfeedi ng, stage from
which the insect emerges as an adul t. Caterpil l ars are
the crawl i ng l arvae of butterfies and moths. They have
chewing mouthparts. Some are maj or pests of pl ants
and stored products. The adul ts have sucking, or nectar
feedi ng, mouthparts and never do damage. Maggots
are the l arvae of fies; grubs, the l arvae of beetl es.
9
1 0
CONTROLLI NG I NS ECTS
Insects become pests when they damage crops, dest roy
products, transmit diseases, are annoying, or in other
ways confict with man' s needs or interests. In man' s
continuous battl e agai nst insect pests t hrough the cen
turies, no insect species has ever been eradicated,
t hough some have been reduced in number, at l east
temporari l y. At the same ti me, other pest species have
actual l y become more abundant and are now a greater
probl em because man has provided increasingl y favor
abl e conditions for them. The modern one-crop system
of agricul ture often suppl ies food for an insect pest in
l arge quantity over many square mi l es. As new crop
pl ants were introduced from other countries, their insect
pests often came with them, but not the predatory
species that kept the pests under control in their home
l and. Some varieties of crops are more suscepti bl e to
pests than were the ori ginal wi l d pl ants, which over t he
years devel oped a degree of resistance to insect attack.
NATURAL CONTROLS ordinari l y keep insect popul a
tions i n bal ance. Weather factors, such as temperat ure
and rainfal l , l imi t the di stribution of an insect species,
as do such geographi c barriers as l arge bodies of water,
deserts, or mountai n ranges .
Toads, l izards, frogs, mol es, and shrews are among
the many animal s that feed mainl y on insects. Some
birds may eat t hei r own wei ght i n insects every day.
Predatory insects usual l y feed on whatever insects are
avail abl e. Larvae of parasi ti c i nsects devel op in the
eggs, young, or adul ts of other insects. Vi rus, fungus,
and bacteri al diseases al so hel p hol d insect popul ations
in check. Man has often upset these natural bal ances.
Because i nsect-eati ng bi rds tend to eat the most avai l abl e i nsects,
they are especi al l y hel pful i n control l i ng pests i n outbreaks.
TACHI NI D FLY
Braconi d wasps l ay eggs
i n aphi ds or other i nsects.
Larvae devel op i nsi de.
ARMYWORM
The Tachi ni d Fly lays its eggs
on t he Armywor m. Fl y l arvae
eat ond soon ki l l t he worm.
These t i ny rove beetl es
feed on maggots. The
l arvae al so burrow i nto pupae.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL is the purposeful use of
nat ural predators, parasites, or diseases to kil l or reduce
the popul ation of a pest species. This method has been
efective principal l y in combating insect pests introduced
from foreign countries without their nat ural enemies .
Bi ol ogical control s are not usual l y practical for home
gardens or simil ar smal l areas. They are used most
s uccessful l y in orchards and groves or where l arge-scal e
crop pl anti ngs are repeated year after year on the
same l and. Usual l y the control species is at frst bred
artifcial l y so that it can be introduced in l arge numbers.
More t han two dozen cases of efective l arge-scal e con
trol of i nsect pests have been achieved by this method .
Damage to ci trus by the Cottony-cushion Scal e in
Cal ifornia was virtual l y el i minated by the introduction,
of Vedal ia, an Australian l ady beetl e. Later, grove
Parasi ti c Bracani d Wasp i ntro
duced from Engl and. Wasp l arvae
feed i nsi de I mported Cabbage-
3.0 i n.
wor m and ki l l it.
Japanese Beetl e i s ki l l ed by
Bacillus papillae, which causes
mi l ky di sease. The Hornworm
0.8 i n.
succumbs to b. thuringiensis.
owners began to spray t hei r trees to ki l l aphi ds. At the
same t i me they ki l l ed the Vedal i a beetl es, causi ng an
outbreak of Cottony-cushi on Scal e agai n. The u s e of
bacteri a causi ng mi l ky disease that ki lls gr ubs of t he
Japanese Beetl e i s another exampl e of successful bi o
l ogi cal control . Gambusi as and other top-feedi ng mi n
nows are efective i n t he control of mosquito l arvae.
I nteresti ngl y, t he Chrysol i na Beetl e was i ntroduced to
western Uni ted States from Austral i a to hal t t he spread
of t he Kl amath weed.
l
Bi ol ogi cal control s do not el i mi nate a pest speci es
compl etel y. They only reduce the popul ati on and thus
keep the damage l ow. But bi ol ogi cal control s are usual l y
self-generati ng, so a control speci es, once establ i shed,
conti nues to reproduce and t o remai n efective.
1 3
PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CONTROLS are the
si mpl est, most obvi ous, and at t i mes most efective: wit
ness the ol d-fashi oned fy swatter. Pests of stored prod
ucts are commonl y destroyed by heat or col d. Few can
survive l ong i n a temperature of 1 20 degrees F. or
hi gher. Col d ei ther ki l l s or stops activity. Drai ning of
standi ng water to el i minate breeding pl aces is a stan
dard mosquito control method, whi l e many pl ant pests
are ki l l ed by fooding. Li ghts are used to attract some
ki nds of pests, whi ch may then be el ectrocuted on
charged screens. Pests that col lect i n l arge numbers
may be l ured to baits or caught in ditches. The gardener
who pi cks Japanese Beetl es of his roses by hand uses
an efecti ve method for smal l areas.
CULTURAL CONTROL is an inexpensive method of
checking or preventing damage by insect pests by com
bi ning mechani cal or physi cal control s wi t h a knowl edge
of the pest ' s l ife history. Crop rotati on prevents the
bui l d- up of a pest popul ati on that feeds on one ki nd
of pl ant. Burying stal ks, weeds, and other resi dues after
harvest destroys eggs, pupae, or hi bernating l arvae and
adul ts. Si mi l arly, earl y or l ate pl owing may destroy a
parti cul ar l ife stage of a pest. Pl anting and harvest i ng
Gol den Regent, a
resistant vari ety
of sweet cor n.
can someti mes be ti med to escape
periods of egg l aying or of pest
abundance. Varieties of pl ants re
sistant to parti cul ar pests can be
pl anted. Heal thy, vi gorousl y grow
ing pl ants can wi thstand insect at
tacks better t han t hose that ore
weak or diseased. Li kewi se, ani
mal s in good heal th are not as
greatl y disturbed by pests.
INSECTICI DES are poisons used to kil l insect pests .
Their great advantage is speed. Biol ogical control
methods, whil e safer and l onger l asting, may require
several seasons to become efective.
More t han 350 mil l ion pounds of insecticides are
sol d annual l y i n the United States . Their use increases
agricul t ural yiel ds by an average of about 25 percent
and in many cases prevents compl ete crop l osses. I n
secticides are highl y important, too, in t he control of
pests that are annoying or are disease carriers .
Most insecticides are dangerous to people and other
ani mal s as wel l as to pests . Read and fol l ow careful l y
t he instruction on l abel s. Consul t a county agent or an
entomol ogist or empl oy t he services of a professional
pest-control operator.
APPLI CATI ONS of i nsecti ci des are rarel y made ful l
strengt h . Dusts ar e dry mi xtures of from 0. 1 percent t o
25 percent of t he poi son mi xed wi th fne part i cl es of an
i nactive materi a l, s uch as tal c. Wettable powders are
dusts t hat form a suspensi on i n water for sprayi ng; the
powder may consi st of from 1 0 to 95 percent i nsecti ci de.
Emulsifable concentrates, t he most common formul ati on
for appl yi ng i nsecti ci des, consi st of oi l or a si mi l ar or
gani c sol vent contai ni ng t he i nsecti ci de and an emul
si fer t hat ai ds t he mi xi ng of t he dropl ets of oi l and
i nsect i ci de i n water. The components may separate on
standi ng but can be remi xed by s haki ng. Special sol
vents, such as kerosene, pi ne oi l , and ot her l i qui ds of
organi c compounds, are used wi th t he water-i nsol ubl e
organi c i nsecticides. Most sol vents are t oxi c to pl ants,
are i nfammabl e, and may damage wal l paper, t i l e, and
other materi al s. For al l appl i cati ons, fol l ow pri nted di
recti ons wi t h care.
Aerosol Bomb
SPRAYERS use a pump to bui l d
up ai r pressure t hat forces t he
l i qui d i nsecti ci de f r om the noz
zl e. The si ze of t he nozzl e open
i ng creates ei t her a fogl i ke mi st
or a steady stream.
DUSTERS are powered by hand
or by motor and us e ei t her a
fan or compressed oi r to force
out t he dust i n a cl oud.
AEROSOL BOMBS, t he most
common househol d appl icators,
consi st of an i nsecti ci de di s
sol ved i n a l i quefed gas under
hi gh pres sure. A fne mi s t i s pro
duced when these are al l owed
to escape from a s mal l openi ng.
Aerosol s ore conveni ent but are
rel ati vel y expensi ve.
Bean beetl es and t hei r l arvae
( p. 76) feed an t he undersi de of
leaves. They can be reached wi th
i nsecti ci de dusts.
STOMACH POISONS are used pr i nci pal l y to ki l l i nsects
wi th chewi ng mouth parts. They may be sprayed or
dusted di rectl y on the i nsect ' s food or may be mi xed
wi th bai ts to attract t he pests. To be useful a stomach
poi son must ki l l fai r l y qui ckl y, as t he pest i s al ready
doi ng damage when i t ta kes i n t he i nsecti ci de. Too
heavy an appl i cati on of these chemi cal s may ki l l t he
pl ants . The resi dues are poi sonous to man and domes
ti c ani mal s . Contact i nsecti ci des ( p. 1 8 ) act as stomach
poi sons if eaten. Arseni c compounds ar e t he most com
mon i norgani c stomach poi sons. Paris green ( cal ci um
acetoarseni te) was t he frst chemi cal i nsecti ci de used
successful l y on a l arge scal e. Lead arsenate, white
arsenic ( arseni ous oxi de) , sodium arsenate, and calcium
arsenate are other arseni c stomach poi sons. Fl uori ne
compounds t hat act as stomach poi sons are sodium fuo
silicate, sodium fuoride, and sodium fuoaluminate
( cryol i te) . Thallium sulfate, hi ghl y poi sonous, is mi xed
wi t h food to make ant bai ts. Do not store any i nsecti ci de
where chi l dren can r each i t. Make certai n t he con
t ai ners are properl y l abel ed and mar ked POI SON.
I NSECTI CI DES 1 7
CONTACT I NSECTI CI DES are sprayed or dusted di
rectl y on pests or are spread where pests wi l l pi ck t hem
up. They are especi al l y useful i n control l i ng i nsects wi th
pi erci ng- sucki ng mout hparts. Al l contact poi sons act as
stomach poi sons ( p. 1 7) if eaten. Most of t hem are al so
poi sonous to peopl e and ani mal s and t hus are a seri ous
hazard if not used as di rected. I n excess amount s many
contact i nsectici des are poi sonous t o pl ants. Some ar e
us ed as fumi gants. Al ways r ead the l abel before even
openi ng the i nsecti ci de contai ner . When i n doubt
obout how to use an i nsecti ci de safel y and most efec
tivel y, ask the advice of your deal er or of a county or
agri cul tural agent .
Most of t he many thousands of tradenamed i nsec
ti ci de for mul ati ons bel ong i n the contact- i nsecti ci de
group. These are di vi ded i nto the fol l owi ng groups
inorganics, natural organics or plant poisons, synthetics,
and oils. Each of these groups is descri bed separatel y
on the fol l owi ng pages. Most of the contact i nsecti ci des
now used have appeared since t he Worl d War I I de
vel opment of DDT, the frst wi del y used syntheti c or
gani c i nsecti ci de.
INORGANI C CONTACT INSEC
TICI DES
,
consi st i ng mai nl y of
sulfur dusts, mi xt ures of lime
and sulfur, or sulfur compounds,
were t he frst contact poi sons
used on a l arge scal e and sti l l
ran k among t h e most i mportant.
Sulfur dust i s one of the mai n
chemi cal control s f or mi tes, for
the crawl i ng stages of scal es,
and for some ki nds of caterpi l
l ars. Fi nel y ground sul fur i s us
abl e as a wettabl e powder for
spray appl i cati ons. Lime-sulfur
solution is a l i qui d, sol ubl e i n
1 8 I NSECTI CI DES
water. L i me- sul fur i s al so dehy
drated and sold in concentrated
powder form. I t i s used to con
trol pl ant pests such as scal es
and al so as a di p for cattl e,
sheep, and other l ivestock. Bor
deaux mixture is a combi nati on
of copper s ul fate and l i me i n
water. I n addi ti on to t hei r use
as i nsecti ci des, sul fur and sul
fur compounds are val ued as
fungi ci des. I n hot weather, heavy
appl i cati ons of s ul f ur wi l l burn
fol i age and frui t and so must be
appl i ed spari ngl y.
NATURAL ORGANI CS were
t he earl i est compounds used i n
ki l l i ng i nsect pests. Wi th t he ex
cepti on of ni coti ne, hi ghl y toxi c
to man and other mammal s, they
are t he l east dangerous of t he
i nsecti ci des to use on food pl ants
or in t he house.
Nicotine i s obtai ned from t he
waste l eaves of tobacco pl ants
and wast e tobacco product s. I t
i s used pr i nci pal l y as nicotine
sulfate, wi t h a 40- percent ni co
t i ne content. The 40- percent con
centrate i s ordi nari l y di l uted in
800 to 1 ,000 parts of wafer
(about one teaspoon to a gal l on)
and i s appl i ed as a spray to ki l l
aphi ds or other soft-bodi ed i n
sects. Ni coti ne sul fate i s used
al so as a stack di p for control
of mi tes, t i cks, and lice. Fi nel y
ground tobacco stems and l eaves
are used as a dust or burned as
a f umi gant . Ni cot i ne may be
added to aerosol formul ati ons.
Pyrethrum comes from t he
fowers of several speci es of chry
sant hemums. It is produced com
merci al l y from a speci es grown
i n East Afri ca. Fast-acti ng pyre
t hri ns ore the "'knockdown "
agents i n most househol d sprays,
with sl ower-acti ng DDT or other
syntheti cs ocl uol l y ki l l i ng the i n
sect. Allethrin, produced syn
theti cal l y, i s much t he same os
pyret hrum i n act i on.
Rotenone i s obtai ned from t he
dri ed and ground roots of t he
Sout h Ameri can cube and from
t he roots of two speci es of der
ri s t hat grow in t he East I ndi es.
As prepared for an i nsecti ci de,
Tobacco pl ant, source of
hi ghl y toxic ni coti ne
rotenone i s rel at i vel y nontoxi c t o
humans, but as an i nsecti ci de i t
acts both as a stomach and as a
contact poi son. Anot her use of
rotenone by bi ol ogi sts is as a
poi son to el i mi nate trash fsh i n
l akes an d ponds.
Ot her botani cal s, or nat ural
organi c cont act i nsecti ci des, i n
el ude ryania, produced f r om t he
pul veri zed stems and roofs of a
South Ameri can pl ant . Ryani a i s
l ess toxi c to mammal s t han ro
tenone and so i s recommended
for food pl ants where resi dues
mi ght be a probl em. Sabadilla,
whi ch al so has low toxi ci ty, is
mode by gr i ndi ng t he seeds of a
l i l y-fami l y pl ant of Venezuel a.
I NSECTI CI DES 1 9
SYNTHETI C ORGANI C CON
TACT INSECTI CI DES ar e t he
mast i mportant group of c hem i
cal s used today i n the control of
i nsect pests. There are two
groupo: chl ori nated hydrocarbons
and organo-phosphates.
CHLORINATED
HYDROCARBONS
DDT i s t he l eader i n t he chl o
r i nat ed hydrocarbon gr oup.
Though frst synthesi zed i n 1 874,
DDT was not recogn i zed as an
i nsecti ci de unt i l Worl d War I I ,
when i ts i ni t i al l arge-scal e use
hal ted a typhus epi demi c spread
by l i ce in I tal y. I t was l ater val u
abl e duri ng the war years i n the
control of fi es and mosquitoes
and came i nto wi despread use
in t he control of agri cul t ural and
househol d pests after t he war.
DDT i s hi ghly efective in ki l l i ng
many ki nds of i nsects but i s
rel ati vel y nont oxi c to aphi ds,
spi der mites, and some other
speci es. Some cockroaches, fi es,
and other i nsects have devel
oped resi stance to DDT. When
an i nsect comes i n contact wi th
DDT, it frst appears to l ose con
trol of i ts vol untary acti ons; l ater
i t becomes paral yzed. Death
comes sl owl y, somet i mes several
days l ater. DDT has a rather low
toxi ci ty Ia man and other verte
brates but may be stored i n the
fatty ti ssues of the body and
cause death months l ater when
the fat reserves are ut i l i zed.
DDT i s appl ied as a dust,
wettabl e powder, water emul
si on, or i n an oi l base. Verte
brates absorb the oi l -base DDT
most rapi dl y. DDT i s i nsol ubl e
i n water. I ts resi dues may re-
20 I NSECTI CI DES
mai n efective outdoors for many
months or even years, i ndoors
for even l onger. Methoxychlor,
rel ated to DDT, is efective
agai nst t he Mexi can Bean Beet l e
and works more rapi dl y i n ki l l i ng
t he House Fl y. TDf ( or DOD), al so
a rel ati ve of DDT, i s commonl y
used i n mosquito control be
cause i t i s l ess toxi c t han DDT to
vertebrates. TOE is al so l ess poi
sonous to i nsects, however.
Benzene hexachloride (BHC),
al so i n the chl ori nated- hydro
carbon group, was di scovered
as a usef ul i nsect i ci de about t he
same t i me as DDT. BHC ki l l s
faster t han DDT and i s commonl y
used in t he control of crop pests.
I t has a di sti nct i ve musty odor
and someti mes taints food. BHC
i s usual l y used as a dust or a
wettabl e powder. Lindane is BHC
t hat di fers onl y i n t he arrange
ment of i ts atoms, but as i t l acks
the obj ecti onabl e heavy odor, i t
is used more commonl y i n
houses. Though i t s resi dual l i fe
i s shorter than DDT' s, l i ndane
is about twice as toxi c to many
i nsects and apparentl y i s not
stored i n t he body t i ssues. Toxa
phene, i nsol ubl e i n water but
sol ubl e i n many organi c sol
vents, i s an excel l ent i nsect ki l l er
but i s al so poi sonous I a verte
brates. Toxaphene is one of the
most common i nsecti ci des for
control l i ng pests of cotton.
Chlordane, dieldrin, aldrin,
endrin, and heptachlor form an
other group of

l osel y rel ated


chl ori nated hydrocarbons. Al l are
i nsol ubl e in water but are sol u
bl e i n many organi c sol vents.
Scales may be ki l led wi th organa
phosphate sprays (bel ow and p. 86).
Use these i nsecti ci des wi th great care.
They are al so used i n dust or
pel l et for m, parti cul arl y as soi l
poi sons for t he cont rol of ter
mi tes and ants. They are hi ghl y
efective i nsect ki ll ers and are
resi dual. They are al so poi son
ous to vertebrates, i ncl udi ng
man and ot her mammal s.
ORGANO-PHOSPHATES
The organo-phasphate group
of contact i nsect i ci des stems
from chemi cal research j ust be
fore Worl d War I I , when same of
these compounds were devel
oped as poi sonous gases for use
i n warfare. Most of t hem are ex
tremel y let hal to man and an i
mal s as wel l as to i nsects. They
can be t aken i nto t he body
t hrough the mout h or t he s ki n or
by i nhal i ng t hei r f umes. Resi
dues an foods are a source of
danger. Because these i nsecti
ci des are very poi sonous, they
must be handl ed wi th t he great
est care.
Parathion, a browni sh-yellow
l i qui d wi th a garli c odor, is toq
poi sonous for househol d use or
for appl yi ng near l ivestock and
pets, but i t i s wi del y used on
frui t and vegetabl e crops. Resi
dues di sappear rapi dl y. Deme
ton, about as poi sonous as para
thi on, acts as a systemi c poi son,
bei ng absorbed by the ti ssues of
t he pl ant . I t ki l l s pest s t hat feed
on t he pl ant ' s j ui ces wi thout af
fect i ng predators and pol l i nators.
TEPP, even more poi sonous t han
parat hi on, decomposes rapi dl y
and l eaves no resi due. It is used
regu l arl y on food crops.
Malathion, mas t c om ma n l y
used organa- phosphate, i s not
hi ghl y toxi c to vertebrates. Mal a
t hi on wi l l k i l l many i nsect speci es
that have devel oped a resi stance
to t he i ns ectici des of t he DDT and
ch l ordan e gr oups . Diozinon,
DDVP, ronnel, and dicopthon are
ather organo- phosphates that are
excel l ent i nsect ki l l ers. DDVP i s
t he most h i ghl y toxi c of t hese
chemi cal s to man and ani mal s .
I NSECTI CI DES 2 1
Oi l s are appl i ed to ci trus to ki l l
young stages of Pur pl e Scal e ( p. I 33)
and Ci trus Whi tefy (p. 136).
OILS, pri nci pal l y petrol eum but
al so some ani mal and vegetabl e
oi l s, serve as carri ers for i n
secti ci des or may be used as
i nsecti ci des t hemsel ves. Dormant
oils, rather heavy and sem ire
fned, are appl i ed i n l ate wi nter
or earl y spri ng to trees or s hrubs
t hat ore not i n fol i age to ki l l
scal es, mi tes, eggs , and some
l arvae. Summer oils ore l i ghter
and more hi ghl y refned, hence
l ess damagi ng Ia pl ants; t hey
ore used to control a ph i ds, scal e
i nsects, and meal ybugs. As the
oi l s t hemsel ves are toxi c to pl ant s
i f appl i ed ful l strengt h, t hey ore
mi xed wi t h water by addi ng on
emul si fer, such as soap. Th i s
di stri butes t he oi l evenl y as smal l
dropl ets. Oi l bat hs may be used
to ki l l such parasites as feas,
l i ce, ti cks, and mi tes on domesti c
ani mal s and pels. Formul at i ons
t hat requi re shaki ng wi t h a s mal l
amount of water before fnal
mi xi ng or e cal l ed miscible oi l s.
An emulsible-oil formul ati on con
be pou red di rectl y i nto the
water.
FUMIGANTS ore gases used to
ki l l i nsects in encl osures, as i n
2 2 I NSECTI CI DES
bui l di ngs or contai ners, i n t he
soi l , or under such t emporary
covers as tarpaul i ns and tents.
Many fumi gants are i nfl ammabl e.
Nearl y al l f umi gants ore more
poi sonous Ia man t han to t he
i nsects and shoul d be used onl y
by a professi onal pest-control
operator. Thei r advantage i s
t hei r penetrati on to al l port s of
bui l di ngs, i nto stored products
or pl ants. They l eave no resi due.
Carbon disulfde (carbon bi sul
fde), h i ghl y i nfammabl e, i s used
mai nl y as a soi l f umi gant for
ants, ter mi tes, and grubs. For i n
oor use i t may be mi xed wi t h
carbon tetrachl ori de to reduce
t he danger of fre or expl osi on.
Dichloropropene and dichlaro
propane are al so used as soi l
f umi gants. Hydrogen cyanide,
whi ch has a di st i nctive nutty
odor and i s deadl y poi sonous, is
used to fumi gate mi l l s and ware
houses or frui t trees under tents.
Methyl bromide, a noni nfamma
bl e f umi gant , i s val ued because
of its power to penetrate t i ghtly
packed materi al s. Paradichloro
benzene ( "para" crystal s) and
naphthalene (both sol d as mot h
bol l s) vapori ze sl owl y and act
as a f u mi gant and a repel l ent.
REPELLENTS are chemi cal s t hat
by thei r odor or t ast e prevent
i nsect attacks. They are used
mai nl y to protect man, ani mal s,
or stored products; l ess common
l y, pl ant s. Some repel l ents are
poi sonous i f touched, eaten, or
breathed. Mothballs are repel
l ent s t hat protect cl othes from
i nsect damage. Creosote i s used
as a barri er agai nst crawl i ng i n
sects, whi l e smoke screens ward
of fi es and mosquitoes. Among
t he most successful of dozens of
repel l ent chemi cal s ore diethyl
toluamide, dimethyl phthalate,
and ethyl hexanediol. These or
gani c chemi cal s are di l uted wi th
oi l s and di sgui sed wi th per
f umes. They are sol d under many
tradenames. Most wi l l repel i n
sects f or one to fve hours.
'
'
NEW METHODS of combat i ng
i nsect pest s are bei ng devel oped
every year. Some are usef ul onl y
i n l arge-scal e control programs,
others i n home and garden.
Among t he most promi si ng are
sterilants t hat render i nsects i n
capabl e of reproduci ng. Thi s
method was frst us ed wi t h suc
cess to control t he Screw-worm.
Mi l l i ons of mal es, steri l i zed by
radi ati on, were rel eased in areas
of i nfestati on to male with fe
mal es, whi ch then produced i n
fert i l e eggs. Hormones ar e used
to cause an i nsect to pass from
one stage of i ts devel opment to
t he next i rrespecti ve of season.
Thus, pupae can be made to
transform i nto adul ts i n mi d
wi nter or l arvae may be made
t o pupate before t hey are f ul l
grown. I nsect hormones ar e ap
parentl y harml ess t o other l ivi ng
t hi ngs. Al so saf e ar e such non
toxic insecticides as fnel y ground
si l i ca, whi ch abrades t he outer
coveri ng from an i nsect and
causes i t t o dr y up, or desi ccate,
as i ts body fui ds escape.
The soi l i n seed beds can be f umi gated by rel eas i ng methyl -bromi de
gas under pl asti c cover.
I NSECTI CI DES 23
wi despread in U. S. , gi ve of a
sweet odor when crushed. Travel
defni te trai l s ta fnd food.
ARGENTI NE ANTS are common
i n southern U. S. ; worst ant pests
i n houses. Prefer sweets but eat
oi l foods. Bi le, do not sti ng.
HOU EHOLD P
I nsect pests may dest roy the t i mbers of a house, t unnel
i nto furni t ure and fabri cs, or r ai d t he contents of t he
ki tchen, from t he spi ce cabi net to t he gar bage pai l.
Some ki nds bi te, sti ng, or trans mi t di seases. Ot hers are
s i mpl y annoyi ng, uni nvi ted guests .
The basi c step in control l i ng househol d pests is to
keep t hem out . Screen wi ndows and doors, seal cracks,
and remove debri s in whi ch pests can hi de or mul t i pl y.
I f pest" i nfestat i ons are heavy, persi stent, or unexpl ai n
abl e, servi ces of a professi onal pest-control operator
may be necessary. Make certai n the man empl oyed
represents a l i censed, bonded organi zati on .
Many pests c an be recogni zed an d control l ed wi th
out expert hel p. Si nce i nsect i ci des are poi sonous and
wi l l be us ed where t here ar e peopl e, pets, and food,
fol l ow careful l y t he di recti ons given on t he l abel .
THIEF ANTS often l ive i n other
onl nests and feed on l arvae.
They prefer cheese, meals, or
ot her greasy food.
PHARAOH ANTS a l s o l i k e
meal. May nest i n wal l s and t hen
i nvade al l par t s of hous e. Poi son
bai ts are best control met hod.
CRAZY ANTS
,
nati ve to I ndi a
but now wi despread, run 11Craz.
i l y" on t hei r l ong l egs. They eat
meat, greasy foods, and sweets.
CORNFIELD ANTS are the com
mon "red ant s" of northern
states. Nest mounds often nu
merous on l awns. I nvade houses.
ANTS l i ve i n col oni es i n the ground, i n the foundati ons
or wal l s of bui l di ngs, beneath bar k or stones. A col ony
contai ns numerous workers ( steri l e femal es) , one to sev
eral queens, and a few mal es duri ng part of the year .
Workers do not have wi ngs, but mal es and femal es ar e
wi nged at swar mi ng ti me. Mal es di e after mati ng, and
t he queens drop t hei r wi ngs and fnd a pl ace to start a
col ony. After mati ng, queens remai n ferti l e, l i vi ng as
l ong as 25 years. Queens are usual l y sever al t i mes
l arger t han workers, whi ch attend t hei r every need. Ant s
bel ong to same i nsect order as bees and wasps. They
have el bowed ant ennae and a t hi n wai st, di sti ngui s hi ng
t hem from termi tes ( p. 26) .
The most efective control i s t o destroy t he nest i f
i t can be found. Chemi cal barri ers, usi ng a res i dual
contact i nsecti ci de, can be pl aced around foundat i ons
of bui l di ngs . Workers wi l l carry poi soned bai ts to t he
col ony and t hus ki l l even t he queen.
SOUTHERN FIRE ANTS occur i n
warm parts of U. S. Often nest
near bui l di ngs. I nvade houses.
St i ngs are pai nf ul .
BLACK CARPENTER ANTS exca
vate gal l eri es and nest i n wood.
They enter houses to get sweets.
Bi te but do not st i ng.
TERMI TES are pr i mitive soci al i nsects, more cl osel y re
l ated to cockroaches (p. 28) t han to ants (p. 25) . A
col ony consi sts of numerous whi t i sh, wi ngl ess, bl i nd
workers; a l esser number of soldiers, wi th l arge brown
i sh heads equi pped wi t h powerful j aws or wi t h a bel l ows
shaped snout t hat expel s a sti cky or odorous fui d; and
reproductives, t he ki ng and queen. Addi ti onal wi nged
mal es and femal es are produced for swar mi ng, whi ch
takes pl ace i n spri ng or after r ai ns i n warm weat her.
After a short fi ght they break of t hei r wi ngs and mat e.
Each mated pai r t hen crawl s of i n search of a sui tabl e
pl ace t o establ i sh a new col ony.
More than 50 speci es of termi tes occur i n t he U. S.
Thei r spread as far north as Mi nnesota i n recent years
is attri buted to i ncreased use of central heati ng i n bui l d
i ngs, enabl i ng t hem t o survive wi nt ers . Nearl y al l U. S.
speci es l ive i n t he soi l ; many of t he more t han 2, 000
speci es of t he tropi cs bui l d aboveground nests .
Termi tes eat wood but cannot absorb it unt i l t he
cel l ul ose i s converted i nto sol ubl e s ubstances by proto
zoans that l ive in the termi te' s di gestive tract. Nei t her
ani mal i s abl e to s urvive al one.
damaged woad
SUBTERRANEAN TERMI TES
l i ve i n col oni es i n soi l , and
workers travel t hrough t unnel s
or mud t ubes to t he wood above.
Fungi that grow i n moi st, dark
t unnel s ore eaten
b
y t ermi tes,
suppl yi ng protei n and vi tami ns.
Swar mi ng fi ghts or mud tubes
up a foundat i on ore evi dence of
a t ermi t
e
i nfestati on. I n l ate
stages, foors sag as eaten-out
beams crumbl e.
To control , no wood of a bui l d
i ng shoul d t ouch soi l . Preventi ve
measures shoul d be token as a
bui l di ng is bei ng constructed.
Pl ace metal s h i el ds between the
foundati on and si l l s and al l ow
ai r to ci rcul ate under bui l di ngs_
Because of t he speci al equi p
ment needed, use a professi onal
pest-control operator, especi al l y
i n treat i ng a bui l di ng al ready
erected. He wi l l force penetrat
i ng i nsecti ci de i nto t he wood or
foundati on, Treat the soi l be
neath bui l di ngs, or use a f umi
gant . I nspect regul arl y to detect
renewed acti vi ty.
worker
0.2 i n.
reproducti ve
0.5 in_
DRYWOOD TERMITES ore prev
al ent i n the southwestern U.S.
No contact wi th soi l i s necessary.
Often they i nvade a house at
roof l evel and may i nfest furn i
t ure or books. Pi l es of brown
i sh, seedl i ke excrement pel l ets
pushed from tunnel s ore si gns
of t hei r presence. Prevent i ng en
t r y i s not economi cal . Control ,
whi ch shoul d be done onl y by
experts, consi sts of forci ng i n
secti ci de i nto t un nel s. Poi son i s
spread as workers groom each
other. House or i nfested object
moy be f umi gated, but this does
not prevent rei nfestoti on.
EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE
GERMAN COCKROACHU
0.5 i n.
COCKROACHES feed on a great vari ety of foods
meats, cheeses, sweets, and starches, i ncl udi ng t he
starch i n cl othi ng or i n t he gl ue of book bi ndi ngs and
stamps: When very abundant, they may al so eat
human hai r, ski n, and nai l s. Cockroaches secrete a
sti c ky, odorous fui d t hat may be l eft on foods or mate
ri al s. Fortunatel y, cockroaches appear to be only
i nci dent al carri ers of diseases.
Most of t he more than 3, 000 speci es of cockroaches
l ive i n t he tropi cs or subtropi cs. About 55, occur i n the
U. S. ; onl y four speci es are common househol d pests .
Normal ly cockroaches are acti ve onl y at ni ght. They
devel op by a gradual metamorphosi s-egg, nymph,
and adul t. Egg cases contai n two rows of eggs, and
t he nymphs escape t hrough a seam al ong t he si de.
Nymphs l ook l i ke adul ts but l ack wi ngs and may be a
l i ght er col or. After a peri od of growth and several
mol ts they become adul t s. The t i me requi red for t hem
to mature vari es wi t h t he speci es and al so wi th t he
season and t he regi on. Temperature and moi sture as
wel l as food are i mportant factors i n t hei r devel opment .
The best permanent control for cockroaches i s el i m
i nati ng accessi bi l ity of foods whi ch they eat .
2 8 HOUSEHOLD PESTS
GERMAN COCKROACHES, or
Croton Bugs, ore common i n
U. S. , es pec i al l y i n nor t her n
stoles. Dork stri pes on shi el d be
hi nd heod ore di sti ngui s hi ng.
Both sexes wi nged ond acti ve.
German Cockroaches common
l y enter houses in bags or boxes
from grocery stores. They tend
to cl uster i n warm, moi st pl aces,
os arou nd hot-water pi pes, and
stay hi dden when not feedi ng.
Femal es carry the egg cap
sul e, contai ni ng 24 t o 48 eggs,
unti l hatchi ng ti me. Nymphs may
emerge whi l e the capsul e i s sti l l
attached to t he femal e.
I n most areas German Cock
roaches ore resi stant to DDT,
ch l ordane, ond other ch l ori nated
hydrocarbons. They can be con
trol l ed wi t h organo- phosphates,
such os mal at hi on.
BROWN- B ANDE D COCK
ROACH has two l i ght bonds
across t he bose of i ts wi ngs.
Unl i ke other cockroaches, i t i s as
common i n t he bedroom as i n
t he ki t chen, requi r i ng warmth
but not as much moi sture. Control
i s di fcul t because these cock
roaches are found so wi del y
through t he house. The most
efective woy to reach them i s
wi th f umi gants, keepi ng room or
house cl osed for several hours.
ORI ENTAL COCKROACHES,
al so cal l ed Bl ock Beetl es or Wa
ter Bugs, are most sl uggi sh of do
mest i c cockroaches. Femal es have
s hort usel ess wi ngs and are
s l i ghtl y l arger than mal es. Cam
manl y i nfest damp basements.
Co n t a c t - i n s e c t i c i d e b a r r i e r
around a foundat i on bl ocks en
t r y of t hese cockroaches and
ot her crawl i ng pests.
AMERI CAN COCKROACHES
are t he l argest cockroaches i n
t h e U. S. Bot h sexes ar e wi nged,
t hei r f i ght gl i di ng and futtery.
The femal e deposi ts her egg
capsul e soon aft er i t forms,
someti mes gl ui ng i t to a surface.
I n t he South these cockroaches
ore common outdoors, where
they l i ve under bark or i n vege
tat i on. They can be control l ed
wi t h cont act i nsect i ci des or l ured
to poi son bai t s.
CLOTHES MOTH l arvae feed on wool en fabri cs, feath
ers, fur, mohai r, and other ani mal products such as dri ed
mi l k and meal s. The adul t mot hs, commonl y cal l ed
" mi l l ers, " do not eat, and unl i ke most ot her mot hs, are
not attracted to l i ghts .
Materi al l i kel y to be attacked shoul d be cl eaned and
exposed frequentl y t o l i ght . Brushi ng cl othes di sl odges
t he eggs and l arvae. Storage of furs at a temperature
of 45 degrees or cool er prevents devel opment of moths
or i l l ki l l t hem if t he temperature i s rai sed and l owered
several ti mes dur i ng the storage peri od. I tems can be
sprayed wi th resi dual contact i nsecti ci des or washabl es
ri nsed i n an i nsecti ci de sol uti on. These treatments ki l l
t he i nsects as t hey feed. Mi l d fumi gants such as para
di chl orobenzene crystal s or napht hal ene fakes di scour
age mot h attacks. These i nsecti ci des wi l l al so ki l l moths
al ready i n the fabri cs but are efective onl y when used
i n ti ght contai ners or cl osets . An i nfestati on may persi st
and spread from l arvae that feed and devel op on l i nt
i n cracks i n the foor, beneath baseboards, or i n vents.
In heavy i nfestati ons an ent i re house may be fumi gated.
Thi s shoul d be done onl y by a professi onal exter mi nator.
DERMESTI D BEETLES are pests of fabri cs and up
hol stered furni ture and al so i nfest cured meats, meal s,
cheeses, hi des, hai r, four or other grai n products, and
spi ces . They ar e seri ous pests i n museums. Outdoors t hey
are val uabl e as scavengers . Larvae of dermesti d beetl es
are more active than t he l arvae of cl othes mot hs . Adul ts
fy i n dayti me. They commonl y feed on the pol l en of
fowers and al so breed outdoors . Treat ments efective
for cl othes moths al so control carpet beetl es. I n both
cases, good housekeepi ng to el i mi nate breedi ng pl aces
i s the most i mportant preventive.
30 HOUSEHOLD PESTS
WEBBI NG CLOTHES MOTHS
are common fabri c pests that oc
cur throughout t he worl d. Fe
mal es l ay eggs about 0.02 of an
i nch l ong (barel y vi si bl e), ei ther
si ngl y or i n s mal l groups, sti ck
i ng t hem to t he threads of fab
ri cs. Eggs hat ch i n a few days
to several weeks, dependi ng on
temperature and humi di ty. The
l arvae are so t i ny they can crawl
between the woven t hreads of
fabri cs. They s pi n a s i l ky web
bi ng or t unnel as they feed,
someti mes movi ng to another
spot i f thei r food runs short.
Damage is most common under
col l ars, i n cufs, or i n ot her
dark areas of garments. Ful l
grown l arvae spi n a s i l ken co
coon from whi ch t hey emerge as
adul ts i n t hree to si x weeks.
CASEMAKING CLOTHES MOTH
l arvae s pi n a case of si l k and
fabri c, carryi ng i t wi th t hem as
t hey feed. The case spl i ts and
t he "V" of t he spl i t i s fl l ed i n
as t he l arva grows. Common i n
n or t h er n s t at es . P l as t er Bag
worms of southern slates bui l d
a portabl e case of bi ts of pl aster
or fabri c woven i nto t he s i l k of
the case.
CARPET BEETLES, al so cal l ed
Bufal o Beet l es, are dermesti ds
that i nfest wool en fabri cs, feath
ers, and other ani mal products.
Rel ated pests i ncl ude the l arger
Hi de Beet l e and t he larder Bee
tle. Hi des and s ki ns are treated
with arseni c powders or s i mi l ar
stomach poi sons. Cheese, cured
meats, and ot her fatty foods
shoul d be kept in t i ght con
tai ners ar under refri gerati on.
wi ngspread
eggs, l arvae ana cocoons on fabri c.
CASEMAKI NG CLOTHES MOTH
1. LARDER BEETLE, 0.3 i n. ; 2. CARPET
BEETLE, 0.2 i n. ; 3. HI DE BEETLE, 0.3 i n.
House Fl y can eat onl y l i qui ds.
I t sal ivates on sol i ds to di ssol ve
them, then sponges up l i qui d.
pupari um
3-10 days
HOUSE FLIES are bot hersome, dangerous pests, trans
mi tti ng di seases and parasites from the fl t h i n whi ch
t hey br eed to the foods man eat s. Femal es may l ay hal f
a dozen or more cl usters of 1 00 to 1 50 eggs in a sea
son. I n favor abl e condi ti ons a l ife cycl e is compl eted
i n about two weeks but may take many mont hs i n col d
weather. Wi nter i s ordi nari l y passed i n the l arva or pupa
stage, but adul ts may overwi nter in warm ni ches. Di s
posal of garbage, manure, sewage, and s i mi l ar decay
i ng or ferment i ng wastes i n whi ch the fi es breed and
the maggots devel op i s most i mportant. Wi ndows and
doors shoul d be ftted wi th t i ght screens . Fl i es t hat enter
can be ki l l ed wi th aerosol sprays . Wal l s, si l l s, and
screens can be treated wi th resi dual surface sprays. As
fi es in most areas are resi stant to DDT, other contact
i nsecti ci des must be substi tuted. Poi son bai ts ( mi xtures
of syrup- or sugar-water with an i nsecti ci de) are efec
tive in pl aces t hat cannot be screened or where sprays
cannot be used because of danger of contami nati on.
32 HOUSEHOLD PESTS
LITTLE HOUSE FLI ES are smal l er
and more sl ender t han t he Hause
Fl y. They hover or fy back and
forth wi thout sett l i ng on food.
The s i mi l ar, cl osel y rel ated La
t ri ne Fl y breeds i n human ex
crement . Maggots of both have
a fattened, s pi ny body.
BLOW F L I E S ar e l ar ge a n d
noi sy. Most speci es are metal l i c
bl ue or green, l i ke t he Green
Bottl e and Bl ue Bottl e fi es shown
here. The gray Cl uster Fl y, s i m
i l ar i n appearance t o House Fl y,
is a bl ow fy common in houses.
Bl ow fy maggots devel op i n
garbage or carri on.
MOTH FLIES, t hei r wi ngs and
body covered wi t h hai r, often
appear i n s i nk or bathtub drai ns .
The maggots devel op i n t he
gel at i nous sl udge i n t he bends
of pi pes. Somet i mes l arge num
ber s i nvade f r om out door s ,
where t hey devel op i n garbage
or sewage. They are so t i ny they
can crawl t hrough screens.
FRUI T FLI ES can enter houses
t hrough ordi nary screens. They
are attracted to rott i ng or fer
ment i ng frui ts or l i qui ds . A com
pl ete l i fe cycl e requi res l ess
t han t wo weeks. Other common
names f or t hem ar e Vi negar Fl i es
or Pomace Fl i es.
DROSOPHI LA FRUI T
BLUE BOTTLE FLY
0.5 i n.
CLUSTER FLY
0. 3 i n.
GNAT i s a name used for many
ki nds of s mal l fi es, most of
whi ch are onl y nui s ances. The
Eye Gnat, attracted to eye secre
ti ons, t rans mi ts pi n keye. These
persi stent tormentors are most
acti ve i n earl y morni ng or eve
ni ng hours.
EYE GNAT
MANY OTHER KINDS of i nsects, as wel l as spi ders,
and t hei r kin enter houses, where they are ei ther nui
sances or potenti al ly dangerous pests. Some of these
are di scussed i n the secti on on i nsects that bite or sti ng
( p. 38) , others i n t he secti on on stored products ( p. 1 46) .
Often an i nvasi on of i nsects i s onl y temporary, as when
t hey are attracted t o l i ght s. When a l awn i s mowed, a
vacant lot is cl eaned up, or a crop is harvested nearby,
i nsects di sturbed from thei r normal l i vi ng pl aces may be
temporary pests . Others are regul ar vi si tors and com
pani ons i n dwel l i ngs.
34 HOUSEHOLD PESTS
SI LVERFISH are scal y, wi ngl es s
i nsects t hat prefer foods wi th a
hi gh starch or sugar content.
They eat the gl ue i n book bi nd
i ngs or f r om wal l paper and often
damage pai nt i ngs or paper. Si l
verfsh prefer cool , damp pl aces;
t he cl osel y rel ated Fi rebrat l i ves
in war m, dri er spots. Res i dual
sprays ar dusts are efecti ve i n
keepi ng down i nfestati ons.
E ARWI GS are e a s i l y r ec og
ni zed by forceps ot en d of ab
domen. Someti mes occur i n l arge
numbers i n houses. They can
bi te and al so pi nch, but sel dom
break t he s ki n. They hi de dur i ng
t he day, feed at n i ght. Use resi d
ual sprays or dusts.
HOUSE CRICKETS si ng on the
hearth or wherever they can fnd
warmt h. When col d, t hey ar e
s l uggi s h and qu i et. Fi el d Cri ckets
al so enter houses i n autu mn . As
house pests, cri c kets eat o vari ety
of foods and may be destructi ve
to cl othes. Househol d sprays,
d u s t s , and poi s on bai t s ar e
usual l y efective.
WOOD-BORING BEETLES of o
number of speci es may i nfest
wood used in houses or furni
ture. larvae of t he Southern
lyctus Beet l e reduce wood to a
fne powder, whi ch is pushed
ou t s i de t h r ou g h s ma l l h ol es .
Drop p i n g s of t h e F u r n i t ur e
Beetl e an d ot hers ar e round pel
l ets. As some ki nds feed, a ti ck
i ng noi se i n the wood can be
heard. Fumi gati on by a qual i fed
pest-control operator i s t he best
control .
BOOKLICE
,
or Psoci ds, some
ti mes became abundant i n stored
furn i ture, books, or papers, par
ti cul arl y i f damp. They feed
mai nl y on mol ds but al so eat
cereal s. Bookl i ce are so smal l
t hat i t i s di fcul t to keep t hem
out af a house. Use contact
sprays or dusts.
BOXELDER BUGS do not bi te,
sti ng, or carry di seases, but ore
annoyances when l arge numbers
occur near or i n houses. Can be
ki l l ed with househol d sprays.
CRANE FLIES l ook l i ke I orge
mosquitoes but are harml ess.
Thei r l arvae, or maggots, some
t i mes cal l ed l eatherjac kets, de
vel op i n damp vegetati on or i n
the soi l . Adul ts commonl y are
attracted to t he l i ghts i n houses.
They can be ki l l ed wi t h house
hol d fy sprays.
SPRINGTAI L$ often congregate
i n cel l ars or i n bathrooms or
ki t chens , wh erever t here i s
dampness. They are harml ess
and can be ki l l ed wi th househol d
sprays or dusts.
SOUTHERN LYCTUS BEETLE
0. 1
HOUSEHOLD PESTS 35
HOUSE CENTIPEDE
1 .01 .5 i n.
CENTIPEDES ar e fat-bodi ed,
wi th l ong ant ennae and one
pai r of l egs an nearl y every
trunk segment. The House Cen
t i pede feeds on ants, fi es, cock
roaches, and other pests, hence
i s benefci al . I t s bi te, though
rare, i s pai nful . Use resi dual con
loci i nsect i ci des or treat j oi sts,
s ubfaors, and cracks wi th creo
sote or ather repel l ents.
MILLIPEDES are al most cyl i n
dri cal , wi t h two pai r s of s hort
legs per apparent body seg
ment, and s hort ant ennae. They
move sl owl y. These features di s
t i ngui sh t hem f r om swi ft-crawl
i ng centi pedes. Normal l y mi l l i
pedes ar e found onl y outdoors,
feedi ng on decayi ng vegetation,
but t hey may i nvade houses after
rai ns or to escape col d in fal l .
PI L LBUGS AND SOWBUGS
are l and- dwel l i ng crustaceans.
They can survi ve onl y i n damp
pl aces, as i n l eaf mol d or i n
basements. They f eed mai nl y on
decayi ng vegetat i on but al so
eat tender roots of pl ant s. Con
trol s: cl eanup of debri s i n whi ch
they thri ve; contact i nsecti ci des;
poi son bai ts i n heavy i nfesta
tions, as i n greenhouses.
SCORPI ONS are spi der rel a
tives found onl y i n warm cl i
mat es. Two speci es i n south
western U. S. are hi ghl y poi son
ous. Scorpi ons are noct urnal and
feed mai nl y on i nsects, whi ch
t hey catch i n t hei r pi ncers, t hen
paral yze or ki l l wi th t hei r st i ng.
El i mi nate debri s cl ose to bui l d
i ngs and use contact i nsecti ci des
that have res i dual acti on.
body 0. 2 i n.
2-3 i n. across l egs
DADDYLONGLEGS, or Harvest
men, resembl e spi ders but hove
a di st i nctl y s egmented abdomen
and sti nk gl ands. They l ack s i l k
gl ands. Thei r l ong st i l t l i ke l egs
are easi l y s hed when t he ani mal
i s touched. Daddyl ongl egs ar e
har ml ess, feedi ng mai nl y on
dead i nsects. They wi l l ki l l and
eat s mal l i nsects, however, and
may feed on frui ts or vegetabl es.
JUMPI NG SPI DERS of several
speci es often enter houses. They
do not make webs. I nstead they
hunt acti vel y for prey, search
i ng over cei l i ngs, wal l s, si l l s, and
foors. They can jump qui ckl y,
and frequent l y use thei r s i l k as
a payout l i ne to l et t hemsel ves
down from hi gh l evel s. These
l i nes may be a nui sance, but t he
s pi ders are h el pful .
BLCK WI DOW SPI DERS are
wi del y di st ri buted and rather
abundant . Thei r bi t es ar e pai n
f ul and may cause deat h. A doc
tor shoul d be cal l ed i mmedi atel y
to gi ve treat ment. Fortunatel y,
Bl ack Wi dows are shy and do
not bi te wi thout great provoca
t i on. They usual l y bui l d t hei r
webs i n or beneat h objects cl ose
Ia t he ground.
HOUSE SPI DER
0. 3 i n.
HOUSE SPI DERS bother house
wi ves becaus e of t hei r webs.
Thei r bi tes may be very poi son
ous. House Spi ders prey on the
House Fl y and ot her i nsects.
Thei r webs are usual l y bui l t i n
corners, where they col l ect dus t
as wel l as prey. Thes e and ot her
spi ders can be ki l l ed wi t h con
t act s prays or dusts ; res i dual i n
secti ci des prevent rei nfestat i on.
38
I NSE CTS TH B E 0 5 NG
Bi ti ng fi es feed on the bl ood of t hei r vi cti ms. They cut
or stab through the ski n wi th thei r knife-sharp pi erci ng
mouthparts, t hen l ap up bl ood that fows from t he
wound. They may al so be carri ers of di seases.
I nsects that sti ng usual l y do so as a defense when
di sturbed or annoyed. Sti ngs of bees or wasps may be
extremel y pai nful and al so dangerous. I n the Uni ted
States more deaths resul t from i nsect sti ngs than from
the bi tes of poi sonous s nakes. Medi cal knowl edge about
the efect of i nsect venoms and how to treat sti ngs i s
sti l l l i mited. Usual l y there i s swel l i ng and i n many cases
a t hrobbi ng ache that may l ast for several days . Sti ngs
vary i n severi ty wi th t he speci es of i nsect and al so wi th
the amount of poi son i nj ected . A sti ng i n an arm or a
l eg is l ess dangerous t han a sti ng i n the neck, where the
poi son may paral yze t he vocal cords or hamper breath
i ng. The efect of a sti ng al so vari es wi th i ndivi dual s
and wi t h t hei r physi ol ogi cal condi ti on . Beekeepers com
monl y bui l d up an i mmuni ty to sti ngs.
HORSE FLIES, active onl y i n the
dayt i me, are mai nl y pests of
l i vestock ( p. 56) but may al so
bi te peopl e. The bi te, onl y from
femal es, i s very pai nf ul . Femal es
l ay egg masses on l eaves, stems,
or rocks . . On hatc hi ng, l arvae
BLACK HORSE
0.8-1 .0 i n.
dr op to gr ound and compl ete
devel opment in damp soi l or i n
water. Maggots may overwi nter
i n mud, pupate i n earl y spri ng,
and emerge as adul ts a few
weeks l ater. Equal l y pesteri ng
are cl osel y rel at ed Deer Fl i es.
DEER FL
0. 4 i n.
BLACK FLI ES, al so cal l ed Buf
fal o Gnats, are most abundant
i n l at e spri ng and s ummer i n
wooded regi ons of Canada and
t he U. S. Thes e h u mp backed
bl oodsuckers (onl y t he femal es
bi t e, causi ng a persi st ent i rri ta
tion) crawl annoyi ngl y i nto the
eyes, ears, and nostri l s. Femal es
fasten t hei r egg masses Ia rocks
or vegetation i n streams, i n
whi ch t he l arvae devel op and
spi n cocoons. A l i fe cycl e i s com
pl eted i n about si x weeks. Re
pel l ents are efecti ve.
STABLE FLIES, l i ke Horse Fl i es,
are pri nci pal l y pests af l i vestock
but may at ti mes bother peopl e.
They occur most abundantl y i n
lowl ands and seashore areas,
becomi ng especi al l y aggressi ve
when the barometer is f al l i ng.
Both sexes bi t e. Thei r mout h
parts are sharp and sti l etto- l i ke
rather t han spongi ng, as i n
House Fl i es. I n cool areas, they
overwi nter as l arvae or pupae;
i n war mer cl i mates, acti ve the
year around. I n houses, can be
ki l l ed with sprays. El i mi nate
breedi ng pl aces ( manure or de
cayi ng organi c matter).
SAND FLY
SAND FLIES, or No-See- Ums,
are ti ny bl oodsucki ng f i es, so
s mal l they can go through or
di nory screens. They are most
ac t i ve i n eve n i ng or ear l y
morni ng hours, an d t hei r bi tes
are extremel y pai nful . Screens
and areas around l i ghts can be
sprayed or pai nted wi th an oi l
emul si on contact i nsect i ci de. Re
pel l ents wil l keep t he fies of i n
dayti me. Th e maggots devel op
i n moi st vegetat i on or i n pool s
(some speci es i n sol i water,
others i n fresh) .
House Fl y
abdomen
39
MOSQUITOES total more t han 2, 500 speci es. Many
are carri ers of di seases ( mal ari a, yel l ow fever, dengue,
and fl ari asi s) . Others, as annoyances, cause costl y
l osses of man- hours to outdoor workers or reduce the
pl easure of bei ng outdoors.
Adul t femal es l ay thei r eggs on or near t he s urface of
permanent pool s or i n moi st or temporari l y fooded
l ocati ons. Some speci es l ay thei r eggs si ngl y; others
deposi t t hem i n " raft s" of as many as several hundred.
I n most speci es t he femal e must have a meal of bl ood
before she can produce eggs. Mal es are nectar feed
er s and do not bi t e. The l arvae, al so cal l ed "wi ggl ers, "
swi m or rest j ust beneath the surface. They feed on
mi croscopi c organi c matter. Devel opment may be com
pl eted i n as short a t i me as fve days or may requi re
several mont hs; t he average is a week to 1 0 days. Then
t he l arvae transform i nto pupae, al so known as
"t umbl ers" because they conti nue to be acti ve. The
adul ts emerge i n from two days to two weeks or l onger,
dependi ng on the speci es and the water condi ti ons.
Adul ts l i ve for a few days t o several months, and most
speci es do not travel more than a mi l e. Some hi ber nate
in t he adul t stage.
Large-scal e mosqui to control consi sts of el i mi nat i ng
breedi ng areas by drai nage, spreadi ng oi l fl ms over
the surface of the water, usi ng i nsecti ci des to destroy
the l arvae or pupae, or sprayi ng with contact i nsec
ti ci des to ki l l the adul ts. Al l of these control s may al so
destroy habi tats or ki l l fsh, bi rds, or other val uabl e wi l d
l i fe and shoul d be undert aken onl y after careful study
by professi onal ly trai ned peopl e. Around houses, get
ri d of breedi ng pl aces, such as di tches, l ow spots where
water stands i n l awns, or contai ners . Screeni ng wi l l
keep adul ts out of houses.
40 BI TI NG OR STI NGI NG PESTS
eggs l ai d si ngl y
COMMON MALARI A MOS
QUITO and the Western Ma
l ari a Mosqui to, known to mi grate
25 mi l es i n spri ng fi ghts, trans
mi t mal ari a i n N. A.
SALT-MARSH MOSQUI TOES
breed i n l arge numbers al ong
At l ant i c and Gul f coasts. A re
l ated bl ack speci es occurs i n
South, others i n West.
SALT-MARSH MOSQUITO
eggs l aid si ngl y
YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUI TO,
found mai nl y in port areas i n
South, i s recogn i zed by s i l very
stri pes. Unl i ke most mosqui toes,
i t bi tes duri ng day.
HOUSE MOSQUITO, worl dwi de
i n di stri but i on, becomes acti ve
and bi tes at ni ght. Members of
t hi s genus carry t he vi rus caus
i ng encephal i t i s.
HOUSE MOSQUITO
BI TI NG OR STI NGI NG PESTS 4 l
BED BUGS feed on t he bl ood of bi rds and mammal s,
i ncl udi ng man. Both mal es and femal es bi te, and as a
rul e, are active onl y at ni ght . They pi erce t he s ki n and
i nj ect sal iva that l ater causes t he bite to i t ch or swel l ,
t he degree of i rri tati on varyi ng wi th th
e sensi ti vi ty of
the i ndivi dual . After becomi ng engorged, i n fve mi nutes
or l ess, the bugs crawl away to hi de. Bed Bugs breed
the year around. Each femal e l ays four to fve eggs a
day over a peri od of about two mont hs, gl ui ng t hem to
rugs, furni ture, or wal l s or l ayi ng t hem in cracks or
crevi ces. The nymphs resembl e the adul ts but are pal e.
After feedi ng and sheddi ng (fve mol t s) , t hey become
adul ts, l i vi ng as l ong as a year. Bed Bugs are trans
ported i n beddi ng, furni ture, or cl othi ng. Heavy i nfes
tati ons can be detected by the odorous secreti ons given
of by the bugs. Rel ated speci es such as t he Bat Bug,
Chi mney-swift Bug

and Swal l ow Bug may al so become


pests i n houses at t i mes. To el i mi nate, spray foor s, fur
niture, and wal l s wi th a resi dual contact i nsecti ci de i n
oi l or water emul si on. Fumi gati on, necessary i f i nfesta
ti ons are spreadi ng from chi mneys or s i mi l ar l ocati ons,
shoul d be done by a professi onal .
42 BI TI NG OR STI NGI NG PESTS
LI CE are wi ngl ess i nsects parasi ti c on a vari ety of h ost
ani mal s. Those i nfesti ng pets, poul try, and l i vestock are
descri bed on pages 52-53. Three types may occur on
humans . The Head louse confnes i tsel f al most excl u
si vel y to t he hai r of t he head, t o whi ch it gl ues i t s eggs or
ni ts. The Body louse, s i mi l ar t o t he Head louse i n
appearance, hi des i n cl othi ng when not feedi ng. I t l ays
its eggs i n t he cl othes, especi al l y i n t he seams. The Crab
louse, nearl y as broad as it is l ong, l i ves among t he
coarse hai rs of t he body. The stout, curved cl aws on i ts
frst pai r of l egs do not form a l ocki ng devi ce, as do
those of t he Head louse and t he Body louse. Al l t hree
types are bl oodsuckers t hat may become abundant i n
unsani t ary condi t i ons. Thei r bi te i s not fel t i mmedi atel y
but l ater becomes an i tchy swel l i ng. li ce are carri ers
of typhus fever and other di seases, trans mitted t hrough
t hei r bi tes. Young l i ce resembl e t he adul ts both i n
appearance an d habits. Compl ete devel opment, from
egg to mat ure adul t, takes about a mont h . li ce can be
ki l l ed by dusti ng t he cl othi ng and body wi th a contact
i nsecti ci de, such as DDT. Cl othi ng can al so be washed
i n an i nsecti ci de sol uti on. livi ng quarters shoul d be
fumi gated or subj ected to a heat of 1 60 degrees F. ,
steam or dry, for si x hour s or l onger to destroy eggs .
HEAD LOUSE BODY LOUSE CRAB LOUSE
ASSASSI N BUGS al so go by the name of Conenoses
because thei r head and mouthparts form a conel i ke
beak. These i nsects bi t e qui ckl y when di sturbed. They
shoul d be brushed of swiftly but gently, and no attempt
shoul d be made to pi ck t hem up. They are bl oodsuckers,
t hrust i ng t hei r beaks forward to pi erce the ski n of t hei r
vi cti m. The bi t e of some s peci es is pai n l ess; t he bite of
others is extremel y pai nful , t he efects of t he venom
often l asti ng for mont hs. Some ar e carri ers of di seases,
such as t he very dangerous Chagas' di sease of the
Ameri can tropi cs. Some l ive i n t he nests of bats, rats,
and other mammal s. Where conenoses are abundant,
s prayi ng around doorways and l i ghts with a resi dual
contact i nsecti ci de wi l l hel p t o control t hem.
MASKE D HUNTERS p r ey on
Bed Bugs an d ather i nsects, from
wh i c h t h ey s u c k bl ood. T h e
nymphs are covered wi th a
sti cky secret i on to whi ch l i nt and
other camoufagi ng debri s ad
heres to " mas k" t hem. Al so
known as Ki ssi ng Bugs, the adul t s
feed on war mbl ooded ani mal s
and may bi te man. Occurs i n
eastern and mi dwestern U. S.
BLOODSUCKI NG CONENOSES,
of southern and southwestern
Un ited States and Mexi co, are
known i n some areas as Mexi can
Bed Bugs. At ti mes they become
l ocal l y abundant and may enter
houses. They feed at ni ght. Out
doors the eggs are l ai d on
pl ants; i ndoors, i n dark, dusty
cracks or corners. The nymph
st age may l ast a year or l ong .
BLOODSUCKING
CONENOSE
0.5-1 .0 i n.
CHI GGERS, al so cal l ed Ji ggers or Red Bugs, are par
asi ti c mi tes, more cl osely rel ated to t i cks and spi ders
t han to i nsects. Some of t he many speci es of mi tes are
pests of poul try, pet s, and l ivestock ( p. 54) . The t i ny
reddi s h adul t chi ggers, j ust vi si bl e to t he naked eye,
may be seen scurryi ng about in l i tter or in soi l . The
s mal l er l arval st age t hat attacks man i s t he frst of two
stages before the mi tes become adul t s. The l arvae wai t
on grass, l eaves, or i n l itter for a vi ct i m. They usual l y
crawl unt i l t hey reach a bel t l i ne, an ar mpi t, or s i mi l ar
obstructi on, and t here stop t o feed by i nserti ng t hei r
mout hparts i nto t he s ki n t o draw out fui ds. When ful l ,
t hey drop of. As t hey feed, t hey rel ease i nto t he bi te
a di gesti ve fui d contai ni ng a toxi n t hat l i quefes the
cel l s and ti ssues and l ater causes swel l i ng and i nt ense
i tchi ng. Dust i ng t he cl othi ng, parti cul arl y t he cufs,
sl eeves, and neckl i ne areas, wi th sul fur hel ps to di s
cour age chi ggers, as do i nsect repel l ent s. Or , before
goi ng i nto grassy or brushy areas, cover your ar ms and
l egs wi th a soapy l at her and al l ow i t t o dry. Treat
l awns i nfested wi th chi ggers wi th a resi dual contact
i nsecti ci de, and el i mi nate such breedi ng spots as
weedy patches or pl ant debri s. The chi gger bi tes can
onl y be soot hed wi th oi nt ment s.
ITCH MITES s pend t hei r ent i re
l i fe on t hei r host. Femal es bur
row i nto t he s ki n, somet i mes
maki ng a t unnel an i nch l ong,
i n whi ch they l ay as many as
t wo dozen eggs. Bot h t he t unnel
i ng and t he feedi ng cause t he
i tchi ng, or scabi es, and the bi te
spot commonl y becomes i nfected.
Oi nt ments prescribed by a doc
tor wi l l get rid of the mi tes and
rel i eve t he i tchi ng. Cl othi ng and
beddi ng shoul d be steri l i zed.
46
TICKS of several speci es are bl oodsucki ng pests of man
and hi s pets and l i vestock ( p. 48) . They are more cl osely
rel ated to spi ders t han to i nsects. Some t i cks transmi t
di seases, t he most dangerous of whi ch is spotted fever .
Bi tes of some t i cks cause paral ysi s. When a t i ck i s
attached, do not t ry to pul l i t of, as t he head and
mout hparts usual l y break of and are l eft i n t he wound.
Al cohol or ammoni a appl i ed t o a ti ck' s posteri or wi l l
cause most t i cks to rel ease. Wai t for 1 5-20 mi n utes
before tryi ng to remove t i ck. Engorged femal es drop
from t hei r host and l ay t hei r eggs on t he ground or i n
debri s. The l arvae of most speci es feed on s mal l ani mal s,
t hen become dormant unti l t he fol l owi ng spr i ng. They
feed agai n and in about two months become adul ts,
whi ch i n temperate cl i mates do not feed unt i l the next
spri ng. I t i s at thi s stage that ti cks feed al so on man.
I nsect repel l ents wi l l hel p t o keep t i cks of outdoors .
After an out i ng i n a ti ck-i nfested area, cl othi ng shoul d
be removed and washed. lawns or gar dens can be
sprayed wi th a contact i nsecti ci de.
MOUNTAI N WOOD TICK DOG TI CK
STI NGI NG CATERPI LLARS have hol l ow hai r s ( set ae)
connected at t hei r base to cel l s t hat secrete a poi son .
They may be in tufts or scattered over t he body. When
one of t hes e s pi nel i ke hai rs contacts t he ski n, t he poi son
goes i nto t he wound and causes ei t her an i tchi ng or a
pai nful swel l i ng. Lear n to recogni ze cat erpi l l ars t hat
have sti ngi ng hai rs and avoi d touchi ng t hem.
WASPS AND BEES have a sti nger at t he end of t hei r
abdomen. I t i s connected t o a poi son gl and. These i n
sects do not st i ng un l ess mol ested and ar e most t rou bl e
some when t hey nest i n pl aces where di st urbi ng t hem
i s unavoi dabl e. The occasi onal wasp or bee t hat gets
i ndoors can be l et out or ki l l ed . Sprayi ng t he nest wi th
a resi dual contact i nsect i ci de, ei t her as a dust or i n an
oi l or water emul si on, wi l l get ri d of t hose few t hat
become pr obl ems outdoors . I t i s best t o spray at ni ght,
when the nest i s ful l y occupi ed and t he i nsects are not
acti ve. Sti ngs can be soothed wi th i ce packs or wi th a
bi carbonate-of-soda paste. If t he efects of a sti ng ar e
severe, a doctor shoul d be consul ted promptl y.
PE STS 0 F PETS, POU LT RY,
AND LI VESTOCK
I nsect pests of pets and domesti c ani mal s may be car
ri ers of deadly di seases or of parasi tes t hat weaken
t he ani mal s. Some of t he di seases may be transmi tted
to man. Even pests that onl y bi te or cause i tchi ng may
reduce an ani mal ' s productiveness. Al so, the ani mal ' s
resi stance t o di seases may be l owered .
TICKS are more cl osel y rel ated to spi ders t han to i n
sects. I n addi ti on to bei ng an noyances or in extreme
i nfestati ons causi ng anemi a, t hese bl oodsuckers carry
such di seases as spotted fever and tul aremi a. The com
pl ex l ife cycl e of ti cks may requi re three years or
l onger. Femal es, after a bl ood meal , l ay as many as
6, 000 eggs, whi ch hatch i nto ti ny si x-l egged l arvae, or
seed ti cks. Nymphs feed on mi ce or other s mal l ani mal s,
and i n most speci es onl y the adul ts attack such l arge
ani mal s as dogs, cat s, horses, cattl e, or man. Other
s peci es are di scussed on p. 46.
AMERICAN DOG TI CK
l seed ti c k
0. 1 i n .
AMERICAN DOG TI CK, most
common wood t i ck east of t he
Mi ssi ssi ppi , i s especi al l y abun
dant i n moi s t br us hl ands . Adul ts
are acti ve from earl y spri ng
t hrough l at e s ummer.
CATTLE TICKS of southern U. S. ,
Cen t r a l a n d Sou t h Ame r i c a,
Afri ca, an d parts of Europe
trans mi t ti ck fever (Texas fever
or colli e fever). The di sease,
spread onl y by l i c ks, may be
fatal in a hi gh percentage of
cases. Ti ny one-cel l ed ani mal s
passed i nfo t he host' s bl ood
stream by t he t i ck destroy red
bl ood corpuscl es. Sheep, horses,
mul es, goals, deer, and other
l arge ani mal s are al so suscep
t i bl e. Calli e li cks wi nter i n pas
lures i n the egg stage or as seed
t i c ks, or t hey may spend the
wi nt er as nymphs or adul ts on
host ani mal s. A rotati on use of
pasture may starve seed li cks,
t hough t hey can l i ve for months
wi thout feedi ng. Calli e i n t i ck
. i nfested areas are quarant i ned,
and are di pped ( usual l y forced
to swim t hrough vats of i nsecti
ci de sol uti on) to ki l l ti cks.
EAR TI CKS, of s ou t h wes t er n
U. S. , ar e par as i t es onl y a s
nymphs, whi ch crawl i nto t he
outer ear of sheep, horses,
colli e, or other ani mal s to gorge
on bl ood. When f ul l , they drop
of and shed to become adul ts,
whi ch do not feed. Heavy i nfes
tations may cause deafness. Ear
Ti cks are ki l l ed wi t h i nsecti ci des
appl i ed to t he ear or head.
FOWL TICKS feed onl y at ni ght,
aflac hi ng to t he bare s ki n under
wi ngs or around head. Duri ng
t he day they hi de i n cracks or
crevi ces near roost. Worl dwi de
i n di stri buti on i n warm, dry
c l i mates, they trans mi t poultry
di seases. Roosts are sprayed wi th
a res i dual contact i nsecti ci de.
femal e l ayi ng eggs
CAT FLEAS and Dog Fl eas are
s i mi l ar i n appearance and hab
i ts. Nei t her i s restri cted to the
ani mal for whi ch i t i s named,
and bot h wi l l bi te h umans.
HUMAN FLEAS are pest s of man
but al so occur on rats, dogs,
cats, and other ani mal s. li ke t he
Ori ental Rat Fl ea, t hey may be
carriers of buboni c pl ague.
FLEAS are wi ngl ess, bl oodsucki ng parasi tes of pets,
l i vestock, and man. A fea' s body i s compressed or fat
tened from si de to si de, enabl i ng the i nsect to move
with ease between the hai rs on an ani mal ' s body. I ts
sti f hai rs and spi nes (setae) proj ect backward. When
of i t s host, a fea travel s r api dl y by j umpi ng.
An adul t femal e fea l ays smal l , whi ti sh eggs on her
host' s body or i n t he host' s den or nest. The eggs drop
from t he hai r as the ani mal moves about or s hakes
i tsel f and are commonl y abundant where the ani mal
sl eeps. I n about two weeks t he eggs hatch i nto ti ny,
eyel ess, wor ml i ke l arvae that feed on the droppi ngs of
adul t feas or other organi c matter i n an ani mal ' s bed
di ng, i n dust or l i nt, or i n carpeti ng. Dependi ng on t he
s peci es, weather, and avai l abi l i ty of food, t he l arvae
compl ete thei r growth i n a few days to si x mont hs or
l onger. When ful l grown, each spi ns a si l ken cocoon i n
whi ch it pupates for a few days t o several mont hs before
50 PETS AND LI VESTOCK
STICKTIGHT FLEAS, of southern
U. S. , ore fat-bodi ed and cl i ng
l i ke ti cks. They cl uster on combs
or bore s ki n of poul try, al so on
dogs, cots, and man.
CHIGOES ore tropi cal fl eas, not
rel ated to chi ggers ( p. 45) , found
rarel y i n southern U. S. Femal es
burrow under t he s ki n to l oy
t hei r eggs.
emergi ng as an adul t . Adul ts can l i ve for l ong peri ods
wi thout food, especi al ly i n col d weat her. I n warm
weat her feas may breed outdoors i n dry pl aces.
Fl eas have pi erci ng- sucki ng mout hparts. The pai nful
bi tes may become swol l en or i nfamed. Some peopl e or
ani mal s are more sensi ti ve t o t he bi t es t han ot hers ar e.
Before i t begi ns t o feed, a fea usual ly s pits out a s pot
of partl y di gested bl ood near t he bi t e. I t may al so l eave
wastes. These, wi th whatever di sease organi s ms t hey
contai n, may spread i nto the bi te.
Control of feas consi sts of getti ng the adul ts of t he
i nfested ani mal by bathi ng i t or dust i ng i t wi t h a con
t act i nsecti ci de. Equal l y i mportant, t he eggs , l arvae,
and pupae must be destroyed and t he pl aces where
t hey devel op cl eaned and treated wi th a resi dual con
t act i nsecti ci de. Cat s, because t hey l i ck t hemsel ves
regul arl y, are especi al l y s uscepti bl e to i nsecti ci de poi
soni ng. Read l abel s. Consul t a veter i nar i an if i n doubt .
PETS AND li VESTOCK 5 1
LI CE, of whi ch there are several t housand s peci es, are
di vi ded i nto two groups-bi ti ng or chewi ng l i ce, pri n
ci pal l y pests of poul try and ot her bi rds; and sucki ng
l i ce, parasites on mammal s. Sucki ng l i ce feed onl y on
bl ood, hence may be carri ers of di sease. Bot h ki nds are
wi ngl ess and have poorl y devel oped or no eyes. A
l ouse' s body is fat, and its cl aws are devel oped for
cl i ngi ng. At hatch i ng, young l i ce l ook l i ke the adul ts,
but are s mal l er. Before becomi ng adul ts, t hey mol t
several t i mes, t he number varyi ng wi th t he speci es.
Most l i ce are confned to a si ngl e or to cl osel y rel ated
host speci es. Some occur onl y on a parti cul ar body
area. Li ce move to a new ani mal if the host di es, if
they become too numerous, or by contact. Those that
i nfest humans are sucki ng l i ce ( p. 43) .
POULTRY LICE feed by chewi ng
on feathers or dri ed ski n, caus
i n g d i s c o mfor t or i r r i t at i on
mostl y as a resu l t of t hei r crawl
ing. Louse- i nfested poul try are
poor egg l ayers and are sus
cepti bl e to di seases. Thei r wi ngs
droop, and they become drowsy.
You n g bi r ds may d i e. Th e
C h i c k e n Head L ou s e oc c u r s
mai nl y on t h e head and neck
areas, Ch i cken Body Li ce on
body feat hers. The l i ce are
spread from one bi rd t o another
52 PETS AND LI VESTOCK
ei t her by di rect cont act or i n
heavy i nfestat i ons by swar mi ng
over t he roast. Femal e l i ce at
tach eggs ( n i ts) to down feath
ers wi th a gl uey secreti on. The
eggs hatch i n about 10 days,
and t he young become adul ts
about 10 days l ater. Poul try l i ce
can be ki l l ed by dust i ng or
sprayi ng with a contact i nsecti
ci de whi l e bi rds are on roost.
Birds can be treated i ndi vi dual l y
by di ppi ng i n an i nsecti ci de so
l ut i on or by dust i ng.
SHEEP
BITING
LOUSE
SHEEP-BITING LICE i nfest both
sheep and goats. I nfested ani
mal s scratch and rub t hemsel ves,
often causi ng sores. The wool on
sheep becomes t angl ed. Contact
i nsecti ci des appl i ed as wettabl e
powders or di ps ore t he best
means of control .
HORSE-BITING LICE chew on
ski n, dr i ed excreti ons, or hai r,
causi ng an ani mal great di scom
fort. Li ce are most commonl y
spread by contact wi t h ot her i n
fested ani mal s. They ar e us ual l y
most abundant i n wi nter, when
an ani mal ' s hai r i s t hi ckest.
Treat ment in the fal l therefore
i s both a cure and a preventi ve.
An i mal s shoul d be i nspected
regul arl y in wi nt er mont hs and
t r eat ed a g a i n i f n ec es s ary.
Dusts, sprays, or di ps are efec
ti ve, the best method dependi ng
on t he number of ani mal s t o be
treated. A rel ated speci es occurs
on catt l e. Check wi th veteri nar
i an about best treatment.
HOG LI CE, rel ated to sucki ng
l i ce that i nfest cattl e, commonl y
col l ect about t he ears or i n fol ds
of ski n. They never l eave t hei r
host except t o crawl onto anot her
hog. Control wi t h res i dual con
tact i nsecti ci des appl i ed as wet
tabl e powders or as di ps.
SHORT- NOSE D CATTLE L I CE
are bl oodsuckers, an d heavi l y
i nfested ani mal s may be weak
ened from l oss of bl ood. Dai ry
cattl e do not produce as much
mi l k; beef cattl e do not put on
as much wei ght. Cont rol s are
the same as far Horse-bi t i ng
Li ce, but i nsecti ci des that may
contami nate mi l k can not be used
near dai ry cat t l e. Burl ap bags
treated wi th an i nsect i ci de may
be wrapped around a cabl e and
stretched between two posts t o
gi ve cattl e a pl ace to rub t hem
sel ves and at t he same t i me gi ve
t hemsel ves a treat ment. Check
wi t h a veteri nari an . A cl osel y
rel ated speci es i nfests horses.
IolT-NOSED
CATTLE LOUSE
PETS AND LI VESTOCK 53
MI TES, i ncl udi ng ti cks, are more cl osel y rel ated to
spi ders t han to i nsects . Many speci es are barel y vi si bl e
t o t he naked eye. Some mi tes are free- l i vi ng, others
are pests of pl ants, and some are parasi tes of ani mal s,
i ncl udi ng man ( p. 45) . I tch mi tes i nsert t hei r pi erci ng
mout hparts i nto t he s ki n t o draw out bl ood or l ymph. As
the mi tes mul ti pl y, the feedi ng areas become l arger.
Scabs form, and hai r or feat hers drop out. As t hey
feed, mi tes al so secrete a poi son t hat causes an i nt ense
itchi ng. I n most speci es t he femal es burrow i nto t he
ski n, maki ng a t unnel up to an i nch l ong, i n whi ch they
J ay thei r eggs and t hen di e. The nymphs s hed and
become adul ts i n about two weeks. Most mi tes never
l eave t hei r host except to crawl onto anot her ani mal .
I nfested ani mal s mus t be quarant i ned unt i l cured, and
t hei r l i vi ng quarters must be t horough l y di si nfected, as
mi tes are hi ghl y contagi ous and di fcul t to control . I t
i s best to consul t a veteri nari an.
ITCH MITES cause an i nfamed,
scabby ski n ( mange) an dags,
horses, hogs, cattl e, and other
ani mal s. The hai r drops out as
an ani mal scratches or rubs i tsel f
for rel i ef from the i tch i ng. I n
festati ons usual l y start where t he
ski n i s tender and hai r i s t hi n.
Scab Mi t es cause so-coi l ed
"wet mange" ( psoroptic scabi es)
of s heep, cattl e, horses, and
ot her ani mal s. They f eed on t he
surface, not burrowi ng under t he
ski n as I t ch Mi t es do.
Ear Mange Mi tes l i ve i nsi de
the ears of dogs, cat s, and wi l d
ani mal s, feedi ng on t he sal t ski n
near the eardrum. The i rri tati on
causes t he ani mal to run about
wi l dl y, s haki ng i ts head. Con
trol l ed by swabbi ng t he ears wi t h
sweet oi l ar gl yceri n.
CHICKEN MITE
O.Ql i n.
CHICKEN MITES feed on t he
bl ood of chi ckens or ot her poul
t r y at n i ght , h i di ng about t he
roost duri ng t he day. I nfested
birds become l i stl ess and are
poor egg l ayers. Some fowl , par
ti cul arl y the young, are ki l l ed.
Chi cken Mi tes ore most active
i n spri ng t hrough s ummer. Fe
mal e mi tes l ay thei r eggs i n
debri s near t he roost; nymphs
reach t he adul t st age i n about
1 0 days. Chi cken Mi t es ore con
trol l ed by treat i ng t he poul try
house rather t hen the bi rds.
Cl ean i t thorough ly, then dusl ,
spray, or poi nt wi t h a resi dual
contact i nsecti ci de.
FOLLICLE MITES cause mange
of cot s, dogs, hogs, cattl e, and
other ani mal s. The l ong, worm
l i ke mi tes burrow deep i nto hai r
fol l i cl es or i nto oi l gl ands, com
monl y around t he eyes. Red, pus
fl l ed pi mpl es or nodul es form,
often becomi ng i nfected. To pre
vent spread of mites i n l i ve
stock, i n fected an i mal s ore fat
tened for mar ket and ki l l ed.
Pens ore di si nfected t horoughl y.
Red mange, a seri ous di sease of
dogs, i s caused by a fol l i cl e
mi te. Consul t Q veteri nari an.
SCALY-LEG MI TES st ay on t he
body of t hei r host, l i ke t i cks or
i tch mi tes, tunnel i ng under t he
scal es of t he l egs or i nto t he
ski n of t he comb. The scal es
st and u p, and seepi ng scabs
form. I n ti me t he i nfected bi rd
becomes unabl e to wal k. The
t i ny mi tes con be ki l l ed by soak
i ng the host' s l egs i n soapy water
to l oosen t he scal es, t hen greas
i ng t hem wi th oi l contai ni ng 1 5
percent sul fur. The Depl umi ng
Mi te, a rel ated and smal l er spe
ci es, burrows i nto the ski n at the
bose of t he toi l feathers. The
i nfected bi rd pul l s out i ts t oi l
feathers. Use a sul f ur di p.
PETS AND LI VESTOCK 55
FLI ES of some speci es bi te pai nful l y i n getti ng t hei r
meal of bl ood. Those that do not bi t e worry or annoy
ani mal s by getti ng i nto t hei r eyes or crawl i ng over t hei r
body. Some fi es transmi t di seases. Many speci es, i n
cl udi ng mosqui toes, torment bot h man and h i s ani mal s
( pp. 32, 39, 40) .
HORSE FLIES bi te vi ci ousl y and
may al sa trans mi t s uc h di seases
as ant hrax and t ul aremi a. There
are more t han 1 00 speci es i n the
u. s. (p. 38).
FACE FLI ES l ook l i ke House Fl i es
but are s l i ghtl y l arger. They feed
on mucous secret i ons around the
eyes and nostri l s of l ivestock. I n
s ome areas t hey are pests i n
houses. They J ay t hei r eggs i n
fresh manure, i n whi ch t he mag
got s devel op and t hen pupote
i n the soil nearby. Adul t s com
monl y hi bernate i n the wal l s of
bui l di ngs . There i s no compl et el y
efecti ve control for these pests,
wh i c h h ave s pr ead wi de l y
t hroughout t h e U. S. from Canada
si nce t he earl y 1 950' s.
Face Fl i es h i ber
n a t i n g i n wa l l
56 PETS AND LI VESTOCK
HORSE BOT FLIES gl ue t hei r
eggs Ia t he hai r af t he h.i nd l egs
ar bel l y of horses or mul es, rare
l y to s mal l er ani mal s. Each fe
mal e may J ay 500 or more eggs,
whi ch hatch i n about two weeks,
but onl y i f t hei r temperature
ri ses to 1 00 degrees F. or hi gh
er . Thi s wi l l happen i f the ani
mal touches t hem wi t h i t s langue.
Newl y hatched l arvae t unnel i m
medi atel y i nto membranes af t he
hast 's mout h. I n about a mont h
they mal t and are swal l owed.
They feed on mucous secret i ons
from t he i rri tated stomach l i n
i ng I a whi ch t hey fasten t hem
sel ves. I n about 1 0 mont hs the
maggots are ful l grown and are
di scharged i n wastes. They pu
pate i n t he soi l and emerge as
adul ts i n about t hree weeks. The
Throat Bot Fl y J ays i ts eggs an
hai rs of the neck. The maggots
emerge wi t hout speci al sti mul a
ti on. They crawl to t he mout h,
oft en attachi ng Ia t he pharynx
and maki ng i t di fcul t for ani
mal t o swal l ow. Later t hey enter
di gesti ve tract. Eggs of Nose Bot
Fl y are laid near the l i ps and
wi l l hat ch onl y i f kept moi st. Li p
and t hroat guards hel p prevent
bat fy i nfestat i ons. Maggots i n
di gesti ve tract can be ki l l ed wi th
f umi gant s or wi t h systemi c i nsec
ti ci des gi ven by a veteri nari an.
SHEEP BOT FLIES occur wher
ever sheep are rai sed and moy
al so i nfest goats or deer. Adul t
femal e f i es dart rapi dl y about
! he sheep, somet i mes hoveri ng
near t he nostri l s. Pestered sheep
shake ! hei r heads, stamp t hei r
feel, or run to escape. The fe
mal e deposi ts al ready hatched
l arvae, or maggots (not eggs),
near ! he sheep's nostri l s. She
l ays onl y a few al a l i me but
several hundred i n her l i feti me.
Maggots crawl i nfo outer nasal
passages, where t hey feed on
mucus. Aller about two weeks
!hey shed, becomi ng a si ze
l arger, and move deeper i nfo
n as al pas s ag e s . I r r i t at i on af
membranes by !he crawl i ng of
spi ny-bodi ed maggots causes a
greater fow of mucus, whi ch
hi nders breat hi ng and may cause
death i n ol der ar weakened ani
mal s . Ful l - grown maggots ( 1 i n.)
crawl out of nasal passage and
bu r r ow i n f o s oi l t o p u pat e,
emergi ng as adul t s i n about a
mont h. I n col d cl i mates t he s mal l
l arvae become dor mant i n outer
nasal passages i n wi nter.
Control of Sheep Bot Fl i es i s
di fcul t, especi al l y si nce i f i s
harmful Ia ki l l t he grubs i n t he
nasal passages, where t hei r de
cay wi l l cause an abscess. Smal l
gr ubs can be ki l l ed i n t he outer
passages by i rri gat i on wi th a
J percenl- lysol sol ut i on. Pi ne
far appl i ed to !he s heep's snout
di scourages femal e I i es from
deposi t i ng maggots.
CATTLE
CAnLE GRUBS, or Ox Warbl es,
are maggots of bot f i es. I nfes
tati ons l ower mi l k producti on of
dai ry cattl e. The maggots cause
a l oss of meat i n beef cattl e, be
cause the fesh must be tri mmed
around t he grubs. Grub hol es
al so reduce val ue of h i des for
l eather. The Common Cattle Grub
(al so cal l ed Heel Fl y) occurs
t hroughout t he U. S. , t he North
ern Cattl e Grub i n Canada and
al l but southernmost U. S. Femal e
Northern Cattl e Grubs approach
noi si l y and l ay eggs, one at a
t i me, on the hai r of bel l y or l egs.
The cattl e often stampede to es
cape bomber- l i ke attacks, though
the f i es nei t her bi te nor sti ng.
The femal e Common Cattl e Grub,
i n contrast, approaches vi ct i ms
steal t hi l y, l andi ng on ground
n ear by a n d bac k i n g up u n
noti ced to l ay her eggs o n t he
58 PETS AND LI VESTOCK
heel , or i f t he ani mal i s l yi ng
down, on hai r near t he ground.
She l ays many eggs at one vi si t
to her vi ct i m.
On hatchi ng, t he maggots
(wol ves) of both burr<w i o lto t he
ski n and, over mont hs, mi grate
t h r ou gh t h e t i s s u e s t o t h e
ani mal ' s back, where knotl i ke
warbl es for m. The maggots de
vel op i n these cysts duri ng t he
wi nter. The swel l i ngs are frst
noti ceabl e i n l ate fal l or earl y
wi nter, becomi ng l arge and pus
fl l ed by spri ng. The spi ny mag
gots feed on mucus that forms i n
t he cysts, and they breathe
through a s mal l hol e cut i n the
hi de. I n spri ng t he maggots
squeeze out t hrough t he hol e and
drop t o t he grou nd, where they
pupate, emergi ng as adul ts i n
two weeks to two mont hs.
Control i s most efecti ve i f al l
NORTHERN
CAnLE GRUB
cattle owners in an area parti c
i pate i n an eradi cati on pro
gram, as adul t grubs can travel
several mi l es to fnd vi ct i ms and
start re i n fest at i ans . For mer l y,
catt l e grubs coul d be control l ed
onl y i n t he warbl e stage, after
they had done t hei r damage.
Thi s was a safeguard agai nst an
i ncreased i nfestati on t he next
year , howev e r . A 5 per c en t
rotenone dust, sprayed or ap
pl i ed by hand, was used to ki l l
the maggots. The bes t t i me for
these appl i cat i ons varies with the
l ocal i ty and con be l earned by
consul t i ng a l ocal agri cul tural
agent . Better control s are pos
si bl e today wi t h systemi c i nsec
ti ci des gi ven oral l y or appl i ed
to t he s ki n. They ki l l the maggots
as soon as t hey begi n to feed
on t hei r vi ct i m and before t hey
can do damage.
HORN FLI S are common, per
si st ent s ummert i me pest s of cat
tl e. Horn Fl y bites are pai nf ul ,
as t he fy sucks out i ts meal of
bl ood. Each cow may harbor
several thousand f i es, whi ch
st ay wi t h t he cow constantl y and
torment i t. Tor mented beef cattl e
l ose val uabl e market wei ght;
dai ry catt l e gi ve l ess mi l k.
Hor n Fl i es l ay reddi s h- brawn
eggs i n fresh manure, on whi ch
maggots f eed. They pupate i n
or beneath t he dung, a l i fe cycl e
requi r i ng about 10 days i n warm
months.
I n hot weather t he Horn Fl i es
usual l y rest on an ani mal ' s bel l y
or on i ts s haded si de. I n cool er
weat her t he f i es ri de on i ts back
or somet i mes on i ts horns. Horn
Fl i es can be ki l l ed by sprayi ng,
dust i ng, or di ppi ng cattl e wi t h
a resi dual contact i nsecti ci de.
Consul t a veteri nari an or l ocal
agri cul t ural agent before appl y
ing any i nsecti ci de. Avoi d espe
ci al l y t he use of chl or i nated hy
drocarbons around dai ry cattl e,
as mi l k may be contami nated.
PETS AND li VESTOCK 59
SCREW-WORMS occur in worm
cl i mates, from southern Un ited
States southward through the
tropi cs. They i nfest cattl e, swi ne,
sheep, goats, and deer. Femal es
l ay cl usters of eggs i n fresh
wounds-such as the bi tes of
the Horn Fly or s cratches from
thorns or wi re-or i n the navel
of newborn ani mal s. The mag
gots eat i nto t he fesh, creati ng
a foul -smel l i ng l arger wound
that attracts Screw-worms or
bl ow f i es to l ay more eggs in
the rolli ng fesh. If untreated,
i nfested ani mal s wil l die. Ful l
grown maggots, wi th ri dges of
s pi nes ci rcl i ng t he body seg
ments, drop to ground to pupate,
compl et i ng a l i fe cycl e i n about
30 days i n warm weather. Con
trol of these f i es has been suc
cessful in Fl ori da ond on Cura
ao, W. l . , by rel ease of mi l l i ons
of steri l i zed mal es (p. 23). I n
other areas ani mal s are treated
with an oi nt ment, such as EQ
355, to ki l l maggots and al low
wound to heal .
60
PETS AND LI VESTOCK
BLOODSUCKI NG FLIES of a
number of speci es pester l ive
stock. I ncl uded are the Bl ack
Bl ow Fl y and t he Secondary
Screw-wor m, whi ch deposi t mag
got s i n open wounds. I nfesta
t i o n s ma y be co me i n f ec t ed.
Sprays are efecti ve bu t u s e onl y
i f prescri bed by veteri nari an.
SHEEP KEDS are wi ngl ess f i es
commonl y t hought to be t i cks.
Adul ts pi erce t he s ki n of t hei r
host and suck bl ood, i rri tat i ng
t he ani mal so that i t rubs, bi tes,
or scratches itsel f and rui ns the
wool . Sheep Keds spend t hei r
ent i re l i fe on t hei r host . Fe
mal es gi ve bi rth to f ul l y devel
oped maggots, gl ui ng them to
hai r. Wi th i n a few hours the l ar
va forms a reddi sh pupari um.
Adul ts emerge i n about t hree
weeks. Sheep Keds are found
most abundantl y on t he neck or
bel l y. I n fested sheep are sprayed,
di pped, or dusted with resi dual
contact i nsecti ci des, usual l y after
they have been s heared.
I NS E CT PE STS OF
VE G B L
No vegetabl e crop i s enti rel y safe from i ns ect pests .
Some pest speci es feed on onl y one ki nd of pl ant ;
others are gener al feeders. Some s uck t he j ui ces from
pl ants; others chew on t he roots, l eaves, stems, fowers,
buds, or frui t. Often a crop i s attacked by several pest
speci es at the same ti me, and i n some cases more t han
one stage i n t he l ife cycl e of an i nsect pest i s damagi ng
t o t he s ame crop.
Some i nsect pests of vegetabl e crops can be con
trol l ed wi thout t he use of chemi cal s. Crops can be ro
tated so t hat pests dependi ng on only one pl ant speci es
do not bui l d up a l arge popul ati on . Weeds, crop stal ks,
and other debri s i n whi ch pests may breed or hi bernat e
can be pl owed under . Di ski ng or s hal l ow pl owi ng i n
wi nter exposes hi bernat i ng stages t o freezi ng tempera
tures. Some pest s can be pi cked of by hand, or young
pl ants c an be covered unti l l arge enough t o wi thstand
attacks. I n many cases crop pl ant i ng can be t i med to
mi ss heavy i nfestati ons. Despi te t hese precauti ons,
chemi cal control s are often t he onl y way now avai l abl e
t o protect a crop. Chemi cal s must be us ed wi t h great
care, for t hey are dangerous to t he person who appl i es
t hem and al so may be absorbed by t he vegetabl e or
remai n as a poi sonous resi due.
MOLE CRICKETS, abundant i n
warm cl i mates, use t hei r stout
paddl el i ke front l egs for bur
rowi ng. They di sturb the roots
of youn g pl ants and also feed
on t hem. Mol e Cri ckets can be
ki l l ed wi th contact i nsecti ci des
or poi son bai ts appl i ed to the
soi l before pl ant i ng.
FLEA BEETLE
STRIPED FLEA
BEETLE 0. 1 i n.
FLEA BEETLES chew s mal l , round hol es i n l eaves, gi vi ng
a pl ant t he appearance of bei ng peppered wi th shot .
Grubs ( l arvae) of some speci es feed on l eaves or stems,
others on t he roots . The many speci es of fea beetl es ( so
cal l ed because of thei r enl arged hind l egs for j umpi ng)
feed on a vari ety of pl ants, but many, as i ndi cated by
the speci fc names, occur on onl y one ki nd or on cl osel y
rel ated pl ant s. Most speci es overwi nt er as adul ts
beneat h debris and t hus get an earl y start in spri ng.
Fl ea beetl es ar e especi al l y damagi ng t o seedl i ngs, and
t he hol es t hey eat i n t he fol i age are entry avenues for
di seases. Us ual l y there are two generati ons a year.
El i mi nate pl aces where the beetl es can hi bernat e by
pl owi ng under weeds or pl ant stal ks . Infested pl ants
can be dusted or sprayed wi th contact or stomach- poi son
i nsecti ci des to ki l l adul t or i mmature st ages. Do not use
i nsecti ci des i mmedi atel y before an edi bl e crop i s ready
for harvest because of poi sonous resi dues. Fol l ow
di recti ons careful l y.
WI REWORMS are t he gr ubs, or l arvae, of cl i ck beet l es.
Those of pest speci es feed on t he underground stems,
roots, or t ubers of such pl ants as carrots, beets, pota
toes, oni ons, t urni ps, beans, and cor n. Wi reworms may
be especi al l y abundant in l and recentl y i n grass, t hough
some speci es l i ve excl us i vel y i n cul ti vated l and. Adul t
femal e beetl es l ay t hei r eggs i n t he soi l , and t he l arvae
(wi reworms) mi grate vert i cal l y i n t he soi l , stayi ng at t he
l evel where t he temperat ure and moi sture are most com
fortabl e for t hem. Some speci es become ful l grown i n
two years; others do not mature for as l ong as si x years.
They change i nto pupae i n t he soi l . A few weeks l ater
they become adul t s but do not emerge unt i l fol l owi ng
spri ng. Cul ti vati on from mi ds ummer unt i l freezi ng
weather destroys many l arvae and pupae. Infested soi l
can be fumi gated, whi ch ki l l s t he worms but gi ves no
l asti ng protecti on, or treated wi t h a contact i nsecti ci de.
Insecti ci des absorbed by root cr ops may cause obj ec
ti onabl e odors or l eave poi sonous resi dues. Check for
best met hod i n your
EASTERN FI ELD
63
CUTWORMS are t he fat l arvae of a l arge fami l y of
dul l -col ored, medi um-si zed mot hs. More t han two
dozen speci es are pests of fel d and garden crops. Cut
worms are cl assi fed by t hei r method of feedi ng
whether underground, at the surface, or above t he
ground. The most damagi ng to vegetabl e crops are
s peci es t hat cut of pl ants at t he surface. Cutworms feed
mai nly at ni ght. Duri ng t he day they rest i n t he soi l ,
coi l ed i n a bal l . When ful l grown, t hey burrow deeper
to pupate. They may emerge as adul ts i n a few weeks
or may overwi nter as pupae. I n warm cl i mates cutworms
have several generati ons a year . Col l ars of t i n cans
wi t h t he ends removed or of st i f car dboar d i nserted at
l east an i nch i nto the soi l and sti cki ng above t he surface
about two i nches wi l l protect young pl ants. Deep pl ow
i ng or spadi ng in late summer or fal l destroys eggs and
al s o exposes t he pupae. Poi son baits us ed for grass
hoppers ( p. 99) are al so useful . The soi l can be treated
wi th contact i nsecti ci des such as chl or dane or DDT, but
use precauti ons as noted for Fl ea Beetl es and Wi re
wor ms ( pp. 62-63) when appl yi ng to edi bl e crops .
64 VEGETABLE CROPS
WHITE GRUBS, the l arvae of several s peci es of beetl es
known as May Beetl es or June Bugs, are wi dely di s
t ri buted i n t he U. S. but are most abundant i n t he Mi d
west and South . Adul t beetl es feed on t he fol i age of
trees and are commonl y attracted to l i ghts. Femal es l ay
thei r eggs on the ground, commonly i n grassy areas.
The grubs feed on roots, burrowi ng deeper i nto t he soi l
i n wi nter and remai ni ng dormant unti l spri ng. Depend
i ng on t he speci es, a second, t hi r d, or even a fourth
s ummer may be spent as grubs before t hey pupate. They
transform i nto adul ts i n the fal l but do not emerge
unti l spri ng. Soi l i nfested wi th whi te grubs can be
treated wi t h a contact i nsecti ci de before a cr op i s
pl ant ed. I n l ate summer or fal l , soi l can be t urned to
expose gr ubs and pupae to weather and
ASI ATI C GARDE N BE ETLES
ar e i ntroduced pests t hat feed
on a great vari ety of pl ants, i n
c l udi ng many garden vegeta
bl es. Fi rst found i n 1 922 i n New
Jersey, they have s i nce spread
north i n coastal slates as far as
Massachusetts and south to t he
Carol i nas. Apparentl y t hey s ur
vi ve onl y where there is heavy
s ummer rai nfal l . Asi ati c Garden
Beetl es wi nt er as grubs i n t he
soi l , burrowi ng 8 to 1 0 i nches
deep. I n spri ng t hey move back
to t he s urface to feed on roots,
t hen pupate in l ate spri ng or
s ummer. Adul ts, whi ch l ook l i ke
s mal l , hai ry May Beetl es, appear
i n mi ds ummer and feed on fo
l i age unt i l frost. Femal es usual l y
J ay t hei r eggs i n grassy or weedy
soi l . Soi l or pl ant s i nfested wi th
adul ts or grubs can be treated
wi th a contact i nsecti ci de. Adul t s
are attracted to l i ght traps.
ASIATIC
GARDEN
BEETLE .
0.4 i n.
l arva
to 0.8 in.
VEGETABLE CROPS 65
APHI DS, OR PLANT LICE, are smal l ( average 0. 2 i n. ) ,
soft-bodi ed i nsects that feed on pl ants by sucki ng t hei r
fui ds or sap. They pi erce stems, l eaves, buds, roots,
and fruit with the sl i m, needl e- sharp styl ets in t hei r beak.
I n abundance, aphi ds may cause l eaves to curl or may
stunt a pl ant' s growth and stal l i ts producti on of fowers
or frui t. Event ual l y the pl ant may di e. Aphi ds al so i ntro
duce fungus, bacteri al , and vi rus di seases t hat can be
as damagi ng as t he aphi ds.
Aphi ds expel from t he end of t hei r abdomen a
sti cky, sweet substance cal l ed honeydew, a favorite
food of some speci es of ants. These ants move the
aphi ds to productive pl ants and take t hem i nto thei r
nests bel ow ground to protect them at ni ght or when
the weather i s bad ( p. 1 00) . Bl ack mol ds grow on
honeydew t hat drops t o the ground beneath pl ants
where aphi ds are feedi ng.
I n t he typi cal l i fe cycl e of aphi ds t hat l ive i n temper
ate cl i mates, wi nter is passed i n t he egg stage, gl ued to
the stem or to other parts of pl ant s. Nymphs that hatch
from t he eggs t he fol l owi ng spri ng grow r api dl y to be
come wi ngl ess adul ts, cal l ed stem mothers. Stem mothers
give bi rth to t hei r young, hol di ng the eggs i nsi de thei r
body unt i l they hatch. Wi t hi n about a week these aphi ds
produce young i n a si mi l ar manner . Mor e t han a dozen
generati ons appear i n a short ti me, for mi ng a feedi ng
cl uster on the pl ant . At i nterval s s ome or al l of t he young
devel op wi ngs and mi grate t o other pl ants, st arti ng new
col oni es. I n some speci es t he wi nged stages settl e on
pl ants of t he same ki nd; i n others t hey al ways settl e on
di ferent ki nds of pl ants. I n autumn mal es and femal es
are produced, and t he femal es l ay ferti l i zed eggs t hat
overwi nter. I n war m cl i mates reproducti on i s conti nuous.
Aphi ds are eat en by bi rds, preyed on by vari ous l ady
66 VEGETABLE CROPS
beetl es, and parasi ti zed by wasps. Chemi cal control s
may be necessary, however, to protect crops when
aphi ds are abundant . Contact i nsecti ci des appl i ed as
dusts or sprays are efective. Precauti ons regar di ng t he
use of t hese poi sons shoul d be fol l owed, as noted on
l abel s or advi sed by agri cul tural agent s.
VEGETABLE CROPS 67
LEAFHOPPERS are smal l , active i nsects t hat damage
pl ants by sucki ng sap from t hei r l eaves . The l eaves
curl , due ei ther to the l oss of sap or possi bl y to a
toxi n i ntroduced by t he l eafhoppers as they feed. Some
l eafhoppers al so spread vi rus di seases. When di sturbed,
adul t l eafhoppers hop i nto t he ai r and fy away, thei r
wi ngs appeari ng white i n fi ght. The wi ngl ess nymphs
run si deways to dodge out of si ght on the opposi te si de
of a l eaf. Li ke aphi ds, l eafhoppers excrete from t he
end of t hei r abdomen a sti cky, sweet s ubstance cal l ed
honeydew. A popul ati on of several mi l l i on l eafhoppers
may bui l d up on pl ants on an acre of l and in favorabl e
condi ti ons . Cont act i nsecti ci des s prayed or dusted on
t he pl ants wi l l ki l l t he l eafhoppers, but the i nsecti ci de
must r each i nsects feedi ng on t he undersi de of t he
l eaves. Do not use i nsecti ci des after edi bl e parts of
pl ant have formed, because poi sonous resi dues may
remai n. local county agent can give i nformati on on
best t i mes and t he proper dosages of i nsecti ci des. To
guard agai nst t he spread of a vi rus di sease by these
pests, it may be necessary to control t he l eafhoppers
on t hei r wi nteri ng pl ants.
BEET LEAFHOPPERS are pests
i n western U. S. , rangi ng east to
I l l i noi s. They transmi t the vi rus
causi ng curl y top, a di sease of
sugar beets, beans, spi nach,
peppers, squash, and ot her veg
etabl es. Adul ts wi nt er on wi l d
pl ants, and i n earl y spr i ng fe
mal es l ay eggs in st ems or on
t he l eaves. Thi s generati on feeds
and matures on wi l d pl ants. The
second generati on i nvades cul ti
vated crops. As many as fve
generati ons may be produced in
a season.
POTATO LEAFHOPPERS ar e
damagi ng pests of potatoes east
of t he Rocky Mountai ns. They
wi nter i n southern states, mi
grat i ng as far northward as
Canada i n spri ng and s ummer.
Potato leafhoppers com manl y at
tack young bean pl ants before
appeari ng on potatoes, because
young bean pl ants apparentl y
contai n a greater amount of sug
ar t han do t he young potato
pl ants. Femal es l ay t hei r eggs i n
t he stems of l eaves, deposi ti ng
twa to three eggs a day over
three to four weeks. The nymphs
hat ch i n 10 days and are ful l
grawn i n about two weeks. Ti p
burn, or hopperburn, is caused
by the feedi ng of Potato leaf
hoppers. Fi rst a tri angul ar brown
spot appears on a l eaf tip; then
si mi l ar spots show el sewhere,
al ways at end of vei ns. Even
tual l y enti re l eaf turns brown
and curl s.
SI X-SPOTTED LEAFHOPPERS
trans mi t t he vi rus di sease cal l ed
aster yel l ows. In di seased pl ants,
t he young . l eaves turn yel l ow,
and ol der l eaves become curl ed
and reddi sh. lettuce, cel ery, to
matoes, on i ons, and carrots are
common vegetabl e crops i nj ured
by aster yel l ows. The Si x-spotted
leafhopper wi nters on weeds or
fowers, spreadi ng i n spri ng.
SOUTHERN GARDEN LEAF
HOPPERS, si mi l ar and cl osel y
rel ated to t he Potato leafhopper,
range as far north as New York,
though they are most abundant
i n southern states. They i nfest
ornament al s as wel l as vege
tabl e crops.
potato l eaf
wi th ti pburn
0. 1 i n.
SOUTHERN GARDEN LEAFHOPPER
sweet potato
leaf
69
HARLEQUI N BUGS are pests of
cabbage, t urni ps, radi shes, and
rel ated pl ants. They have spread
from Mexico t hrough most of
the U.S. Femal es l ay barrel
s haped eggs on t he undersi de
of earl y pl anted crops. Nymphs,
whi ch hat ch i n about a week,
may ki l l young pl ants by s ucki ng
aut sap. I n t he Sout h t hey breed
year around; i n t he North adul ts
hi bernate under vegetati on.
STI NK BUGS do damage, both as adul ts and as
nymphs, by sucki ng sap from pl ants and causi ng them
to wi l t . Peas, beans, or frui t on whi ch sti nk bugs have
fed become pi mpl ed or mal formed . The bugs al so give
of a strong odor t hat may be detected on edi bl e parts
of pl ants over whi ch t hey have crawl ed. The wi ngl ess
nymphs general l y resembl e t he adul ts, t hough i n some
speci es t hey di fer i n col or. I n both, t he tri angul ar area,
or scutel l um, i s l arge and conspi cuous. I nfested pl ants
can be sprayed wi th contact i nsecti ci des, but t hi s
shoul d not be done after edi bl e parts are formed. The
bugs are l ar ge enough t o be pi cked of by hand.
GREEN STINK BUGS commonl y
feed on beans, causi ng pods to
fal l before they are f ul l y formed.
I n t he South t hey are al sa pests
of cott on.
STINK BUG
nymph
SOUTHE RN GRE E N STI NK
BUGS are most abundant i n
southeastern U. S. They feed on
most l egume crops and on many
garden vegetabl es.
SOUTHERN GREEN
STI NK BUG
TARNISHED PLANT BUGS feed
on more t han 50 speci es of cul t i
vated pl ants, i ncl udi ng beets,
ery, and other garden venPtntI P
A toxi n i nj ected i nto t he pl ant
t he bug sucks out i t s s ap deforms
the l eaves, stems, or frui t. Both
adul ts and nymphs can be ki l l ed
wi th contact- i nsecti ci de sprays or
dusts, but do not use poi sonous i n
secti ci des after t he pl ant begi ns to
form edi bl e parts. In temperate cl i
mates, where t he adul ts hi bernate
i n wi nter, weeds or si mi l ar hi di n
pl aces shoul d be destroyed.
SQUASH BUGS i nj ure pumpki ns,
cucumbers, squash, and rel ated
pl ants, frst causi ng t he l eaves to
wi l t and t hen the vi ne to t urn bl ack.
Cr ushd Squash Bugs gi ve of an
odor s i mi l ar t o a sti n k bug' s. Squash
Bugs are difcult to cont rol , as
squash pl ants are burned by many
contact i nsecti ci des. Adul ts can be
pi cked of pl ants by hand. leaves
that show egg- l ayi ng scars shoul d
al so be removed. Adul ts may con
gregate under boards pl aced be
tween crop rows . I n the fal l , get ri d
of al l debri s under whi ch adul ts
may hi bernate.
0.1 i n.
E BUGS have a broad thorax
and transparent wi ngs wi th an at
urnrt v< l acel i ke pattern. lace Bugs
re known t o carry a vi r us di sease
of sugar beets, and t hei r feedi ng
i n l ar ge numbers stunts a pl ant ' s
growt h. Contact i nsecti ci des are an
efective control .
THRIPS are s l ender i nsects wi th stout, cone-shaped
mouthparts. They rasp or scrape the stem or l eaf of a
pl ant, t hen suck out the sap that fows i nto t he wound.
I f an i nfestati on i s heavy a pl ant ' s growth i s sl owed;
edi bl e parts of vegetabl es are poorl y formed. Thri ps
are k nown al so to transmit a vi rus causi ng wi l t. Most
thri ps ' l egs end i n a bl adder-l i ke swel l i ng that hel ps
t hem i n crawl i ng over smooth surfaces. Most speci es of
t hri ps have narrow, bristl e- l i ke fri nged wi ngs. Nymphs
are wi ngl ess. Of t he several thousand speci es, only
a few are pests of speci fc pl ants.
ONION THRIPS
0.04 i n.
ONI ON THRIPS are especi al l y
i nj uri ous to oni ons but feed al so
on carrots, beans, peas, and
other vegetabl e crops. I n wi nter
t hey h i bernate but begi n feed
i ng on young pl ants i n earl y
spri ng, produci ng a new gener
ati on approxi matel y every two
weeks i n warm weather. Oni on
l eaves turn pal e to white, a con
di tion known as si l ver top. Wel l
cul tivated crops may grow faster
than t he thri ps can do damage.
I n t he fal l , bur y debr i s under
whi ch t hri ps mi ght hi bernate.
Contact i nsecti ci des wi l l ki l l
t hri ps, but t hey crawl deep i nto
l eaves and are hard to reach.
TORTOI SE BEETLES oft en go by t he name of Gol d
Bugs because of t hei r metal l i c col ors. Adul t beet l es
hi bernate under l eaves or other debri s on t he ground.
They emerge i n l ate s pr i ng, and t he femal es l ay eggs
on t he stems or undersi de of l eaves of sweet potatoes
and other pl ants of the mor ni ng- gl ory fami l y. The l ar
vae are spi ny and covered wi th a di rty- l ooki ng mass
consi sti ng of t hei r shed ski ns mi xed wi t h si l k and excre
ment. They feed on the undersi de of l eaves and do t he
greatest i nj ury to young pl ants. When ful l grown t he
l arvae ( someti mes cal l ed peddl ers) for m spi ny pupae
attached to the undersi de of a l eaf. The adul t beetl e
emerges i n about a week. Both adul ts and l arvae can
be ki l l ed wi t h ei ther stomach- poi son or contact i nsec
ti ci des appl i ed as dusts or sprays. Cl eani ng up vi nes
i n t he fal l destroys the hi bernati ng pl ace of t he adul ts.
VEGETABLE CROPS
73
COLORADO POTATO BEETLES are pests pri nci pal l y
of potatoes but al so attack tomatoes, peppers, and
other garden vegetabl es. They occur t hroughout t he
Uni ted States and i n Europe, havi ng spread i n t he
1 800' s from a l i mi ted range on t he l ower sl opes of the
Rocki es . There t hey fed on t he bufal o or sand bur,
a pl ant rel ated to the potato. Adul ts emerge from hi ber
nati on i n earl y spri ng and begi n feedi ng on young
pl ant s. The femal es l ay thei r eggs on t he l ower surface
of t he l eaves. The l arvae feed on fol i age for two to
three weeks, then pupate i n soi l . Adul ts emerge i n about
two weeks and st art cycl e agai n. Two generati ons i n
a season are usual ; somet i mes there are t hree. Both
adul ts and l arvae ( grubs or sl ugs) can be pi cked of by
hand, or pl ants can be sprayed or dusted wi th a contact
or stomach- poi son i nsecti ci de. Start treat ment as soon
as beetl es appear.
BLI STER BEETLES, or Ol d-fashi oned Potato Bugs, eat
t he fol i age of potatoes, beans, peas, and other veg
etabl es. Onl y t he adul ts are damagi ng. Femal es l ay
t hei r eggs i n t he soi l , and t he burrowi ng l arvae feed on
grasshopper eggs . Wi th each of its four mol ts t he l arva' s
l egs and mout hparts become s mal l er compared to t he
remai nder of i ts body. Wi nter i s passed i n an i nactive
pseudopupa stage. Most speci es mol t t he fol l owi n g
spri ng, and the l arva becomes active for a short t i me
before enteri ng t he t r ue pupa stage. Adul ts emerge i n
mi ds ummer. Bl i ster beetl es can be brus hed i nto pans of
kerosene. Do not touch t he beetl es wi th bare hands,
as t hey gi ve of a bl i steri ng secreti on. The beetl es can
al so be herded al ong crop rows and t rapped i n steep
si ded di tches. Can be ki l l ed wi th stomach-poi son or
contact i nsecti ci des ( except arseni c compounds ) .
7 4
VEGETABlE CROPS
COLORADO
BEETLE
VEGETABLE CROPS 75
MEXICAN BEAN BEETLES and t hei r l arvae feed on
t he fol i age of bean pl ants, eati ng away t he l ower
surface and l eavi ng onl y a skel eton of a l eaf. When
t he beetl es are abundant, t hey feed al so on bean
pods and stems. Native to southwestern U. S. and
Mexi co, t he beet l e has spread throughout t he U. S. ,
except al ong Paci fc coast. Adul t beetl es hi bernate be
neath vegetati on and begi n feedi ng in earl y spri ng.
The eggs, l ai d on the undersi de of bean l eaves, hatch
i n about two weeks. When ful l grown, about a month
l ater, the l arvae fasten t hemsel ves to t he undersi de of
a l eaf, shed, and become pupae. Adul ts emer ge i n
about two weeks and start a second cycl e. Th ree or four
generati ons are common i n war m cl i mates. I nsecti ci de
sprays or dusts such as rotenone are appl i ed to under
si de of l eaves where i nsects feed. After beans are
harvested, pl ants shoul d be buri ed or burned .
BEAN LEAF BEETLES are most
abundant i n southeastern U. S.
but occur al so i n mi dwestern and
eastern states. Adul ts chew hol es
i n bean- pl ant l eaves; the l arvae
feed underground on the roots
or on the stems at the soil l i ne.
Bean Leaf Beetl es can be con
t rol l ed by t he met hods used far
the Mexi can Bean Beetl e.
SPOnED
BEETLE
damaged
l eaf
0. 2 i n.
CUCUMBER BEETLES, both Spotted and Stri ped, are
general feeders as adul ts. They chew hol es i n t he fol i age
and eat on t he stems. Adul t beetl es come out of hi ber
nati on i n earl y spri ng, and femal es l ay t hei r eggs i n
the soi l at t he base of pl ants. These hatch i nto t he worm
l i ke l arvae whi ch bore i nto the roots, where t hey feed
and become mature by mi dsummer. Spotted Cucumber
Beetl es are al so known as Southern Corn Rootworms, as
t he l arvae bor e out young cor n pl ants, and cause t hem
t o break of. Larvae of t he Stri ped Cucumber Beetl e
feed onl y on t he roots of pl ants i n t he cucumber or
mel on fami ly. Adul ts of both speci es trans mi t vi rus and
bacteri al di seases. To prevent damage to corn, spr i ng
pl owi ng and l at e pl ant i ng ar e recommended, or treat
soi l wi th i nsecti ci des before pl ant i ng. Adul ts can be
ki l l ed by methods used for Mexi can Bean Beetl e. Do
not use sul fur compounds on cucumber or mel on vi nes.
VEGETABLE CROPS 77
WEEVILS are a l arge fami l y of beetl es wi th l ong,
usual l y down- curved snouts t hat may i n some speci es
be as l ong as t he beetl e' s body. The snout, an el onga
t i on of t he head, has the beetl e' s s mal l chewi ng mouth
parts at i ts t i p; t he antennae are l ocated al ong i ts si des.
The s nout i s used to puncture l eaves, stems, or frui t, for
feedi ng beneath the surface, and al so to make hol es
i n whi ch t he eggs are l ai d .
VEGETABLE WEEVILS are dar
mont i n s ummer but became ac
t i ve i n f al l . Grubs feed at ni ght
on many vegetabl es. Do not
spray vegetabl es to be eaten.
PEPPER WEEVI LS, from Mexico,
feed i nsi de the buds or i n the
peppers, causi n g them to drop
of. Several generati ons may be
produced every year.
SWEETPOTATO WEEVILS are
pests onl y i n t he Gul f states.
Adul ts l ay their eggs singl y in
hol es on t he stems or i n the
sweet potatoes, and for 2 or 3
weeks the grubs feed and grow
either i n t he vines or in t he
potatoes. They become pupae i n
the cavity hol l owed by t hei r
feedi ng ond emerge as adul ts
i n about a week. The adul ts al so
feed on t he l eaves and stems of
the sweet potato vi ne. Pul l i ng
di rt hi gh arou nd vi nes hel ps to
prevent weevi l s from reachi ng
the potatoes. Pl ant s can be
treated wi t h a contact i nsecti ci de
before pl anti ng. Aft er an i nfes
tation, burn vines and destroy
al l i nfested sweet potatoes. Do
not repl ant sweet potatoes i n
same fel d or wi thi n one mi l e of
i nfestation for a year.
WHITE-FRINGED BEETLES, from
South Ameri ca, are general gar
den pests of southeastern U. S.
Adul ts appear from May t hrough
August and feed spari ngl y. The
femal es reproduce wi thout mat
i ng and lay t hei r eggs in sti cky
masses of 50 or more on rocks,
sticks, ar stems. The l arvae bur
row i nto the soil , where they
feed on roots or underground
stems. They wi nter as grubs,
for mi ng pupae i n t he spri ng.
Adul ts can not fy ( hard outer
wi ngs are fused) and can be
trapped i n sleep-si ded di tches.
Treat soi l wi th a contact i nsecti
ci de to ki l l gr ubs or adul ts as
they emerge.
CARROT WEEVILS damage car
rots, cel ery, parsni ps, and re
lated pl ants. The grubs cut i r
regul ar furrows i n t he roots or
may t unnel i nsi de the roots or
stems. In wi nter adul t s hi bernate
beneath debri s and l ay thei r
eggs i n earl y spri ng. Two and
somet i mes three generati ons are
produced every season. Earl y
sprayi ng of pl ants wi th i nsecti
ci de wi l l ki l l adul ts. Because they
feed i nsi de roots or stems, grubs
are di fcul t to ki l l .
STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVI LS
are wi del y di stri buted in t he
U. S. and Europe. I n t he grub
stage they feed on t he roots and
crown of strawberry pl ants, whi ch
become stunted or di e. Adul t
weevi l s oft en hi bernate i n t he
crown of t he pl ant ; t he l arvae
burrow deep i nto the soi l . Ro
tate pl ants to new beds regul ar
l y to prevent pest bui l dup.
CATERPILLARS, t he l arvae of butterfi es and moths,
feed on l eaves, stems, fowers, or frui t. Some speci es
tunnel i nsi de, but most speci es eat from t he outsi de.
Large caterpi l l ars can be pi cked by hand and destroyed.
Fal l cl eanup of debri s and t urni ng t he soi l to expose
wi nteri ng stages are efective. Among natural control s
are wasps that l ay eggs on t he caterpi l l ars, whi ch
become food for wasp l arvae. Bot h stomach-poi son
and contact i nsecti ci des are efective control s.
1 .5 i n.
80 VEGETABLE CROPS
IMPORTED CABBAGEWORMS
are pri mari l y pests of cabbage
fami l y pl ants but may at ti mes
feed on other garden vegeta
bl es, chewi ng hol es i n l eaves.
They hi bernate as pupae and
emerge as t he fami l i ar Whi te
Cabbage B u t t er f i e s . Sever al
broads a year i n warm cl i mates.
CABBAGE LOOPERS, common
t hroughout t he U. S. , feed on
the undersi de of the l eaves of
cabbage and rel ated pl ants.
They crawl wi th a di sti ncti ve
l oo p i n g , or me a s u r i n g - wor m,
move me n t . Ca b b a g e Looper s
wi nter as pupae attached t o the
undersi de of a l eaf and emerge
i n spri ng as brown moths. Usual l y
there are two or more genera
ti ons a year.
DI AMONDBACK MOTH cater
pi l l ars eat s mal l hol es i n the
l eaves of cabbage and rel ated
pl ants. Though sel dom abundant,
there may be l ocal outbreaks.
When di sturbed, t he wor ms wri g
gl e rapi dl y and drop from the
pl ant, hangi ng by a s i l ken
thread. Adul t moths wi nter on
t he l eaves of pl ants or i n debri s.
SQUASH VI NE BORERS eat out
the center of t he stems of squash
vi nes, caus i ng t hem to wi l t.
They al so attock pumpki ns and,
l ess commonly, cucumbers and
muskmel ons. Squash Vi ne Bor
ers wi nter i n t he soi l i n si l ken
cocoons. The moths, acti ve dur
i ng the day, l oy t hei r eggs at
the bose of pl ants, and the l ar
vae burrow i nto t he stems. Li ke
ot her borers, these wor ms ore
hard to control because they
work i nsi de stems. Presence con
be detected by the excrement
(fross) pushed from hol e i n vi ne.
Wor ms shoul d be cut out by a
l engthwi se sl i t . After crop har
vest, t urn soi l to expose the
cocoons.
PI C KL E WORMS bor e i n t o
squash, mus kmel ons, and cu
cumbers, causi ng t hem to rot.
Ful l grown after about two weeks
of feedi ng, t he wor ms rol l the
edge of a l eaf over t hemsel ves
and s pi n a t hi n I oyer of s i l k to
form a pupa. Some cocoons re
mai n attached to the pl ant ;
ot hers drop to the ground.
Adul ts emerge i n about 10 days.
Pi ckl eworms reach a popul ati on
peak l ate i n t he season ; there
fore, crops pl anted earl y ore
damaged l east. Three or four
generat i ons ore produced i n a
season. The rel ated Mel onworm
feeds mostl y on fol i age. Both
speci es ore abundant pests i n
southern slates, an d t h e Pi ckl e
worm ranges as for north as
Canada. To prot ect mel ons ,
squash or e pl anted between t he
rows t o col l ect t he worms, whi ch
prefer t he squash to the mel ons.
pupa
1 .0 i n.
POTATO TUBERWORM BEET WEBWORM
POTATO TUBERWORMS that
hatch earl y i n t he season feed
an l eaves and st ems af t he pa
lata pl ant . When ful l grawn, i n
twa I a t hree weeks, each s pi ns
a s i l ken cacaan i n whi ch i t pu
pat es an t he ground. Adul t s
emerge i n about 1 0 days. Warms
that hat ch l at er i n season t unnel
i nto palalaes. Si x generati ons
may be produced i n a year. Pul l
sai l hi gh around pl ant s , as
warms wi l l nat burrow deep.
Cut, burn i nfested vi nes. Stare
pal at aes wh e r e n i g h t - fyi n g
moths canna! l ay eggs a n t hem.
Fumi gate i nfested palalaes.
WEBWORMS af several speci es
are general feeders an garden
vegetabl es. I n l arge i nfestat i ons
t he wor ms mi grate from one
food pl ant to another. Web
worms wi nter as l arvae i n s i l k
l i ned tu bes and ent er t he pupa
stage i n t he spri ng. Adul ts of the
frst generati on emerge from
March t hrough J u ne. The feed
i ng worm s pi ns a s i l ken web
that pul l s together the edges of
a l eaf and an chors i t to t he
ground. The wor m hi des i n di rt
at bottom of f unnel . Can be
ki l l ed wi th stomach-poi son or
contact i nsecti ci des.
TOMATO HORNWORMS, al so
pests of tobacco, potatoes, and
ather rel ated pl ants, pass t he
wi nter as hard-s hel l ed pupae.
The adul ts are l arge hawk moths
that feed harml essl y on t he nec
t ar of deep-throated fower s
such as petu n i as. Femal e mot hs
l ay t hei r eggs an l eaves of to
malo pl ants, and the l arvae feed
ravenousl y, becomi ng f ul l grown
i n about a mont h. They burrow
i nto the soi l to pupate. Two gen
erat i ons may be produced i n a
year in warm c l i mates. The Corn
Earworm ( p. 1 09) and a n u mber
of cutwor ms ( p. 64) burrow i nto
tomatoes and feed i nsi de.
CELERY LEAF TI ERS i nfest cel
ery, spi noch, beets, and re
l ated pl ants, feedi ng on the
l eaves and lender growi ng ports
and coveri ng t hem wi th webs.
When f ul l grown, t he worm pul l s
together t he edges of a l eaf and
fastens t hem wi t h s i l k. I I pupates
i n o s i l ken cocoon i nsi de t hi s
rol l . A compl ete l i fe cycl e t okes
about a mont h and a hal f, and
i n worm c l i mates there may be
several broods a year. Cel ery
Leaf Tiers con be control l ed
wi t h stomach-poi son or contact
i nsecti ci des, whi ch shoul d not be
used on edi bl e ports of pl ant s.
WOOLL YBEARS ore orange- or
yel l ow- an d- bl oc k cat erpi l l ar s
t hat feed on al l ki nds of garden
vegetabl es. They may produce
two broods per year. None of
the several speci es are seri ous
pests of part i cul ar pl ant s. Some
speci es hi bernate as l arvae,
others i n a cocoon mode portl y
from their body hai rs. They con
be hand picked or ki l l ed wi th
ei ther contact or stomach-poi son
i nsecti ci des. The caterpi l l ars rol l
i nto a bol l wh en di st urbed. I n
fol kl ore t h e wi dt h of t h e bonds
on t he caterpi l l ar' s body i s sai d
to forecast t he wi nt er-the more
bl ock, the col der t he wi nter.
CELERYWORMS feed on t he
l eaves of cel ery, pars ni ps , car
rots, parsl ey, and rel ated pl ants.
When di sturbed, t he caterpi l l ars
protrude two orange horns near
t hei r head. The horns ore soft
and harml ess, but at the some
t i me the warm gi ves of a sweet
i sh odor that apparent l y di s
courages predators. The butter
fies (Bl ock Swal l owtai l s) over
wi nter i n southern slates. I n t he
North the wor ms enter t he pupa
stage i n wi nter. Cel erywor ms are
sel dom serious pests, and as
they ore I orge, t hey con be
pi cked of t he pl ants by hand.
I sabel l a Moth
1 .5 i n.
BANDED
WOOLLYBEAR
83
MAGGOTS ( l arvae) of some fi es bore i nto stems Q
roots . Others, cal l ed l eaf mi ners, feed on t he ti ssues
of l eaves. The l arvae pupate i '
.
t he soi l , and t he adul ts
l ay t hei r eggs on stems or l eaves. Use contact i nsecti
ci des to ki l l t he adul ts, and stomach-poi son i nsecti ci des
for t he maggots. Do not appl y poi sonous i nsecti ci des
to pl ant parts that are to be eaten.
CABBAGE MAGGOTS ore pests
in nort hern U.S., where they feed
on the roots of cabbage, t urni ps,
radi shes, broccol i , and s i mi l ar
vegetabl es. I nfested pl ants wi l t
and may di e. Several genera
ti ons ore produced i n a year.
SPINACH LEAF MINERS i nfest
beets, spi nach, and other l eafy
vegetabl es, causi ng yel l owi sh
channel s i n l eaves.
CARROT RUST FLIES l oy thei r
eggs at t he bose of pl ants, and
t he maggots work i nto t he soi l
to feed on roots. Enti re root sys
tems of carrots, cel ery, pars ni ps,
and rel ated pl ant s may be de
stroyed by these maggots.
ONION MAGGOTS, especi al l y
bod pests i n wet years, t unnel
i nto oni on bul bs. They are most
abundant i n northern states.
MITES, more cl osely rel ated to spi ders and t i cks t han
t o i nsects, ar e maj or pests of pl ants and al so of man
( p. 45) and hi s pets and domesti c ani mal s ( pp.
54-55) .
Pl ant feeders s u c k t h e s ap from l eaves or tender parts
of stems, causi ng them to become di scol ored. The i nj ury
weakens and may ki l l young pl ants. Many s peci es spi n,
on the undersurface of l eaves, a fne web contai ni ng
t hei r eggs and s hed ski ns. Mi tes ar e mos t damagi ng i n
hot, dry weather, when a l ife cycl e may be compl eted
i n as short a ti me as one week. Mi tes can be reduced
i n n u mbers by gett i ng ri d of weeds or other debri s i n
whi ch they pass the wi nter as adul ts or i n the egg stage.
I nfested pl ants can be sprayed wi th a contact i nsecti
ci de. Speci al mi ti ci des are al so avai l abl e. Consul t a l ocal
agri cul tural agent.
SLUGS AND SNAI LS are mol l usks t hat someti mes feed
on the fol i age of vegetabl es. The damage may be mi s
t aken for t he feedi ng of i nsect pests . Sl ugs l ack shel l s.
Both sl ugs and snai l s l eave a sl i my trai l . They usual l y
feed at ni ght and hi de under debri s duri ng t he day.
Spread poi son bai t s of cal ci um arsenate or met al dehyde
mi xed wi th bran, mol asses, and water .
BROWN GARDEN SNAIL SPOnED GARDEN SLUG
P ST OF F LOWE RS AN S HR U BS
Some i nsect pests of fowers and s hrubs feed o n a wi de
vari ety of pl ants, i ncl udi ng vegetabl e and fel d crops.
Others attack onl y one ki nd of pl ant. A greater range
of chemi cal s can be used t o ki l l i nsect pests on fowers
and s hrubs t han can be ri sked on food pl ants, but
fol l ow careful l y t he di recti ons for appl yi ng i nsecti ci des.
Nearl y al l of these poi sons are dangerous to peopl e,
pets, and domesti c ani mal s as wel l as to i nsects.
SCALES AND MEALYBUGS are among t he most dam
agi ng of al l i nsect pests of fowers and s hr ubs . Mal es
of both meal ybugs and scal es can fy; femal es are wi ng
l ess. Femal e meal ybugs have l egs and crawl sl owl y over
stems and l eaves as they feed . Soft scal es, t hough l eg
l ess, can move sl uggi shl y but sel dom do. Femal e
ar mored scal es, covered wi th a tough scal e of wax
mi xed wi th shed s ki ns of t he nymph stages, fasten
t hemsel ves permanentl y to a pl ant. A meal ybug' s body
i s covered wi th a cottony mass of wax that forms t hread
l i ke ext ensi ons. Scal es and meal ybugs suck t he sap
fr om l eaves or st ems, somet i mes causi ng pl ants t o wi l t .
I f i nfestati ons go unchecked, a pl ant may di e. Both
meal ybugs and scal es produce l arge amounts of honey
dew. The sweet excreti on attracts ants, and patches of
sooty mol d grow where the honeydew drops beneath
t he i nfested pl ant s. Meal ybugs and scal es can be ki l l ed
wi t h th iocyanate or ni coti ne-sul fate sprays, usual l y
appl i ed i n whi te-oi l emul si on. Parathi on and mal athi on
are al so excel l ent control s but must be used wi th
extraordi nary caut i on. Ri nse pl ants wi th a strong spray
of water about an hour after appl i cati on to prevent
damage to t he pl ant by chemi cal
86 FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
wi nged
mal e
0. 3 i n.
LONG- TAI L E D
have l ong fl aments at t h e t i p
of t he body. Femal es give bi rth
to nymphs. The Mexi can Meal y
bug l ays eggs.
MEXI CAN MEALYBUGS are
common pest s i n greenhouses
and i n warm cl i mates attac k
pl ants outdoors. Hol l yhocks, ger
ani ums, and c hrysanthemums are
frequent vi eli ms.
FERN SCALES are pests of ba
nanas, orchi ds, ci trus, and other
pl ants outdoors i n warm cl i mates.
I n cool cl i mates they occur i n
doors on f er ns and ot her pl ants.
CACTUS SCALES are abundant,
armored scal es, found outdoors
i n southwestern U. S. or i ndoors
on pl ants i n greenhouses and
homes.
HEMISPHERICAL SCALES are
pests i n warm cl i mates or on i n
door pl ants. Oval scal es become
s t r o n g l y c on vex. F l at you n g
scal es are notched a t rear.
BROWN SOFT SCALES, fat and
cl ose t o t he col or of t hei r host,
are pests i n greenhouses; out
doors on gardeni as and ol ean
ders i n warm cl i mates.
GREENHOUSE ORTHEZI AS, re
l ated to scal es and meal ybugs,
are pests i n greenhouses and
outdoors, attacki ng more than
1 00 speci es of pl ants.
wi th
c
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS 87
WHITEFLIES i n l arge numbers may feed u n noti ced on
t he undersi de of l eaves unt i l the whi te-wi nged adul ts
are di sturbed and take fi ght . Both the adul ts and
nymphs suck sap from stems and l eaves, causi ng an
i nfested pl ant t o wi l t . I n war m cl i mates whitefi es are
pests outdoors t he year around; i n cool cl i mates they
are pri nci pal l y pfsts in greenhouses or on pl ants kept
i n t he home. Some speci es, such as t he common Green
hous e Whitefy, spread outdoors dur i ng t he warm
mont hs. Li ke aphi ds, whi tefi es excrete honeydew. These
pests can be ki l l ed wi th oi l sprays and al so wi th the
organo- phosphate i nsecti ci des.
APHI DS are pests of fowers and s hrubs. Al l aphi ds
have s i mi l ar l i fe hi stori es and habi ts . A few speci es
feed on t he roots of pl ants, but most ki nds suck sap
from l eaves or stems. Control of aphi ds on or nament al s
i s t he same as for vegetabl es ( p. 66) .
CORN ROOT APHI D
0. 2 i n.
wi ngl ess
nymph
CHRYSANTHEMUM APHI D
BANDED
THRIPS
THRI PS, pests of a vari ety of pl ants, are much al i ke
i n appearance and l ife hi story ( p. 72) . Most t hri ps
attack s hrubs and fowers, parti cul arl y i n warm cl i mates,
and they are especi al l y damagi ng i n greenhouses. The
Greenhouse Thr i ps i s found throughout t he wor l d. The
Banded Greenhouse Thri ps i s a preval ent pest i n west
ern U. S. , whi l e the Gl adi ol us Thri ps i s di stri buted
t hroughout t he U. S. on gl adi ol i , i ri ses, and l i l i es. The
l eaves of i nfested pl ants turn whi te or s i l very and t hen
brown due to t he l oss of sap drawn out by t he feedi ng
t hri ps. Thri ps can be ki l l ed wi th contact i nsecti ci des,
and bul bs can be dusted wi t h i nsecti ci de when stored .
TREEHOPPERS, rel ated to l eafhoppers ( p. 68), l ay
eggs i n crescent-s haped sl its cut i n twi gs. Fungi devel op
i n the s l its, and t he scarred twi gs do not grow wel l .
Nymphs of treehoppers suck t h e j ui ces from grasses,
l i l i es, and other pl ants. Spray wi th contact i nsecti ci de.
egg scars D0 rase st em
LACE BUGS, both t he handsome adul ts and t he spi ny
nymphs, suck j ui ces fr om l eaves or stems . They damage
or nament al s and al so vegetabl e pl ants ( p. 73) . Leaves
of i nfested pl ants are spotted wi th dark, s hi ny excre
ment . Lace bugs overwi nter as eggs attached to l eaves
and i n warm weather produce two or more broods i n a
season. Contact i nsecti ci des shoul d be used to ki l l
adul ts or nymphs as soon as t hey appear.
MI TES damage pl ants i n greenhouses and attac k a
great many ki nds of pl ants outdoors i n warm weather.
They are pests al so of vegetabl es ( p. 85) , man ( p. 45) ,
and domesti c ani mal s ( p. 54-55) .
CYCLAMEN MITES attock cy
cl amens, del phi ni ums, mari gol ds,
other garden fowers, and al so
strawberri es. They feed on t en
der l eaves i n t he pl ant ' s crown
and al so overwi nter there. Fo
l i age turns bl ock. I mmerse sus
pect ed seedl i ngs i n wat er at 1 1 0
degrees F. for about 20 mi nutes
before sett i ng them out.
CYCLAMEN
MITE
BULB MITES attock roots, corms,
and bul bs of such pl ants os l i l i es,
crocuses, hyaci nt hs, gl adi ol i , and
t ul i ps. I nfested bul bs t urn soft,
and the stem of the pl ant breaks
over. Destroy i nfested bul bs by
bur ni ng or buryi ng t hem deepl y.
Or i mmerse bul bs in water at
1 1 0 to 1 1 5 degrees F. for an
hour and a hal f.
BULB FLIES att ack bul bs of l i l i es, narci ssuses, 1 nses,
hyaci nths, and such root .crops as oni ons, car rots, and
potatoes . The maggots feed i nsi de t he bul bs, openi ng
t hem to fungi . They pupate i n t he bul b or i n t he soi l .
The Lesser Bul b Fl y produces two broods a year, t he
Narci ssus Bul b Fl y one. Maggots of t he Lesser Bul b Fl y
us ual l y i nfest al ready weakened or i nj ured bul bs, and
many maggots may occur i n one bul b. Onl y one maggot
of t he Narci ssus Bul b Fl y is ordi nari ly found i n a bul b.
I n earl y spri ng, when t he adul t fi es l ay t hei r eggs, cover
pl ants wi th cheesecl oth . At harvest, destroy bul bs t hat
feel soft and are pr obabl y i nfested. Tr eat t he others i n
hot water, as for Bul b Mi tes ( p. 90) .
MI DGES ar e smal l fi es. Some speci es, such as l arvae
of t he Chrysant hemum Gal l Mi dge, form gal l s on stems
or l eaves . Maggots of t he Rose Mi dge feed on buds and
new shoots, defor mi ng and causi ng t hem t o di e. Ful l
grown maggots burrow i nto t he soi l t o pupate. Remove
and destroy i nfested parts of pl ants . Treat soi l wi th a
contact i nsecti ci de; spray pl ant to ki l l l arvae.
LEAF MI NERS, t he l arvae of cert ai n moths, fi es,
beetl es, or sawfi es, feed between the epi dermal l ayers
of a l eaf, causi ng bl isters, bl otches, or t unnel s. I n t i me
the l eaves turn brown and drop of.
0. 5 in.
AZALEA LEAF MINERS, the cat
erpi l l ars of a smal l moth, feed
in the l eaf ti ssues unt i l about
hal f grown, then emerge and
feed at the t i p ar margi n. The
caterpi l l ar rol l s or fol ds the l eaf
over itself and feeds i nsi de t hi s
cover, i n whi ch i t al so pupates.
Leaf rol l s can be pul l ed of and
destroyed. Dust pl ants wi th a
stomach-poi son i nsecti ci de to ki l l
l arvae feedi ng on surface.
ARBORVITAE LEAF MINERS eat
out t he inside of needl es at the
br anch t i ps . The cater pi l l ar s
overwi nter i n t he branches and
emerge i n l ate s pr i ng or earl y
s ummer. Femal es l ay eggs on the
fol iage. Cut and destroy i nfested
tips. Adul ts and newl y hatched
l arvae shoul d be ki l l ed wi th a
contact i nsect i ci de.
COLUMBI NE LEAF MINERS, al so
pests on asters, are fy l arvae.
As many as a dozen l arvae at
tack one l eaf. I nfested l eaves
shoul d be burned or buri ed.
Spray pl ants wi th a contact i n
secti ci de.
LARKSPUR LEAF MINERS mi ne
i n l eaf ti ssues of del phi ni ums.
Adul t fi es puncture t he under
s urface of l eaves, tur ni ng t hem
brown. Destroy i nfested l eaves.
Spray or dust pl ant s wi th a con
tact i nsecti ci de. Cul tivate soi l O
ki l l pupae.
BORERS feed i nsi de stems, l eaves, frui t, or roots . They
are difcul t to reach wi th sprays or dusts. An i nfected
pl ant wi l ts and i n ti me di es or breaks of. Bacteri a and
fungi enter t he pl ants through t he hol es made by borers .
COLUMBINE BORERS l ay eggs
on t he ground or i n debri s near
pl ants. A fal l cl eanup of debri s
destroys many eggs. Contact i n
secti ci des i n s oi l at base of
pl ants ki l l caterpi l l ars.
LILAC BORER caterpi l l ars wi n
ter i nsi de t he stem. Cut of and
bur n i nfested stems. Or ki l l
borers i nside hol es i n stems wi t h
a wire probe or squi rt i n a few
drops of carbon bi sul fde.
LI LAC
BORER
LEAF ROLLERS twist or rol l a portion of a l eaf over
t hemselves and fasten i t together wi th s i l k. They feed
on t he surface or at the edge of the l eaf, and when ful l
grown, pupat e i nsi de t he rol l . The two most common
speci es of l eaf rol l ers, attacki ng a wi de vari ety of
fowers and shr ubs, are t he Obl i que-banded and t he
Red-banded. Bot h stomach-poi son and contact i nsecti
ci des are efecti ve control s and shoul d be appl i ed as
soon as damage i s di scovered.
OBLIQUE-BANDED LEAF ROUER RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER
LEAF CUTTERS are bees, cater pi l l ars, ants, or other
i nsects t hat cut l arge pi eces from l eaves . Leaf-cutter
ants, found i n Loui si ana, Texas, and southward, t ake
t he pi eces of l eaves to t hei r nest and chew t hem up t o
make a mul ch on whi ch fungus grows . Leaf- cutti ng bees
rol l t he pi ece of l eaf i nto a thi mbl e shape to l i ne t he st em
cavi ty i n whi ch t he l arva i s feedi ng. The Morni ng Gl ory
Leaf Cutter cuts of t he l eaves of morni ng gl ori es, zi n
ni as, dahl i as, and other fowers . The caterpi l l ars feed
at ni ght and hi de duri ng the day i n the wi l ted l eaves.
Use stomach poi sons as dusts or sprays .
BAGWORMS move about in a
bag of tough s i l k, covered wi th
needl es or twi gs. Especi al l y dam
agi ng t o conifers. I n l ate s ummer
t he caterpi l l ars form pupae i nsi de
t he bags. Wi nged mal es emerge i n
t he fal l and mate wi th t he wi ngl ess
femal es, whi ch l ay t hei r eggs i nsi de
t he bag and never emer ge. Bags
can be pi cked by hand, or pl ants
sprayed wi th a stomach- poi son i n
secti ci de wh i l e l arvae ar e feedi ng.
SAWFLI ES bel ong to t he same order of i nsects as bees
and was ps . I nstead of sti ngers, t he femal es have a saw
toot h- edged ovi posi tor with whi ch t hey cut s l i ts in l eaves
or bore hol es i nto stems to l ay eggs. The l arvae of saw
fi es resembl e cater pi l l ar s of moths and butterfi es and,
l i ke t hem, feed on fol i age. VI OLET SAWFLY
VI OLET SAWFLI ES, pes t s of
bot h vi ol ets and pansi es, feed at
n i ght. They frst eat out t he un
dersi de of t he l eaf and s kel eton
i ze i t. Then t hey eat hol es
through t he l eaf and may com
pl etel y defol i ate a pl ant . Bl i sters
are formed on t he l eaves where
t he femal es l ay eggs. Spray
pl ants wi t h a stomach- poi son i n
sect i ci de.
ROSE-SLUGS are t he l arvae of
several s pec i es of sawf i es .
Bri stl y Rose-sl ug l arvae feed frst
on t he undersurface of t he
l eaves, s kel etoni zi ng t hem, t hen
eat hol es t hrough t he l eaves. As
many as s i x broods ar e produced
i n a season. The Rose-Sl ug feeds
on t he upper s urface of t he l eaf
and produces one generati on i n
a season. larvae o f t he Curl ed
Rose Sawfy eat t he whol e l eaf,
usual l y feedi ng i n a curl ed po
si t i on l i ke a grub. Sl ugs can be
ki l l ed wi th stomach-poi son i nsec
t i ci des appl i ed to l eaves i n earl y
stages of t he feedi ng.
The Bri stl y Rose- sl ug and t he
Rose- Sl ug pupate i n debr i s or
l oose soi l ; hence a fal l cl eanup
destroys t he pupae. The Curl ed
Rose Sawfy l arvae pupate i n
woody or pi t hy stems . Pai nt
pruned ends of stems and get
ri d of debri s.
BLACK BLISTER BEETLES are
pests of asters, zi n ni as, chrysan
t hemums, anemones, and ather
fowers. They commonl y eat t he
petal s i n preference to t he
l eaves. The Bl ack Bl i ster Beet l e
resembl es t he St ri ped Bl i ster
Beetl e ( p. 74) i n l i fe hi story and
habits and i s control l ed by t he
same methods.
of the many speci es of beetl es feed on
the fol i age, fowers, stems, roots, or frui t of shrubs and
fowers. Some are damagi ng onl y i n t he l arva, or grub,
stage; others do t hei r greatest damage as adul t s. Both
l arvae and adul ts have chewi ng mouthparts. Some are
pests i n both st ages. Many beetl es are general feeders;
others att ack onl y one ki nd or rel ated pl ant s.
ROSE LEAF BEETLES feed on t he
bl ossoms of i ri ses and peoni es
as wel l as roses. They al so eat
l eaves , bl os s oms , b u d s , a n d
young frui t of pears, pl ums, ap
pi es, peaches, strawberries, and
others: They can be hand-pi cked
or j arred i nto Q pai l of kerosene
and water. They feed deep i n
fowers or buds and are hard to
reach wi th i nsecti ci des. Pyre
t hr um or other contact i nsecti
ci des are efective.
ROSE CHAFERS are gener al
pests of fowers and s hrubs and
al so of many frui t and vegetabl e
crops. Adul t beetl es appear i n
l ate spri ng or earl y s ummer,
feedi ng frst on the fowers and
then on fol i age. The l arvae feed
on the roots of grass ond burrow
deep i nto the soi l to hi bernate.
Adul ts can be hand- pi cked, or
i nfested pl ant s can be sprayed.
Rose Chafers are deadl y poi son
ous to chi ckens.
FULLER ROSE BEETLES are wee
vil pests (p. 78) of roses, carna
t i ons, geran i u ms , gar deni as ,
chrysanthemums , azal eas, and
many ot her shrubs and fowers.
Adul ts feed at ni ght, eati ng t he
margi ns of t he l eaves. The gr ubs
feed on the roots, causi ng t he
fol i age to t ur n yel l ow. They can
be control l ed by the same meth
ods used for t he Rose Curcul io.
BLACK VINE WEEVILS are pests
of gardeni as, azal eas, begoni as,
s pi rea, arborvi t ae, rhododen
dron, and many other fowers and
shrubs. The l arvae feed frst on
the root hai rs of pl ants and
t hen on l ar ger roots, stri ppi ng
them of bark. The grubs hi ber
nate i n wi nter, feed agai n on the
roots in spri ng, then form pupae
and emerge as adul t s i n earl y
s ummer. The adul t weevi l s (p. 78)
are acti ve at ni ght, eati ng fol i age
for about a mont h before l ayi ng
eggs i n sai l . Spray or dust wi t h
a stomach-poi son or a contact
i nsecti ci de.
ROSE CURCULI OS are weevi l s
(p. 78) wi th especi al l y l ong
snout s, or beaks. They eat hol es
i n t he stems or unopened buds
of roses. I nj ured buds may not
open, or i f they do, the petal s
are fl l ed wi th hol es. The l arvae
develop in the young frui t or
hi ps, and when f ul l grown, drop
t o t he ground to pupate. Bee
tles can be hand-pi cked or
jarred from t he pl ant i nto a con
tai ner of water and kerosene.
Du st p l a nt s wi t h a s t oma c h
poi son or contact i nsecti ci de.
Destroy i nfested rose hi ps.
F I E L D AN D F O AGE C R OP P E S T S
Al l fel d crops are food for i nsects. Losses average 1 0
percent, but i n epi demi c outbreaks enti re crops are l ost.
GRASSHOPPERS About 600 speci es of grasshoppers
i nhabi t North Ameri ca. Ni nety percent of t he damage
is due to fve speci es t hat attack fel d crops; more t han
20 speci es are damagi ng t o grass l ands . The dry grass
l ands east of t he Rocky Mount ai ns, where t he an nual
rai nfal l i s l es s t han 30 i nches, peri odi cal l y have grass
hopper outbreaks i n whi ch t he crop l osses amount to
mi l l i ons of dol l ars. Most species of grasshoppers are
gener al feeders, t hough t hey prefer young, green pl ant s.
I n epi demi c out breaks t he hungry hordes wi l l eat any
food avai l abl e. They wi l l stri p a t ree or bush of i t s
fol i age and t hen feed on the bar k. I n heavy out breaks,
wi t h 50 or more grasshoppers to t he square yard, grass
i s cropped cl ose and permanentl y i nj ured, exposi ng
t he l and t o wi nd and water erosi on .
Most grasshoppers l ay eggs in l ate s ummer or earl y
fal l . The femal e pushes her ovi posi tor as deep as two
i nches i nto t he soi l , deposi t i ng her eggs in packets con
si sti ng of as many as 1 00 eggs. These masses of eggs,
gl ued together wi th parti cl es of soi l , are cal l ed pods .
Each femal e may l ay as many as a dozen pods. The
eggs hat ch i n t he spri ng, and t he nymphs begi n eati ng
i mmedi atel y. The n umber of t i mes t hey shed before
becomi ng adul ts varies wi th the speci es but i s usual l y
fve or si x. Most speci es produce onl y one generati on a
year, but t he Mi gratory Grasshopper and several others
may produce two generati ons in warm cl i mates . Pl owi ng
or di ski ng t he l and i n t he fal l buri es some of t he eggs
so t hat t he nymphs cannot make t hei r way to t he surface.
98 FI ELD AND FORAGE CROPS
TWO-STRI PED GRASSHOPPER
1 .5 i n.
RED-LEGGED GRASSHOPPER
These fve speci es of grass hop
pers are t he most damagi ng t o
fel d and forage crops i n t he
Un ited States. The ear of corn
above has onl y a few scattered
kernel s because grasshoppers
ate of s i l ks before pol l i nat i on.
+
w
Bare range l and was scoured by foragi ng grasshopper
horde. Grass st i l l grows heavy under screened pl ot.
Othrs are exposed to the weat her or to predators .
Poi soned bai ts (sweetened bran contai ni ng arseni c,
chl or dane, or si mi l ar poi sons) are used efecti vel y to
ki l l adul ts, and l ar ge areas i n western states are sprayed
wi th contact i nsecti ci des from ai r pl anes.
FI ElD AND FORAGE CROPS 99
APHIDS damage pl ants by sucki ng t he sap from t he
stems, l eaves, or roots. They stunt the pl ant ' s g rowth,
or i n heavy i nfestati ons cause it to di e. Aphi ds have
compl ex l ife cycl es ( p. 66) .
GREENBUGS ar e aphi d pests of
grai ns. In warm cl i mates they
are active throughout the year.
I n cool cl i mates mal es and fe
mal es are produced i n l ate sum
mer. They mate, and t he femal es
deposi t eggs i n t he fol ds of
leaves. Greenbugs are parasi t
ized by a s mal l wasp that Jays
its eggs in the aphi d' s body.
The wasp's l arvae feed on the
aphi d' s i nternal organs. I n o
cool spri ng, the aphi ds bui l d up
a I orge popul ati on before the
wasps become acti ve. Pl ow un
der vol unteer crops. Pl ant resi s
tant vari eti es. Use contact i nsec
ti ci des to check i nfestat i ons of
Green bugs.
CORN ROOT APHIDS i nfest the
roots of corn. The corn grows wel l
unt i l about a foot tal l and t hen
becomes stunted and yel l owed.
The aphi ds winter i n the egg
stage, stored i n t he nests of the
Cornfel d Ant. As soon as they
hatch in spri ng, the young are
pastured frst on the roots of
weeds or grasses, t hen on corn
p l a n t s . T h e a p h i d s p rod u ce
wi nged generati ons that fy to
other pl ants, where they are cap
lured by ants and put to work.
The ant s eat the honeydew ex
pel l ed by t he aphi ds. Ant nests
shoul d be destroyed by pl owi ng
or by treati ng t he soi l wi th a
contact i nsecti ci de.
SPITTLEBUGS damage pl ants as nymphs, sucki ng t he
j ui ces from stems or l eaves. The nymphs surround t hem
sel ves wi t h a mass of frot h, or spi ttl e, as t hey feed . The
squat, br oad adul ts are someti mes cal l ed froghoppers .
The Meadow Spi tt l ebug, a pest of al fal fa and other
l egumes and al so of many or namental s, produces onl y
one generati on i n a season. The nymphs hatch from
eggs l ai d i n stubbl e. Spray pl ants wi th contact i nsec
ti ci des before fal l harvest to ki l l egg-l ayi ng adults or
i n earl y spri ng to ki l l young nymphs .
PLANT BUGS, al so cal l ed l eaf bugs , are a fami l y of
true bugs contai ni ng many speci es that damage and
deform pl ants by s ucki ng out j ui ces. Some feed on onl y
one group of pl ants, such as grasses; ot hers, such as
the Tarni shed Pl ant Bug ( p. 71 ) , are general feeders .
LEGUME BUGS ore pests of l e
gumes and other pl ant s. Nymphs
ore most damagi ng, but adul ts
al so feed on pl ants. Both i ntro
duce a toxi n caus i ng deformi t i es.
Adul ts overwi nter, and femal es
l oy t hei r eggs i n pl ant t i ssues i n
spri ng, wi t h four or fve genera
ti ons produced i n a season. Use
a contact i nsecti ci de i n spri ng
when nymphs begi n to feed. Do
not spray pl ants i n fower, t hus
ki l l i ng bees t hat pol l i nate crop.
FI ELD AND FORAGE CROPS 1 0 1
CHI NCH BUGS are maj or pests of corn but al so dam
age ot her gr ai ns and grasses . Adults overwi nt er i n de
br i s , and i n t he s pr i ng the femal es l ay eggs at t he base
of pl ants, on whi ch t he nymphs feed by sucki ng out
j ui ces. Young pl ants are commonl y ki l l ed; ol der pl ants
s urvive but may not produce. As food pl ants are
exhausted i n one pl ace, the nymphs mi grate i n droves
to fnd new food pl ant s. Chi nch Bugs can be ki l l ed wi th
contact i nsecti ci des sprayed or dusted on i nfested
pl ants, or the i nsecti ci des may be used as a chemi cal
barri er t o prevent ent ry of crawl i ng nymphs. Some crop
vari eti es are resi stant to Chi nch Bugs. Crop rotati on
prevents popul ati on bui l dup.
CEREAL LEAF BEETLES, from Europe, wer e frst found
i n t he U. S. i n 1 962 and ar e now a pot enti al maj or pest
of gr ai n crops i n the Mi dwest. Adul ts survive col d wi nters
by hi bernati ng under debri s. The l arvae hatch from
eggs l ai d i n earl y spri ng and feed on t he l eaves of
young pl ants. They pupate i n J une, and adul ts appear i n
Jul y, feedi ng unt i l wi nter.
ROOTWORMS are grubs, or beet l e l arvae, t hat i nj ure
pl ants by feedi ng on or i n thei r roots . Often the adul ts
damage enti rel y di ferent pl ant s.
NORTHE RN CORN ROOT
WORMS, whi c h feed onl y on
corn, or e pests f r om New Yor k
westward t o t he Rocky Mou n
tai ns , especi al l y i n t he northern
Mi ssi ssi ppi Val l ey. I nfested pl ants
grow sl owl y and are weakened
so that they toppl e i n wi nd or
heavy rai n. The l arvae al so trans
mi t wi l t, a bacteri al di sease. I n
mi ds ummer t h e l arvae l eave t he
roots and pupate i n t he soi l .
The adul ts, whi ch f eed on a
vari ety of pl ants, di e after l ay
i n g eggs around roots of corn
stal ks i n t he fal l . Eggs hatch the
fol l owi ng spri ng. Rotat i ng crops
i s efecti ve. Chemi cal control s
i ncl ude soi l treat ment wi th con
tact i nsecti ci de before pl owi ng,
or sprays or d usts on adul ts.
SOUT HE RN C OR N ROOT
WORM damage i s s i mi l ar to
i nj ury by the Northern Corn
Rootworm, but wor ms al so bore
i nto stal ks at soi l l i ne. Adul ts
are equal l y damagi ng.
GRAPE COLASPIS grubs (Cl over
Rootworms) feed on t he stems
an d fol i age of grapes and other
pl ants. Adul t beetl es emerge i n
mi ds ummer and l ay thei r eggs
around roots of cover crops such
as cl over. The grubs feed on t he
roots unt i l col d weat her, t hen
hi bernate unt i l spri ng, when t hey
conti nue feedi ng. I f a fel d i s
pl owed i n s pr i n g an d t hen
pl anted i n corn, t he hal f-grown
grubs feed on root s. Fal l pl ow
ing exposes gr ubs to freezi ng.
0.7 i n.
WHEAT
WIREWORM
FLEA BEETLES, especi al ly abun
dant i n cool , wet seasons, attack
many fel d and garden crops. I n
additi on t o eati ng l eaves and gen
er al l y weakeni ng a pl ant, they
transmit the bacteri a for Stewart' s
di sease, a wi l t. Heavy i nfestati ons
somet i mes cause a compl ete l oss of
crops. Keep fel ds free of weeds
under whi ch the beetl es hi bernate
in wi nter. For other control s see
p. 62.
WHITE GRUBS of a number of
speci es eat the roots of l awn
grasses, corn, wheat, and forage
crops. I nfested corn pl ants may
di e after growi ng to a hei ght of
about two feet. I n additi on to the
grubs of May and June beetl es,
l arvae of the Ori ental Beetl e are
seri ous pests. Control by soi l fumi
gati on and by other methods de
scri bed on p. 65.
WIREWORMS of several speci es
i nj ure corn, wheat, l awn grasses,
and root crops. The Pl ai ns Fal se
Wi reworm, parti cul arl y damagi ng
t o wheat, i s a dar kl i ng beetl e l arva
rather than a cl i ck beetl e as are
true wi reworms. Control s are gi ven
on p. 63.
WEEVILS, the l argest fami l y of beetl es, are easi l y rec
ogni zed by thei r l ong s nout, at the end of whi ch are
thei r chewi ng mouthparts. When di sturbed, many wee
vi l s " pl ay dead. " Some weevi l s are pests of vegetabl e
crops ( p. 78) , fruits ( p. 1 25) , and stored products
(p. 1 46) . Many are as damagi ng i n the gr ub, or l arva,
stage as they are as adul ts.
ALFALFA WEEVILS, i mportant
pests i n western U. S. , wi nter as
adul t s i n debri s on t he ground.
I n spri ng they emerge and feed
on al fal fa or ather l egumes . The
femal es l ay t hei r eggs i n cavities
chewed i nto t he stems. At frst
t he grubs feed where they hat ch;
l ater they move up Ia t he t i ps.
Oft en t he pl ant i s st unt ed, and
the ent ire frst-growth crop may
be l ast. When ful l grown, t he
l arvae spi n cocoons, and t he
adul ts appear i n about ten days.
Adu l ts can be ki l l ed wi th con
t act i nsecti ci de. Consul t agri cul
tural agent for best t i me t o
appl y and for advi ce on use of
sprayed crop as l i vestock feed.
BI LLBUG i s a name used for sev
eral speci es of snout beetl es t ho!
attack corn, wheal , and ot her
grai ns. Adul t Mai ze Bi l l bugs eat
hol es i n the stems and l eaves of
corn. The grubs, even more dam
agi ng, feed on t he taproots and
i n t he pi th of t he stal ks, for mi ng
pupae i n l at e s ummer or earl y
fal l . Adul ts hi bernate i n wi nter.
Crop rotati on i s an efecti ve con
trol for t he Mai ze Bi l l bug and
t he s i mi l ar, more southern Cur
l ewbug. Maize Bi l l bugs can be
des t r oyed i n h i ber n at i on by
raki ng a fel d and buryi ng de
br i s . The Bl uegr as s Bi l l bug feeds
on wheal, t i mothy, and other
grasses i n t he grub stage.
MAIZE
BI LLBUG
0.6 i n.
0. 3 i n.
1 05
grub
to 0. 5 i n.
SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL
CLOVER LEAF WEEVI LS, al so
pests of al fal fa, are mast dam
agi ng i n ear l y spri ng and may
destroy an enti re crop. The grubs
feed on l eaves at ni ght and hi de
beneat h pl ant dur i ng t he day.
They compl ete growth by l ate
spri ng and spi n a cocoon i n t he
soi l or on t he pl ant . Adul ts
emerge i n earl y s ummer. After
a bri ef peri od af feedi ng t hey
become rel ati vel y i nactive unt i l
fal l , t hen mate and t he femal es
l ay eggs. Larvae t hat hat ch i n
t he fal l hi bernate unt i l spri ng.
Some eggs do not hat ch unt i l
spri ng. I n wet seasons many l ar
vae are ki l l ed by f ungus di sease.
A fel d can be pl owed and
pl anted i n grass, or crap sprayed
with a contact i nsecti ci de.
SWEETCLOVER WEEVILS and
cl osel y rel ated Cl over Root Cur
cul ios are pests of nearl y al l
l egumes. The grubs burrow i nto
the roots, causi ng pl ants to wi l t
and di e. These weevi l s usual l y
overwi nt er as you n g l arvae,
t hough i n some regi ons t hey
pass t he wi nt er in t he egg or
adul t st age. Larvae compl ete
t hei r devel opment by l ate spri ng,
t hen for m pupae and emerge
as adul ts by summer. Adu l ts feed
on fol i age for about a mont h,
aft er whi ch they become l ess ac
ti ve unti l fal l , when t hey begi n
t o feed agai n. At t hi s t i me t hey
mate and femal es l ay eggs an
food pl ant . Cont rol i s di fcul t.
Fi el ds can be pl owed i n earl y
spri ng or l ate fal l ond pl anted
i n grass or other non-l egume
pl ant. Contact i n secti ci des wi l l
ki l l weevi l s but may make crop
unusabl e as a l ivestock food.
LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEE
VILS are most damagi ng to red
cl over but may al so attack al
fal fa and sweetcl overs. The dam
age, greatest i n dry seasons, i s
done l argel y by t he gr ubs , whi ch
f eed on t he stems, l eaves, and
buds. An i nfested pl ant wi l t s
and di es. No goad control met h
ods hove been di scovered.
BOLL WEEVI LS are one of the
more t han 1 00 i nsect pests of
cotton. As many as seven gen
erati ons of Bol l Weevi l s or e pro
duced i n a season, damagi ng
t he pl ont at al l stages of i t s
growt h. Each generati on com
pl etes i t s devel opment i n about
t hree weeks i n good weather.
Adu l ts that emerge from hi ber
nati on i n debri s near cotton
fel ds begi n feedi ng on t he buds
of young cotton pl ants. The fe
mal es l oy one egg i n a deep
puncture i n each devel opi ng
fower bud, or s quore. I f not
enough squares ar e avai l abl e,
more t han one egg may be l ai d
i n a squore. The l arvae feed i n
t he square, causi ng i t t o t urn
yel l ow and drop. I n heovy i nfes
tat i ons t he bl oom of an ent i re
crop i s destroyed. When bol l s
do form, t he weevi l s feed i n
si de. Young bol l s drop from t he
pi on!; ol der ones are stai ned or
decoy. Control s consi st of de
stroyi ng cotton stal ks or debri s
i n whi ch adul t s hi .ernole, pl ant
i ng eorl y mat ur i ng vari et i es of
cotton, and usi ng contact i nsec
t i ci des to ki l l t he feedi ng l arvae
and adul t s. Ti mi ng i s cri ti cal i n
t h e success of t hese control s an d
vari es wi th l ocal condi t i ons. Con
sul t regi onal agri cul tural agent.
1 08
CATERPILLARS of moths and butterfi es are common
pests of fel d and forage crops. Methods of combati ng
them are much the same as those used i n control l i ng
caterpi l l ars t hat damage vegetabl e crops ( p. 80) . Al l
have strong chewi ng mouthparts .
COnON LEAFWORMS crawl
by l oopi ng their body, l i ke
measuri ng worms. Unl i ke al most
al l other moths, the adults may
be pests, usi ng thei r spi ny
mouthparts to make sl i t s i n
grapes, peaches, or other frui t
to gel the sweet j ui ces. The l ar
vae hatch from eggs l ai d on t he
u nder s i de of colton l eaves.
Later t hey pupate i n fol ded
l eaves. A l i fe cycl e i s compl eted
i n about a mont h, with as many
as t hree or four generat i ons a
season . No stage survives wi n
t er i n t he U. S. , t he pest i nvad
ing each year from Central
Ameri ca. Both stomach- poi son
and contact i nsecti ci des are ef-
LEAFWORM
PINK BOLLWORMS feed on
cotton bl os s oms , or s quares,
causi ng t hem to wi l t and drop.
Later t hey feed i n the bol l s. Pi nk
Bol l worms wi nter i n cocoons i n
t he soi l , i nsi de bol l s, or i n t he
seed. Larvae may r emai n i n t hi s
rest i ng st age for more t han two
years, whi ch accounts for t he
worl d-wi de spread of t hi s pest.
Each generati on requi res about
a month, wi th as many as si x
generati ons a season. Wor ms
i n t he seed ar e ki l l ed by heal
( 1 45 degrees F. ) or by f umi ga
ti on. Earl y crops gi ve harvests
before the pests are numerous.
Pl ow under crop resi dues or use
contact i nsecti ci des. Consul t l o
cal agri cul tural agent for t i mi ng.
`
CORN EARWORMS, known as
Bol lworms and Tomato Frui t
wor ms, are t he maj or pests of
sweet corn i n t he U. S. From 500
to more than 2,000 eggs are l ai d
by each femal e. The l arvae feed
on t he unfol di ng l eaves, same
l i mes stunt i ng t he pl ants. Great
est damage occurs when t he corn
i s i n the tassel , or s i l k, stage,
as t he l arvae that hatch on the
si l ks feed there and al so on the
devel opi ng kernel s. I n addi t i on
to destroyi ng t he kernel s, the
l arvae open avenues for mol ds
and for other i nsect pest s. The
wor ms feed al so on t he fowers
of tomatoes and eat the green
frui t. They feed on t he buds of
tobacco pl ants and i n t he seed
pods. I n calion-growi ng areas
they feed on t he l i ps of t he
pl ants, on t he bl ossom, and i n
t he bol l s. Up to seven genera
ti ons ore produced each year i n
warm cl i mates; three or four i n
t he Corn Bel l, onl y one i n nort h
er n states. Cor n Earworms over
winter in the soil in a pupa case,
hence pl owi ng in l ate fal l de
stroys many or exposes t hem to
freezi ng temperatures. Feedi ng
wor ms can be ki l l ed wi t h confacf
i nsecfi ci de dusts. Some hybri d
corn vari eti es are resi stant to
Corn Earworms. Earl y mat uri ng
vari eti es can be harvested before
the pest popul at i on bui l ds up.
FI ELD AND FORAGE CROPS 1 09
ARMYWORM
ARMYWORMS h i ber nat e as
hal f-grawn caterpi l l ars t hat be
gi n feedi ng in spri ng and are
f ul l grawn by earl y s ummer.
They burrow i nt o t he soi l , pu
pate, and emerge as ni ght-fyi ng
moths t ho! are i dent i fed by the
whi te dot on each front wi ng.
Femal e mot hs, of f er a peri od
of feedi ng on nectar or decay
ing frui t, l ay t hei r eggs on grass
or other pl ants. larvae hatch in
about a week and begi n feedi ng
ravenousl y on t he pl ants around
t hem. I f condi t i ons have been
favorabl e, many t housands of
caterpi l l ars are produced. When
t he pl ant s are consu med i n one
area, t he hungry hordes move
i n "armi es" to fnd a new sup
ful l - grown
l arva
1 .5 i n.
pl y. Caterpi l l ars of thi s second,
or s ummer, generati on become
ful l grown i n l ate s u mmer. They
pupate, and t he adul ts emerge
i n the fal l , each femal e l ayi ng as
many as 2,000 eggs, i n c l usters
of 25 to 1 00. These hatch i nto
t he l arvae t hat overwi nter.
The s ummer generati on does
t he greatest damage, and i n t he
years of severe outbreaks many
crops ar e attacked and com
pl etel y destroyed. The caterpi l
l ar s hi de dur i ng t he day and
f eed at ni ght ; hence a crop may
be destroyed compl etel y before
the cat erpi l l ar s are not i c ed.
Armyworms ar e parasi t i zed by a
fy t hat l ays its eggs on t he cat
erpi l l ar' s bac k; the fy's l arvae
FALL ARMYWORM
egg cl uster
on corn l eaf
1 1 0 FI ELD AND FORAGE CROPS
t hen feed on caterpi l l ar and
ki l l i t . A t i ny was p t hat l ays i t s
eggs i ns i de t he Armywor m' s eggs
i s an even more efecti ve nat ural
cont rol of t hi s pest.
Advanci ng "ar mi es" of t hese
caterpi l l ars can be trapped i n
deep f urrows contai ni ng kero
sene or a contact i nsecti ci de.
Poi son-bran bai t s such as those
used for grasshoppers (p. 98)
can be spread i n t he path of
t he mi grat i ng caterpi l l ars, or
fel ds can be sprayed wi th con
t act i ns ec t i c i des . When t h e
wor ms di sappear, i ndi cat i ng that
they have burrowed i nto the
ground to pupate, shal l ow pl ow
i ng wi l l expose t he pupae to
predators and to weather.
southern speci es cl osel y rel ated
to t he Armyworms . Somet i mes
t he mot hs fy i nto northern slates,
appeari ng t here i n the fal l . They
do not survi ve northern wi nters,
however. I n t he South as many
as s i x generati ons are produced
i n one season. The caterpi l l ars
feed frst on grass, t hen move to
corn or other fel d and vegetabl e
crops. I n t he Sout h t he cater pi l
l ars go by t he name of Grass
Wor ms . Fal l Armyworms do not
h i de duri ng t he day as do Army
worms . I n addi t i on to t he con
trol s efecti ve agai nst t he Army
worm, i t i s i mportant to keep
fel ds free of grass on whi ch
t he l arvae f eed frst.
FI ELD AND FORAGE CROPS 1 1 1
EUROPEAN CORN BORERS are
t he mast i nj uri ous pests of corn
i n the U. S. From thei r poi nt of i n
troducti on i n t he Boston area,
j ust before 1 9 1 7, they have
spread across t he cont i nent to
the Rocky Mount ai ns.
Ori gi nal l y t he European Corn
Borer produced onl y one genera
ti on each season, but i n the East
i t now usual l y produces two.
Though corn i s preferred, t he
caterpi l l ars, part i cul arl y t hose of
the second generati on, wi l l feed
on many other ki nds of pl ants.
European Corn Borers overwi nter
as caterpi l l ars i n t he stems of
food pl ants. I n t he spring they
pupate i n the stem, emergi ng as
ni ght-fyi ng adul t moths i n about
10 days. Duri ng t he day t he
moths st ay i n hi di ng under t he
corn l eaves or i n weeds nearby.
The femal e moth l ays her eggs
i n fat cl usters of a dozen or
more on the undersi de of the
1 1 2 FI ELD AND FORAGE CROPS
l eaves of food pl ants. Each fe
mal e may l ay a total of nearl y
2,000 eggs, whi ch are at frst
wh ite but l ater turn yel l owi sh.
Newl y hatched l arvae are yel
lowi sh. They feed f rst an t he
l eaves, t hen bore i nto t he stem
or t he ear, where they feed unti l
ful l grown, in about a mont h.
Where there are two generations
per year, t he frst i s compl eted
by mi ds ummer, and the l arvae
of the second generati on are
f ul l grown by wi nter.
Often many borers attack a
si ngl e pl ant, weakeni ng it and
causi ng i t t o fal l over. Food
canal s in the cornstal k are cut
of so t hat ears of corn do not
form properl y. Bori ngs are al so
openi ngs for ather i nsect pests
and for rot f ungi .
Stems and stal ks in whi ch
borers mi ght hi bernate shoul d be
pl owed under i n t he fal l or earl y
spring. Resistant varieties of
corn shoul d be pl anted. Some
hybri d vari eti es give a goad
yi el d of corn even though i n
fested wi t h borers. Late pl ant
i ng of any vari ety wi l l reduce
t he i nfestations but may al so
l ower t he yi el d of corn. Where
economi cal to do so, corn may
be rotated wi th l egumes. Of t he
many natural enemi es t hat bi ol a
gi sts have i ntroduced from Eu
rope, t he most efecti ve are three
speci es of wasps and a speci es
of fy, al l of whi ch parasi ti ze the
caterpi l l ars. Contact i nsecti ci des
can be appl i ed Ia i nfested pl ant s
ei t her as dusts or sprays, but
thei r efect iveness depends to a
great degree on proper t i mi ng.
General l y the i nsecti ci de i s ap
pl i ed when 70-80 percent of t he
pl ant s i n a fel d show si gns of
i n festat i on. Local agr i c ul t ur al
agents can advi se t he t i me and
recommended rates of spray per
acre for use i n a part i cul ar area.
TOBACCO HORNWORMS (re
the l arge caterpi l l ars of attrac
ti ve moths. They overwi nter as
a di sti nctive chrysal i s, wi th i t s
tongue i n a separate handl el i ke
proj ecti on. The handl e is l onger
t han t he cl osel y rel ated Tomato
Hornwor m's (p. 82) . The gi ant
caterpi l l ars are ravenous feed
ers on t he l eaves of many
pl ants. They can be destroyed
by hand- pi cki ng t hem, or i f es
peci al l y abundant, with i nsecti
ci des. Fal l pl owi ng to expose
the pupae i s al so efecti ve. At
rest, caterpi l l ars hol d front of
body erect i n a st i f s phi nxl i ke
pose. The naked pupa has a di s
t i nctive handl e in whi ch the pro
bosci s fts. Swift-fyi ng adul t s are
cal l ed sphi nx or hawkmoths.
CAROLINA SPHINX
45 i n.
LESSER CORNSTALK BORER
1 .0 i n. wi ngspread
caterpi l l ar
0. 8 i n.
1 1 4
STALK BORERS are mot hs t hat
overwi nter as eggs at t ached to
grass or weeds. The eggs hatch
i n earl y spri ng, and t he l arvae
bore i mmedi atel y i nto the stem
of a pl ant , usual l y the one on
whi ch the eggs were l ai d. later
the caterpi l l ars move to gi ant
ragweeds, corn, and ot her l arge
pl ants. I n August they pupate,
ei ther i n t he stem or i n t he soi l
nearby, and emerge as adul t
mot hs i n l ate summer or earl y
autumn. The femal es l ay eggs
before wi nter. Stal ks and debri s
shoul d be pl owed under i n f al l .
SOUTHERN CORNSTALK BOR
ERS are pests from southern
U. S. to Sout h Ameri ca. The s i mi
l ar Southwestern Cornstal k Borer
occurs onl y i n southwestern Un i t
ed States and Mexi co. I n fested
corn i s stunted, t he stal ks en
l arged or swol l en. Ears ar e poor
l y formed and may drop. The
caterpi l l ars overwi nter i n t he
cornstal ks, change to pupae i n
earl y spri ng, and emer ge as
adul ts before s ummer. As many
as t hree generati ons are pro
duced i n a season. Destroy stal ks
harbori ng hi bernat i ng l arvae; ro
tate corn with l egumes.
LESSER CORNSTALK BORERS,
pests i n southern U. S. , bore i nto
t he base of cornstal ks and al so
l egumes, st unt i ng and deform
i ng t he pl ant s. They usual l y over
wi nter as l arvae, formi ng pupae
in l ate wi nt er and emergi ng as
adul ts i n earl y spri ng. Two gen
erat i ons ar e produced i n a sea
son. Destroy stal ks i n whi ch l ar
vae overwi nter.
WEB!WORMS are general feed
ers, though some species are es
pecial l y damagi ng to l awns or
to particul ar fel d crops. Bl ue
grass Webwor ms and rel ated
speci es are l awn pests. They
feed onl y at ni ght, cutti ng of
bl ades of grass and draggi ng
them i nto t hei r s i l k- l i ned tun
nel s formed al ong the surface of
t he ground. The adul t moths,
whi ch have a promi nent snout,
are commonl y seen fyi ng over
grassy areas at dusk. The Corn
Root Webworm ( i l l ustrated) at
tacks corn, tobacco, and other
crops as wel l as grasses i n whi ch
t hey hi bernate. Pl owi ng i s an
efective control f or pests of fel d
crops. Lawns can be treated wi t h
a cont act i nsecti ci de.
ALFALFA CATERPI LLARS feed
on al fal fa and other l egumes.
Winter i s passed i n the pupa
stage, from whi ch butterf ies
emerge i n earl y spri ng. Femal es
l ay eggs on t he leaves of pl ants,
on whi ch the l arvae feed. There
may be seven generati ons a
year. Pl ants can be sprayed wi th
a contact i nsecti ci de i f t he crop
i s not used for hay.
CLOVER HEAD CATERPIUARS
feed in the cl over head, pre
venti ng fowers from openi ng, or
on green devel opi ng seeds. Fi rst
gener at i on mot hs appear i n
earl y s ummer a n d l ay eggs on
cl over pl ants, where t he l arvae
feed and pu pate. Three genera
t i ons may be produced each
season. Earl y cut t i ng of crop de
stroys many l arvae. The l arvae
are al so parasi ti zed by a wasp.
CLOVER HEAD
CATERPILLAR
0.3 in.
FLY MAGGOTS of only a few speci es are seri ous pests
of fel d and forage crops. They damage pl ants in the
same ways as do l arval pests of vegetabl e crops
( p. 84) . feedi ng i nsi de the stem, fowers, or seeds.
CLOVER SEED MIDGES wi nter
as l arvae i n a t hi n cocoon i n the
soi l or under debri s. They enter
the pupa stage i n t he spri ng
and emerge as adul t fies i n l ate
spri ng. Wi thi n a few days the
femal es deposi t eggs i n young
clover heads, usi ng thei r l ong
ovipositor to reach deep i nsi de.
The developi ng l arvae feed by
sucki ng the sap from the fower
parts, thus prevent i ng the for
mation of seed. When ful l
grown, i n about a mont h, t he
larvae drop t o the ground to
pupate. Adul ts of t hi s genera
ti on appear i n mi dsummer and
l ay eggs that hat ch i nto the over
wi nteri ng l arval farms. The best
means af control i s cutti ng the
cl over before i t i s i n ful l bl oom.
0. 1 i n.
maggot,
0. 1 i n. ,
feedi ng
i n ovul e
WHEAT STEM MAGGOTS are
mi nor pest s of wheat. I n t he fal l
they feed i n the l ower stem of
the pl ant . Their damage i s s i m
i l ar Ia t hat dane by t he Hes
si an Fl y ( p. 1 1 7) . I n s ummer the
maggots feed near t he wheat
heads. I nfected stems event ual l y
turn whi te and di e. Oat s, barl ey,
rye, and other grasses are al so
attacked. Wheat Stem Maggots
overwi nter as l arvae i nsi de the
stem of t hei r food pl ant. They
form pupae i n t he spri ng and
emerge as adul t fi es i n earl y
summer. A second generati on
starts i n s ummer, and these l ar
vae overwi nter. Crop rotat i on
and dest ruct i on of straw i n whi ch
the l arvae are feedi ng are ef
fective control s.
HESSIAN FLIES are t he most
damagi ng pests of wheat. They
al so attack barl ey, rye, and some
speci es of wi l d grasses. The
feedi ng of t he l arvae st unt s the
pl ant ' s growth or ki l l s i t i f t he
i nfestati on i s heavy. Pl ants that
survive gi ve poor yi el ds. Secon
dary fungus i nfecti ons al so oc
cur. The l i fe h i story of t he Hes
si an Fl y vari es wi t h the regi on
and t he wheat-growi ng method.
I n wi nt er - wheat pl ant i ngs ,
eggs ar e l ai d on l eaves of wheal
that come up i n l ate s ummer or
fal l , and t he maggots move
down the leaf to where i t j oi ns
t he st em and begi n sucki ng
out t he pl ant " s j ui ces. Growth
i s compl eted in two to six weeks.
The l arvae then form pupae i n
t hei r l ast l arval s k i n . Th e fat
pupari a l ook l i ke faxseeds.
Adul t fi es emerge i n t he spri ng,
and wi thi n a few days t he fe
mal es begi n l ayi ng eggs on the
l eaves af t he wheat pl ants. Agai n
the l arvae f eed at t he poi nt of
j uncture of t he l eaf wi th t he
stem and form pupae before t he
wheat i s ready for harvest. Adul t
fi es emerge i n l ate s ummer and
l ay eggs that start a second gen
erat i on on t he wi nter wheat .
Where spri ng wheat i s grown,
t he second generati on i s com
pl eted earl i er, and t he f i es over
wi nter al so as pupae. If f al l
pl ant i ng can be del ayed, t he
f i es are unabl e to l ay t hei r eggs
an the l eaves i n t i me far t he
l arvae to compl ete devel opment
before col d weather. A l ocal
agri cul tural agent can speci fy t he
proper t i me for pl ant i ng. Vol un
t eer wheat s houl d be destroyed,
as shoul d t he st ubbl e after a
harvest. Res i stant vari eti es of
wheat have been devel oped, and
crops shoul d be rotated where
possi bl e. Systemi c i nsect i ci des
are now avai l abl e.
F I ElD AND FORAGE CROPS 117
SAWFLIES AND CHALCIDS are among t he few i nsect
pests of pl ants that bel ong to the l arge order contai n
i ng bees, wasps, and ants.
WHEAT STEM SAWFLIES are
destructive to wheat and other
s mal l grai ns. The l arvae feed i n
s i de t he stems , wor ki ng from
the top of the pl ant , where t he
eggs ar e l ai d, toward t he bot
tom. Near the ground l evel t he
l arvae eat out t he i nsi de of t he
stem compl etel y, caus i ng i t t o
break of. The l arvae pl ug t he
open base wi t h droppi ngs and
t hen pass the wi nt er i n t hi s
chamber. Pupae are formed i n
t he spri ng, and adul t sawfi es
emerge i n ear l y s ummer. The
best control i s pl owi ng under
st ubbl e. Pl ant i ng cor n, l egumes,
or other crops not attac ked by
the Wheat Stem Sawfy prevents
bui l dup of pests. Resi stant va
ri eti es of wheat are avai l abl e.
WHEAT JOINTWORM damage
i s s i mi l ar to t he i nj ury done by
t he Hessian Fl y, caus i ng t he
wheat pl ant s to break over. The
break occurs at a gal l - l i ke swel l
i ng on the i nsi de of whi ch are
the feedi ng maggots. Adul t fe
mal es have a sti f ovi positor,
wi th whi ch they dri l l a hol e i nto
the stem of a wheat pl ant j ust
above a j oint. I ns i de the stem
they l ay from one to two dozen
eggs. The feedi ng of the l arvae
on the ti ssues causes the stem
to swel l and twi st. The f ul l
grown l arvae r emai n i n t he stem,
wi nteri ng ei t her as l arvae or as
pupae. Adul t s emerge i n spri ng.
Wheat st ubbl e shoul d be pl owed
under or burned.
WHEAT STRAW-WORMS have
twa generat i ons a year. Yaung
pl ant s ar e attacked i n t he spri ng
and st unted by l arvae t hat eat
i nto t he st em and devel opi ng
heads. larvae of t he frst gen
erati on, f ul l grown by May, form
pupae i n the pl ant stem and
emerge as wi nged adul ts by
earl y J une. The femal es deposi t
t hei r eggs i n wheat stems, usual
l y onl y one egg per stem, and
t he l arvae f eed i nsi de t hrough
the s ummer. They pupate i n t he
fal l and emerge f r om t he straw
or stubbl e as wi ngl ess adul ts in
earl y spr i ng. They l ook much l i ke
ant s. The femal es l ay eggs on
you ng wheat , t hus renewi ng t he
cycl e. Crop rot at i on i s efective.
Stubbl e and vol u nteer wheat
shoul d be pl owed un der.
CLOVER SEED CHALCIDS de
stroy t he seeds of al fal fa and
c l overs. The l arvae wi nter i nsi de
t he seeds on t he ground, form
i ng pupae i n earl y spri ng and
emer gi ng as adu l t s i n l at e
spri ng. The t i ny adul ts l ay t hei r
eggs i n t he formed but sti l l soft
seeds, whi ch t hen become food
for the l arvae. Adul ts are pro
duced from t hi s generati on by
mi dsummer, and another gen
erati on i s started. I n warm cl i
mat es t here are as many as three
gene
r
at i ons. There i s no good
control for t hi s pest.
THIEF ANTS are not onl y house
hol d pests ( p. 24) but may al so
be fel d pest s. They prefer pro
tein foods, but wi l l eat corn and
other seeds. Best control i s c ul
ti vati on of fel d to break up ant
nests.
PE STS OF F RU I TS AND
FRUI T TRE E S
Enti re frui t crops are someti mes l ost because of i nsect
pests. Some speci es attack t hrough the roots, t r unk,
br anches, or l eaves. Ot her i nsects att ack onl y t he frui t.
Some do damage i n onl y one stage of thei r l ife hi story,
whi l e others are pests both as l arvae and as adul ts .
CATERPI LLARS of moths and butterfi es form t he
l argest group of i nsect pests attacki ng fr ui t and frui t
trees. A few caterpi l l ars feed onl y on the frui t. Many
others are l eaf feeders.
CODLING MOTHS ar e t he most
damagi ng pests of appl es. They
al so attack pears, qui nces, and
ot her frui t s. Adul ts appear i n
t he spri ng and are act i ve at
dusk, t he femal es l ayi ng t hei r
eggs on l eaves, twi gs, or frui t
spurs. The worms at frst feed
on the l eaves but soon crawl to
the devel opi ng frui t and burrow
i nsi de, feedi ng near the core
and on the seeds. When t hei r
growth i s compl eted, usual l y i n
about a mont h, t he l arvae crawl
to the out si de and ei t her drop
to the ground or crawl down t he
trunk. They s pi n a cocoon under
debri s or l oose bark and pass
t he wi nter i n f ul l -grown l arval
stage, transformi ng in spri ng
i nto pupae and emergi ng as
adu l ts i n about t wo weeks. I n
most areas t here are t wo gen
erat i ons a year. The frst i s com
pl eted i n mi dsummer ; l arvae of
second generati on overwi nter.
Control consi sts of cl eani ng up
debri s, i ncl udi ng t he l oose bark
on trees, to el i mi nate pl aces
wher e l arvae s pi n cocoons .
Trees c an be sprayed wi t h con
tact i nsecti ci des to ki l l l arvae
before they enter frui t. Do not
spray unt i l petal s have fal l en
from fowers, as ear l y sprayi ng
wi l l ki l l honeybees vi si t i ng t he
bl ossoms. Do not spray wi thi n
two weeks of harvest.
CANKERWORMS eat l eaves of
trees and s hrubs, often defol i at
i ng them. The caterpi l l ars move
wi th a l oopi ng moti on. I nc h
worms and Measuri ng Wor ms
ar e ot her names for t hese cater
p i l l ar s . S p r i n g Can k e rwo r ms
have three pai rs o f true l egs o n
t he thorax a n d two pai rs o f pro
legs on the abdomen. In crawl
i ng, t he rear of t he body i s
brought forward so t hat the
hi nd l egs are agai nst t he front
l egs, t he center of t he abdomen
for mi ng a l oop. Then t he front
part of t he body i s stretched for
ward f ul l l engt h. I f di sturbed,
worm drops on a si l k t hread.
Adul t moths of t he Spri ng
Can kerworm emerge from t he
pupae i n earl y spri ng. Mal es are
wi nged, femal es wi ngl ess. The
femal es l ay t hei r eggs i n cl us
ters on t he bark of trees. As soon
as they hat ch, t he l arvae move
to the l eaves, wh i ch are usual
l y j ust comi ng out, and begi n
feedi ng. After about a mont h
t he ful l - grown caterpi l l ars drop
to t he ground and pupate,
emergi ng the fol l owi ng spri ng.
Fal l Cankerwor ms have a s i m
i l ar l i fe hi story, but t he adul t
moths emerge from t he pupae i n
t h e fal l and l ay eggs t hat do
not hat ch unt i l spri ng. The cater
pi l l ars have three pai rs af pro
l egs at t he end af t he abdomen
rather t han t wo as i n t he Spri ng
Can kerworm.
Both pests can be control l ed
by pai nt i ng Q band of contact
i nsecti ci de around tru n k of tree
to ki l l wi ngl ess femal es t hat
crawl up t he trunks to l ay eggs.
Spray fol i age to ki l l l arvae.
BUD MOTHS of several speci es
feed an t he young buds af pear,
appl e, and at her frui t trees. The
caterpi l l ars overwi nter i n si l ken
cases attached to t wi gs and be
gi n feedi ng i n ear l y spri ng.
They form pupae and emerge
as adul ts by mi ds ummer, starti ng
a second generati on. They can
be control l ed by sprayi ng wi t h
cont act i nsecti ci des.
EYE-SPOTTED BUD MOTH
PEACH TREE BORERS are the
most damagi ng pests of peaches.
The l arvae wi nter i n burrows i n
the tree trunk, from a foot above
the surface to j ust beneath the
soi l l evel . When ful l grown, the
caterpi l l ars change i nto pupae,
spi nni ng a s i l ken cocoon mi xed
wi th t hei r excrement and gum
from t he tree. Adul t moths
emerge duri ng s ummer and earl y
fal l . Unl i ke most moths, they fy
by day. The femal es l ay thei r
eggs on the trun k of trees, com
monl y on i nj ured or previ ousl y
i nfested trees. The l arvae bore
i mmedi atel y i nt o t he bark and
begi n feedi ng. I f an i nfestation
i s not stopped, the tree di es.
Si mpl e control s are efective,
however. The trunk of the tree
can be sprayed with a contact
i nsectici de. Or crystal s of para
di chl orobenzene spread in a ci r
cl e around t he base of t he tree
trunk and covered l i ght l y with
soil wi l l gi ve of a gas and ki l l
young borers i n t hei r burrows.
Consul t an agri cul tural agent for
the best t i me to appl y control s.
LESSER PEACH TREE BORERS
are s i mi l ar to t he Peach Tree
Borer in appearance and in type
of damage, though they general
l y attack hi gher on t he trun k or
i n l arge branches. To control
these pests, i nj ured parts of tree
must be sprayed i n t he fal l , after
the eggs have hatched. Larvae
can al so be dug out wi th a
kni fe, as can Peach Tree Borers.
PEACH TWIG BORERS feed on
t he new growth of peach twigs,
causi ng them to wil t and di e.
I f a t wi g di es before a l arva
compl etes its growth, the l arva
moves to another twi g. When
about hal f an i nch l ong, t he
l arva spi ns a cocoon on t he
branch of a t r ee and transforms
i nto a moth. Femal es l ay eggs on
twigs. As many as four genera
li ons are produced i n a season,
the l at er generati ons al so allack
i ng frui t. Appl y a l i me-sul fur
or oi l -emul si on spray to i nfested
trees to ki l l l arvae i n cocoons.
Check wi th your l ocal agri cul
lural agent.
OR I E NT AL F R U I T MOT HS ,
cl osel y rel ated t o t he Codl i ng
Moth, ar e pests pri nci pal l y of
peaches but al s o allack appl es,
pl ums, pears, and other frui ts.
The ful l - grown l arvae overwi nter
i n s i l ken cocoons attached to t he
bark of the t ree or i n debri s on
the ground. They transform i nto
pupae and emerge os adul t
mot hs i n t he spri ng. I n a few
days the femal es lay t hei r eggs
on l eaves or twi gs. The l arvae
of the frst generati on feed on
the young twigs, causi ng t hem
to di e. I n about a mont h t he l ar
vae are f ul l grown. They spi n
cocoons, pupate, and emerge as
adul ts about a week l ater. I n t he
Sout h there are as many as
seven generations a year; i n the
North, four. Later generati ons
feed i nsi de t he frui t. Ori ental
Frui t Moths are control l ed to
some degree by an i ntroduced
wasp that parasi ti zes the cater
pi l l ars. Many overwi nteri ng l or-
vae can be ki l l ed by cul tivati ng
t he orchard i n t he spri ng. Appl y
contact i nsecti ci des to t he trees
approxi matel y every t hree weeks.
FRUI TWORMS The Green Frui t
worm, t hough sel dom abundant,
feeds on appl es and other frui ts
or on tender fol i age and buds.
The l arvae, usual l y f ul l grown by
Ju ne, crawl down the tree and
transform i nto t he pupal stage
i n a si l ken cocoon i n t he soi l .
The adul t mot hs emerge i n l ate
s ummer or fal l and hi bernate i n
wi nter. They di e t h e fol lowi ng
spri ng aft er mat i ng and l ayi ng
eggs. The worms can be ki l l ed
wi t h cono act i nsecti ci des appl i ed
FRUIT-TREE LEAF ROLLER
i n early spri ng before the buds
have opened. The Green Frui t
worm occu rs in eastern U. S. ; t he
Cherry Frui tworm, si mi l ar i n hab
i t s, mai nl y i n t he Northwest.
Cherry Fru i tworm l arvae feed i n
si de cherri es unt i l f ul l grown.
They hi bernate under t he bark
and transform i nto pupae i n t he
spri ng. Adul t mot hs emerge i n
earl y s ummer, and f emal es l ay
t hei r eggs on devel opi ng frui t.
Trees shoul d be sprayed wi th a
contact i nsect i ci de at t hi s t i me.
LEAF ROLLERS eat l eaves, green
twi gs, and buds, i n j ur i ng many
ki nds of trees and shrubs ( p. 93).
Speci es that attack frui t trees
feed on t he devel opi ng frui t.
Fru it-tree leaf Rol l er caterpi l l ars
hatch i n the spr i ng from eggs
l ai d on t he bark ar twi gs t he
previ ous fal l . They pupate i n a
rol l of l eaves hel d together wi th
si l k. The adul t moths emerge i n
mi dsu mmer, and wi thi n a few
days the femal es lay eggs. The
most successful control i s ob
tai ned wi th t he use of an oi l
spray i nsect i ci de appl i ed to each
of t he browni sh egg masses on
the bark or twi gs.
WEEVI LS t hat damage frui t or frui t trees do so both as
adul t beet l es and as l arvae, or gr ubs. Many ki nds of
weevi l s are pests al so of vegetabl es ( p. 78) , fel d and
forage crops ( p. 1 05) , and stored products ( p. 1 46) .
PLUM CURCULIOS ar e pests af
appl es, cherri es, peaches; pl ums,
and ot her stone frui ts. Adul t s
hi bernate beneat h trash u nder
t r ees and i n ear l y spri ng feed
on buds and young l eaves. The
f emal e chews a hol e i n a de
vel opi ng frui t, then l ays an egg
i nsi de. The beet l e uses her snout
to push t he egg deep i nto t he
hol e. Fi nal l y s he cut s a crescent
shaped sl i t i n t he s ki n of t he
frui t bel ow where t he egg i s
l ai d. Hundreds of eggs may be
l ai d i n one frui t; t he spots and
crescents are a t el l t al e si gn of
an i nfestat i on. The eggs hatch i n
about a week, and t he grubs
PLUM CURCULI O
0. 2 i n.
burrow i nt o fesh toward t he
stone or seeds, ar ound whi ch
t hey f eed. The frui t usual l y drops
before t he l arvae are ful l grown.
When t he l arvae reach f ul l
growt h, t hey emerge and bur
row i nt o t he soi l Ia pupate.
Adul ts appear i n mi ds ummer
and feed on f r ui t on t he ground
unt i l col d weather, when t hey
hi bernate. Orchards shoul d be
cl eaned of trash under whi ch t he
adul ts mi ght h i bernate. Pl ow or
di sk t he orchard i n ear l y sum
mer to ki l l t he pupae. Destroy
any dropped frui t. Spray t he
trees wi t h a contact i nsect i ci de
aft er they have bl oomed.
FRUI T AND FRUI T TREES 125
APPLE CURCULIOS are > i mi l ar
t o Pl um Curcul i o i n the damage
t hey do to frui t. The Appl e Cur
cul i o ha a much l onger nout
and a broader body. Femal e do
not make cre>centhaped car>
on the fruit when t hey l ay egg>,
and the l arvae pupate i nsi de t he
frui t. The frui t become >tunted,
knotty, and mu mmi fed. I n heavy
i nfe>tat i on frui t drop before
ri peni ng. Adul l $ emerge i n mi d
ummer and f eed u nt i l col d
weat her, t hen hi bernate u nder
debri s unti l >pri ng. Bet control
i a thorough cl eanup of the or
chard when an i nfe>tat i on i di
covered. Chemi cal control are
di fcul t, a beetl e feed deep i n
frui t. A vari ety of t he Appl e
Curcul i a attack c herri e>.
APPLE FLEA
WEEVI L
APPLE FLEA WEEVI LS are pe>ts
mai nl y i n t he Mi dwe>t. Adul b
feed on bud and young l eave
i n the >pri ng. The gr ub, ar l arva,
mi ne t hrough the leaf ti uues.
At t he edge af t he l eaf t he l arva
for m a bl i .ter l i ke cel l in whi ch
it transfor m i nto t he pupa.
Adul t beet l e> appear i n l ate
May or June, feed on the fol i age
for a few week>, and t hen be
come i nactive t hrough t he > Um
mer. They hi bernate i n wi nter
and begi n feedi ng agai n i n
earl y >pri ng. Contact i n>ecti ci de
appl i ed beneath t he trees wi l l
ki l l many of t he hi bernati ng
adu l l$ i n the fal l , ar trees can be
sprayed i n earl y spr i ng. Check
wi th you r agri cul tural agent for
t he best ti me for sprayi ng l ocal l y.
IMBRICATED SNOUT BEETLES
eat bud>, young frui t, and l eave
of appl e and other fruit tree>.
Adul l$ appear i n June, feed for
several week, then become i n
active unt i l spr i ng. The l arvae
feed in rooh of l egu me and
ot her pl anh. Control i s by t he
same met hods ued f ar Appl e
Fl ea Weevi l .
BORERS t hat feed on t he i nner bark and sapwood of
frui t and shade trees ore t he grubs, or l arvae, of beetl es.
Usual l y t hey attock onl y the young or i nj ured and
al ready weakened trees .
ROUNDHEADED APPLE TREE
BORERS b u r row i n t o a p p l e,
pear, and at her trees. The soft
bodi ed grubs have an enl arged,
round area j ust behi nd t hei r
head and make round t unnel s.
Smal l trees are gi rdl ed and
ki l l ed. Two (someti mes t hree)
wi nters ar.e spent as grubs. Ful l
grown gr ubs pupate i n spri ng,
and adul ts emerge i n ear l y sum
mer. They f eed on l eaves ' and
t wi gs but do l i ttl e damage. Fe
mal es l ay eggs in sl i ts cut i n
bark at base of trun k. Young
grubs usual l y wor k near soi l
l i ne; ol der grubs feed hi gher,
bore deeper. Di g grubs from
burrows with kni f e or wi re probe
or f umi gate burrows. Contact i n
sect i ci des ki l l adul ts.
F L AT H E A D E D AP P L E T R E E
BORERS attack nearl y al l ki nds
of trees and s hr ubs . The grubs
burrow t hrough t he i nner bark
and sapwood and are especi al l y
damagi ng t o young trees. The
grubs, whi ch work mai nl y on t he
sunny si de of t he tree, have a
fattened enl argement j ust be
hi nd t he head. The grubs hi ber
nate i n t hei r burrows, whi ch are
fl l ed wi t h excrement and saw
dust. They form pupae i n t he
s pr i ng and emerge i n ear l y s um
mer. L i ke t he l arvae, t he adul t
beetl es congregate on t he sunny
si de of t he tree, t he femal es l ay
i ng thei r eggs i n cracks i n the
bark. The t runks of young trees
shoul d be wrapped i n paper or
cl ot h. Borers can be dug out.
SHOT-HOLE BORERS t unnel i n
t he i nner bar k of frui t and shade
t r ees . T h e g r u b t u n n e l s ar e
branches from a parent gal l ery,
about twa i nches l ang, in whi ch
t he femal e beet l e l ai d her eggs.
When f ul l grown t he grubs form
pupae at the end of t he t unnel ,
and t he adul ts bore strai ght aut
t hrough t he bark, maki ng t he
i denti fyi ng "s hot hol es. " The
adul t beetl es fy from tree I a
tree. Femal es usual l y l ay eggs
SHOT -HOLE BORER
i n an al ready i nj ured tree. The
l eaves of an i nfested branch
t ur n yel l ow and drop; s mal l trees
are ki l l ed. I nfested t rees shoul d
be s prayed wi t h a contact i n
sect i ci de i n l at e spr i ng, when
t he adul t s are emer gi ng, or i n
t he f al l , when t he adul ts are
l ayi ng eggs. Heal thy trees are
sel dom attacked, as t he femal es
cannot fnd pl aces to enter to
lay eggs. The beetl es overwi nter
i n the grub stage.
PE ACH BARK BE E TL E S a r e
cl osel y rel ated to t he Shot- hol e
Borer and t hei r damage i s s i m
i l ar. The parent gal l ery r uns
across t he grai n of t he t runk; t he
Shot-hol e Borer ' s gal l ery r uns
wi t h t he g r a i n . Peach B a r k
Beet l e grubs t unnel wi th t he
grai n; Shot- hol e Borer grubs
wor k across t he grai n. Peach
Bark Beetl es are control l ed by
the same methods used for t he
Shot-hol e Borer.
SINUATE PEAR TREE BORERS
t unnel t hrough the i nner bark
of pear, hawthorn, and other
trees. The l arvae, or grubs, hi
bernate i n t he burrows, whi ch
cause t he bark of t he tree to
spl i t and darken. Ful l - grown
grubs pupate i n the spri ng and
emerge i n ear l y s ummer as
adul ts. The beetl es f eed on t he
fol i age but do l i tt l e damage at
t hi s stage. The femal es l ay t hei r
eggs i n cr acks i n t he bar k, and
t he grubs bore i nsi de. Two years
are requi red to compl ete a l i fe
cycl e. Young trees are commonl y
ki l l ed. Dead or i nfested l i mbs
shoul d be cut of and destroyed.
Trees shoul d be sprayed twice
-l ate May and earl y June.
JAPANESE BEETLES feed on the fol i age of many ki nds
of shade and frui t trees and al so destroy frui t. Many
beetl es congregate on one pl ant. The gr ubs are maj or
pests i n l awns and greens, feedi ng on grass roots. I n
most ar eas two years are spent as gr ubs. The l arvae
t hen pupate i n t he soi l , emergi ng as adul ts i n mi dsum
mer . Adul ts are ki l l ed wi t h contact- i nsecti ci de sprays
or l ured to t raps. Grubs are ki l l ed by treati ng the soi l
wi t h i nsect i ci des and al so wi th "mi l ky spore" ( p. 1 3) .
JAPANESE BEETLE
MAGGOTS, the l arvae of fi es, are somet i mes seri ous
pests of frui ts . Maggots feed deep i nsi de frui t; hence
to be efective control s must be appl i ed when t he adul ts
are l ayi ng eggs.
t hrough appl es, bl ueberries, and
other frui ts, reduci ng t he fesh
to a brown, decayi ng pul p. When
f
ul l grown-and usual l y after
the fruit has dropped-t he mag
got s emerge and pupate i n de
bri s or i n l oose soi l . Adul ts
appear i n l ate June or J ul y the
fol l owi ng summer. I n about ten
days t he femal es l ay thei r egg
i n fr
u
i t, puncturi ng t he skin wi th
their sharp ovi positor. Lead ar
senate or contact i nsecti ci des are
efective. An agri cul tural agent
can advi se best ti me to spray.
CHERRY FRUI T FLI ES i n fes t
pears, pl ums, and other frui ts as
wel l as cherri es. The maggots
hatch from eggs laid i n s l its cut
i n the frui t by t he femal e f i es.
They feed on t he fesh of the
fruit and cause i t to be dwarfed,
mi sshapen, or decayed. When
f ul l grown, t he worms drop to
t he ground and pupate in l oose
soil or under debri s. Adul t s
emerge l at e the fol l owi ng spri ng
and feed on l eaves or devel op
i ng frui t by scrapi ng surface
and sucki ng j ui ces. Stomach
poi son or cont act i nsecti ci des,
appl i ed i n spri ng are efective.
pupari um
MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY
l arvae feed on ci trus frui ts,
peaches, pl ums, and other feshy
frui ts. Thi s dangerous pest has
gai ned entry to conti nental U. S.
several t i mes t hrough i ntroduc
ti ons i n Fl ori da, but each t i me
has been exter mi nated. Mexi can
Frui t Fl y has been kept i n check
by i nspecti on and control al ong
Texas-Mexi co border.
hatch from eggs l ai d on t he
l eaves of currant or gooseberry
bushes. The l arvae eat from
margi n of l eaf toward center.
When ful l grown, they drop to
the ground to pupate. In war m
regi ons there ar e two and a par
tial t hi rd generati on every year.
PEAR SLUGS are sl i my, sl ugl i ke
l arvae t hat eat t he f ol i age of
pears, pl ums, cherries, and ot her
frui t trees. Onl y t he vei ns of
t he l eaves remai n. The ful l
grown worms pupate in t he soi l .
A second generation appears i n
mi dsummer, i n heavy i nfestati ons
compl etel y defol i at i ng trees.
SAWFLY LARVAE are leaf feeders ( p. 95) attacki ng
many pl ants. They are easi l y ki l l ed wi th stomach-poi son
or contact i nsecti ci des.
APHI DS, or pl ant l i ce, are al l si mi l ar i n habits and
l ife history, whi ch i s often compl ex ( p. 66) . Al l are
i nj uri ous pests of pl ants, and some speci es are espe
ci al l y i nj uri ous to frui ts .
WOOLY APPLE APHIDS se
crete a wool l y, white wax over
t hei r body as they feed. They
overwi nter ei ther in the egg
stage in crevi ces on the bark of
el ms or as nymphs h i bernati ng
on roots of appl e trees. Nymphs
that hatch from t he eggs on el ms
feed on t he leaves and buds. I n
t h e t hird generati on wi nged
forms appear and mi grate t o
appl e trees, where they feed on
roots, causi ng gal l s t o form.
Someti mes t hey stay on the roots
for two seasons, through sever
al generati ons. They stunt the
tree's growth and moy ki l l it.
These pests are di fcul t to con
trol . Stomach-poi son or contact
i nsecti ci des are efective i f ap
pl i ed heavi ly. An i ntroduced
wasp parasite i s al so efective.
APPLE APHIDS overwi nter os
eggs on t he bark of trees.
Nymphs hatch in earl y spri ng
and feed frst on buds. A con
t act i nsecti ci de appl i ed at t hi s
t i me gi ves good control , es
peci al l y s i nce al l of t he eggs
hatch at about t he same t i me.
Trees can be sprayed a second
t i me i n l ate summer to ki l l
wi nged adul ts that may have
mi grated from nearby orchards
or from wi l d host trees.
ROSY APPLE APHIDS are pests
pri nci pal l y of appl es but may
al so i nfest pears, hawthorns, and
such nonwoody pl ant s as pl an
tai ns. Leaves and twi gs of an
i nfested tree c ur l and t he frui t
bec omes h a r d a n d k n ot t y.
The eggs hatch over a peri od of
several weeks in earl y spri ng
about the t i me the t rees begi n
t o bud. Dormant oi l sprays ( p. 22)
wi l l destroy both t he eggs and
newl y hatched nymphs.
SPI REA APHI DS col l ect i n l arge
numbers on t he new growt h af
spi rea and ot her pl ants. Al so
k n own as t h e Gr een Ci t r u s
Aphi d, t h i s speci es commonl y at
tac ks ci tru s in Fl orida and Cal i
for ni a. I t causes l eaves to curl ,
deforms frui t, and covers t he
ground wi th honeydew, on whi ch
bl ack sooty mol d grows. I t al so
t ra n s mi t s a v i r u s d i s eas e.
Wi nged forms, produced when
ever a col ony becomes crowded,
mi grate to other trees. Use con
tact i nsecti ci de sprays i n earl y
spri ng, before t he popul ati on of
aphi ds has bui l t up.
SCALES AND MEALYBUGS are so modifed i n body
form that they are often not recogni zed as i nsects
(p. 86) . Al l of the thousands of speci es damage pl ants
by feedi ng on thei r j ui ces, t hus stunti ng thei r growth
and defor mi ng the fruit. Scal es and meal ybugs are t he
most destructive i nsect pests of ci trus.
CALIFORNIA RED SCALE i s t he
most damagi ng scal e pest of
ci t rus i n Cal i forni a, occurri ng l ess
abundantl y i n Texas, Ari zona,
and t he Gul f stoles. Cal i forni a
Red Scal e i s al so a pest of many
other frui t trees and ornomen
l oi s. I t feeds on t he st ems and
l eaves as wel l as on t he frui t.
Nymphs crawl over t he pl ant for
several hours before settl i ng to
feed and secret i ng a waxy cov
eri ng over t hei r body. Mol es ma
ture i n about t wo mont hs and
emerge f rom scal e as yel l ow
wi nged adul ts. Each i nsemi notes
on i mmobi l e femal e, then di es.
Fert i l e femal es 9i ve bi rth to two
or three young every day for
several mont hs. Four generat i ons
ore produced every season. Trees
ore f umi gated with hydrogen
cyan i de gas or ore sprayed wi t h
a contact i nsecti ci de to ki l l t he
"crawl er" nymphs.
i nfested
orange
femal e
SCALE
0. 1 i n.
PURPLE SCALE, a wi del y di s
tri buted speci es, i s t he most
damagi ng ci trus scal e pest i n
Fl ori da. I t al so occurs i n Cal i
forni a. I n addi t i on to ci trus, t hi s
s c al e i nfests avocados, pecans,
and many ornamental s. I n Fl or
i da, control l ed by sprayi n g wi th
oi l to ki l l t he young sti l l crawl
i ng and before t hey secrete a
protective ar mor. Parat hi on and
other contact i nsecti ci des ore
used i n Cal i forni a.
CALIFORNIA RED SCALE
FRUI T AND FRUI T TREES 1 33
SAN JOSE SCALE is damagi ng
to appl e, pear, peach, cherry,
and many other frui t and shade
trees and ornamental pl ants.
Heavy i nfestat i ons may ki l l the
trees, whi ch are frst weakened
and t hei r fol i age yel lowed. I n
fested frui t i s spotted. San Jose
Sc al e s overwi n t er as par t l y
grown nymphs, or crawl ers, t hat
cl i ng to t he bark of t he tree.
They begi n to feed i n earl y
spri ng, as soan as t he sap starts
to fow, and are f ul l grown by
the t i me the trees bl oom. The
wi nged mal es i nsemi nate the fe-
mal es, whi ch never emerge from
u nder thei r scal e. Femal es gi ve
bi rth to as many as 500 nymphs
i n 1 ' mont hs. The t i ny mi t el i ke
crawl ers move aver the pl ant for
several hours before sett l i ng t o
feed, secret i ng a waxy scal e
over t hemsel ves. I n t he crawl i ng
stage t hey may be bl own by t he
wi nd or carri ed by man or other
ani mal s to i nfest other pl ants. As
many as si x generati ons are pro
duced each year. A dor mont spray
in l ate wi nter or early spri ng
ki l l s overwi nteri ng nymphs. Wasp
parasites al so efecti ve.
BLACK SCALE i nfests ci trus, ap
pl es, fgs, grapes, pears, and
many ornament al s i n war m re
gions ond i s al so a greenhouse
pest i n col d cl i mates. I n addi
ti on to t he damage done by
sucki ng t he pl ant ' s j ui ces, l arge
amounts of honeydew are ex
c r et ed on wh i c h sooty mo l d
grows. Cont rol l ed pr i nc i pal l y
wi th oi l sprays. An i ntroduced
wasp parasi te i s al so efective.
COTTONY-CUSHI ON SCALES
are pests of ci trus and many
ather frui t trees and ornamen
tal s. The femal e, whi ch has a
brown ar reddi sh body, secretes
a large cottony mass contai ni ng
as many as 1 ,000 r ed eggs . Both
the young and the adul t s can
move, al t hough the femal e slaps
moving after her egg sac forms.
The t i ny mal es are wi nged.
Cottony-cush i on Scal e, once
t he most damagi ng pest of c i t
rus i n Cal i forni a, was brought
under control by Vedal i a, a
predatory l ady beetl e i ntroduced
from Austral i a. The use of i n
secti ci des t o ki l l other pests has
destroyed t he Vedal i a i n some
areas, where i nsecti ci des must
be used now to control t he Cot
tony-cushi on Scal e unt i l the bee
tles are agai n establ i shed.
CI TRUS MEALYBUGS suck t he
j ui ces from t he l eaves, stems,
and frui t of ci trus and many
ot her pl ants. I n warm cl i mates
they are outdoor pests, some
ti mes i nfest i ng potatoes and veg
etabl e crops. I n cool cl i mates
they are pests of house pl ant s
and i n greenhouses. Ci trus Meal y
bugs expel l arge amount s of
honeydew. Femal es are covered
wi th wax; mal es are wi nged. On
smal l pl ants they can be pi cked
of by hand, washed of wi th
water, or ki l l ed wi th contact i n
secti ci des. I n groves l ady beetl es
and parasi ti c wasps have been
efec t i ve c on t r ol s for Ci t r u s
an d rel ated Ci trophi l us, Grape,
and Long-tai l ed meal ybugs.
WHITEFLI ES are ti ny i nsects i n a fami l y cl osel y rel ated
to aphi ds and scal e i nsects. Two dozen or so speci es,
i ncl udi ng the Greenhouse Whi tefy ( p. 88) , are dam
agi ng t o or namental s and frui t trees, parti cul arl y citrus
and other pl ants that grow i n warm cl i mates. Frui t on
an i nfested t ree i s di scol ored by sooty mol d. I f an i n
festati on i s al l owed t o persi st, the pl ant ' s growth i s
stunted and i ts yi el d i s greatl y reduced. Al l whitefi es
have a s i mi l ar l ife hi story. The femal e l ays her eggs on
short stal ks attached t o the undersi de of l eaves. The
nymphs hatch i n 4-1 2 days and are cal l ed "crawl ers "
because they move about over the pl ant . Soon, how
ever, they i nsert thei r beaks i nto a stem or l eaf and
begi n t o feed on the pl ant
;
s j ui ces. When the nymphs
shed, t hey l ose thei r l egs and t hei r antennae are greatly
reduced in si ze. At thi s stage the nymphs are i mmobi l e
and resembl e scal es. On the fourth mol t the adul ts
emerge. Both mal es and femal es are wi nged and are
covered wi th white, powdery scal es. As many as t hree
or four generati ons are produced i n a season i n warm
cl i mates. I nfested pl ants shoul d be sprayed i n spri ng
and fal l wi th an oi l emul si on or wi th a contact i nsecti
ci de, such as mal athi on or parathi on. Consul t l ocal
agri cul tural agent for best ti me to spray.
1 36 FRUI T AND FRUI T TREES
TREE CRI CKETS l ay eggs in the branches or stems of
trees and s hrubs. The femal e dri l l s a hol e, l ays an egg,
then moves forward and repeats the process, someti mes
l ayi ng several dozen eggs i n a row. The stem beyond
t he punctures usual l y di es. Spray wi t h l ead arsenate or
other stomach poi son i n summer before egg l ayi ng
begi ns. Remove and bur n punctured stems i n the fal l .
CITRUS THRIPS i s a seri ous pest i n Cal i forni a but does
not occur in Fl ori da. I t feeds on buds, new growth and
young frui t, scrapi ng away outer ti ssues and sucki ng up
j ui ces. I nfested trees grow sl owly and frui t shows dis
ti nct ri ng scar. Thri ps wi nter i n the egg st age on l eaves
and stems. A l ife cycl e i s compl eted in about three
weeks or l ess. Both stomach-poi son and contact i nsec
ti ci des are efective.
detai l of r i ng scar
on orange
1 38
CITRUS RED MITES, cal l ed Pur
pl e Mi tes i n Fl ori da, cause t he
l eaves of i nfested t rees to be
speckl ed, fnal l y t urni ng brown
and droppi ng. The frui t i s di s-
col ored. The Ci trus Red Mi t e i s
an especi al l y seri ous pest i n
Cal i forni a. Si x-spotted Mi t es are
more abundant i n Fl ori da. They
col l ect on undersi de of l eaves.
MITES, rel atives of spi ders and ti cks, have become
more seri ous pests i n recent years. Some of the newer
i nsecti ci des kil l the predators and parasites of mites.
Onl y those mites especi al l y damagi ng to ci trus are de
scri bed here. Other pests i ncl ude the European Red
Mi te, Paci fc Spi der Mite, and Pear Leaf Bl i ster Mite,
which i nfest pear, cherry, appl e, and other frui t trees
of temperate regi ons. Mi tes are al so pests of man
( p. 45) , domestic ani mal s and pets ( pp. 54-55) , veg
etabl e crops ( p. 85) , and fowers and shr ubs ( p. 90) .
Oi l sprays, sul fur dusts, and l i me-sulfur sprays are
efective control s, as are speci al miti ci des. Your agri
cul tural agent can tel l you the best chemi cal and ti me
of appl i cati on i n your area.
CITRUS BUD MITES, pests mai n
l y i n Cal i forni a, feed on buds
and bl ossoms of l emons, J ess
commonly on other ci trus. Frui t
l eaves and t wi gs are deformed.
CITRUS RUST MITES, seri ous
pest s i n Fl ori da, damage mai nly
oranges but al so i nj ure grape
frui t, l i mes, and l emons. Femal es
l ay eggs on frui t and l eaves.
PESTS OF F OREST AND
S AD TRE E S
I nsect pests destroy more ti mber t han d o forest fres.
Ordi nari l y the damage i s not conspi cuous, but i n severe
outbrea ks whol e stands of t i mber may be ki l l ed i n one
season. Some speci es spread pl ant di seases. State
and nati onal government agenci es batt l e forest i nsects
i n l arge-scal e control programs.
BEETLES are damagi ng to trees both as adul ts and as
l arvae ( grubs) . Most i nj uri ous ar e t he borers t hat work
i n the wood of the trunk or i n the branches.
SMALLER EUROPEAN ELM BARK BEETLE
grub
to 0. 3 i n.
ELM BARK BEETLES are carri ers
of the deadl y Dutch el m di sease,
caused by a f ungus. The Smal l er
European El m Bark Beetl e was
i ntroduced to North Ameri ca i n
1 909, t he di sease i n 1 930. The
Nat i ve El m Bark Beet l e i s now
al so a carri er. Adul t s of both
species appear i n l ate spri ng
or earl y s ummer and feed on
branches or twi gs. Eggs are l ai d
onl y i n dead or dyi ng wood.
Keepi ng trees heal thy and el i m
i nat i ng damaged or di seased
port i ons gi ves partial control .
0.2
ELM LEAF BEETLES overwi nt er
as adul ts and i n earl y spri ng l ay
cl usters of eggs on undersi de of
el m l eaves. Grubs and adul ts
feed on l eaves. Grubs are f ul l
grown i n about three weeks. They
pupate in debri s under tree and
emerge as adul ts i n about two
weeks. Three or more genera
ti ons are compl eted i n a year.
Spray l eaves wi t h s t o ma c h
poi son o r contact i nsect i ci des I a
destroy grubs and adul ts, and at
base of i nfested tree to ki l l gr ubs
descendi ng to pupate.
BRONZE
BI RCH
BORER
BRONZE BI RCH BORERS are
mai nl y i nj uri ous to bi rches but
may al so attack wi l l ows, popl ars,
and cottonwoods. The l arvae
overwi nter i n the sapwood, for m
i ng pupae i n ear l y spr i ng and
emer gi ng as adul ts i n l at e spri ng
or earl y s ummer. Femal es l ay
t hei r eggs i n crevi ces i n t he
bark. On hatch i ng, t he grubs i m
medi atel y burrow i nt o t he wood.
Thei r t unnel s, someti mes 4 feel
l ong, may cut of t he fow of
sap. Fi rst the tips of the branches
t urn brown, t hen t he t ree di es.
The Bronze Birch Borer, rel ated
to t he Fl al headed Appl e Tree
Borer (p. 1 27), i s most l i kel y to
attack si ck or i nj ured trees. Use
canlact i nsecti ci des for adul ts.
LOCUST BORERS wi n t e r a s
s mal l l arvae i n t h e bark and
start t hei r t unnel i ng i nto t he
wood i n spri ng, causi ng swol l en
areas to appear on t he trunk.
The borers commonl y ki l l t he
tree. Ful l - grown gr ubs pu pate i n
cel l s i n t he wood i n mi ds ummer.
Adul t beetl es appear i n l ate
s ummer or earl y fal l . They fy
acti vel y, feedi ng on fowers. The
femal es l ay t hei r eggs i n cracks
i n bark, most often attacki ng
s mal l or weakened trees. Spray
trunks with a contact i nsecti ci de
before tree starts spri ng growt h.
1 40 FOREST AND SHADE TREES
POPLAR BORE RS a r e l o n g
horned beetl es. The grubs t unnel
i n the trun k and l arge l i mbs of
trees, weakeni ng t he wood s o
t hat l i mbs br eak of. Event ual l y
an i nfested t ree di es. larvae are
usual l y f ul l grown i n t wo years
but may lake three years to com
pl ete devel opment. They pupate
i n the burrows and emerge as
adul ts i n l at e s ummer or earl y
fal l . The femal e beetl e deposi t s
eggs i n cracks i n t he bark. The
newl y hatched grubs i mmedi ate
l y burrow i nsi de. larvae can be
ki l l ed wi th probes ar by f umi
gat i ng t unnel s wi t h carbon bi
sul fde ( see Roundheaded Appl e
Tree Borer, p. 1 27). Badl y i n
fested t rees shoul d be cut and
burned to prevent spread.
ENGELMANN SPRUCE BEETLES
bore through the outer bark of
l i vi ng trees, cutt i ng egg gal l eri es
paral l el Ia t he surface. Each gal
l ery contai ns about 1 25 eggs.
The grubs feed on t he wood near
t he chamber unti l col d weather,
rest unt i l spr i ng, t hen feed
agai n. They pupate i n mi ds um
mer and became adul ts i n l ate
summer or fal l , spendi ng the
wi nter under t he bark of the
gi rdl ed and dyi ng or dead
trees. The fal l owi ng spri ng t he
beet l es i nfest new t rees. Nor mal
l y t he beetl es are control l ed by
n at u r al pr edat or s . F or es t er s
c hec k constantl y for i nfestat i ons.
Bark of i nfested t rees i s peel ed
of and burned, or trees treated
wi th a penetrat i ng i nsecti ci de.
BARK BEETLES of several spe
ci es damage coni fers, and l ess
c o mmo n l y, d e c i d u ou s t r ees .
Among these ar e t h e Hi c kory
Bark Beetl e, Dougl as Fir Engrav
er, Western Pi ne Beet l e, and
Southern Pi ne Beetl e. Typi cal l y
t he beetl es mi ne, or t unnel , j ust
beneath bark to make gal l eri es
for eggs. More extensi ve tunnel s
rami fy from gal l eri es as t he
gr ubs feed. Sap occasi onal l y
fows from t unnel s, and dust af
bori ngs col l ects around base af
tree. Tunnel s open way far fun
gus di seases, and destructi on of
cambi um event ual l y ki l l s t ree. I n
street and yard pl ant i ngs, prune
dead wood of trees to destroy
breedi ng pl aces. Ki l l adul ts wi t h
cont act i nsecti ci de.
FOREST AND SHADE TREES 1 4 1
CATERPILLARS, the l arvae of moths and butterfi es,
feed on the l eaves, buds, and fowers of many ki nds of
trees and s hrubs. Certai n speci es of moths are among
the most damagi ng pests of forests . Control of the most
seri ous pests may i nvolve several states or an enti re
regi on . Such l arge-scal e control programs are conducted
by state and federal agenci es. I nfestati ons of shade
trees may be control l ed l ocal ly.
SPRUCE BUDWORM
SPRUCE BUDWORMS, of t he
coni fer forests of eastern United
Stoles and Canada, are among
t he most i nj uri ous of al l i nsect
pests. Young cater pi l l ars over
winter beneath bark and become
active i n ear l y spri ng, feedi ng
an buds and new growt h. They
are ful l grown by earl y s ulmer,
for mi ng pupae and transformi ng
i nto adul ts. Moths l ay eggs i n
l ate s ummer. Heavy i nfestations
ki l l trees; l i ght i nfestati ons turn
n eedl es brown . Con t r ol wi t h
stomach-poi son or contact i n
secti ci des.
GYPSY MOTH caterpi l l ars feed
on l eaves of deci duous trees,
coni fers, and many other pl ants.
They form pupae i n mi dsummer
and emerge as adul ts i n July
and August. The Gypsy Moth
overwi nters in the egg stage. As
the femal es cannot fy wel l , the
Gypsy Moth i s spread l ong di s
tances pri nci pal l y by man-n
cars, trucks, trai ns, or other ve
hi cl es. The caterpi l l ars spi n s i l k
en t hreads and may be bl own
by t he wi nd. Egg masses can be
destroyed or t he trunks of trees
treated with a contact i nsecti
ci de to ki l l caterpi l l ars.
FOREST TENT CATERPILLARS
at li mes mi grate in armies of
mi l l ions, defol i ati ng frees and
shr ubs i n t hei r path. They usual
l y feed on t he l eaves of oaks,
mapl es, el ms, ash, and con ifers.
Wi nter i s passed in the egg
stage, and t he l arvae hatch i n
earl y spri ng. Adul t moths ap
pear i n mi ds ummer. Forest Tent
Caterpi l l ars, despi te thei r name,
do not make Ients, as do the
cl osel y rel ated Eastern Tent Cat
erpi l l ars. Fol i age of i nfested
frees can be sprayed wi th a
stomach-poi son or contact i nsec
ticide to ki l l caterpi l l ars.
TUSSOCK MOTH caterpi l l ars
are hai ry and usual l y have sev
eral l ong luffs of bl ack hairs on
the head and tai l . The caterpi l
l ars hat ch i n l at e spri ng from
egg masses l ai d on bark and
l eaves or on t he cocoon case
from which the nearl y wi ngl ess
femal es emerged. They feed on
the fol i age of a great vari ety
of trees and shrubs and are f ul l
grown by mi ds ummer. I n many
regi ons there ar e two genera
li ons a year. Egg masses can be
pai nted wi th creosote or gath
ered and burned. The l arvae
can be ki l l ed with stomach
poi son or contact i nsecti ci des.
The While-marked Tussock Moth
is a common and wi despread
species; others are the Hi ckory
Tussock Mot h, Dougl as Fir Tus
sock Moth, and Western Tussock
Moth. The Gypsy Moth (p. 1 42)
and the Brown-fai l Moth bel ong
to the same fami l y. The Brown
tai l Moth, once a damagi ng pest
i n eastern Uni ted States, i s now
l argel y under control .
CARPENTERWORMS b urrow
i nto t he wood of oaks, el ms,
mapl es, and other deci duous
trees. The hol es weaken t he trees
so that l i mbs break of in heavy
wi nds. The damaged wood i s
greatl y reduced i n val ue. The
f ul l - grown l arvae pupate i n t he
wood. When i t i s t i me for the
adul ts to emerge, t he pupae
wriggl e thei r way partl y out of
t he tree. The adul t moth l eaves
the shed pupal ski n i n the hol e.
Each generati on requi res three
years or l onger. Best control is
fumi gation of burrows.
CASEBEARERS are a fami l y of
moths i n whi ch the caterpi l l ars
bui l d portabl e cases carri ed
wi th them as they feed. The
caterpi l l ars can be ki l l ed by
sprayi ng the fol i age wi th ei ther
stomach-poison or contact i nsec
ti ci des. Some species are espe
ci al l y damagi ng to frui t trees,
others to shade or forest trees.
Many attack onl y one ki nd of
tree. The Pecan Ci gar Case
bearer i s a pest of pecan, hi ck
ory, and wal nut trees in eastern
U. S. , the Cal i forni a Casebearer
damages wi l l ows in Cal i forni a.
OAKWORMS are fol i age feed
ers. The Cal i forni a Oakworm is
a pest of l ive oaks i n Cal i forni a.
The Orange-stri ped Oakworm, of
a di ferent f ami l y, i nfests oaks
of eastern U. S. Both wi l l feed
on other deci duous trees. I n
war m regi ons there may be two
generati ons a year. Spray wi th
stomach-poi son or el se wi th a
CALIFORNIA OAKWORM contact i nsecti ci de.
chrysal i d
SCALES that i nj ure forest and shade trees are si mi l ar
i n l ife hi story t o speci es damagi ng fowers and shr ubs
( p. 86) and ci trus ( p. 1 33) . I n heavy i nfestati ons t he
fol i age t ur ns brown and drops. Young pl ants may be
ki l l ed. Oystershel l , Pi ne Needl e, Cottony Mapl e, and
European El m scal es are common, wi despread s peci es.
Scal es are ki l l ed by appl yi ng a dormant oi l spray before
the pl ant buds i n spri ng or by sprayi ng with a contact
i nsecti ci de when scal es are i n the crawl i ng stage.
SAWFLY l arvae l ook l i ke caterpi l l ars, t hough the adul ts
bel ong to the same order of i nsects as bees, wasps, and
ants. The l arvae feed on fol i age. Some speci es damage
s hade and forest trees. Ki l l l arvae by sprayi ng wi th
either stomach- poi son or contact i nsecti ci des when they
are acti vel y feedi ng.
I NS E CT PE STS OF
STORE D PRODUCTS
Pest i nfestati ons i n stored products are difcul t t o detect
and control . The pests not onl y eat the grai n or other
stored products but may al so create damp, warm con
diti ons i n whi ch equal l y destructive mol ds can grow.
Cheese, cured meats, furs, and wool fabri cs are among
the ani mal products attacked by i nsect pests. Other
pests of stored products ar e descri bed i n t he secti on on
Househol d Pests ( p. 24) .
WEEVILS may destroy an enti re
storage of grai n. Most dam
agi ng and wi del y di stri buted
are Granary and t he Ri ce wee
vi i s. The Granary Weevi l does
not fy, hence does not i nfest
groi n i n t he fel d. I t t hrives in
northern cl i mates; t he Ri ce Wee
vi i i s most abundant i n warm
cl i mates. The Rice Weevi l can
fy and often i nfests grai n before
storage. Adul ts of both speci es
wi l l eat whol e grai n or grai n
products. The l arvae can de
vel op onl y i n whol e kernel s, i n
si zabl e pi eces, or i n four that
GRANARY
WEEVI L
0. 1 i n.
has become moi st and caked.
A l i fe cycl e i s compl eted i n one
t o t wo months, and the weevi l s
overwi nter ei t her as l arvae or as
adul t s. Each femal e l ays about
400 eggs i n her l i feti me. She
chews a hql e i n a kernel and then
deposi ts one egg i nsi de. Adul ts
l i ve two years or l onger and can
survi ve l ong peri ods wi thout
food. I n househol ds, i nfested
products shoul d be burned, and
the storage area cl eaned thor
oughl y. Si mi l ar san itary measures
are taken i n granari es, or the
grai n i s f umi gated.
MEALWORMS teed on oi l types
of groi n and grai n products, par
ti cul arl y i f stared i n dark, damp
pl aces. After si x t a ni ne months,
l arvae form pupae i n grai n and
transform i nto adul ts. Yel low
Meal worms are more abundant
i n cool cl i mates, Dark Mealworms
i n warmer cl i mates. I n storage
bins or el evators, l arvae are
ki l l ed by superheati ng, freezi ng,
or f umi gati on.
FLOUR BEETLES feed on grai n
or grai n products, spices, nuts,
dri ed frui ts, chocol ate, and other
stored foods. They gi ve four a
di sagreeabl e, mol dy favor. The
Red Fl our Beetl e i s most abun
dant i n warm regi ons, the Con
fused Fl our Beetl e i n cool cl i
mates. Both are worl dwi de i n
di stri buti on and are among t he
most fami l i ar of t he stored
product pests to reach the home
from the grocery store. Note
RED
FLOUR
CADELLES are beetl es that i n
fest grai ns and seeds i n storage.
The l arvae feed on the grai n,
but the adul t beetl es attack and
eat other i nescts or t hei r l arvae.
Both the eggs and pupae are
ki l l ed by l ow temperatures, but
the adul ts and l arvae survive
lang periods of col d. The adul t s
and l arvae t unnel i nto soft wood
in storage areas and are most
easi l y ki l l ed by f umi gati on.
that the Red Fl our Beetl e' s an
t ennae are enl arged abruptl y,
whi l e the Confused Fl our Beetl e' s
antennae enl arge gradual l y. I n
the h ous e, i n f es t ed p rod u c t s
shoul d be destroyed an d cup
boards cl eaned thorough l y. I f a
product must be saved, l arvae
can be ki l l ed if kept for several
hours at 40 degrees F. or i f
heated to about 1 30 degrees F.
for t wo hours. Destroyi ng four
i s usual l y mast pract i cal .
SAW-TOOTHED
GRAIN BEETLE
GRAIN BEE
TLES, worl dwi de in di stri buti on,
feed on a wi de vari ety of foods
but especi al l y on four, cereals,
and other grain products. The
beetl es are so fat they can
crawl i nto sacks or boxes that
appear Ia be ti ghtl y seal ed. The
femal es deposi t their eggs i n the
food, and when ful l grawn, the
wi ngspread, 0.5 i n.
ANGOUMOIS
GRAIN MOTH
Parasi ti c wasp
l ayi ng eggs i n
t h e egg of an
ngoumoi s Moth
1 48 STORED PRODUCTS
l arvae form pupae and trans
form i nto adul ts. A l i fe cycl e
usual l y takes about two months,
with si x or seven generations a
year. Al l l i fe stages are ki l l ed
by cool i ng to 0 degrees F. for
one day or heat i ng to 1 25 de
grees F. for an hour. Cl ean star- I
age areas. Avoi d contami nati ng
foods wi th i nsecti cides.
ANGOUMOIS GRAI N MOTH
caterpi l l ars attack grai n in star
age and also in the fel d. They
prefer tender, damp grai n rather
than grai n that i s hard and
dr i ed. The l arvae t unnel i nto
the kernel s and seal t he en
trance hol es wi th si l k. When f ul l
grown the l arvae s pi n a cocoon
i n the cavity. If the seed i s smal l ,
as i n sorghums, several are ti ed
together wi th si l k, and the l ar
va l ives and feeds outsi de the
seed i n the s i l ken bal l . Life cy
cl es are compl eted in about a
month in warm weather. The l ar
vae remai n dormant in wi nter,
prol ongi ng life cycl e to six
months or more. Mi l l s, bi ns, or
warehouses are c leaned thor
oughl y, then pests ki l l ed by
superheati ng, freezi ng, or f umi
gati on. A ti ny parasi ti c chal ci d
wasp i s al so an efective control.
LESSER GRAIN BORERS, pests
of stored groi ns, parti cul arl y
wheat, are damagi ng both as
l arvae and as adul ts. They al so
feed on wood and paper. The
cl osel y rel ated Larger Grai n Bor
er feeds mai nly on corn and is
a pest pri nci pal l y in southern
United States. Both col d and
heat, as used for the Saw
toothed Grai n Beetl e, are efec
live, as are f umi gants for non
food substances.
ME DI T E R R ANE AN F L OU R
MOTH caterpi l lars are especi al
ly serious pests i n four mi l l s.
The caterpi l l ars spi n a si l ken
t ube i n whi ch they l i ve as they
feed, and the web masses cl og
the machi nery i n t he mi l l s. I n
the home, t h e caterpi l l ars are
found in beans, dri ed fruits, and
many other foods as wel l as i n
four and grai n products. As
many as six generati ons may be
compl eted in a year. Destroyi ng
the i nfested food material and
cl eani ng storage areas are best
home control s. In mi l l s, pests are
ki l l ed by f umi gati on.
INDIAN-MEAL MOTH caterpi l
l ars feed on a vari ety af stored
foods, part i cul arl y dried frui ts
and cereal s, spi nni ng webs as
they feed. I n an abundance of
food and with proper warmt h
and moisture a l i fe cycl e i s com
pl eted i n a mont h, wi th as many
os si x generati ons a year. Sani
tation and conti nuous checki ng
to catch i nfestations earl y are
the best controls in the home.
Bi ns, el evators, ar ot her l arge
storage areas are f umi gated.
l arva
0.5 i n.
I NDI AN-MEAL MOTH
STORED PRODUCTS 1 49
gr ub i n
bean
i n.
BEAN AND COWPEA WEEVI LS
eat out the center of stored
beans, l eavi ng onl y the shel l s.
Bean Weevi l s are found t hrough
out t he U. S. , t he Cowpea Wee
vil most abundantl y in southern
states. The gr ubs, or l orvae,
hatch from eggs l aid i n hol es
chewed i nto stored beans or i nto
pods i n t he fel d. I n heavy i n
festati ons there may be two doz
en or more ti ny, newl y hatched
l arvae i n one bean. When f ul l
grown t he l arvae form pupae i n
t he eaten-out cavi ty. As many
as si x generati ons ar e produced
i n a season. I nfested beans
s houl d be destroyed. I f t he
beans ar e t o be pl anted rat her
t han eaten, t hey shoul d be fu mi
gated frst to ki l l the grubs. The
l arvae can al so be ki l l ed by
heat i ng the seeds to 1 45 degrees
F. for two hours. Bury vines and
pods i n t he fel d.
PEA WEEVILS i nfest onl y peas.
Adul t beetl es t hat overwi nter i n
the fel d feed on t he l eaves and
fowers of the pea pl ant s i n t he
spri ng. The f emal e beetl es l ay
thei r eggs on t he pea pods, and
t he s pi ny l arvae burrow i nsi de
and begi n feedi ng an a devel op
i ng seed. The entry hol e made
by the grub i s seal ed wi th si l k.
The ful l - grown grub far ms a
pupa in the seed and in about
two weeks emerges as an adul t.
I n col d cl i mates adul ts may hi
bernate i n stored peas and
emerge i n t he spri ng. Vi nes,
pods, and other debris shoul d be
buri ed. Pl ants can be s prayed
with a contact i nsecti ci de when
i n bl oom to ki l l adul ts, or peas
can be f umi gated at harvesti ng.
CI GARETTE BEETLE grubs feed
on stored tobacco leaves and to
bacco products. A l i fe cycl e is
compl eted in about 1 V mont hs,
wi th as many as si x generat i ons
a year. Tobacco warehouses are
cl eaned and f umi gated, or to
bacco i s exposed to a freezi ng
temperature f or a week or l onger
or heated to 1 35 degrees F.
Beetl es al so feed on books,
spi ces, uphol stered furni t ure, and
seeds. Use f umi gants or contact
i nsecti ci des but do not contam
i nate foods.
RED- LEGGED HAM BE ETLES
feed on cured meats, fsh, cheese,
and other dried foods. Most
damage i s done by the l arvae,
whi ch bore i nto meat, parti c
ul arl y t he lot, and col l ect around
t he bones. The adu l ts feed at the
surface. A l i fe cycl e may be
compl eted i n as short a ti me as
30 days. I n t he home i nfested
foods shoul d be destroyed. Care
ful cl eani ng to el i mi nate bi ts of
food t hat mi ght support devel op
i ng l arvae i s i mportant. The
Larder Beetl e ( p. 3 1 ) i s al so a
pest of cured meats.
TOBACCO MOTHS are cl osel y
rel ated to Medi terranean Fl our
Mot h and to the I ndi an- meal
Moth. but do not i nfest groi ns or
four commonl y. They are most
damagi ng to stored tobacco, t he
caterpi l l ars eati ng hol es through
t he l eaves. They ore al so com
mon pest s of stored chocol ate
and are someti mes referred to
as Chocol ate Mot hs. Nuts and
ot her dri ed foods may be i n
fested too. Control by methods
used for Ci garette Beetl e.
RED-LEGGED
HAM BEETLE
0.3 i n.
gr ub
0. 1 i n.
STORED PRODUCTS 1 5 1
CHEESE SKIPPERS are so named
because t hey someti mes fi p i nto
the ai r to move from one spot
to another. To do thi s the mag
got curves its body and hol ds i ts
tai l wi th the hooks around i ts
mouth, then suddenl y rel eases its
h ol d. Nor ma l l y t h e ma ggot s
crawl i n a wor ml i ke manner.
Cheese Ski ppers i nfest cured
meals as commonly as t hey do
cheeses. When ful l grown the
l arvae l eave the food and pu
pate i n dark crevices nearby.
Adul t fies are attracted to t he
odor of cheese or meal, on
CHEESE MITES and cl osel y re
l ated species feed on cheese,
cereals, four, cured meals, and
other foods, gi vi ng them a
sweeti sh odor. I nfested four ap
pears to seethe, though t he mi les
t hemsel ves are nearl y mi cro
scopic. The shed ski ns, dead
bodies, and excrement form a
br own i s h powder . "Gr oc er ' s
itch " i s a s ki n i rri tati on produced
f r om h a n d l i n g m i t e- i n f es t ed
four. Mi tes do not thrive i n dry
condi ti ons; hence do not permi t
stored food to gel damp.
whi ch they feed and l ay t hei r
cl usters of eggs. A l i fe cycl e re
qui res about 2% weeks. I nfested
por t i on s of meat or c h ees e
shoul d be c ut of and burned.
A fne- mesh screen or cl oth over
storeroom wi ndows and vents
wi l l keep out the adul t f i es.
Wh e r e i n f es t ati on s h ave oc
curred, fumi gati on may be neces
sary. I n commerci al storage of
meals, al l stages af t he Cheese
Ski pper can be ki
l
l ed by heati ng
meats O 1 25 degrees F. for an
hour or by storage of meals and
cheeses at 43 F. or l ower.
DRUGSTORE
BEETLE
0.1 i n.
DRUGSTORE BEETLES or e com
mon house and storage-area
pes t s . Th ey eat on a ma z i n g
variety o f substances-bread,
spi ces, drugs ( i ncl udi ng strych
ni ne), and books. They even bore
i nto l ead or t i nfoi l . I n cool e l i
moles there i s one generati on
per year; i n warm c l i mates, four.
Burn i nfested materi al or expose
to about 1 50 degrees F. for sev
eral hours. Fumi gati on may be
necessary i n warerooms.
SPI DER BEETLES feed on dr i ed
foods and on feathers, h i des,
books, drugs, and spi ces. Un
usual l y resi stant to col d, they
ore acti ve at t emperatures as l ow
as 40 degrees F. and are com
mon pests i n Canada and north
ern Uni ted Stales. Many speci es
cannot survi ve above 80 degrees
F. Some, such as t he Gol den
Spi der Beet l e, are wi ngl ess and
ore spread onl y by crawl i ng or
by man. Cl ean t he i nfested area
and spray wi th a resi dual contact
i nsecti ci de if there is no danger
of food contami nat i on.
DRIED-FRUIT
BEETLE
DRI E D- F RUI T BE ETLES i n f es t
both fresh and dri ed frui ts. They
ore especi al l y seri ous pests of
dotes and fgs in Cal i forni a,
trans mi tt i ng t he spores of f ungi
and bacteri a t hat cause t he frui t
to sour. Femal e beet l es l oy t hei r
eggs on ri pe frui t, i n whi ch t he
l arvae f eed and devel op. A l i fe
cycl e i s compl eted i n three weeks
i n warm weather. Destroy frui t
dropped from trees as i t wi l l
serve as a breedi ng area.
SCIENTIFIC NAMES
4 Melonoplus diferential is 0 House: Scut igera coleoptrota
Lepisma socchorina Mi l l i pede: Porajulus impressus
V Chi nch: Bl issus leucopterus Sowbug: Porcellio laevis
Japanese: Popillia japonico Pi l l bug: Armodillidium vulgare
I I fl y: Winthemio quodripustulata Scorpi on: Centruroides gertschi
Armywor m: Pseudaletia 7 Oaddyl ongl egs: L iobunum
unipuncfo vittotum
Broconi d: Aphidius testaceipes House: Achaearaneo
Cotton Aphi d: Aphis gossypii tepidariorum
Cabbage: Hylemya brassicae J umpi ng: Phidippus audox
Rove: Aleochara bimaculoto Wi dow: Latrodectus moctans
I 2 Vedal ia: Rodolia cordinolis Horse: Tabanus otratus
Cottony: lcerya purchosi Deer: Chrysops vittatus
I Braconi d: Apanteles glomeratu5 V Bl ack fl y: Simulium venudum
Tobacco: Protoparce 5exta Sand: Culicoide5 canithorax
Jap. Beetl e: Popillia japonica Stabl e: Stomoxys calcitrans
I mported: Pieris ropae 4 I Mo I , Anopheles
I Tobacco: Protoparce sexta quadrimaculatus
Tarni shed: Lygus Uneolaris Yel l ow-fever: Aedes aegypti
2 I Rose Scal e: Aulocospis rosae Sal t-mars h: A. sollicitans
24 Odorous: Tapinomo sessile House: Culex pipiens
Argent i ne: lridomyrmex humi lis 42 Bed Bug: Cimex ledularius
Thi ef1 Solenopsis molesta Swal l ow: Oeciocus vicarius
Pharaoh : Monomorium Swi ft : Cimexopsis nyctal is
pharaonis 4 Head: Pediculus h. capitis
2 Crazy: Paratrehina longicornis Body: P. humanus
Cor nfel d: Lasius al ienus Crab: Phthirus pubis
Fire: Solenop5is xyloni 44 Hunter: Reduvius personafus
Bl ock: Camponofus Conenose: Triatoma sanguisuga
pennsylvanicus 4 I t ch: Sarcoptes scabiei
27 b. Sub: Reticul itermes Iavipes Chi g: Eutrombicula
W. Orywood: Kalotermes minor alfreddugesi
2 Blattella germanica 40 Rky. Mt: Dermacentor andersoni
29 Ori ental : Blatta orienfalis Star: Amblyomma americanum
Brown : Supella supellectilium Dog: Rhipicephalus sanguineus
Amer: Periplaneta americana 47 Puss: Megolopyge opercularis
I Webbi ng: Tineola bisselliella Hog: Phobetron pithecium
Cosemaki ng: Tinea pellionella Saddl ebock: Sibine stimulea
Pl ater: Tinea/a walsinghami Bal d-faced: Vespula maculata
larder: Dermestes lardarius Paper-nest: Polisles spp.
Carpet: Anthrenus scrophulariae Mud: Sceliphron cementarius
Hi de: Oermesfef maculatus 4 Dermacentor voriabi l is
2 Musca domestica 4V Catt l e: Boophi lus annulatus
li t t l e: Fannia canicularis Ear: Otobius megnini
Green: Phoenicia sp. Fowl : Argas persicus
Bl ue: Cal l iphora vomitoria U Cat: Ctenocephal ides fel is
Cl uster: Pollenia rudis Human: Pulex irritans
Moth: Psychoda alternata Rat: Xenopsylla cheopis
Frui t: Drosophila melanogaster I Sti ck: Echidnophaga gallinacea
Eye: Hippelates collusor Chi goe: Tunga penetrans
4 Si l verfsh: Lepisma saccharina 2 Head: Cuclotogaster
Fi rebrat: Thermobia damestica heterogrophus
EarwJ g: Forfcula auricularia Body: Menacanthus stramineus
Cricket: Acheto domesticus Sheep: Bovicola ovis
lyct us: lyctus planicollis Horse: B. equi
Furni ture: Anobium punctatum Hog : Haematopinus suis
Book: Liposcelis divinatorius Cattl e: H. eurysternus
Box: leptocoris triviltatus 4 Scab: Psoroptes equi
Crane: Tipula abdominalis I t ch: Sarcoptes scabi ei
Spri ngtai l : Si ra buski Ear Mange: Otodectes cynotis
Ch icken: Dermanyssus gollinae 7 ( cont . )
Scal y: Knemidokoptes mutans Sweetpotato: Cylas
Oepl umi ng: K. gallinoe formicorivs elegontulus
Hog: Oemodex phyl/oides 7V Whi te: Graphognothus
0 Striped: Tabanus li neola leucoloma
Face: Musca autumnalis Car: Listronotus oregonensis
7 Horse: Gasterophilus intestinalis Straw. : Brachyrhinus ovotus
Nose Bot: G. haemorrhoidalis U Cabbagewor m: Pieris ropae
Sheep Bot: Oestrus avis Cab. looper: Trichoplusia ni
Hypoderma lineatum Mot h: Plutello maculipennis
V N. Catt l e: Hypoderma bovis I Squas h : Melittia cucurbitae
Horn: Haematobio irritans Pi ckl e: Diophanio ni tidalis
0U Screw: Cal l i troga hominivorax Mel onwor m: D. hyolinata
Sheep Ked: Melophagus ovinus 2 Potato: Gnorimoschema
Bl ack Bl ow: Phormia regina operculella
0I Gryl/otalpa hexadacty/a Beet: Loxostege sticticalis
02 Potato fl ea: Epitrix cucumeris Garden: L. 1imilalis
Eggpl ant : f. fuscu/a Tome: Protoparce
Sweet: Chaetocnema confnis quinquemaculata
Stri ped: Phyl lotreta striolata Cel ery leaf: Udea rubigalis
Pal e: Systena blanda Cel eryworm: Papilio polyxenes
Strawberry: Altica ignita asterius
Spi nach: Disonycha xanthomelas Banded Wool l y: lsia isabella
0 Gul f : Conoderus amplicollis 4 Cabbage: Hyfemya brassicae
Paci fc: Limonius conus Carrot: Psi lo rosoe
E. fi el d: l agonus Spi nach: Pegomya hyoscyami
04 Vari egated: Peridroma saucia Oni on: Hylemya antiquo
Bl ack: Agrotis ipsilon Tomato: Vasates lycopersici
Spotted: Amathes c-nigrum Spi der: Tetranychus telarius
Pal e: Asrotis orthogonio Brown Garden : Helix asperse
0 May: Phyl lophaga rugosa Spotted: Limax maximus
Asi' ati c: Autoserica castanea 7 Long: Pseudococcus adonidum
07 Pea: Acyrthosiphon pisum Mexi can: Phenacoccus gossypi i
Bean: Aphis fabae fer n: Pinnaspis aspidistrae
Cabbage: Brevicoryne brassicae Cactus : Diaspis echinocacti
Mel on: Aphis gossypii Hemi : Saissetia hemisphaerica
0 Circulifer tenellus Brown Soft: Coccus hesperidum
V Potato: Empoasca fabae Green house: Orthezia insignis
Six: Macrosteles fascilrons Greenhouse: Trioleurodes
S. Garden: Empoasca solana vaporariorum
7U Harl : Murgantia histrionica Cor n: Anuraphis moidiradicis
Green : Acrosternum hi/are Chrys: Macrosiphoniella
Southern : Nezara viridula sanborni
7I Tarn i shed: Lygus lineolaris V Banded: Hercinothrips femora/is
Squash: Anosa tristis Greenhouse: Hel iothrips
72 Eggpl ant: Gorgaphio so/ani haemorrhoidalis
Onion: Thrips tabaci Gl ad: Taeniothrips simplex
7 Argus: Chelymorpha cassidea Buf: Stictocephala bubolus
Jamai ca: Eurypepla VU Chrys: Corythucha marmorate
jomaicensis Azal ea: Stephonitis pyrioides
7 Col : Leptinotarsa decemlineota Cyc: Steneotarsonemus pal lidus
Stri ped: Epicauta vittata Bul b: Rhizoglyphus echinopus
Gray: E. cinerea VI Lesser: fumerus tuberculatus
Spotted: E. moculoto Narci ssus: Lampetia equestris
Margi ned: E. pestifera Chrys: Diorthronomyio
70 Bean: Cerotomo trifurcate chrysonthem i
Mex: Epi lochno varivestis Rose: Oasyneuro rhodophoga
77 Spotted: Diabrotica V2 Azal ea: Grocilorio ozoleello
undecimpunctoto howordi Arbor: Argyresthio t huiel lo
Stri ped: Acalymmo vittata Col u m: Phytomyzo minuscule
7 Vegetabl e: Listroderes larkspur: P. delphinioe
costirostris obliquus V Col u m: Popoipema purpurifascia
Pepper: Anthonomus eugenii li l ac: Podosesia syringoe
1 55
V (cont . )
I I Corn : Crambus caliginosellus
Obl i que: Archips rosaceanus
Al fal fa: Colias eurytheme
Red: Argyrotaenio velutinana
Cl ov: Grapholitha interstinctona
V4 Texas : Atto texano
I I 0 Cl over: Dasyneuro legumi nicola
leaf: Megachile lotimanus
Wheat: Meromyza americana
Morn : Loxostege obliteralis
I I 7 Phytophoga destructor
Bag : Thyridopteryx
I I Wheat Stem: Cephus cinctus
ephemeraeformis
W. Joi nt : Hormolita tritici
V Vi ol et: Ametasfegia pallipes
I I V Wheat : Hormol ita grandis
Bri stl y: Cladius isomerus
Cl over: Bruchophagus gi bbus
Rose: Endelomyia aethiops
Thi ef: Solenopsis molesta
Curl ed: Al lantus ci nctus
I 2U Corpocopso pomonella
V0 Bl ack: fpicouta pennsylvonica
I 2 I fal l : Alsophi lo pometario
Rose: Nodonoto puncticollis
Spri ng: Poleacrita vernata
Rose Chafer: Macrodactylus
Eye: Spitonota ocellana
subspinosus
I 22 Peach: Sanninoicea exitiosa
V7 Ful l er: Pantomorus godmani
lesser: Synanthedon piclipes
Bl ack: Brachyrhinus sulcatus
I 2 Peach : Anarsio lineatella
Rose: Rhynchites bicolor
Ori ental : Grophol itha molesta
VV Two: Melonoplus bivittatus
I 24 Green: l ithophone antennata
Di fer: M. diferentialis
, Cherry: Grapholitha pockardi
Cl ear-wi n g: Camnu/ o pellucida
Frui t : Archips orgyrospilus
Mi gra: M. sanguinipes
I 2 Conotrachelus nenuphor
Red- l egged: M. femurrubrum
I 20 Appl e: Tachypterellus
I UU Para: Lysiphlebus testaceipes
quadrigibbus
Green bug: Toxoptera grominum
Fl ea: Rhynchaenus pollicornis
Aphi d: Anuraphis maidiradicis
I mbri e: fpicaerus imbricatus
Cornfel d: Losius alienus
I 27 Round headed: Saperdo candida
I UI Mead: Philaenus
Fl at: Chrysobothris femorata
leucophthalmus
I 2 Shot: Scolytus rugulosus
Legume: Lygus hesperus
Peach : Phloeotribus liminaris
I U2 Chi nch: Bl issus leucopterus
I 2V Si nuate: Agrilus sinuatus
Cereal : Oulema melanopa
Japanese: Popillia iaponico
I U Southern Cor n: Diobrotica
I U Cherry: Rhagoletis cingulato
undecimpunctata howordi
Appl e: R. pomonello
N. Corn : D. longicornis
Med. Frui t : Ceratitis copitato
Grape: Maecolaspis favido
I I I mported: Nemafus ribesii
I U4 Corn : Choetocnema pulicario
Pear- s l ug: Col iroa cerosi
Toot hed: C. denticulata
Wool l y: Eriosomo lonigerum
Ori ental : Anomala orienta/is
I 2 Appl e Aphi d: Aphis pomi
Wheat: Agriotes moncus
Spi rea: A. spiraecola
Pl ai ns: Eleodes opaco
Rosy: Anurophis roseo
IU Al fal fa: Hypera postica
I Purpl e: Lepidosophes beckii
Cal i f: Aonidiella aurantii
Mai ze: Sphenophorus moidis
I 4 San Jose: Aspidiotus perniciosus
Bl uegrass: S. parvulus
Bl ack: Soissetio oleoe
Curl ewbug: Calendro callosa
I U0 Cl over Leaf: Hypera punctate
I Cottony: l cerya purchosi
Sweet: Sitona cylindricol l is
Vedal i a: Rodolio cordi nalis
Cl over Root: S. hispidulo
Ci trus: Pseudococcus citri
I U7 lesser: Hypera nigrirostris
Ci trophi l us : P. gahani
Bol l : Ant honomus grand is
I 0 Dialeurodes citri
I U Cotton: Alabama orgillaceo
I 7 Snowy: Oeconthus niveus
Pi nk: Pectinophora gossypiella
Ci trus: Scirtothrips citri
I UV Heliothis zea
I Ci trus Red: Panonychus citri
I I U Army: Pseudoletio unipuncto
Ci trus Bud: Acerio she/doni
Rust: Phyl locoptruto oleivora
Fal l : Lophygma lrugiperdo
I V Eur: Scolytus multistriatus
I I 2 Pyrausto nubilalis
El m leaf: Galerucello luteolo
I I Tobacco: Protoporce sexta
I 4U Bronze: Agrilus anxius
I I 4 Stal k: Popipemo nebris Popl ar: Saperda cofcarota
S. Corn: Diatroea crombidoides
Locust: Megacyl lene robiniae
lesser: Elosmopalpus lignosellus I 4I Engel : Dendroctonus engelmanni
1 56
I 4I (cont . ) I 47 ( cont . )
Hi ck: Scolytus quadrispinosus Cadel l e: Tenebroides
I 42 Spruce: Choristoneura mouritonicus
lumilerona Red: Triholium costoneum
Gypsy: Porthetria dispar Confused: T. conlusum
I 4 Forest: Molacosomo disstrio I 4 Saw: Oryzaephi l us surinamensis
Eastern : M. americonum Angou moi s: Sitotrogo cerealella
Whi te: Hemerocampo Chal ci d: Trichogrommo minutum
leucosfigmo I 4V lesser: Rhyzopertha dominica
Brown : Nygmia phaeorrhoea Med: Anagasta kUhniella
I 44 Carpen: Prionoxystus robiniae I ndi an: Plodio interpunctella
Pecan : Coleophora I U Bean: Aconthoscelides obtectus
caryaeloliella Cowpea : Cal losobruchus moculatus
I 4
I 40
I 47
Cal i f: Phryganidia colilornica
Oyster: Lepidosaphes ul mi I I
Pi ne: Phenocospis pinilol ioe
European : Gossyporio spurio
Cottony: Pulvinario I 2
innumerabi l is
El m: Cimbex americana I
Granary: Sitophi lus gronorius
Rice: S. oryzae
Dark: Tenebrio obscurus
I NDEX
Beet Webworm, 82
Bi l l bug, 1 05
Pea: Bruchus pisorum
Ci g: Lasiodermo serricorne
Red: Necrobio rulpes
Tobacco: Ephestio elutello
Mi te: Tyroglyphus longior
Ski pper: Piophilo cosei
Drugstore: Stegobium paniceum
Dried: Carpophilus hemipterus
Mezi u m: Mezium afne
Humpback: Gi bbi um psylloides
Al fal fa Caterpi l l ar, 1 1 5
Al fal fa Weevi l , 1 05
Ameri can Cockroach, 29
Ameri can Dog Ti ck, .8
Angoumoi s Grai n Mot h,
Bi oi . Control , 1 2-1 3
Bi ti ng I nsects, 38-7
Bl ack Beetl es, 29
Brown Soft Scal e, 87
Brown-toi l Mot h, 1 .3
Bud Moths, 1 21
Bufol o Treehopper, 89
Bul b Fl ies, 91
1 48 Bu l b Mi te, 90
Ants, 24-25
Aphi ds, 1 1 , 66-67, 88,
1 00, 1 3 1
Appl e Aphi d, 1 32
Appl e Curcu l i o, 1 26
Appl e Fl ea Weevi l , 1 26
Appl e Maggot, 1 30
Arbor. leaf Mi ner, 92
Argenti ne Ant, 24
Bl ack Bl i ster Beetl e, 96
Bl ack Cutworm, 64
Bl ack Fl i es, 39
Bl ack Horse Fl y, 38
Bl ack Scal e, 1 34
Bl ock Swal l owtai l , 83
Bl ack Vi ne Weevi l , 7
Bl ock Wi dow Spi der, 37
Bl ister Beet l es, 74, 75,
Cobbage Aphi d, 67
Cabbage looper, 80
Cabboge Maggot, 1 1 , 84
Cactus Scal e, 87
Argus Tortoi se, 73
Armyworm, 1 1 , 1 1 0-1 1 1
Asi at. Garden Beet l e, 65
Assassi n Bugs, 44
Azal ea lace Bug, 90
Azal ea leaf Mi ner, 92
Bagworm, 94
Banded Greenhouse
Thri ps, 89
Banded Wool l ybear, 83
Bark Beet l es, 1 4 1
Bean Aphi d, 67
Bean leaf Beet l e, 76
Bean Weevi l , 1 50
Bed Bugs, 42
Bees, 47
Beet leafhopper, 68
96
Bl oodsucki ng Conenose,
44
Bl oodsucki ng fl i es, 60
Bl ow Fl i es, 33, 60
Bl ue Bott l e fl y, 33
Bl uegrass Bi l l bug, 1 05
Body louse, 43
Bol l Weevi l , 1 07
Bookl i ce, 35
Borers, 93, 1 27-1 29
Bot Fl i es, 56-57
Boxel der Bug, 35
Bracon i ds, 1 1 , 1 3
Bri stl y Rose- sl ug, 95
Bronze Bi rch Borer, 1 .0
Brown- banded
Cockroach, 29
Brown Dog Tick, 46
Codel l e, 47
Cal i f. Casebeorer, 1 44
Col i f. Ookworm, 1 44
Col i f. Red Scal e, 1 33
Cankerworms, 1 21
Carol i na Sphi nx, 1 1 3
Carpenter Ant, 25
Carpenterworm, 1 .4
Carpet Beet l es, 31
Carrot Rust Fl y, 84
Carrot Weevi l , 79
Casebearers, 1 4.
Casemaki ng Mot h, 3 1
Cot Fl eo, 50
Cott l e Gru bs, 58-59
Catt l e Ti cks, 49
Cel ery leaf Tier, 83
Cel eryworm, 83
Centi pedes, 36
Cereal leaf Beetl e, 1 02
Chol ci d, 1 1 8, 1 48
Cheese Mi te, 1 52
1 57
Cheese Ski pper, 1 52 Cur l ed Rose Sawfy, 95 Gl adi ol us Thri ps, 89
Cherry Frui t fl y, 1 30 Cur l ewbug, 1 05 Gnats, 33
Cherry Frui tworm, 1 24 Cutworms, 64 Granary Weevi l , 1 46
Chi cken Body louse, 52 Cycl amen Mi te, 90 Grope Col ospi s, 1 03
Chi cken Head louse, 52 Grope Meal ybug, 1 35
Chi cken Mi te, 55 Doddyl ongl egs, 37 Grasshoppers, 4, b, 6,
!
Ch i gger, 45 Dar k Meal worm, 1 47 98-99
Ch igoe, 51 Deer fly, 38 Grass Worms, 1 1 1
Chi mney-swi ft Bug, 42 Oepl umi ng Mite, 55 Gray Bl ister Beet l e, 74
Chi nch Bug, 9, 1 02 Dermestid Beet l es, 30 Green Bott l e fl y, 33
Chocol ate Mot h, 1 51 Di amondback Mot h, 80 Green bug, 1 00
:
Chrys. Aphi d, 88 Di ferenti al Grasshopper, Green Citrus Aphi d, 1 32
Chrys. Gal l Mi dge, 91 4-5, 99 Green Fru i tworm, 1 24
Chrys. lace Bug, 90 Dri ed-fru i t Beet l e, 1 53 Green house Orthezi a, 87
Chrysol i no Beet l e, 1 3 Drosophi l a Frui t Fl y, 33 Greenhouse Thr i ps, 89
m
Ci garette Beet l e, 1 51 DrugsJore Beet l e, 1 53 Greenhouse Wh i tefy, 88
Ci trophi l us Meal ybug, Drywood Termites, 27 Green St i nk Bug, 70
1 35 Gul f Wi reworm, 63
Ci trus Bud Mi te, 1 38 Ear Mange Mite, 54 Gypsy Mot h, 1 42
E
Ci trus Meal ybug, 1 35 Eor Ti ck, 49

Ci trus Red Mi te, 1 38 Earwi g, 34
Hog Mot h, 47
t
Ci trus Rust Mi te, 1 38 E. Fi el d Wi reworm, 63
Harl eq ui n Bug, 70
X
Ci trus Thri ps, 1 37 E. Su bterranean Termite,
Head louse, 43
;: Ci trus Whi tefy, 22, 1 36 27
Hemi spheri cal Scal e, 87

Cl ear-wi nged E. Tent Caterpi l l ar, 1 43
Hessi on Fl y, 1 1 7
w U
Grasshopper, 99 Eggpl ant Flea Beet l e, 62
Hi ck. Bark Beet l e, 1 41
o
Cl othes Moths, 30-3 1 Eggpl ant loco Bug, 72
Hi ck. Tussock Moth, 1 43

Cl over Head Caterpi l l ar, El m Bark Beetl e, 1 39


Hi de Beet l e, 3 1
m 1 1 5 El m leaf Beet l e, 1 39
Hog Fol l i cl e Mi te, 55
r
: Cl over leaf Weevj l , 1 06
El m Sawfy, 1 45
Hog louse, 53
~
Cl over Root Curcu l i o
Engel . Spruce Beet l e,
Hornets, 47
;
1 06
1 41
Horn Fl y, 59
3 Cl over Seed Chal ci d, 1 1 9
Eur. Corn Borer, 1 1 2,
Horse Bi t i ng louse, 53
i Cl over Seed Mi dge, 1 1 6
1 1 3
Horse Bot Fl y, 56, 57
w

Cl uster fl y, 33
Eur. El m Scal e, 1 45
Horse Fl i es, 38, 56
C
Cockroaches, 28-29
Eye Gnat, 33
House Centi pede, 36
w
Codl i ng Mot h, 1 20
Eye-spotted Bud Mot h,
House Cri cket, 34
.
Col o. Potato Beet l e, 74, 1 2 1
House Fl y, 3 2 , 39
m
l
75
Face fl y, 56
Househol d Pests, 24-37
Col umbi ne Borer, 93
House Mosqu i to, 41
Col um. leaf Mi ner, 92
Fal l Armyworm, 1 1 0, 1 1 1
House Spi ders, 37

Conenoses, 44
Fal l Cankerwor m, 1 2 1
House Spri ngtai l , 3 5

Confused Fl our Beetl e,
Fern Scal e, 87
Human Fl ea, 50

1 47
Fi el d Wi reworm, 63
Humpback Beet l e, 1 53
;
Corn Earworm, 1 09
Fi re Ant, 25
Cornfel d Ant, 25, 1 00
Fi rebrat, 34
I mbri cated Snout
Corn Fl ea Beetl e, 1 04
Fl atheaded Borer, 1 27
Beetl e, 1 26
Corn Root Aphi d, 88, 1 00
Fl ea Beet l es, 62, 1 04
I mp. Cabbageworm, 1 3,
m
Corn Root Webworm, 1 1 5
fl eas, 50-51
80
Cotton Aphi d, 1 1
Fl our Beet l es, 1 47
I mp. Currontwor m, 1 31
Fol l i cl e Mites, 55
Cotton leafworm, 1 08
forest Tent Caterpi l l . ,
I ndi an- meal Mot h, 1 49
Cottony- cushi on Scal e,
1 43
I nsect i ci des, 1 5-23
m
1 2, 1 35
Fowl Ti ck, 49
aerosol s, 1 6
Cottony Mapl e Scal e, 1 45
Frui t Fl ies, 33, 1 30
al dri n, 20
Cowpea Weevi l , 1 50
Frui t-tree leaf Rol l er,
al l ethri n, 1 9
Crab louse, 43 1 24
appl i cati ons, 1 6
Crane Fl y, 35 fru itworms, 1 24
benzene hexach l ori de,
20
Crazy Ant, 25
Ful l er Rose Beet l e, 97
Bordeaux mi xtu re, 1 8
Cri ckets, 34, 1 37
Furni ture Beetl e, 3
carbon bi s ul fde, 22
Croton Bugs, 29
Gambusi as, ) 3 chl ordane, 20
Cucu mber Beetles, 77
Garden Webworm, 82 chl ori nated hydro-
Cul tu ral Control s, 1 4 German Cockroach, 28, 29 carbons, 20
1 58
I nsecti ci des ( cont . )
contact i nsecti cides,
1 8
creosote, 23
DlD, 20
DDT, 20
DDVP, 2 1
demeton, 2 1
di azi non, 21
di capthon, 2 1
di chl oropropane, 22
di chl oropropene, 22
di el dr i n, 20
di ethyl tol uami de, 23
di methyl pht hal ate, 23
dusters, 1 6
endri n, 20
ethyl hexanedi ol , 23
fumi gants, 22
heptachl or, 20
hormones, 23
hydrogen cyan i de, 22
i norgani cs, 1 8
l ead arsenate, 1 7
l i mesu l fur, 1 8
l i ndane, 20
mal at hi on, 2 1
methoxychl or, 20
methyl bromi de, 22
moth bal l s, 22, 23
naphthal ene, 22
natural organi cs, 1 9
ni coti ne, 1 9
ni coti ne s ul fate, 1 9
nontoxi cs, 23
oi l s, 22
organo phosphates, 21
paradi ch l orobenzene,
22
parat hi on, 2 1
Pari s green, 1 7
pyret hr um, 1 9
repel l ents, 2 3
ron nel , 21
rotenone, 1 9
ryani a, 1 9
sabadi l l a, 1 9
sodi um arsenate, 1 7
sodi um fuori de, 1 7
sodi um fuos i l i cate, 1 7
sprayers, 1 6
steri l ants, 23
stomach poi sons, 1 7
s ul fur, 1 8
syntheti cs, 20-2 1
TOE, 20
TEPP, 2 1
thal l i u m s ul fate, 1 7
toxaphene, 20
whi te arseni c, 1 7
I nsects, genera I
benefci al , 4
I nsects (cont . )
cl assi fcati on, 6-7
control s, 1 0-23
damage, 4
devel opment, 8-9
I sabel l a Moth, 83
I tch Mi te, 45, 54
Jamai ca Tortoise Beet l e,
73
Japanese Beet l e, 9, 1 3,
1 4, 1 29
Jumpi ng Spiders, 37
June 8ug, 65
Ki ssi ng Bug, 44
lace Bugs, 72, 90
larder Beet l e, 3 1
larger Grai n Borer, 1 49
larkspur leaf Mi ner, 92
leaf Bugs, 1 01
leafcutter Bee, 94
leaf Cutters, 94
leafhoppers, 6B, 69
leaf Mi ners, 92
leaf Rol l ers, 93, 1 24
legume Bug, 1 01
lesser Bul b Fl y, 91
lesser Cl over leaf
Weevi l , 1 07
lesser Cornstal k Borer,
1 1 4
lesser Grai n Borer, 1 49
lesser Peach Tree Borer,
1 22
li ce, 43, 52
li l ac Borer, 93
li t t l e House Fl y, 33
locust Borer, 1 40
lone Star Ti ck, 46
long.toi led Meal ybug,
87, 1 35
Maggots, 84, 1 1 6, 1 1 7,
1 30
Mai ze Bi l l bug, 1 05
Mal ari a Mosqu i to, 41
Marg i ned Bl ister Beetl e,
75
Masked Hunter, 44
May Beetl e, 65
Meadow Spi tt l ebug, 1 01
Meal worms, 1 47
Meal ybugs, 86, 87, 1 33-
1 35
Medi i . Fl our Moth, 1 49
Medi t, Frui t F l y, 1 30
Mel on Aphi d, 67
Mel onworm, 81
Mexi can 'eon Beetl e, 76
Mexi can Bed Bu g, 44
Mexi can Frui t Fl y, 1 30
Mexi can Meal ybug, 87
Mezi um Spider Beet l e,
1 53
Mi dges, 91
Mi grat. Grasshopper, 99
Mi l l i pedes, 36
Mi tes, 54-55, 85, 90,
1 38
Mol e Cri cket, 61
Morn i ng gl ory l eaf Cut.
tor, 94
Mosqu i toes, 40-4 1
Moth Fl y, 33
Mud-dau ber, 47
Narci ssus Bu l b Fl y, 91
Natural control s, 1 0
N. Corn Rootworm, 1 03
Nose Bot Fl y, 56, 57
No See Ums, 39
Oakworms, 1 44
Obl i que-banded leaf
Rol l er, 93
Odorous House Ant, 24
On i on Maggot, 84
Oni on Thrips, 72
Orangestri ped Oak
worm, 1 44
Ori ental Beet l e, 1 04
Ori ental Cockroach, 29
Ori ental Fr ui t Mot h, 1 23
Ori ental Rat Fl ea, 50
Oystershel l Scal e, 1 45
Poe. Coast Wi rewor m, 63
Poe. Spi der Mi te, 1 38
Pal e-stri ped Fl ea Beet l e,
62
Pal e West . Cutworm, 64
Paper-nest Wasp, 47
Pea Aphi d, 67
Peach Bark Beet l e, 1 28
Peach Tree Borer, 1 22
Peach Twi g Borer, 1 23
Pear leaf Bl i ster Mi te,
1 38
Pear-sl ug, 1 3 1
Pea Weevi l , 1 50
Pecan Casebearer, 1 44
Pepper Weevi l , 78
Pharaoh Ant, 24
Pi ckl eworm, 81
Pi l l bugs, 36
Pi ne Needl e Scal e, 1 45
Pi nk Bol l worm, 1 08
Pl ai ns fal se Wi reworm,
1 04
Pl ant Bugs, 1 0 1
Pl ant li ce, 66-67, 1 3 1
Pl aster Bagworm, 3 1
P l u m Curcu l i o, 1 25
Popl ar Borer, 1 40
Potato fl ea Beet l e, 62
1 59
"
Potato leafhopper, 69 Smal l er Eur. El m Bark Tent Cater pi l l ars, 1 43
Potato Tuberworm, 82 Beet l e, 1 39 Termi tes, 26-27
Poul try Li ce, 52 Snai l s, 85 Texas Leaf- cutter Ant,
Psoci ds, 35 Snowy Tree Cri cket, 1 37 94
Purpl e Scal e, 22, 1 33 Soft Scal e, 87 Thi ef Ant, 24, 1 1 9
Puss Caterpi l l ar, 47 S. Corn Rootwor m, 77, Thri ps, 72, 89
Red-banded leaf Rol l er,
1 03 Throat Bot Fl y, 56, 57
S. Cornstal k
.
Borer, 1 1 4 Ti cks, 46, 48
93
S. Garden Leafhopper, Tobacco Hornworm, 1 3,
Red Fl our Beetl e, 1 47
69 1 5, 1 1 3
.
Red-l egged Grasshopper,
S. Green Sti nk Bug, 70 Tobacco Moth, 1 51
99
S. lyctus Beetl e, 35 Tomato Hornworm, 82,
Red-legged Ham Beetl e,
S. Pi ne Beetl e, 1 41 1 1 3
1 51
Sowbugs, 36 Tomato Russet Mi te, 85
Ri ce Weevi l , 1 46
Spi der Beetl es, 1 53 Toothed Fl ea Beet l e,
Rocky Mountai n Tick, 46
Spi ders, 37 1 04
Rootworms, 1 03
Spi nach Fl ea Beetl e, 62 Tortoi se Beet l es, 73
Rose Choler, 96
Spi nach leaf Mi ner, 84 Tree Cri ckets, 1 37
Rose Curcu l i o, 97
Spi rea Aphi d, 1 32 Treehoppers, 89
" Rose Leaf Beet l e, 96
Spi ttl ebugs, 1 0 1 Tussock Moth, 1 43 u
Rose Midge, 91
Spot. Bl i ster Beet l e, 75 Two-spotted Spi der Mi te,
z
Rose Scal e, 2 1
Spot. Cucumber Beet l e, 85
,
.
Rose- sl ugs, 95
77 Two-striped Grasshopper,
0
Rosy Appl e Aphi d, 1 32
Spotted Cutworm, 64 99
.
Roundheaded Appl e Tree
Spotted Garden Sl ug, 85
" Borer, 1 27
Spri ng Cankerworm, 1 21
Vari egated Cutworm, 64
.
Rove Beetl e, 1 1
Vedal ia, 1 2, 1 35
Spri ngtai l , 35
Vegetabl e Weevi l , 78

Saddl eback, 47 Spruce Budworm, 1 42


Vi ol et Sawfy, 95
Sal t- marsh Mosquito, 41 Squash Bug, 71
.
Sand fl ies, 39 Squash Vi ne Borer, 81
Wasps and Bees, 47

San Jose Scal e, 1 34 Stabl e Fl ies, 39
Water Bugs, 29
:
Sawfies, 95, 1 1 8, 1 3 1 , Stal k Borer, 1 1 4
Webbi ng Cl othes Moth,
. 1 45 Sti ckti ght Fl ea, 51
3 1
m

Saw-toothed Grai n Sti ngi ng I nsects, 38-47
Webworms, 82, 1 1 5
;
Beet l e, 1 48 Sti nk Bugs, 70
Weevi l s, 78, 1 05, 1 25,
:
Scab Mite, 54
Strawber. Fl ea Beet l e,
1 26, 1 46
"
Scal es, 1 2, 86-87, 1 33-
62
West. Pine Beetl e, 1 41
1 35, 1 45 Strawber. Root Weevi l ,
West. Tussock Moth, 1 43
Scal y-l eg Mite, 55
79
Wheat Joi ntworm, 1 1 8
Scorpi ons, 36
Stri ped Bl i st. Beet l e, 75
Wheat Stem Maggot, 1 1 6
Screw-worm, 60
Stri ped Cucu m. Beetl e,
Wheat Stem Sawfy, 1 1 8
Secondary Screw-worm,
77
Wheat Straw-worm, 1 1 9
60
Stri ped Fl ea Beetl e, 62
Wheat Wireworm, 1 04
Sheep Bi t i ng louse, 53
Stri ped Horse fl y, 56
Whi tefi es, 88, 1 36
Sheep Bot Fl ies, 57
Su bterranean Termite,
Whi te-fri nged Beetl es, 79
Sheep Ked, 60
27
Whi te Grubs, 65, 1 04
Short-nosed Cattl e
Swal l ow Bug, 42
White Marked Tussock,
louse, 53
Sweet Cl over Weevi l ,
1 43
Shot- hol e Borer, 1 28
1 06
Wi reworms, 63, 1 04
Si l verfsh, 8, 34
Sweetpotato Fl ea Beetl e,
Wood-bori ng Beet l es, 35
Si nuate Pear Tree Borer,
62
Wool l y Appl e Aphi d, 1 3 1
1 29
Sweetpotato Weevi l , 78
Wool l ybears, 83
Si x-spotted leafhopper,
69 Tachi ni d Fl y, 1 1 Yel l ow-fever Mosquito,
Si x-spotted Mi te, 1 38 Tarni shed Pl ant

ug, 1 5, 41
Sl ugs, 85 71 Yel l ow Meal worm, 1 47
1 60
H K
I NSECT PESTS
A GOLDEN NATURE GUI DE
GEORGE S. FI CHTER recei ved h i s trai ni ng i n
entomol ogy at North Carol i na State Col l ege,
Ral ei gh and taught zool ogy at Mi ami Uni versi ty
i n Oxford, Ohi o. He was edi t or of a nat i onal
sports magazi ne, has wri tten art i cl es for many
magazi nes, and i s author of more than a dozen
books on natu ral hi story subj ects.
HERBERT S. ZI M, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , an or i gi nator
and former edi tor of the Gol den Gu i de Seri es,
was al so an author for many years. Author of
some ni nety books and edi tor of about as many,
he i s now Adj unct Professor at the Uni versi ty of
Mi ami and Educati onal Consul tant to the Ameri
can Fr i ends Servi ce Commi ttee and other or
gani zati ons. He works on educati onal , popul a
ti on and envi ronmental probl ems.
NI CHOLAS STREKALOVSKY studi ed art i n
Engl and. After wor ki ng for the Bri t i sh Museum,
he went t o Egypt where he di d i l l u strat i ons of
natu ral hi story and medi cal subj ects for the gov
ernment. Hi s fi rst work i n the Uni ted States was
for the Agassi z Museum at Harvard Un i versi ty.
I NSECT PESTS i s the f i rst book he has done for
Gol den Press.
T H E G O L D E N N A T U R E G U I D E S
are an introduction to the world of nature, a guide
to the most common, most easily seen, and most in
teresting aspects of the world around us. Each guide
combines the authority of eminent scientists and ex
perts in science education. These 160 page hooks
overfow with accurate full color illustrations and
concise, double-checked information which makes
identifcation and understanding the subject easy
and enjoyable.