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THEORY AND APPLICATION OF CORROSION COUPONS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Corrosion File Reference: COE-102.02

For additional information on this subject, contact PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion Monitoring Theory and Application of Corrosion Coupons

CONTENT

PAGE

THEORY FOR USING CORROSION COUPONS......................................................... 4 Types of Corrosion Monitored With Coupons..................................................... 6 Importance of Location and Orientation.............................................................. 9 Areas of Phase Change.................................................................................... 11 TYPES OF CORROSION COUPONS......................................................................... 17 Application and Size of Coupons...................................................................... 19 Special Coupons............................................................................................... 23 HANDLING OF COUPONS ......................................................................................... 24 Critical Aspects of Coupon Handling ................................................................ 24 Most Critical Problems Encountered When Handling Coupons........................ 26 INSTALLATION AND RETRIEVAL OF A CORROSION COUPON ............................ 28 Safety Requirements When Handling a Retriever ............................................ 31 Theory and Operation of the Retriever and Service Valve ............................... 31 Operation and Care of the Retriever................................................................. 33 EVALUATION OF EXPOSED COUPON..................................................................... 41 Initial Analysis Before Cleaning ........................................................................ 41 Cleaning of the Exposed Coupon ..................................................................... 42 Evaluation of the Coupon After Cleaning.......................................................... 43 CORROSION COUPON PROGRAMS........................................................................ 48 Type: 30-day, 60-day, 90-day.......................................................................... 48 Location of Installation ...................................................................................... 48 Gas Production ................................................................................................. 48 Oil Production ................................................................................................... 50 Water Injection/Water Disposal ........................................................................ 51 Applications of Coupon Data ............................................................................ 52

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WORK AIDS CONTENTS ........................................................................................... 58 A. COUPON REPORT FORM ......................................................................... 59 B. CORROSION COUPON REPORT.............................................................. 60 C. COUPON HANDLING GUIDELINES .......................................................... 61 D. DEPOSIT ANALYSIS PROCEDURES........................................................ 63 E. PROCEDURES FOR CLEANING AND WEIGHING COUPONS ................ 64 Chemical Cleaning ................................................................................. 65 F. EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS FOR CLEANING AND ANALYSIS .......... 66 Required ................................................................................................ 66 Desirable................................................................................................ 66 G. REPORTING RESULTS ............................................................................. 67 H. DESCRIPTION OF EXPOSED COUPONS GENERAL INFORMATION . 68 I. DESCRIPTION OF EXPOSED COUPONS DETAILED INFORMATION .. 69 J. CORROSION RATE FORMULAS ............................................................... 71 AVERAGE CORROSION PENETRATION RATE.................................. 71 PITTING RATE ...................................................................................... 71 K. CORROSION RATE FACTORS.................................................................. 72 L. CONVERSION FACTORS........................................................................... 74 M. SHORT FORM CONVERSION FORMULAS.............................................. 75 N. EVALUATION OF CORROSION RATES ................................................... 75 REFERENCE .............................................................................................................. 76 GLOSSARY................................................................................................................. 77

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Table of Figures
Figure 1. Fluid Build-up in Bottom of Pipeline .............................................................. 4 Figure 2. Comparison of Periodic and Continuous Corrosion Data.............................. 6 Figure 3. Typical Isolation of Corrosion Coupon From Its Holder................................. 7 Figure 4. Coupon Data at Various Depths in a Gas Lift Well ..................................... 10 Figure 5. Flat Coupons Installed in Water Trap Welded to Bottom of a Pipeline ....... 11 Figure 6. Typical Gathering Line Access Stations ...................................................... 14 Figure 7. Outfitting Vessel with Monitoring ................................................................. 15 Figure 8. Typical Coupons.......................................................................................... 18 Figure 9. Corrosion Test Spools.................................................................................. 18 Figure 10. Rod Type Coupon Holder.......................................................................... 21 Figure 11. Valved Bypass Loop With Corrosion Spool............................................... 22 Figure 12. Typical Coupon Holders ............................................................................ 29 Figure 13. Coupon Retrieval System.......................................................................... 30 Figure 14. How The Coupon Plug Is Removed And Installed Under Pressure .......... 32 Figure 15. Corrosion Coupon Data -- Berri Water Injection System........................... 57

List of Tables
Table 1. General Corrosion Rate Classification ......................................................... 45 Table 2. Average Corrosion Rate Classifications ....................................................... 45 Table 3. Percent Weight Change ............................................................................... 45 Table 4. Engineering System ..................................................................................... 46 Table 5. Metric System............................................................................................... 46 Table 6. Pitting Rates ................................................................................................. 47 Table 7. Corrosion Rate (mpy) ................................................................................... 52 Table 8. Corrosion Rate (mpy) Average of Two Coupons.......................................... 53 Table 9. Results of Evaluation.................................................................................... 53 Table 10. Coupon Data Sheet.................................................................................... 56

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THEORY FOR USING CORROSION COUPONS The purposes for corrosion monitoring are to Determine whether corrosive conditions exist in the system Determine and predict corrosion rates on the equipment Evaluate the effectiveness of various corrosion control procedures Optimize corrosion control procedures Monitor the continuity of effective corrosion control

Corrosion rates can vary widely even among wells producing from the same formation. Therefore, monitoring equipment should be installed in every well. The wide variation in gas corrosiveness among wells similarly indicates that each line segment may have different corrosion conditions. Each line segment should also be separately monitored. However, corrosion monitoring in the gas stream does not necessarily provide information about the corrosivity of liquids at low spots in the bottom of the line. An example of fluid build-up is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Fluid Build-up in Bottom of Pipeline

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Corrosion Monitoring Theory and Application of Corrosion Coupons

Corrosion coupons are useful in determining relative corrosivity from place to place and from phase to phase in dynamic oil and gas production and processing systems. While coupons do not give an exact indication of what is happening, they do indicate general trends. Besides corrosion rate measurements, coupons also collect corrosion deposits, monitor and measure localized corrosion, and detect erosion, scaling, and fouling. A corrosion coupon cannot be considered to be of exactly the same material as the system, nor can its shape and location be subject to exactly the same service conditions. Corrosion coupons, however, indicate general trends of what is occurring in the system. The greater the reduction in corrosion rate indicated by the corrosion coupon, the greater the reduction (proportional) of the corrosion rate in the system. Because of its physical shape and location, the coupon is capable of detecting other problems such as erosion and fouling. If problems are detected, additional monitoring devices can be strategically placed to measure the conditions more accurately and to monitor the results of corrective actions. Corrosion coupons have application in the monitoring of corrosion and corrosivity in oil and natural gas production, gathering, and transportation systems; in water supply, injection, and disposal systems; and in oil and gas processing systems. With coupons, most transient occurrences will be overlooked since the corrosion rate calculation is an average history over a relatively long exposure period. An example is a process upset condition, such as workover chemicals, that caused an unusually high corrosion rate for a short time. In Figure 2, a very corrosive condition is observed on day 28 by a continuous monitoring method. Corrosion coupons exposed in the stream would only yield the average corrosion rate over the time period, and the excessive corrosive condition would be obscured. Therefore, no corrective action would be taken.

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Corrosion Monitoring Theory and Application of Corrosion Coupons

Figure 2. Comparison of Periodic and Continuous Corrosion Data Types of Corrosion Monitored With Coupons Corrosion coupons are small representative pieces of metal that are used to evaluate the system corrosivity, material performance, and/or corrosion inhibitor effectiveness. In order to be useful, a corrosion coupon must be placed in a representative location in the system to be monitored. This includes representative temperature, pressure, flow regimes, water chemistry, chemical additions, bacterial populations, and solids loading. The coupon must not cause turbulence in the flow stream, or erosional effects will erroneously increase the corrosion rates. The coupon must also be electrically isolated from the holder and from the system to be monitored. Figure 3 shows how a coupon is typically isolated from its holder. Should the coupon be electrically connected, the coupon might corrode faster than the system to be monitored due to galvanic effects.

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Corrosion Monitoring Theory and Application of Corrosion Coupons

Figure 3. Typical Isolation of Corrosion Coupon From Its Holder

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Coupons are usually produced from a material which duplicates the wall of the vessel or pipe, such as mild steel, brass, or stainless. They are placed in the process stream and periodically removed, cleaned, and weighed to determine the metal loss that has occurred during that period. The coupon is, in effect, a representative sample of the pipe or vessel wall, and a measurement of the coupons metal loss permits a calculation of the metal loss of the pipe or vessel at that point during the exposure period. Coupons may be used to Determine the corrosivity of a system Establish the nature of corrosion (such as uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, etc.) Establish a corrosion rate Define the corrosion mechanism Monitor the progress of an existing corrosion control program

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Corrosion Monitoring Theory and Application of Corrosion Coupons

Importance of Location and Orientation Selection of a location as a monitoring point requires careful study of the system. Coupons indicate the attack of the environment only at the point of exposure. Therefore, the coupon must be installed as closely as possible to critical points where corrosion measurements are desired, such as vessel or pipe walls, tube sheets, trays, lateral lines upstream to major tie-ins, turbulent areas, elbows, and areas with changes in velocity. Coupons suspended in the center of a pipeline or vessel may corrode at different rates than coupons suspended near the wall of the pipeline or vessel. Conditions such as temperature, flow, and concentration may change considerably only a few inches away from any given location, with resulting differences in corrosion rates. For example, coupons exposed to only the oil or gas phase in a pipeline will not reflect the corrosivity of water flowing along the bottom of the pipeline. As shown in Figure 4, the corrosion rate of coupons changes at various depths in a gas lift well. A wellhead coupon indicates a low corrosion rate while coupons located below the gas lift valve indicate a severe corrosion problem. In addition, changes in the amount or composition of the gases or liquids in the system, as well as changes in temperature or pressure, will affect corrosion rate. Consecutive strip coupons should be oriented in the same direction with the edge facing the fluid flow so that the same flow patterns are experienced by each. The fluids to which the coupons are exposed are also important. A blob of paraffin or an oil film coating part of a coupon can give inconsistent results. Paraffin or oil cannot be expected to coat the same area on every coupon put in the system. Consequently, coupons are most often used in gas wells, water systems, and other situations where such problems are kept at a minimum. However, the use of coupons can be helpful in any environment if factors such as water drop out, velocity, multiphase flow, and other factors that may affect the results are taken into consideration.

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Corrosion Monitoring Theory and Application of Corrosion Coupons

Figure 4. Coupon Data at Various Depths in a Gas Lift Well

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Areas of Phase Change Corrosion in multiphase systems seldom occurs uniformly on the internal surface of piping, vessels, or tanks. Much of the corrosion in such systems is found on surfaces where water condenses from a trapped gas or where water is trapped at a low point or where water settles out to wet a trapped sludge. If the corrosion rate and effectiveness of corrosion control measures are to be effectively monitored, trap areas or simulations of trap areas must be included as a priority part of the monitoring program. Figure 5 shows flat coupons installed in a water trap welded to the bottom of a pipeline.

Figure 5. Flat Coupons Installed in Water Trap Welded to Bottom of a Pipeline


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The severity of localized attack on the water wet parts of the surface will, of course, be significantly influenced by The concentration of water soluble components in the gas phase (CO2, H2S, O2) The concentration of water soluble solids (carbonates, sulfates, chlorides) The presence of water soluble liquids (acids, alkalis, amines, glycols) The presence of insoluble solids capable of forming deposits and sludges (sand, marine shells, elemental sulfur, corrosion product, amine degradation product) The presence of living organisms (sulfate reducing bacteria, algae, slime formers) System pressure System temperature

Trap areas where low velocities exist are especially corrosive. Examples of this condition include: Dead gas traps in unused or intermittently used parts of a manifold where gas can collect and cool, and water condense out. This is a particularly severe case when the gas happens to contain CO2 or H2S or both. Dead liquid traps where liquid water will settle out because of lack of any flow past the point, lack of sufficient flow velocity to move the heavier water phase, or intermittent operation. Submarine pipelines by their very nature constitute such a trap. Intermittently used pump suction lines in a tank farm often suffer corrosion failures due to water settling out between short periods of use.

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Dead solid traps where solids settle out because of lack of sufficient stream velocity to keep them moving. If there is also water in the system, these solid sludges will become water wet. The corrosion underneath the sludge may be very rapid due to such mechanisms as oxygen concentration cell action, anaerobic bacterial acceleration, and galvanic attack by iron sulfide scale. In fact, localized action under sludge deposits is one of the most serious mechanisms to be found in multiphase system corrosion.

Figure 6 (a) shows the simultaneous exposure of coupons in dead gas, flowing gas, and liquid phases. Valves were added on the bottom of the trap to permit sludge sample to be taken without line shut-down. In Figure 6 (b), the coupons are only located in the dead gas and liquid phase. This configuration is applicable where the line cannot be obstructed due to scraping operations. Figure 7 shows how a vessel not equipped for monitoring can be equipped for worst case monitoring without adding any new nozzles.

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Figure 6. Typical Gathering Line Access Stations

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Figure 7. Outfitting Vessel with Monitoring

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Certain surfaces exposed to a multiphase system, however, will have little or no corrosion attack. For example, corrosion is not likely to occur in Dry gas phase--even with CO2 or H2S Oil or hydrocarbon phase Solid phase in absence of water

As a general rule, corrosion is more severe in areas of high velocity, stagnant areas, or where any solid material settles. Also, corrosion can be more severe at the bottom of the line where water and other liquids tend to settle or at the top of the line where condensation can occur. The interpretation of coupon results should involve these factors: Turbulence or impingement points in piping and vessels would generally have more severe corrosion than areas of laminar flow. High fluid velocities can remove corrosion resistant films exposing fresh surfaces to attack. Low velocities may allow solids build-up that promotes pitting.

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TYPES OF CORROSION COUPONS Corrosion coupons in the oil and gas industry are normally made from cold rolled mild steel, typically AISI 1018 or 1020 steel. In some cases, the use of a different material similar to that used in the actual equipment will be needed. The coupon is ground to remove surface imperfections. Water soluble coolants are used during all machining procedures so that excessive heating of the coupon is avoided. Identification numbers are stamped on one side of the coupons surface. Finally, the coupons are inspected for surface irregularities, missing numbers, dimensional accuracy, or other manufacturing flaws. Coupons may be manufactured in a wide variety of sizes and types depending upon their application. Ideally, the ratio of area to volume and the total area to edge area should be large. This criterion achieves the maximum possible sensitivity without risking corrosion penetration through the test coupon during exposure. Several types of coupons are available. Strips Discs Rods Coupons with stress Spools

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Strip, disc, and rod coupons are shown in Figure 8. Examples of spool coupons are shown in Figure 9.

Figure 8. Typical Coupons

Figure 9. Corrosion Test Spools

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(A) Spool with grooves for Victaulic couplings, (B) Spool with flanges, (C) Bypass piping arrangement with spool and test coupon combination. Application and Size of Coupons Strip coupons are the most widely used type of coupon. Generally, strip coupons are the most economical, provide satisfactory corrosion rate data, and are adequate for most applications unless particular problems, such as scraping or orientation, are encountered. Strip coupons are generally used in nominal lengths of 2, 3, 4, or 6 inches (50.8, 76.2, 101.6, or 152.4 mm, respectively); 0.875 inches (22.23 mm) wide; and 0.125 inches (3.18 mm) thick. For particular applications, almost any size may be used, provided it can be easily installed and retrieved. Two mounting holes drilled near one end attach the coupon to the holder. Because weight loss must normally be determined on a laboratory balance, the weight of these coupons should not exceed 200 grams. Strip coupons are normally exposed edge-on to the flow in any position in the line or vessel. Since the flow pattern over the coupon surface is different from the flow pattern over the line or vessel wall, the composition of fluids may not be uniform over the coupon surface. In these cases, edge attack is commonly observed. Due to exposed positions, some coupons can experience unrealistically high corrosion rates and may cause increased attack of the surrounding pipe. In a Khuff gas system on Bahrain, coupons were bolted to rods and fixed at the center of the stream through tees about 3.6 feet (1.2 meters) downstream of the wellhead. The presence of these coupons disturbed the flow of gas through the pipes, creating turbulence and higher local velocity. When the manifold of one well was opened after two years of service, the support rods were discovered to have been completely eroded away and the coupons lost. The turbulence caused by the coupons produced much more erosion than was experienced by either the upstream or downstream piping. The corrosion rate for this area was about 4 mm per year, while the highest rate experienced by the manifold piping was only 2.8 mm per year.

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A common problem with strip coupons is that the identification number, which is often stamped on the face of the coupon, is easily removed by corrosion. If the number is stamped at the end of the coupon least exposed to the flow, it tends to be legible even after exposure in a highly corrosive environment. Disc coupons are particularly useful for multiple phase flow since separation due to gravity will expose certain discs to more corrosive environments. These coupons are generally 1.25 inches (31.75 mm) in diameter and 0.125 inches (3.18 mm) thick. They are normally installed through a vertically aligned access point where a series of discs are oriented in a horizontal plane. Disc coupons have used in both gas and oil pipelines to determine the height to which the line is contacted by corrosive fluids. When used singly and mounted flush with the pipe inner diameter surface, these coupons will have conditions of exposure very close to the conditions on the pipe surface. These flush mounted disc coupons also offer the advantage of not having to be withdrawn from the line for scraping operations. The circular shape of these coupons tends to reduce the severity of the edge attack effect and allow the coupon to be installed without regard to orientation with the flow.

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Rod coupons are normally used for locations where installation and retrieval under pressure are not required. These coupons may be attacked to their holders singly but are usually used in groups of two to six in a holder. Lengths of these coupons are normally 3 inches (76.5 mm) with diameters of 0.25 inches (6.4 mm). The advantage of this type of coupon and its holder is that a larger number of coupons can be installed and removed sequentially. This permits regular checks with longer exposure periods. For example, if six coupons are installed, two can be changed each month while achieving a total exposure time of three months. Figure 10 shows a typical rod type coupon holder.

Figure 10. Rod Type Coupon Holder

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With certain types of corrosion in reducing environments, the temporary removal of the holder could influence the long term test results due to exposure to the air and disturbance of the deposits. Coupons with stress can be used in pressurized equipment to measure the effect of stress on the susceptibility to corrosion and cracking and to monitor the success of treatments to control stress cracking. Applied stress, usually at mid-coupon, bends the coupon. Spools are portions of pipes that serve as large coupons. Spools may be exposed for several months and represent a 360 sampling of the interior pipe surface while giving an accurate sampling of dynamic effects. Spools may be weighed and their corrosion rates determined in the same way as strip coupons corrosion rates. However, their biggest contribution is usually their physical appearance. Spools can be cut open and pit depths measured. A bypass loop with a corrosion spool in place is illustrated in Figure 11.

Figure 11. Valved Bypass Loop With Corrosion Spool

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Special Coupons Two types of coupons not typically used for a weight-loss determination are the copper ion displacement (CID) coupon and banded coupons. A CID coupon is used to evaluate the corrosion inhibitor filming action in a treated system. Unlike the weight-loss coupon, the CID coupon is not preweighed and is usually exposed to a system for a short period of time. Often a multicoupon holder is used whereby several coupons are inserted and one coupon is removed at a time to evaluate filming over an extended period. These coupons are washed lightly with a solvent after being removed from the system and then immersed in a 10 percent copper sulfate solution. Any part of the coupon not filmed with an inhibitor will plate with a distinctive reddish copper film. A disadvantage to this test is that the results are strictly subjective and no actual numerical data is generated. The data generated by this test can be erratic. CID coupons are useful when evaluating adjustments in treatment rates. CID coupons can determine the point where inhibitor concentration is inadequate for sufficient filming. Banded coupons are also not used for weight-loss determination. These coupons are used specifically to test for oxygen contamination. In this test, a steel coupon is banded or wrapped with a rubber band. In a system contaminated with oxygen, a concentration or differential aeration cell will occur. This causes the coupon to corrode preferentially under the band, the area exposed to the lowest oxygen concentration.

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HANDLING OF COUPONS The handling of coupons during installation and removal can affect the corrosion rate. The coupon must be free from corrosion when it is installed in the system. While the coupon is being shipped back to a laboratory for analysis, it must be prevented from corroding further. Critical Aspects of Coupon Handling Coupons are stamped with identifying letters or numbers at the time of original preparation and prior to initial cleaning and weighing. The coupon number is recorded in a permanent laboratory record book along with the initial cleaned weight. The number and weight should also be recorded on the coupon package. The coupon surface must be uniform and clean before it is installed. Residual oils are first removed from the coupons surface by dipping the coupons in a hydrocarbon solvent such as xylene, toluene, or trichloroethylene. Rust, oxides, or other foreign matter must then be removed from the coupons surface. There are several methods available for this cleaning. One of the best methods is by sandblasting with a mediumcoarse dustless corundum abrasive. Coupons are cleaned in a dry blast cabinet using a nozzle of 0.25 inches (6.3 mm) diameter with a pressure of 60 psi (0.42 mPa). The air supply line is equipped with an airregulating valve, gauge, and moisture air filter. A jig can be used to hold up to 30 coupons at a time in the blasting cabinet. After blasting, compressed air is used to remove dust from the surfaces. Other cleaning methods include polishing on a lathe or cleaning by hand using progressively finer grades of abrasive paper. After blasting or polishing, the coupon should be thoroughly rinsed with water, dried with hot air, rinsed with a volatile organic solvent, and dried again.

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Immediately after drying, the coupons should be weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg on a laboratory balance. If weighing cannot be immediately performed, the coupons should be placed in a desiccator until they can be weighed. After weighing, the coupons should be protected against contamination and rusting by placing them in inhibited VPI paper and plastic moistureproof envelopes. Coupons should then be stored in a desiccator until installation. Clean coupons should be handled with clean gloves to avoid contamination. NEVER HANDLE CLEAN COUPONS WITH BARE HANDS. When installing coupons, be careful to handle them only by their edges. During installation of the coupon, care should be taken to prevent contamination with fingerprints, water, oil, or inhibitor (unless such exposure is a calculated part of the program). The date, location, and exact conditions of exposure of the coupon should be recorded. Examples of coupon report forms are provided in Work Aids A and B. The orientation of the coupon (for example, stamped side next to holder) and phase where the coupon is exposed (for example, gas phase or trap) must be recorded. Upon removal, the coupon should be handled as carefully as possible to prevent loss of corrosion product or scale. The coupons should be wrapped in paper or in the original envelopes if available. The date of coupon removal, exposure location, exposure orientation and other pertinent information should be recorded and sent with the coupons to the laboratory.

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At the laboratory, the following steps should be performed. Inspect coupon visually and record findings Weigh coupons before cleaning, taking care to minimize loss of scale or corrosion product. When required by the corrosion program, take sample of corrosion scale for detailed analysis or spot testing (for example, acid tests for sulfide or carbonate scales). Clean and weigh coupon per procedures noted above. Inspect coupon visually, describe corrosion attack, and record findings. Measure any pits with a pit depth gauge. NOTE: The two or three deepest pits are usually recorded.

Most Critical Problems Encountered When Handling Coupons The most critical problems encountered in the handling of corrosion coupons include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Recording errors in coupon number Recording errors in coupon weight Recording errors in coupon installation and removal Recording errors in coupon exposure location Improper storage of new coupons allowing for atmospheric corrosion and contamination Improper manual handling that results in contamination of coupon surface by Foreign agents (oil, dirt, etc.) Human body oils Human perspiration

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7.

Mechanical damage of new coupons that can result in weight loss by surface abrasion and in stress zones that are more susceptible to corrosion action. Improper mounting that results in loss of coupons if the bolts are not properly secured. Galvanic corrosion if insulating washers are lost. Mechanical damage and loss of corrosion products if bolts are loose and coupons vibrate excessively. Improper alignment when in service that allows excessive erosion and corrosion product removal. Improper installation that results in mechanical damage to coupon and mounting hardware. This results in the problems indicated in items 7 and 8. Improper removal that results in mechanical damage to exposed coupon will give an error in weight loss, an incorrect analysis of corrosion deposit because of losses, and an incorrect assessment of damage because of surface distortion. Improper cleaning procedures that result in incorrect weight loss because of Incomplete removal of corrosion product Removal of metal by excessive cleaning Incomplete drying of cleaned coupon

8.

9. 10.

11.

12.

Although many of the points listed above appear very elementary, they are critical to the collection of meaningful and accurate data. Additional information on coupon handling guidelines are found in Work Aid C.

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INSTALLATION AND RETRIEVAL OF A CORROSION COUPON Coupons may be mounted in a system in a variety of ways. The exact mounting needs to match the users system. In general, the mounting must be designed to Support the coupons adequately in the flow system Isolate the coupon electrically from the system Place the coupon in the proper location with respect to flow Provide rapid, easy change of the coupons under field conditions

Two methods for installation and retrieval of coupons are commonly used. Placement of coupon holders in sections of the system, such as bypass lines, that can be readily shut in Using retrievable holders that allow installation and retrieval of coupons from systems under pressure

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Usually the holders are designed for exposure of at least two coupons. The two coupons determine the average weight loss. The top of the holder is usually marked so that the orientation of the coupon can be adjusted with relation to flow. Various coupon holders are shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Typical Coupon Holders

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The use of a retrievable coupon holder allows entry into any system at any time without system shutdown. These holders may be inserted at any position from 0 to 360 on the outer diameter of a pipe or vessel. The main parts of a coupon retrieval system are shown in Figure 13. These parts are the retriever, service valve, plug with coupon, and access fitting.

FIGURE 13. Coupon Retrieval System


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Safety Requirements When Handling a Retriever NOTE: The following precautions must be taken during the extracting or installation procedures. The process fluid (gas, water, oil, etc.) that is bled from the retriever, must be vented according to local requirements and standards. This must be established before proceeding with the operation of the retriever. If working on a sour gas or oil system, proper safety precautions and procedures must be followed. Become familiar with these procedures and strictly adhere to them to ensure your safety and the safety of others.

Theory and Operation of the Retriever and Service Valve A coupon retriever is used to insert and extract coupons in systems under pressure. The retriever is screwed into a full opening valve (service valve) through which the coupon is inserted by means of a holding rod. The valve is left open while the coupon is in place and the retriever assembly holds the full line pressure. For extraction, the coupon is pulled up through the service valve into the retriever housing, the valve is closed, pressure bled off, and the whole retriever assembly with the coupon inside is unscrewed for removal. Figure 14 shows how a coupon plug is removed and installed under pressure.

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FIGURE 14. How the Coupon Plug Is Removed and Installed Under Pressure

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Operation and Care of the Retriever The following procedures are typical of one manufacturers retriever and many differ from others. Consult the specific manufacturers manual for detailed information. Removal of a Coupon NOTE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The following steps are to be used when extracting the gauge plug under pressure.

Remove dust cover or heavy-duty cover from the access fitting. Clean and lubricate sealing surface and 3-inch ACME threads. Remove pipe plug from top of gauge plug. Install service valve (in open position) on access fitting. Install retriever (fully extended) on service valve. Collapse retriever and screw pilot adaptor into gauge plug. Collapse retriever about 3/4-inches to set hex socket on the hex head of the gauge plug. With retriever bleed valve open, slowly unscrew the gauge plug (maximum four turns) until bleed is established. Close retriever bleed valve and allow retriever to pressurize to line pressure. Continue to unscrew gauge plug (total of 15 turns) holding retriever against gauge plug. Extend retriever fully. Close service valve.

9. 10. 11. 12.

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13. 14. 15. 16.

Depressure retriever by slowly opening bleed valve. Remove retriever from service valve. Fully collapse retriever to expose retrieved fitting. Unscrew retrieved fitting from retriever.

Installation of a Coupon NOTE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The following steps are to be followed when installing a gauge plug under pressure.

Screw gauge plug on to retriever pilot adaptor. Fully extend retriever. Install retriever on service valve. Open retriever bleed valve. Slowly open service valve bypass valve to purge retriever. Allow retriever to pressurize to line pressure. Open service valve. Gently collapse retriever as far as possible. With pressure and slow anti-clockwise rotation, set hex socket over hex head of gauge plug. With pressure on gauge plug, rotate clockwise (15 turns) to seat gauge plug. Rotate an additional 1/4 turn to obtain a pressure seal. Slowly open retriever bleed valve to depressurize the retriever.

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13.

Release retriever from gauge plug by pulling hex socket away from gauge plug and rotating anticlockwise. Fully extend retriever and remove from service valve. Collapse retriever and place in box. Remove service valve from access fitting and place in box. Clean and lubricate seal surface and 3-inch ACME threads of the access fitting. Install pipe plug in the gauge plug. Install dust cover or heavy-duty cover on access fitting.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Retriever Maintenance NOTE: Upon completion of installing or extracting the gauge plug, the retriever must be cleaned. The following steps are to be followed in disassembling a typical retriever. Other types of retrievers may require different steps.

1. 2. 3.

Collapse the retriever fully. Using a 3/4-inch socket, loosen and remove the mandrel rod stop nut. Remove the flat washer. Using a 5/16-inch Allen wrench, loosen and remove the four 3/8-inch Allen-head cap screws retaining the retriever head. Remove the retriever head and the mandrel rod stop washer.

4.

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5.

Withdraw the mandrel rod from the inner barrel and thread adapter assembly end until the mandrel rod centralizer bottoms on the thread adapter. Withdrawal can be eased by pulling on the socket adapter assembly. Note: The socket adapter assembly may be left attached or removed from the mandrel rod. To remove, using a 1/4-inch Allen wrench, unscrew the two 5/16-inch Allen-head cap screws. Using a 1/4-inch punch, drive out the spring pin and remove the socket adapter pilot and flat washer. Remove the hammer nut retaining lock ring. Lift the last turn of the hammer nut retaining lock ring up and out of the groove. Work around the ring until the entire ring comes out of its groove in the thread adapter. Using a 1/8-inch Allen wrench, loosen and remove the two 1/4-inch Allen-head set screws that retain the thread adapter. Remove the thread adapter from the inner barrel by unscrewing one from the other. Spanner holes are provided in the head end of the inner barrel and in the sides of the thread adapter to accommodate spanner wrenches for leverage assistance in disassembling. Remove the hammer nut and retaining lock ring also. Loosen and remove the four 3/8-inch Allen-head cap screws retaining the seal stop collar. Remove the seal stop collar. Carefully remove the o-ring and back-up ring by sliding them over the taped threads of the inner barrel. Stand the retriever in a vertical position with the inner barrel, thread end downward. Push down on the outer barrel until the inner barrel head end is exposed. Pull the inner barrel from the outer barrel.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

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14. 15.

Remove o-ring and back-up rings from the inner barrel. Remove the retriever bleed valve assembly from the outer barrel. The bleed valve can be removed by unscrewing it from the valve body. The o-ring and back-up ring can also be removed for servicing. The following steps are to be followed when assembling the retriever.

NOTE:

During assembly, the working surfaces of the retriever should be inspected for damage caused by foreign material that may have entered the retriever or by handling and/or pitting damage. Should the chrome surfaces become damaged to the degree that the seals will no longer hold pressure, the retriever should not be used. Severely damaged chrome surfaces, especially inside surface areas of the outer barrel and outside surface areas of the inner barrel, will normally require replacement with new outer and inner barrels. 1. Using diesel fuel, clean the outer barrel inside surface areas. Wipe the bore thoroughly clean and inspect for damage. Apply grease for about 4 inches inside the bore of the outer barrel. The grease will be spread in a film throughout the inside of the retriever when it is fully assembled and later stroked. Using diesel fuel, clean the inner barrel. If the unplated areas of the inner barrel have been scratched or scored, polish the areas with fine emery cloth. Minor scratches in the chrome can be dressed with fine crocus cloth. Examine the inner barrel threads and repair as necessary. Grease and install new o-rings and their respective back-up rings.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

Apply grease to the inside and outside surfaces of the inner barrel, especially o-ring contact areas. Apply a thin coat of grease to the chrome of the inner barrel. Stand the outer barrel vertically with the bleed valve assembly, or the inner barrel, thread end down. Place the inner barrel, threaded end first, into the outer barrel. Hold the inner barrel within the outer barrel and turn the barrels end-for-end. Place a rag under the inner barrel, head end, and push down on the outer barrel until the barrels are in place. Grease and install the large o-ring and install the two back-up rings. Two back-up rings are used, one on each side of the o-ring. Using four 3/8-inch Allen-head cap screws, install the seal stop collar. Do not tighten the screws fully. Allow the seal stop collar to have a slight play. Grease and install the o-ring on the thread adapter. Install the back-up rings behind the oring and on the same side as the threads. Slide the retaining lock ring and the hammer nut onto the inner barrel. Grease the thread end of the inner barrel. Using the spanner wrenches as indicated in step 9 of the Disassembly procedure, tighten the thread adapter onto the inner barrel. Tighten securely, but allow sufficient room for the set screw holes to line up. Using a 1/8-inch Allen wrench, install the two 1/4-inch Allen-head set screws. Install the retaining lock ring into the thread adapter by feeding the leading edge into the groove and then working around the ring. Using diesel fuel, clean the mandrel rod. Examine the mandrel rod for damage. Apply grease liberally to the entire length of the mandrel rod, including the chamfer at the threaded end.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

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13.

Pull the inner barrel and thread adapter assembly until the inner barrel is withdrawn from the outer barrel and has approximately 2 inches exposure. Insert the mandrel rod and thread adapter assembly. Gently push the mandrel rod through the o-ring and its back-up ring. Lay the retriever on its side. Continue pushing the mandrel rod until the threaded end is exposed from the outer barrel end approximately 1 inch. Place the mandrel stop washer onto the exposed threaded end of the mandrel rod. Place the retriever head onto the mandrel rod. Install the washer and start threading the stop nut. Install the four 3/8-inch Allen-head cap screws through the retriever head screw holes and into the outer barrel screw holes. Using a 5/16-inch Allen wrench, tighten the cap screws. Using a 3/4-inch socket wrench, tighten the mandrel rod stop nut. Tighten the four 3/8-inch Allen-head cap screws retaining the retriever stop collar that were installed in step 7. Install the retriever bleed valve assembly if it was removed. Use Teflon tape on the threads. If the bleed valve leaks, look for a burr on the seat, or for scoring on the bleed valve taper. The stem may be replaced or refaced by turning up to 1/16-inch off the point. The angle is not critical and need not be an exact match. However, do not refinish the surface by hand. A 3/16-inch drill bit will remove burrs from the seat. At the first assembly of the bleed valve, apply grease to the point of the stem and, using a wrench, tighten it a little tighter than normal to seat the stem taper within its valve seat.

14.

15. 16.

17. 18.

19.

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Ensure that the bleed valve stem back-up ring is placed on the threaded side of the bleed valve stem.

20.

Position the key in the mandrel rod and install the socket adapter assembly if it was removed. Position the two 5/16-inch cap screws in the third and fifth holes form the socket adapter pilot end for normal service. Stroke, extend, and collapse the retriever to ensure it slides easily and does not bind. If the retriever binds, loosen the eight 3/8-inch cap screws, four at the head and four at the seal stop collar end. Stroke the retriever. Retighten all eight cap screws. The retriever should now stroke freely.

21.

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EVALUATION OF EXPOSED COUPON Initial Analysis Before Cleaning Special attention must be paid to the appearance of coupons both before cleaning and after final cleaning. The initial analysis of an exposed coupon involves a description of its condition immediately after it is withdrawn from the system. The information required includes: Indication of the presence or absence of a deposit Description of the deposit, if any, indicating Color Distribution (all over, patchy, where located) Texture (smooth, rough, mottled, dry, oily) Physical properties (hard, soft, solid, porous) Adherence (firmly attached, loose) Thickness (estimate of thickness and uniformity) Magnetic property

After the description, a chemical analysis for the presence of the following should be performed: Sulfide ion Carbonate ion Ferrous ion Ferric Ion Hydrocarbon

Recommended spot tests required to determine the qualitative composition of the corrosion product are shown in Work Aid D.

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Cleaning of the Exposed Coupon The objective in cleaning the exposed coupon is to remove all oxidation products and the deposits from sample surface without removing a substantial part of the base metal. The cleaning procedure consists of two operations. The first is degreasing to remove oily products and the second is mechanical or chemical cleaning to remove corrosion products or other solids. Coupons exposed to crude oil or natural gas fluids are often covered with adherent, gummy, mixed deposits of corrosion products, organic substances (including inhibitors) and, on occasion, scale. Such deposits are difficult to remove completely by any chemical or light mechanical methods. These difficulties not only decrease the efficiency of the cleaning procedure (adding to the cost) but also lower the quality of corrosion evaluation on the whole. Use the following guidelines to degrease coupons. Degrease coupons in any organic solvent such as xylene, acetone, or trichloroethylene. Use an ultrasonic cleaner if available. Expose coupons for a few minutes to the solvent in the device, then remove them, and let them dry. If ultrasonic cleaner is unavailable, clean coupons by immersion in the solvent for a period long enough to remove oil-wet materials and paraffin. Stir the solvent or move coupons inside the container during degreasing operation. Whatever the method, perform the cleaning at room temperature.

Several methods are specified in Work Aid E for final coupon cleaning. Equipment and chemical needed for this cleaning are given in Work Aid F.

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Evaluation of the Coupon After Cleaning A cleaned coupon provides a visual indication of the type of corrosion attack that can be expected in the system under study. The coupon must be thoroughly examined and described. Calculation of the average weight loss rate and the pitting rate must be performed. The average weight loss rate is calculated from a weight loss of corrosion coupons while the pitting rate is calculated from the pit depth measurements. From the weight loss of the coupon, the corrosion rate can be determined from the following equation. mpy = where 534 W DAT

mpy = mils per year W = weight loss (mg) D = A = T = density of metal (normally 7.8 g/cc for steel) area of coupon (square inches) period of exposure (hours)

For valid comparisons, coupons should be exposed for the same time period because rapid corrosion takes place in the first week and the corrosion rate usually decreases toward the end of the exposure period. These values, determined from the weight loss, assume that the corrosion was uniform over the coupons entire surface. Of course, this is not usually true. Therefore, a complete report should include a visual inspection of the coupon to determine the type of attack. With a particular control program, overall corrosion may have decreased, that is, the mpy dropped to an acceptable level -- but pitting could have occurred. Sharp pits can perforate a pipe in a short time.

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The depth of the deepest pit in mils, inches, or micrometers multiplied by 365 and divided by exposure time in days will give an effective calculation of pitting rate. For final evaluation of corrosion data, the duration of exposure must be kept in mind. For example, if a coupon were noticeably thinned after a one-month exposure, the corrosion would be classed as severe whereas the corrosion would be classed as moderate after a six-month exposure. All such data, remarks, calculated corrosion rates, and descriptions should be gathered in a coupon analysis report as summarized in Work Aid G. A complete report of the coupon should include a visual inspection of the coupon to determine the type of attack. The area underneath the edge of the insulating washer should be observed. Localized or pitting attack underneath the edge of the washer can be indicative of trace amounts of oxygen. Additional details that should be observed during visual inspection of coupons are noted in Work Aids H and I. The use of any criteria in determining corrosion rates or weight loss requires judgement on the part of the user and should be tempered by economic and safety requirements. In determining weight loss, there are a number of ways of expressing measurements. The following are some of the commonly used methods to report or express corrosion rate data. General corrosion rate Average corrosion rate Percent change Engineering system (mils per year) Metric system (mdd or milligrams per square decimeter per day) Pitting rates

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These methods are described in Tables 1 through 6. Additional corrosion rate formulas and conversions are given Work Aids J, K, L, and M. Work Aid N gives an evaluation of corrosion rates.

Table 1. General Corrosion Rate Classification Classification Expression Poor -- Sample shape and Percent weight change exposure time influence results Good -- Expressions do not give Milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd) penetration rates Grams per square decimeter per day Grams per square centimeter per day Grams per square meter per hour Grams per square inch per hour Better -- Expressions give Inches per year (ipy) penetration rates Inches per month Millimeters per year (mmpy) Best -Expresses penetration Mils per year (mpy) = one thousandth of an inch rates without decimals or per year large numbers

Table 2. Average Corrosion Rate Classifications Classification Average Corrosion Rate Average Pitting Rate mpy* mpy* m/a** m/a** Low 1.0 25 12 305 Moderate 1.0 - 4.9 25 - 125 12 - 24 305-610 Severe 5.0 - 10.0 126 - 254 25 - 96 635 - 2438 Very severe >10.0 >254 >96 >2438 * mpy = mils per year (one thousandth of an inch per year or 0.001 inch) ** m/a = micrometers per annum (one thousandth of a millimeter per year or 0.000001; equivalent to 0.04 mpy)

Table 3. Percent Weight Change Original Value - Final Value Percent Weight Change = x 100 Original Value

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Table 4. Engineering System Commonly used unit of corrosion rate expression measuring Dimensional Change or Loss of Metal Thickness per Unit Time and referred to as mils per year (mpy). A mil is one thousandth of an inch or 0.001 inch; if multiplied by 1000, becomes the same as inches per year (ipy). Formula 1: mpy = 534 x W DAT

where W = Weight loss in milligrams D = Density of coupon in grams divided by cubic centimeters (g/cm3) A = Area of coupon in square inches (in2) T = Time exposed in hours Formula 2:
mpy = Weight loss of coupon (g) x 1000 (mils/in) x 365 (days/yr) Density of metal (g/cm3) x 16.4 (cm3/in3) x area (in2) x days exposure

or The weight loss of the corrosion coupon divided by the quantity of the product of the metal density, the total exposed surface area (including sides) and the exposure time.

Table 5. Metric System Commonly used unit of corrosion rate expression measuring Weight Change or Weight Loss or Gain per Unit Area per Unit Time and referred to as milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd). A milligram is one thousandth of a gram; a decimeter is 10 centimeters or almost 4 inches. If mdd is multiplied by 0.03652/D (D = density in grams per cubic centimeter or g/cm3), it is the same as millimeters per year (mmpy). 87.6 x W mmpy = DAT where W = D= A= T= Weight loss in milligrams Density of coupon in grams divided by cubic centimeters (g/cm3) Area in square centimeters (cm2) Time exposed in hours

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Table 6. Pitting Rates Pit depths may be measured with a depth gauge or micrometer caliper with sharp, pointed probes. A microscope calibrated for depth measurement may also be used. Depth of deepest pit in mils, inches, or micrometers times 365 and divided by exposure time in days will give an effective calculation of pitting rate.

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CORROSION COUPON PROGRAMS Type: 30-day, 60-day, 90-day Exposure time is very important. Short term exposure gives a quick answer but these can be misleading. Initial corrosion rates on clean coupons are high but tend to diminish with time. Coupons exposed for two or three months will generally indicate lower corrosion rates than coupons exposed only one month, even when actual corrosivity of the water being tested remains constant. If pitting is a problem in a system, the pits may take several weeks to develop. Thus, if a short exposure indicates that a system is under control, the exposure time should be increased and the results compared with the short-term data. Location of Installation The most effective locations for coupons depends on what type of a system is to be monitored. Coupon locations vary as to whether the system is gas production, oil production, or water injection and disposal. Gas Production A gas production system typically consists of gas wells, gathering lines, and gas treating facilities. Often the first corrosion failures in gas wells will occur in the wellhead equipment, choke, or elbows in the surface facilities. In some cases, good correlation has been achieved between these types of failures and the relative magnitude of attack on coupons exposed in the most turbulent areas in the wellheads. If corrosion can be controlled by inhibition on coupons exposed in such locations, the inhibitor should also be effective elsewhere in the surface facilities and downhole. If more serious corrosion occurs in particular zones downhole in the tubing string, coupon holders may be lowered on a wire line. Tubing pup joints have also been installed near the bottom, middle, and top of the string to evaluate the effect of temperature and pressure on the system.

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The most serious locations for corrosion in gas gathering or flowline systems are at low places in the system where condensed water with dissolved acid gases (CO2, H2S, O2) can settle out and at dead gas traps where water containing dissolved acid gases can condense on the metal surface. Temperature is a critical factor so that the best place to monitor is generally the furthest downstream points on the line where the gas tends to be the coolest. An artificial low spot or trap and an artificial dead spot can be created at the monitoring point. Coupons should be located where they will be water wet if they are to correlate with corroding areas. Coupons located in the vapor phase can indicate slight corrosion when adjacent water wet areas are experiencing severe corrosion. Recommended monitoring locations for corrosion coupons in gas production systems include the following: Wellhead at point of high turbulence Downstream end of flowline or lateral from each well or junction Between each vessel or separator

Coupons are also the most common corrosion monitoring method in gas treating facilities, such as glycol dehydration and amine sweetening. Recommended monitoring locations for coupons in these gas treating facilities include: Rich lines (glycol or amine) Lean lines (glycol or amine) Gas inlets Gas outlets

In these locations, pressure-access coupon fittings are used to avoid shut down of the system.

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Oil Production Oil production systems consist of oil wells, gathering lines, separation equipment, and storage tanks. The probability of corrosion attack in an oil producing or transportation system is directly related to composition and amount of the water content of the produced fluid. If there is no water, there will be no corrosion. Usually relatively high percentages of water to oil are necessary before corrosion starts to be a real problem. There are, however, instances where small percentages of water have resulted in severe attack. Anaerobic bacteria, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria, do exist in produced fluid and have contributed to corrosion under these conditions. Since probes exposed in the flowing stream will likely become coated with a film of oil, they may fail to indicate the corrosivity of the water phase that may actually settle out at low places in the system or during periods of shut in or low throughput rates. In fact, it is usually as the result of an oil line being operated at low throughput or being shut in that the first leaks are experienced on this type of system. The prime method for monitoring in oil-water systems is the placement of probes in an artificial water trap specially created for this purpose. It is also sometimes advisable to monitor crude systems containing appreciable H2S and/or CO2 in solution in an artificial dead gas trap. These traps simulate conditions in the system, for example, top of well head, annulus of unpacked well, risers of unused parts of a manifold, or bends on shut in sections of the system. H2S in the gas and dissolved in the water can also give rise to hydrogen-assisted problems. Recommended monitoring locations for coupons in oil production system include:
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Wellhead at point of high turbulence Wellhead in gas zone (if any) just below wellhead cap Downstream end of flowline in an artificial water trap

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The corrosivity of water in a pipeline is affected by the dissolved solids it contains, its pH, oxygen content, and bacterial content as well as the operating temperature and velocity. Suspended solids can settle out where velocity is low and set up concentration cells. Water Injection/Water Disposal Water injection systems can consist of water supply wells, gathering lines, handling facilities, distribution (injection) lines, and injection wells. The same corrosion monitoring philosophy for water injection also holds true for water disposal. Excessive turbidity, scale forming tendency, corrosion product, or bacteria can decrease the suitability for injection of the water due to plugging. In addition, different waters when mixed with one another may be incompatible and cause precipitation of insoluble deposits liable to plug the formation. Coupons are used throughout a water-handling system to detect changes in operating conditions. Coupons should be changed concurrently to allow data comparison from one location to another. Recommended monitoring locations for coupons in these water systems include: Each supply well Each leg in the gathering system Inlet and outlet of each tank, vessel, or pump in waterhandling facilities

This wide distribution of coupon locations will allow early detection of a problem and locate its source. Data from these coupons may help to pinpoint oxygen entry, a major problem in these systems, through a pump suction leak, failure of a gas blanket system, or bacterial contamination of a tank. Finding the source of the problem is half of the battle. For the injection wells, strategically locate coupons based on the system layout. All remote and high-risk wells should be included in the plan. Be sure to locate a coupon at the farthest point downstream in the system

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Applications of Coupon Data The following are examples of the application of coupon data. Case Study A: Wellhead Corrosion Coupon Results These coupons were exposed between 46 and 60 days. The gas composition of these wells was 9 percent CO2 and 10 to 20 ppm of H2S. See Table 7. Table 7 Corrosion Rate (mpy) Well Coupon 1 Coupon 2 Average Choke (1 & 2) Corrosion 1 18.7 24.6 21.7 F-R 2 17.8 22.0 19.9 F-R 3 14.3 18.9 16.6 F -R 4 6.7 11.3 9.0 BC - R 5 5.0 10.5 7.7 BC - R 6 6.5 8.3 7.4 BC - R 7 2.0 2.5 2.3 C-R 8 1.3 1.3 1.3 C-R 9 0.76 0.69 0.7 NI 10 0.49 0.59 0.5 NSC 11 0.26 0.35 0.3 NSC 12 0.07 0.23 0.1 NSC F = Failed in service C = Corroded R= Replaced NI = Not inspected BC = Badly corroded NSC = No significant corrosion Failures of the chokes occurred by corrosion erosion. Coupons showed the same type of attack. Note the wide variation in corrosion rate among 12 wells in the same field, producing from the same formation.

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Corrosion coupons were used to evaluate the effects of a downhole inhibitor. Table 8 shows the values for the eight most severe exposure locations from Table 7. Table 8 Corrosion Rate (mpy) Average of Two Coupons Period 2 Period 3 No Inhibitor Inhibitor A (Except *) 16.3 19.5 20.3 9.7 34.5 6.8 7.8 9.9 15.2 0.1 3.2 7.4 2.7 *1.5 0.7 * 42 - 43 93 - 105

Well 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Coupon Exposure (days)

Period 1 No Inhibitor 21.7 19.9 16.6 9.0 7.7 7.4 2.3 1.3 47 - 60

Period 4 Inhibitor B (Except *) 4.9 2.1 0.4 9.4 0.1 0.3 *0.1 *2.4 89 - 123

Corrosion coupons were also used to evaluate the effects of a gathering line inhibitor. Monitoring locations were in the gathering lines 1 to 2 miles downstream from two of the wells from Table 7. Inhibitor for line protection in the line from well 5 was continuously injected at the well site. Table 9 shows the results of this evaluation. Table 9
Location Corrosion Rate at Well (mpy)
0.31 0.26 7.7 15.2 0.1

Well Inhibitor
None None None None Yes

Exposure Period (Days)


78 74 77 75 116

Line Inhibitor
None None None None Yes

Corrosion Rate in Line Liquid Flowing Trap Gas (mpy) (mpy)


0.22 0.15 1.13 0.83 0.70 -0.20 -5.08 0.09

Downstream Well 11 Downstream Well 5

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Case Study B: Corrosion Coupon in a Flowing Gas Well The data first used for monitoring was limited to two flowing gas wells with corrosion coupons. Well 11 5 Line Flowing Gas 0.22 mpy 1.13 mpy

This data indicates that the corrosion rate is very low and that there should be no particular concern about imminent failure. However, some wells in this field were known to have a problem with wellhead corrosion-erosion attack. This problem becomes apparent when data from the wellhead is included. The gas stream of well 5 is corrosive under certain conditions. Well 11 5 Wellhead Turbulent Gas 0.31 mpy 7.7 mpy Line Flowing Gas 0.22 mpy 1.13 mpy

Knowing this, it was decided to install bottom line traps on both lines to determine whether there might be localized corrosion. The next coupon exposure period was a repeat of the first, but this time coupon exposure in traps was included with the following results: Well 11 5 Wellhead Turbulent Gas 0.26 mpy 15.02 mpy Line Flowing Gas 0.15 mpy 0.83 mpy Liquid Trap Dead Liquid 0.20 mpy 5.08 mpy

This showed that there was accelerated corrosion in the liquid phase in well 5 but not in well 11.

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The coupons removed from all three stations on the well 11 system were seen to be covered with a brown oily liquid, whereas those from the well 5 system were not. Even though both wells are drilled to the same producing zone, well 11 produces a higher percentage of a partially protective liquid hydrocarbon. This, in effect, seemed to be working as a natural inhibitor. Incidentally, one other of the 12 total wells in the field showed the same protective brown oily film. At this point, it was decided to inhibit well 5 because of the unacceptable corrosion rate in the well head (to the point that well head choke replacement was necessary on a yearly basis and well head facilities and piping were being badly attacked). A weighted inhibitor was batched to the bottom of the tubing and left for 16 hours before resuming production. The next coupon exposure in the well 5 system established that corrosion had been effectively controlled by this program: Wellhead Turbulent Gas 18.2 mpy 0.1 mpy Line Flowing Gas 0.83 mpy 0.07 mpy Liquid Trap Dead Liquid/ 5.08 mpy 0.09 mpy

No inhibitor Inhibitor

A sense of false security would have resulted had the only monitoring station been the one testing the flowing gas. Case Study C: Corrosion Coupons in a Gas Gathering System Results from corrosion coupons in a 3-inch line going into a gas plant are shown in Table 10. Note that while the corrosion rates of the coupons are less than 5 mpy, reports of overall severe pitting attack are noted on some of the coupons after cleaning. This pitting data indicates that the corrosion inhibitor program in use is not effective.

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Table 10. Coupon Data Sheet


Location 3-inch line Exposure Date 07/09/88 23/11/88 Days In 77 Description Before Cleaning After Cleaning Wet black film with scattered deposits Localized moderate etching and severe pitting attack. Max pit depth: 23.5 mils Pitting rate: 111 mpy Localized etching and pitting in pipe, severe pitting in gas trap. Max pit depth: 36.0 mils Pitting rate: 154 mpy Localized severe etching and pitting in pipe and at interface. Max pit depth: 16.5 mils Pitting rate: 70.8 mpy Uniform weight loss with isolated minor pitting. Max pit depth: 3.5 mils Pitting rate: 15.0 mpy Overall severe pitting attack. Max pit depth: 28.0 mils Pitting rate: 81 mpy Overall mild etching with very sever localized pitting attack. Max pit depth: 34.0 mils Pitting rate: 98 mpy Overall mild to moderate etching attack. Max pit depth: 8.0 mils Pitting rate: 23 mpy Area Coupon Number F144 F145 Weight Loss (mg) 285.0 351.0 Corrosion Rate mpy m/a 57.3 70.6 2.25 2.78

23/11/88 16/02/89

85

Thick black film with thick black scale

G121 G122

446.7 665.6

81.4 121

3.20 4.77

Black film with black scale within pipe and at interface

G123 G124

171.4 137.6

31.2 25.0

1.23 0.98

Overall black film

G125 G126

16.4 16.9

2.98 3.07

0.11 0.12

16/02/89 22/06/89

126

Overall thin wet black film

G598 G599

377.5 423.5

46.6 52.1

1.82 2.05

Overall thin wet black film

G600 G601

128.9 176.4

15.8 21.7

0.62 0.85

Overall thin wet black film

G602 G203

138.0 141.7

16.9 17.4

0.66 0.68

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Case Study D: Berri Water Injection System Figure 15 shows coupon data from injection wells 227 and 230 of the Berri Water Injection System. While other injection wells in this system typically have coupon corrosion rates less than 5 mpy, these two wells have a very erratic but usually quite high corrosion rate.

Figure 15. Corrosion Coupon Data -- Berri Water Injection System

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WORK AIDS CONTENTS A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. Coupon Report Form Corrosion Coupon Report Coupon Handling Guidelines Deposit Analysis Procedures Procedures for Cleaning and Weighing Coupons Equipment and Chemicals for Cleaning and Analysis Reporting Results Description of Exposed Coupons General Information Description of Exposed Coupons Detailed Information Corrosion Rate Formulas Corrosion Rate Factors Conversion Formulas Short Form Conversion Formulas Evaluation of Corrosion Rates

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A. COUPON REPORT FORM Area: _____________________________________ Coupon No: ________________ __________________________________________ Coupon Weight: ____________ Location: __________________________________ Coupon Factor: _____________ __________________________________________ Coupon Material: ___________ __________________________________________ Coupon Size: Date Installed: _____________________________ Installed By: _______________ Date Removed: ____________________________ Removed By: Type of Environment and Service: ______________ Exposure Interval: ______ days __________________________________________ Analysis Before Cleaning: _______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Deposit Analysis: Sulfide Carbonate Oil Other

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ After Cleaning: ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Calculations Initial Weight _____________ Final Weight ____________ Weight Loss ___________ Corrosion Rate (MPY) ________________

Corrected Corrosion Rate: ______ MPY Pitting Rate: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________ Uncorrected Pitting Rate: ______ MPY

Special Remarks: ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Analysis and Calculations By: ____________________________________________

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B. CORROSION COUPON REPORT Company ____________________________________________________________ Field ________________________________________________________________ Location of Coupon in System ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
Coupon Number Date Installed/ Removed Weight Before/ After Average Corrosion Rate* Description of coupon physical appearance, scale analysis, pitting rates, and general remarks

Note: Include in the remarks section any pertinent information such as oil, gas, and water production, injection rates, water analysis, and chemical treatments. *Expressed in mpy, ipy, m/a, lbs/ft2/yr, or mdd
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C. COUPON HANDLING GUIDELINES The critical aspects of coupon handling are those that do not alter The reproducible surface and weight of a new coupon before exposure The deposit, corroded surface, and weight of an exposed coupon before analysis can be completed The interpretation of the data

The most common problems experienced while handling corrosion coupons include: Recording errors in coupon number Recording errors in coupon weight Recording errors in coupon installation and removal dates Recording errors in coupon exposure location Improper storage of new coupons allowing for atmospheric corrosion and contamination Improper handling that contaminates coupon surface:

Foreign agents such as grease, oil, dirt, and moisture Human body oil, which acts as an inhibitor Human perspiration, which acts as an activating agent

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Mechanical damage of new coupons that results in Weight loss by surface abrasion Stress zones that are more susceptible to corrosion

Improper mounting that results in Loss of coupons if bolts are not properly secured Galvanic corrosion if insulating washers are lost Mechanical damage and loss of corrosion products if bolts are loose and coupons vibrate excessively

Improper alignment while in service that permits excessive erosion and corrosion product removal Improper installation resulting in mechanical damage to coupon and mounting hardware Improper removal resulting in mechanical damage to exposed coupon and giving An error in weight loss Incorrect analysis of corrosion deposit because of losses Incorrect assessment of damage because of surface distortion

Improper cleaning procedures resulting in weight loss because of Incomplete removal of corrosion product Removal of metal by excessive cleaning Incomplete drying of cleaned coupon

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D. DEPOSIT ANALYSIS PROCEDURES The following spot-tests are required to estimate the mechanism of attack and establish the approximate qualitative composition of the corrosion product. Sulfide and carbonate 1. 2. 3. 4. Add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to a sample of deposit. If effervescence occurs, expose a piece of damp lead-acetate paper to the vapors. If the lead-acetate paper turns black, sulfide is present. If the paper remains white, carbonate is present.

Ferrous ion (Fe++) 1. 2. 3. Dissolve a small amount of deposit in 5% hydrochloric acid. Add one drop of potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) solution. A blue coloration and precipitate indicates presence of ferrous ion.

Ferric ion (Fe+++) 1. 2. 3. Dissolve a small amount of deposit in 5% hydrochloric acid. Add one drop of ammonium thiocyanate (NH4HCN) solution. A deep red color indicates the presence of ferric ion.

Hydrocarbons Check solubility of deposit in carbon tetrachloride, benzene, or toluene.

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E. PROCEDURES FOR CLEANING AND WEIGHING COUPONS Use one of the following methods. Sandblast Sandblast coupons. Dip in dry acetone or methyl alcohol and allow to come to room temperature in desiccator. Weigh on laboratory balance to nearest 0.0001 g. Package in VPI paper or seal in heat-seal plastic package to prevent oxidation before exposure.

Ultrasonic cleaner Degrease metal in benzene, toluene, or carbon tetrachloride. Clean in ultrasonic cleaner containing sulfuric acid (5 to 10 percent) or hydrochloric acid (5 to 10 percent). Use 2 percent organic inhibitor in acid (Rodine, Polyrad 1110A, Kontol 400). Allow 3 to 5 minutes for new coupons. Wash thoroughly in detergent and water. Rinse in fresh water. Dip in dry acetone or dry methyl alcohol. Allow to come to room temperature in desiccator. Weigh on laboratory balance to nearest 0.0001 g. Package in VPI paper or seal in heat-seal plastic package to prevent oxidation before exposure.

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Scrub Degrease metal in benzene, toluene, or carbon tetrachloride. Expose in sulfuric acid (5 to 10 percent) or hydrochloric acid (5 to 10 percent). Use 2 percent organic inhibitor in acid (Rodine, Polyrad 1110A, Kontol 400). Remove from acid and scrub with brush and fine cleaning powder, water, and detergent. Rinse in fresh water. Dip in dry acetone or dry methyl alcohol. Allow to come to room temperature in desiccator. Weigh on laboratory balance to nearest 0.0001 g. Package in VPI paper or seal in heat-seal plastic package to prevent oxidation before exposure.

Chemical Cleaning
Material Mild steel Chemical HCl (Sp Gr 1.19) SnCl2 5.0 g/l Sb2O3 (or SbCl3) 20 g/l Mild steel H2SO4 (Sp Gr 1.84) 100 ml Organic inhibitor 2 ml Water to make 1 liter 5 min 50 C Time Until clean Temp Room Remarks Known as Clarkes solution; usually 5 to 10 minutes duration of cleaning; stirring and rubbing necessary; Ultrasonic cleaning device recommended Use organic acid inhibitors (Rodine 220, Polyrad 1110A, Kontol 400, or other)

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F. EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS FOR CLEANING AND ANALYSIS

Required
Organic solvent (xylene, benzene, toluene, trichloroethylene, or carbon tetrachloride) Concentrated hydrochloric acid Organic acid inhibitor (Rodine 220, Polyrad 1110A, Kontol 400, or equivalent) Concentrated sulfuric acid Stiff bristled brush Detergent Scouring powder Acetone Analytical balance (weigh to nearest 0.0001 gram) Distilled water Desiccator Pit gauge (Starret Model 643 or equivalent) or caliper with sharp pointed probes Magnet Magnifying glass Laboratory glass of different type

Desirable
Ultrasonic cleaner (Bronson B-2204 or equivalent)

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G. REPORTING RESULTS The detailed report of results for each coupon should list the following items. Exposure location and orientation Pertinent operating conditions during exposure period including details of any special test adjustments Coupon number Coupon dimension and calculated area Date exposed, date removed, and exposure time Coupon weight before exposure Coupon weight after exposure but before cleaning Description of coupon before cleaning, including corrosion product or scale and any apparent pits or corrosion damage related to coupon orientation. In special cases, photographs may be desirable to show nature of product or unusual features. Results of analysis or spot tests on corrosion product or scale Coupon weight after cleaning Calculated weight loss Calculated weight loss corrected for cleaning loss Calculated corrosion rate expressed in mils per year or millimeters per year or milligrams per square decimeter Description of coupon after cleaning, including types of corrosion attack related to coupon orientation Depth of deepest pits

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H. DESCRIPTION OF EXPOSED COUPONS GENERAL INFORMATION The following general information can be determined from cleaned coupons. Type of attack or damage Etching Pitting Blistering Delamination Cracking Crevice corrosion Mechanical damage Cavitation Erosion

Pattern of attack General Scattered Localized

Location of attack Overall Center face Edge Under holder

Degree of attack Mild Moderate Severe

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I. DESCRIPTION OF EXPOSED COUPONS DETAILED INFORMATION The following detailed information can be determined from cleaned coupons. Etching Is it fine or coarse? Has it resulted in much surface loss? How much loss? (Measure)

Pitting Are the pits numerous? (Indicate number) What is the diameter of the pits? (Measure) What is the shape of the pits? What type of surface is at the bottom of the pits?

Blistering Are the blisters numerous? (Indicate number) What is the diameter of the blisters? How high have the blisters risen above the surface? Have the blisters ruptured? How thick is the blister material?

Delamination Location from surface Extent of delamination Gap at greatest point of delamination

Cracking Location of crack Length of cracks Number of cracks Depth of cracks (if possible)

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Crevice corrosion Location of crevice Orientation of crevice Length of crevice Width of crevice Depth of crevice Mechanical damage Type of damage (scars, scrapes, bends) Extent (Measure parameters) Try to establish cause Cavitation Distinguish from pitting (Each cavity is hemispherical unless a second cavity has formed within the first.) Location Bulk of coupon lost This action is mechanically caused and rarely occurs unless coupon orientation is incorrect. Erosion This phenomenon occurs on the leading edge of the coupon. It begins as a thinning of the leading edge and can progress to form a knife edge and rounding of the leading corner. If the axis of the coupon was not parallel to the direction of the flow, this pattern of attack is modified. Report amount of thinning of edge Report amount of rounding of corner Report average reduction of coupon width

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J. CORROSION RATE FORMULAS AVERAGE CORROSION PENETRATION RATE 365 W T D A 0.00254 number of days per year weight loss of metal coupon (g) exposure time (days) density of metal (g/cm3) (for mild steel, D = 7.87 g/cm3) exposed coupon area (cm2) (not including bolt holes, which is less 4r2 for two holes) = coefficient (cm/mil)

Mils per year (mpy) = Where 365 W T D = = = =

0.00254

PITTING RATE Mils per year (mpy) = Where 365 d T = = = 365 d T

number of days per year pit depth in mils (deepest pit) exposure time (days)

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K. CORROSION RATE FACTORS Weight Loss x Factor Area x Time Weight Loss x Factor Penetration Rate = Area x Time x Density Units Measured Factor Desired Corrosion Rate Weight Area Time mdd* lb/ft2/day lb/ft2/year mpy** Loss mg day 100 0.00205 0.748 5.19/D*** cm2 mg hour 2400 0.0492 17.95 124.6/D cm2 mg day 15.5 0.000318 0.116 0.807/D in2 mg in2 hour 372.0 0.00762 2.78 19.31/D Corrosion Rate = *mdd = milligram per decimeter2 **mpy = mil per year ***D = density (lb/in3)

mpy-Steel 18.3 439.0 2.84 68.0

Conversion Factors mdd x 0.183 = mpy for (steel) mdd x 20.5 = lb/ft2/day mdd x 0.00748 = lb/ft2/year lb/ft2/day x 8930 = mpy lb/ft2/year x 24.5 = mpy

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Metal Pure Iron 0.23% C Steel 0.44% C Steel 304 Stainless 410 Stainless Inconel Monel Aluminum Copper 70-30 Brass

Density (lb/in3) 0.2845 0.2839 0.2834 0.29 0.28 0.307 0.319 0.0975 0.324 0.308

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L. CONVERSION FACTORS To obtain Grams per square inch per hour Grams per square meter per day Grams per square meter per year Inches per year Milligrams per square decimeter per day Multiply Milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd) Milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd) Milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd) Milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd) Grams per square inch per hour Grams per square meter per year By 0.00000269 10.0 36.5 0.00144/D* 372,000.0 0.0274

Milligrams per square decimeter Millimeters per year

Pounds per square foot per 133.8 year Ounces per square foot 3052.0 Milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd) Grams per square meter per day 0.03652/D* 0.36525/D* 365.25/D# 25.4 0.0003277 0.00748

Ounces per square foot Pounds per square foot per year Note:

Inches per year Milligrams per square decimeter Milligrams per square decimeter per day

D* is density of metal in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). D# is density of metal in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3)

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M. SHORT FORM CONVERSION FORMULAS To get mpy and/or mdd Multiply By = mpy Grams per square inch per hour 536,300.0/D* Grams per square inch per day 22,270.0/D* Grams per square inch per year 61.0/D* Grams per square centimeter per hour 3,460,000.0/D* Grams per square centimeter per day 143,700.0/D* Grams per square centimeter per year 394.0/D* Grams per square meter per hour 346.0/D* Grams per square meter per day 14.37/D* Grams per square meter per year 0.0394/D* Ounces per square inch per day 632,160.0/D* Ounces per square foot per day 4,390.0/D* Centimeter per year 394.0 Millimeters per year 39.4 Inches per year 1,000.0 Mils per year -----------Milligrams per square decimeter per day 1,437/D* Note: D* is density of metal in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).

By = mdd 372,000.0 15,500.0 42.5 2,400,000.0 100,000.0 274.0 240.0 10.0 0.0274 439,200.0 3,052.0 274 x D* 27.4 x D* 696.0 x T* 0.696 x D* ------------

N. EVALUATION OF CORROSION RATES Average Corrosion Rate mpy M/A <1.0 <25 1.0 - 4.9 25 -125 5.0 - 10 126 - 254 >10 >254 Pitting Rate Mil/Yr M/A <12 <305 12 - 24 305 - 634 25 - 96 635 - 2438 >96 >2438

Low Moderate Severe Very Severe

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REFERENCE

Preparation and Installation of Corrosion Coupons and Interpretation of Test Data in Oilfield Operations (NACE RP-07-75, 1987 Edition)

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GLOSSARY banded coupon Coupon that has a band wrapped around it to determine if O2 is present Copper ion displacement A small representative piece of metal used to evaluate system corrosivity, material performance, and/or corrosion inhibitor effectiveness A film laid down on the coupon either by the corrosion process or by precipitation from the solution to which it is exposed Period of time something is subject to a special set of circumstances Process by which a surface is uniformly removed with minimal roughening, usually associated with acidic attack Having been subjected to a set of conditions A material that has the ability to protect a metal from corrosion Position relative to a given reference point To have a hole all the way through Device used to remove coupons from a system under pressure To occur at irregular intervals on a plane surface To clean with mechanical action, usually referring to cleaning with a brush A portion of a pipe that functions as a large coupon Area in a system where water condenses or falls out

CID. coupon

deposit

duration etching

exposed inhibitor orientation perforated retriever scattered scrub spool trap

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