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An efficient method for Mobility Prediction in Wireless Cellular Networks using Genetic Algorithm

Department of Computer Science and Engineering National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India-620015. (1abeulah@yahoo.com, 2*mala@nitt.edu, 3gopalan@nitt.edu, 4 geethavalavan@yahoo.com, , 5CS10458@nitt.edu) 2* Corresponding author

Beulah A.1, C. Mala2, N.P.Gopalan3, , K.Geetha4 ,M. Siddhartha Sankaran5

ABSTRACT One of the important features in a wireless cellular communication network is the user mobility. As a mobile user is free to move anywhere anytime, a connection throughout his lifetime is to be guaranteed. This seamless mobility requires an efficient resource reservation and a support for handoff from one cell to another. Mobility prediction is an effective means to reduce the call dropping rate. Existing user mobility prediction algorithms use previous history pattern for user movement prediction. The Sectorized Mobility Prediction (SMP) algorithm utilizes a cell sector numbering scheme and a Sectorized Mobility History Base (SMHB) to predict the movements of users. Though the Zoned Mobility History Base (ZMHB) algorithm gives a good performance in micro cell structure or metropolis with complicated structure of roads, it does not give an accurate result when the users movement pattern is towards the corners of the hexagonal cell structure. To overcome this drawback, an efficient user Mobility Prediction scheme, using Genetic Algorithm is proposed to predict the next cell to which the user may handoff thereby reducing the call dropping rate. The proposed algorithm gives an accurate result independent of the users movement pattern even in the corners of the cell. Keywords: Mobility Prediction, Genetic Algorithm, Resource Reservation, Call dropping rate 1. INTRODUCTION A Wireless Cellular network consists of fixed servers called Base Stations(BS) and mobile clients called Mobile Stations(MS). A MS connects itself to the network by communicating with its nearest BS within its communication radius. The mobility of the node causes it to be out of range of one BS and to handoff to a new BS to maintain connectivity. Resource reservation to the new cell should occur prior to handoff to enable the user to receive services at the new cell without disruption. Though it is possible to reserve resources at all neighboring cells, this leads to an overall wastage of bandwidth, and makes new calls suffer from a severe blocking problem even at light loads. In order to optimize the efficiency of a resource reservation algorithm, an accurate prediction scheme for the future movements of the user is required. Prediction of next handoff movement of the user is enough for efficient resource reservation and therefore predicting the users full path [1] is not necessary. Several mobility

prediction algorithms are available in literature [15,8,9].The SMP algorithm [1] utilizes a cell sector numbering scheme and a SMHB to predict the movements of users. The prediction accuracy of SMP algorithm decreases in the realistic environment with a complex road structure in the handoff area of the cell [2]. The ZMHB algorithm stores and uses the history of the users position within the current cell, not the cell by cell history [2]. ZMHB gives an inaccurate prediction result when the user is at the corners of the hexagonal cell structure. This motivated to propose a new prediction algorithm using Genetic Algorithm optimization technique. The proposed prediction algorithm gives an accurate prediction even if the mobile is in the corners of the hexagonal cell structure, without any additional complexity in the traditional prediction algorithm. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 gives the overview of related work. Section 3 introduces the proposed cell structure and mobility prediction using Genetic Algorithm steps. Section 4 shows the results of simulation, and the performance analysis. Finally Section 5 concludes the paper. 2. RELATED WORK Several early proposed mobility prediction algorithms [2-5] make use of the users movement history on a cellby-cell basis. They work on the assumption that the users movements are restricted to the indoor locations such as office or building and provide a poor performance when the individual cell-by-cell basis history is not available [2]. The structure of the cell is as shown in Fig 1. The cell is divided into three regions based on the Received Signal Strength (RSS) value with respect to Handoff (HO) probability as No-Handoff (No-HO), Low-Handoff (Low-HO) and High-Handoff (High-HO) regions. In hexagonal cell structure, there is a region of the cell wherein the probability of handoff is negligible. This region is called No-HO region. The user in this region of the cell cannot receive beacons of sufficient signal strengths that satisfy the threshold for handoff from any of the neighboring cells. Therefore users belonging to this category are not considered for mobility prediction. There is a region in the middle of the cell where the probability of handoff is low which is defined as Low-

HO region. This is because the quality of connection offered to the users in this region of the cell is still sufficient and hence the probability of handoff for an user from this region of the cell is fairly low. Hence users belonging to this category are also not considered for mobility prediction. There is also a region in every cell where the probability of handoff is fairly high which is defined as the HighHO region. This is the region of the cell where the mobile user is in the cell boundary and hence receives beacons from neighboring cells that are above the threshold required for handoff. The cell is further divided into sectors and numbered as shown in Fig. 2. Each sector in Sectorized cell structure is further divided into three zones of handoff probability as in Fig.1 and thus zoned cell structure Fig. 3 is obtained. The ZMHB algorithm keeps and utilizes the zone-by-zone movement history patterns of the user in a cell. If a new user call is generated in this region or a mobile user call

Consider a mobile node represented as a black dot in Fig. 3. It is in the Cell 0 Zone 6. According to ZMHB prediction algorithm, the next hand off will be to Cell 4 Zone 12. But there is a possibility that the user might move towards Cell 5 Zone 15 or Cell 0 Zone3. So the ZMHB prediction algorithm wont give accurate results for all the movements of the user especially when the user moves towards the corners of the cell. This motivated to propose a new prediction algorithm using Genetic Algorithm optimization technique, which yields an accurate prediction of every user movement.

Fig. 3. Zoned Cell Structure

3. PROPOSED PREDICTION ALGORITHM Fig. 1. A Cell Structure The proposed cell structure is shown in Fig. 4. A new user mobility prediction algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm optimization technique is also proposed. In the proposed cell structure, the corner portion of the cell which is the 10o angled area on either side of the sector and the area covered by 0.1r, where r is the radius of the cell is considered separately. When a user moves to a corner portion of the hexagonal cell structure, the proposed algorithm is invoked. When the user is away from the corner portion the mobility prediction is based on the ZMHB Algorithm. Under conditions of heavy load, the cell may shrink, where in the BS could not offer enough bandwidth for the mobile users within its coverage area. Fig. 2. Sectorized Cell Structure moves into the outer zones of the cell, prediction of the next cell takes place [1]. The major disadvantage of this approach is, when the user moves to the corner position of the hexagonal cell structure ZMHB algorithm gives an inaccurate prediction.

3.2 Steps for Genetic Algorithm approach Genetic algorithms [6] are computerized search and optimization algorithms based on the mechanics of natural genetics and natural selection. The aim is to solve the mobility prediction problem by finding out the best optimal cell to which the user will hand off. The steps involved in Genetic Algorithm method are the following: Choose a coding to represent problem parameters, selection operator, and a crossover operator. Each problem parameters are represented in a binary string format. The total length of the string is 32, in which first 8 bits represent speed value, second 8 bits represent RSS value, the third 8 bits represent time and the last 8 bits represent the resolution variable. The speed, RSS value, time and resolution are represented as sub strings in the chromosome. Rank order selection operator is used for selection and single point crossover is selected as crossover operator. 2. Choose population size n=30, crossover probability pc = 0.8 and mutation probability pm =0.01. The mutation probability should be very low when compared to crossover probability. 3. Initialize a random population of strings of size l=32. 4. Choose a maximum allowable generation number tmax=8. Set t=0. 5. Evaluate each string in the population ie, a fitness value is computed for each string in the population by equation (2). 6. If t > tmax terminate. 7. Perform reproduction on the population. 8. Perform crossover on a pair of strings with the crossover probability pc. 9. Perform mutation on each string with the mutation probability pm. 10. Evaluate each string in the new population using equation(2). The new population obtained is considered to be the parents for the next generation. Set t = t + 1 and go to step 6. The maximum probability of handoff is selected from the last iteration from the above said Genetic Algorithmic steps. Similarly, the maximum probability of handoff in the other two cells is also selected. So out of these three probability values, the cell having the maximum probability value is selected as the predicted cell. Thus the mobility prediction to find the best optimal cell to which the user will hand off is done. 1.

Fig. 4 Proposed Cell Structure In order to control call dropping in such a situation, the ZMHB prediction algorithm is invoked in the middle zone and when the user reaches the corner portion, the proposed Genetic Algorithm based user mobility prediction is invoked. The advantage of the proposed prediction algorithm is that it increases the prediction accuracy at the corner portion of the hexagonal cell structure even at high load, compared to the existing ZMHB. 3.1 Mobility Prediction using Genetic Algorithm optimization technique The parameters chosen for the Genetic Algorithm approach are Speed of the mobile user, RSS value, Current Time, and the Resolution of the mobile. The mobility prediction is based on these parameters. When the speed increases the handoff may occur frequently. When the MS moves away from the BS the RSS value gets reduced and this is a significant factor for the Mobility Prediction. Also the handoff time can be known from the current time. The MS can proceed with the ongoing call or it can receive new call even with low RSS value, which depends on the Resolution of the mobile. Hence these parameters are chosen for Genetic Algorithmic approach. The Objective function to compute the probability of handoff is given by g(x)=*Speed of the mobile+ *RSS value+ *Time+ *Resolution of the mobile (1)

where , , and lie between 0 and 1. The objective function g(x) is the maximization function. The fitness function f(x) is the minimization function, which is the inverse of the objective function g(x) and is given by f(x)=1/g(x) (2)

4. SIMULATION RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS In order to check and verify the desired results the simulation environment is created by using the Java as a development tool. The simulation environment contains following constraints and parameters. 1. 2. 3. Each cell is assigned 10 channels. Each call requires only one channel for service. For both new calls and handoff calls, the call duration time is exponentially distributed with mean 240 seconds and the cell dwell times are also exponentially distributed with mean 120. Mobile movement patterns are selected accordingly to check the prediction accuracy with respect to, with and without using GA mobility prediction approach. All possible movement directions are fixed to the mobile. The accuracy of prediction is calculated using equation (3)

Genetic Algorithm is used with the proposed cell structure.

Prediction Using GA Prediction Without Using



Call dropping %






0 0 10 20

Number of Handoffs Pr ediction Accuracy = (3) Number of Pr edictions + Misses

Number of Mobile users







Fig. 5 Call Dropping Percentage Vs Number of Mobile users 4.1 Call Dropping Percentage Vs Number of Mobile users Call dropping percentage is compared for varying number of mobile users. The graph is drawn between Call Dropping Percentage Vs Number of Mobile Users with Genetic Algorithm approach and without Genetic Algorithm approach. In Figure 5, it is seen that the call dropping percentage increases with increase in number of users. Also, it can be seen that for 50 users per unit time, the call dropping percentage is 12 and 24 with the Mobility Prediction using GA, and Mobility Prediction without using GA respectively. It is inferred from the graph that the Genetic algorithmic based mobility prediction reduces the call-dropping percentage significantly. 4.2 Prediction Accuracy Vs Number of Mobile users Prediction accuracy depends on the traffic. As the traffic increases, prediction should be done at a faster rate. Prediction accuracy is computed using equation (3) for varying number of mobile users and a graph is plotted with these values as shown in Fig. 6 for Mobility prediction using Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach and also without Genetic Algorithm. In Figure 6, it is seen that the accuracy reduces with increase in traffic. It is inferred from the graph that the accuracy is more when Mobility Prediction using
100 95 90 Prediction Accuracy % 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Number of Mobile Users 70 80

Prediction Using GA Prediction Without Using GA

Fig. 6 Accuracy Percentage Vs Number of Mobile users 5. CONCLUSION The rising demand for mobile communication services is increasing the importance of efficient use of the limited resources, viz., Mobility prediction is a provisioning strategy used to predict the users position in the future, in order to reduce the call dropping rate by allocating the network resources in an efficient manner. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm shows that accurate prediction is done for the next movement of the user either in the corner portion or away from the

corner portion of the cell. It is also inferred that the genetic algorithmic based mobility prediction approach is more accurate for all kind of user movement patterns compared to other existing algorithms. REFERENCES [1] Robin Chellappa and Andrew Jennings and Nirmala Shenoy, The Sectorized Mobility Prediction Algorithm for Wireless Networks, International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT 2003), April 8-10, 2003. [2] Sedong Kwon, Hyunmin Park, and Kangsun Lee, A Novel Mobility Prediction Algorithm Based on User Movement History in Wireless Networks, AsiaSim 2004, LNAI 3398, pp. 419428, 2005. [3] R. De Silva, J. Chan and A. Senevirance, A QoS Adaptive Mobility Prediction Scheme for Wireless Networks IEEE GLOBECOM98, pages 1414-1419, 1998. [4] J. Chan et. al.,A Hybrid Handoff Scheme with Prediction Enhancement for Wireless ATM Network, APCC97, pages498-498, 1997.

[5] Fei Yu and Victor Leung, Mobility-based predictive call admission control and bandwidth reservation in wireless cellular networks, Computer Networks 38 (2002), pages577589, 2002. [6] David E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning 2nd Edition, 2001. [7] Wolfgang Banzhaf, Peter Nordin, Robert E. Keller Frank D. Francone Genetic Programming An Introduction On the Automatic Evolution of Computer Programs and its Applications 1st Edition, 2006. [8]Sherif Rashad, Mehmed Kantardzic, Anup Kumar, User mobility oriented predictive call admission control and resource reservation for next-generation mobile networks, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 66 (2006), pages 971 988, 2006. [9] Nen-Chung Wang, Shou-Wen Chang, A reliable on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks with mobility prediction, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 29 (2005), pages 123135 , 2005.