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Ans:- Definitions of operations research Churchman, Aackoff and Aruoff defined Operations Research as: the application of scientific methods, techniques and tools to operation of a system with optimum solutions to the problems, where optimum refers to the best possible alternative. The objective of Operations Research is to provide a scientific basis to the decision-makers for solving problems involving interaction of various components of the organisation. You can achieve this by employing a team of scientists from different disciplines, to work together for finding the best possible solution in the interest of the organisation as a whole. The solution thus obtained is known as an optimal decision. You can also define Operations Research as The use of scientific methods to provide criteria for decisions regarding man, machine, and systems involving repetitive operations. Some key features of OR are as follows: 1. OR is system oriented. OR scrutinises the problem from an organisations perspective. The results can be optimal for one part of the system, while the same can be unfavourable for another part of the system. 2. OR imbibes an interdisciplinary team approach. Since no single individual can have a thorough knowledge of all fast developing scientific know-how, personalities from different scientific and managerial cadre form a team to solve the problem. 3. OR makes use of scientific methods to solve problems. 4. OR increases effectiveness of the managements decision-making ability. 5. OR makes use of computers to solve large and complex problems. 6. OR offers a quantitative solution. 7. OR also takes into account the human factors. Q 1 b. Explain the nature of Operations Research and its limitations.

Ans:- The Nature of Operations Research. As its name implies, operations research involves research on operations. Thus, operations research is applied to problems that concern how to conduct and coordinate the operations (i.e., the activities) within an organization. The nature of the organization is essentially immaterial, and, in fact, OR has been applied extensively in such diverse areas as manufacturing, transportation, construction, telecommunications, financial planning, health care, the military, and public services, to name just a few. Therefore, the breadth of application is unusually wide. The research part of the name means that operations research uses an approach that resembles the way research is conducted in established scientific fields. To a considerable extent, the scientific method is used to investigate the problem of concern. (In fact, the term management science sometimes is used as a synonym for operations research.) In particular, the process begins by carefully observing and formulating the problem, including gathering all relevant data. The next step is to construct a scientific (typically mathematical) model that attempts to abstract the essence of the real problem. It is then hypothesized that this model is a sufficiently precise representation of the essential features of the situation that the conclusions (solutions) obtained from the model are alsovalid for the real problem. Next, suitable experiments are conducted to test this hypothesis, modify it as needed, and eventually verify some form of the hypothesis. (This step is frequently referred to as model validation.) Thus, in a certain sense, operations research involves creative scientific research into the fundamental properties of operations. However, there is more to it than this. Specifically, OR is also concerned with the practical management of the organization. Therefore, to be successful, OR must also provide positive, understandable conclusions to the decision maker(s) when they are needed. Limitations of OR The limitations are more related to the problems of model building, time and money factors. Magnitude of computation: Modern problems involve a large number of variables. The magnitude of computation makes it difficult to find the interrelationship. Intangible factors: Non quantitative factors and human emotional factor cannot be taken into account. Communication gap: There is a wide gap between the expectations of managers and the aim of research professionals. Time and Money factors: When you subject the basic data to frequent changes then incorporation of them into OR models becomes a costly affair. Human Factor: Implementation of decisions involves human relations and behaviour.

Q2 a. What are the essential characteristics of a linear programming model? Ans:- The LPP is a class of mathematical programming where the functions representing the objectives and the constraints are linear. Optimisation refers to the maximisation or minimisation of the objective functions. The following are the characteristics of this form. All decision variables are non-negative. All constraints are of type. The objective function is of the maximisation type.

Q2 b. Explain the graphical method of solving a LPP involving two variables. Ans:- Graphical Methods to Solve LPP Solving a LPP with 2 decision variables x1 and x2 through graphical representation is easy. Consider x1 x2 the plane, where you plot the solution space enclosed by the constraints. The solution space is a convex set bounded by a polygon; since a linear function attains extreme (maximum or minimum) values only on the boundary of the region. You can consider the vertices of the polygon and find the value of the objective function in these vertices. Compare the vertices of the objective function at these vertices to obtain the optimal solution of the problem. Working rule The method of solving a LPP on the basis of the above analysis is known as the graphical method. The working rule for the method is as follows. Step 1: Write down the equations by replacing the inequality symbols by the equality symbols in the given constraints. Step 2: Plot the straight lines represented by the equations obtained in step I. Step 3: Identify the convex polygon region relevant to the problem. Decide on which side of the line, the half-plane is located.

Step 4: Determine the vertices of the polygon and find the values of the given objective function Z at each of these vertices. Identify the greatest and least of these values. These are respectively the maximum and minimum value of Z. Step 5: Identify the values of (x1, x2) which correspond to the desired extreme value of Z. This is an optimal solution of the problem

In linear programming problems, you may have: a unique optimal solution or many number of optimal solutions or an unbounded solution or no solutions.

Q 3 a. Explain the simplex procedure to solve a linear programming problem. Ans:To solve a problem by the simplex method, follow the steps below. 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduce stack variables (Sis) for type of constraint. Introduce surplus variables (Sis) and artificial variables (Ai) for type of constraint. Introduce only Artificial variable for = type of constraint. Cost (Cj) of slack and surplus variables will be zero and that of artificial variable will be M 5. Find Zj Cj for each variable. 6. Slack and artificial variables will form basic variable for the first simplex table. Surplus variable will never become basic variable for the first simplex table. 7. Zj = sum of [cost of variable x its coefficients in the constraints Profit or cost coefficient of the variable]. 8. Select the most negative value of Zj Cj. That column is called key column. The variable corresponding to the column will become basic variable for the next table. 9. Divide the quantities by the corresponding values of the key column to get ratios; select the minimum ratio. This becomes the key row. The basic variable corresponding to this row will be replaced by the variable found in step 6. 10. The element that lies both on key column and key row is called Pivotal element. 11. Ratios with negative and a value are not considered for determining key row. 12. Once an artificial variable is removed as basic variable, its column will be deleted from next iteration. 13. For maximisation problems, decision variables coefficient will be same as in the objective function. For minimisation problems, decision variables coefficients will have opposite signs as compared to objective function. 14. Values of artificial variables will always is M for both maximisation and minimisation problems. 15. The process is continued till all Zj Cj 0.

Q3 b. Explain the use of artificial variables in L.P Ans:- Consider a LPP when at least one of the constraints is of type or =. While expressing in the standard form, add a non negative variable to each of such constraints. These variables are called artificial variables. Addition of artificial variables causes violation of the corresponding constraints as they are added to only one side of an equation. The new system is equivalent to the old system of constraints only if the artificial variables are valued at zero. To guarantee such assignments in the optimal solution, you can incorporate artificial variables into the objective function with large positive or large negative coefficients in a minimisation and maximisation programs respectively. You denote these coefficients by M. Whenever artificial variables are part of the initial solution X0, the last row of simplex table will contain the penalty cost M. You can make the following modifications in the simplex method to minimise the error of incorporating the penalty cost in the objective function. This method is called Big M-method or Penalty cost method.

Big M-method 1) The last row of the simplex table is decomposed into two rows, the first of which involves those terms not containing M, while the second involves those containing M. 2) The step 1 of the simplex method is applied to the last row created in the above modification and followed by steps 2, 3 and 4 until this row contains no negative elements. Then step 1 of simplex algorithm is applied to those elements next to the last row that are positioned over zero in the last row.

3) Whenever an artificial variable ceases to be basic, it is removed from the first column of the table as a result of step 4; it is also deleted from the top row of the table as is the entire column under it. 4) The last row is removed from the table whenever it contains all zeroes. 5) If non-zero artificial variables are present in the final basic set, then the program has no solution. In contrast, zero valued artificial variables in the final solution may exist when one or more of the original constraint equations are redundant. Q 4 a. Explain the economic interpretation of dual variables. Ans:- Economic interpretation of dual variables: For any pair of feasible primal and dual solutions, (Objective value in the maximisation problem) (Objective value in the minimisation problem). At the optimum, the relationship holds as a strict equation. Note: Here, the sense of optimisation is very important. Hence, for any two primal and dual feasible solutions, the values of the objective functions, when finite, must satisfy the following inequality.

The strict equality, z = w, holds true when both the primal and dual solutions are optimal. Consider the optimal condition z = w. Given that the primal problem represents a resource allocation model, you can think of z as representing the profit in rupees. bi represents the number of units available of the resource i. Therefore, we can express the equation z = w as profit (Rs) = (units of resource i) x (profit per unit of resource i) This means that the dual variables yi, represent the worth per unit of resource i. Note: Variables yi are also called as dual prices, shadow prices and simplex multipliers.

With the same logic, the inequality z < w associated with any two feasible primal and dual solutions is interpreted as (profit) < (worth of resources). This relationship implies that as long as the total return from all the activities is less than the worth of the resources, the corresponding primal and dual solutions are not optimal. Optimality is achieved only when the resources have been exploited to their fullest extent, which can happen only when the input equals the output (profit). Economically, the system is said to be unstable (non optimal) when the input (worth of the resources) exceeds the output (return). Stability occurs only when the two quantities are equal. Q 4 b. Define: Primal Problem and Dual Problem. Ans:- In the linear case, in the primal problem, from each sub-optimal point that satisfies all the constraints, there is a direction or subspace of directions to move that increases the objective function. Moving in any such direction is said to remove "slack" between the candidate solution and one or more constraints. An "infeasible" value of the candidate solution is one that exceeds one or more of the constraints. In the dual problem, the dual vector multiplies the constants that determine the positions of the constraints in the primal. Varying the dual vector in the dual problem is equivalent to revising the upper bounds in the primal problem. The lowest upper bound is sought. That is, the dual vector is minimized in order to remove slack between the candidate positions of the constraints and the actual optimum. An infeasible value of the dual vector is one that is too low. It sets the candidate positions of one or more of the constraints in a position that excludes the actual optimum. Q 5. Describe the North-West Corner rule for finding the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem? Ans:- North West Corner rule Step1: The first assignment is made in the cell occupying the upper left hand (north-west) corner of the transportation table. The maximum feasible amount is allocated here is x11 = min (a1, b1) Either the capacity of origin O1 is used up or the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied or both. This value of x11 is entered in the upper left hand corner (small square) of cell (1, 1) in the transportation table.

Step 2: If b1 > a1, the capacity of origin O is exhausted and the requirement at destination D 1 is still not satisfied. Then at least one variable in the first column will have to take on a positive value. Move down vertically to the second row and make the second allocation of magnitude: x21 = min (a2, b1 x21) in the cell (2, 1) This either exhausts the capacity of origin O2 or satisfies the remaining demand at destination D1. If a1 > b1 ,the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied, but the capacity of origin O1 is not completely exhausted. Move to the right in a horizontal position to the second column to make the second allocation of magnitude: x12 = min (a1 x11, b2) in the cell (1, 2) This either exhausts the remaining capacity of origin O1 or satisfies the demand at destination D2. If b1 = a1, the origin capacity of O1 is completely exhausted as well as the requirement at destination is completely satisfied, then there is a tie at the second allocation. An arbitrary tie breaking choice is made. Make the second allocation of magnitude x12 = min (a1 a1, b2) = 0 in the cell (1, 2) OR x21 = min (a2, b1 b2) = 0 in the cell (2, 1) Step 3: Start from the new north-west corner of the transportation table satisfying the destination requirements and exhausting the origin capacities one at a time, moving down towards the lower right corner of the transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied. Q 6. Use the simplex method to Maximise z = 3x1 x2 Subject to the constraints 2x1 + x2 2 x1+ 3x2 3 x2 4,

x1, x2 0. Ans:-

MBA SEMESTER II MB0048 Operation Research- 4 Credits Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks) Q 1 a. Explain the terms: Pure strategy, Mixed Strategy, Saddle point, Competitive games, Payoffmatrix, Rectangular games. Ans:Pure strategy :During the game, if a players strategy is to adopt a specific course of action, irrespective of the opponents strategy, the players strategy is called pure strategy. Mixed strategy : If a player chooses his course of action according to pre-assigned probabilities, then the players strategy is called mixed strategy. Thus, if player A decides to adopt courses of action with perspective probabilities 0.4 and 0.6, it is mixed strategy.

Saddle point : In a two-person zero-sum game, if the maximin and the minimax are equal, the game has saddle point. Saddle point is the position where the maximin (maximum of the row minimums) and minimax (minimum of the column maximums) coincide. If the maximin occurs in the s) is the saddle point. Here, row and if the minimax occurs in the column, the position (r,

It is called the value of the game. The value of a game is the expected gain of player A, when both the players adopt optimal strategy. Note 1: If a game has saddle point, (r, s), the players strategy is pure strategy. For player A and B, the suggested solutions are and respectively.

Note 2: If a game does not have saddle point, the solution offers a mixed strategy.

Note 3: A game is said to be fair if its value is zero. Competitive Games : Competitive situations arise when two or more parties with conflicting interests operate. The following competitive situations may occur.

Types of competitive situations Marketing different brands of a commodity : Two or more brands of detergents/soaps trying to capture the market by adopting various methods (courses), such as advertising through electronic media, providing cash discounts to consumers or offering larger sales commission to dealers are said to be in a competitive situation. Campaigning for elections: Two or more candidates contesting in elections are in a competitive situation. They adopt various methods (courses), such as campaigning through TV, door to door campaigning or campaigning through public meetings to capture more votes. Fighting military battles : Another example of a competitive situation is where two forces are fighting a war to gain supremacy over one another. They adopt various courses of action, such as direct ground attack on enemy camp, ground attack supported by aerial attack or playing defensive by not attacking. The above mentioned situations can be considered as a competitive game where the parties (players) adopt a course of action (play the game).

Characteristics of a Competitive Game A competitive game has the following characteristics: The number of players or competitors is finite. Each player has finite number of courses of action or moves. A game is played when each player adopts any one course of action. Every time a game is played, the corresponding combination of courses of action leads to a transaction or payment to each player. The payment is called pay-off or gain. The pay-off may be monetary (money) or some benefit, such as increased sales.

The players do not communicate with each other. The players are aware of the rules before starting the game.

Payoff Matrix : In game theory, normal form is a way of describing a game. Unlike extensive form, normal-form representations are not graphical per se, but rather represent the game by way of a matrix. While this approach can be of greater use in identifying strictly dominated strategies and Nash equilibria, some information is lost as compared to extensive-form representations. The normal-form representation of a game includes all perceptible and conceivable strategies, and their corresponding payoffs, of each player. In static games of complete, perfect information, a normal-form representation of a game is a specification of players' strategy spaces and payoff functions. A strategy space for a player is the set of all strategies available to that player, where a strategy is a complete plan of action for every stage of the game, regardless of whether that stage actually arises in play. A payoff function for a player is a mapping from the cross-product of players' strategy spaces to that player's set of payoffs (normally the set of real numbers, where the number represents a cardinal or ordinal utilityoften cardinal in the normal-form representation) of a player, i.e. the payoff function of a player takes as its input a strategy profile (that is a specification of strategies for every player) and yields a representation of payoff as its output Two - person zero - sum game (rectangular game) A two-person zero-sum game is a game where Two players participate The gain of one player is the loss of the other. be the m courses of

In a two-person zero-sum game with the players A and B. Let action for player A. Let

be the n courses of action for player B. Let be the pay-off (gain) of player A when he plays the course of action,

This is a gain of (-

) in the place of

in the above matrix and then write the transpose of the matrix.

Q 1 b. Explain the Maximin and Minimax principle used in Game Theory. Ans:- Maximin Minimax Principle Solving a two-person zero-sum game Player A and player B are to play a game without knowing the other players strategy. However, player A would like to maximise his profit and player B would like to minimise his loss. Also each player would expect his opponent to be calculative. Suppose player A plays . accordingly Bs choice would be . Then, is the minimum gain of A when he plays , his minimum gain is ( is the minimum pay-off in the first row.) .Let

Similarly, if A plays

, the least pay-off in the second row. , the minimum gains are the row

is maximum.

Then the maximum of the row minimum in the pay-off matrix is called maximin. The maximin is

Similarly, when B plays, he would minimise his maximum loss. The maximum loss to B is when This is the maximum pay-off in the is column. .

The minimum of the column maximums in the pay-off matrix is called minimax. The minimax is

If point. If Note:

, the maximin and the minimax are equal and the game is said to have saddle , then the game does not have a saddle point. cannot be greater than .

Q 2 a. Explain the steps involved in Monte-Carlo simulation. Ans:- Monte Carlo simulation is useful when same elements of a system, such as arrival of parts to a machine, etc., exhibit a chance factor in their behavior. Experimentation on probability distribution for these elements is done through random sampling. Following five steps are followed in the Monte Carlo simulation: Procedure of Monte Carlo Simulation: 1. Decide the probability distribution of important variables for the stochastic process. 2. Calculate the cumulative probability distributing for each variable in Step 1

3. Decide an interval of random numbers for each variable. 4. Generate random numbers. 5. Simulate a series of trials and determine simulated value of the actual random variables. Q 2 b. What are the advantages and limitations of using simulation? Ans:Main advantages of simulation include:

Study the behavior of a system without building it. Results are accurate in general, compared to analytical model. Help to find un-expected phenomenon, behavior of the system. Easy to perform ``What-If'' analysis.

Expensive to build a simulation model. Expensive to conduct simulation. Sometimes it is difficult to interpret the simulation results.

Q 3 a. Distinguish between PERT and CPM. What is a critical path? Ans:- Basic Difference between PERT and CPM Though there are no essential differences between PERT and CPM as both of them share in common the determination of a critical path. Both are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling that determines the most critical activities to be controlled so as to meet the completion date of the project. PERT Some key points about PERT are as follows:

PERT was developed in connection with an R&D work. Therefore, it had to cope with the uncertainties that are associated with R&D activities. In PERT, the total project duration is regarded as a random variable. Therefore, associated probabilities are calculated so as to characterise it.

It is an event-oriented network because in the analysis of a network, emphasis is given on the important stages of completion of a task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach a particular event or task. PERT is normally used for projects involving activities of non-repetitive nature in which time estimates are uncertain. It helps in pinpointing critical areas in a project so that necessary adjustment can be made to meet the scheduled completion date of the project.

CPM

CPM was developed in connection with a construction project, which consisted of routine tasks whose resource requirements and duration were known with certainty. Therefore, it is basically deterministic. CPM is suitable for establishing a trade-off for optimum balancing between schedule time and cost of the project. CPM is used for projects involving activities of repetitive nature.

The Critical Path Method (CPM) is one of several related techniques for doing project planning. CPM is for projects that are made up of a number of individual "activities." If some of the activities require other activities to finish before they can start, then the project becomes a complex web of activities. CPM can help you figure out: how long your complex project will take to complete which activities are "critical," meaning that they have to be done on time or else the whole project will take longer

If you put in information about the cost of each activity, and how much it costs to speed up each activity, CPM can help you figure out:

whether you should try to speed up the project, and, if so, what is the least costly way to speed up the project.

CPM analysis starts after you have figured out all the individual activities in your project.

Ans:-

Planning, Scheduling (or organising) and Control are considered to be basic Managerial functions, and CPM/PERT has been rightfully accorded due importance in the literature on Operations Research and Quantitative Analysis.

Far more than the technical benefits, it was found that PERT/CPM provided a focus around which managers could brain-storm and put their ideas together. It proved to be a great communication medium by which thinkers and planners at one level could communicate their ideas, their doubts and fears to another level. Most important, it became a useful tool for evaluating the performance of individuals and teams. There are many variations of CPM/PERT which have been useful in planning costs, scheduling manpower and machine time. CPM/PERT can answer the following important questions: How long will the entire project take to be completed? What are the risks involved? Which are the critical activities or tasks in the project which could delay the entire project if they were not completed on time? Is the project on schedule, behind schedule or ahead of schedule? If the project has to be finished earlier than planned, what is the best way to do this at the least cost? The Framework for PERT and CPM Essentially, there are six steps which are common to both the techniques. The procedure is listed below: I. Define the Project and all of its significant activities or tasks. The Project (made up of several tasks) should have only a single start activity and a single finish activity. Develop the relationships among the activities. Decide which activities must precede and which must follow others. Draw the "Network" connecting all the activities. Each Activity should have unique event numbers. Dummy arrows are used where required to avoid giving the same numbering to two activities. Assign time and/or cost estimates to each activity

I.

II.

III.

IV. V.

Compute the longest time path through the network. This is called the critical path. Use the Network to help plan, schedule, monitor and control the project.

The Key Concept used by CPM/PERT is that a small set of activities, which make up the longest path through the activity network control the entire project. If these "critical" activities could be identified and assigned to responsible persons, management resources could be optimally used by concentrating on the few activities which determine the fate of the entire project. Non-critical activities can be replanned, rescheduled and resources for them can be reallocated flexibly, without affecting the whole project. Five useful questions to ask when preparing an activity network are:

Is this a Start Activity? Is this a Finish Activity? What Activity Precedes this? What Activity Follows this? What Activity is Concurrent with this?

Some activities are serially linked. The second activity can begin only after the first activity is completed. In certain cases, the activities are concurrent, because they are independent of each other and can start simultaneously. This is especially the case in organisations which have supervisory resources so that work can be delegated to various departments which will be responsible for the activities and their completion as planned. When work is delegated like this, the need for constant feedback and co-ordination becomes an important senior management pre-occupation. Q 4 a. State the general form of an integer programming problem. Ans:Integer linear programming problem (ILP) of the decision variables x1,..,xn: n (ILP) min f=1 subject to n

cjxj

f=1 xj 0

aijxjbi

i=1,...,m

i=1,...,m for j I.

xj integer

Variations: The objective may be maximization. Constraints may be of type #bi, $bi, or =bi. Variables need not be nonnegative. The problem can always be brought in the above form Without the integrality requirement, I = i, this problem would be a linear programming problem LP. Solution algorithms for LP: Simplex algorithm (worst case exponential, experimentally average case polynomial) Karmarkar's Interior Point Method (polynomial). If I = {1,...,n}, the model is a pure integer programming problem. In a mixed integer programming problem (MIP or MILP) part of the variables are continuous..If the variables are binary i.e. x1 0 {0,1}, i=1,...,n, the problem is a binary integer programming problem (BIP or BILP). In the general form, all of these are NP-complete: ILP, MIP, BIP 0 NPC. Why do we consider only linear models? Linear IP-models have the advantage that their LPrelaxation (=ILP without integrality requirements) can be solved efficiently and this solution can be used as a starting point for integer solutions. As mentioned earlier, many combinatorial optimization problems can be modeled as ILP-models. Problems where the objective or constraint functions are nonlinear are not so common in combinatorial optimization.

Applications of ILP-models: standard graph, routing, packing and scheduling problems of discrete optimzation LP-models in which the variables are numbers of whole pieces LP-models with logical constraints (disjunction, implication etc.), fixed costs A simplex heuristic: Solve the LP-relaxation and round the variables xj, j0I to the nearest integer. This technique is suitable only for instances with few integer variables or when their order of magnitude is large enough. Problems: The rounded solution is not necessarily optimal or may be far from the optimum. The rounded solution may not be feasible. If the number of integer variables is k, the number of different rounding combinations is 2k. Exponenial time, if feasibility has to be checked for all. For binary variables, the relaxation to fractional values does not have any realistic interpretation. For instance if the relaxed solution for a Knapsack problem would result in xi = 0.5, it gives no information of the decision, to take the object or not? The rounding would correspond to a flip of a coin. Q 4 b. Describe the branch and bound method for the solution of integer programming problem? Ans:- Branch and Bound Technique Sometimes a few or all the variables of an IPP are constrained by their upper or lower bounds or by both. The most general technique for a solution of such constrained optimisation problems is the branch and bound technique. The technique is applicable to both all (or pure) IPP as well as mixed IPP. The technique for a maximisation problem is discussed below: Let the IPP be

Maximise

(1)

(2) xj is integer valued , j = 1, 2, .., r (< n) - (3) xj > 0 . j = r + 1, .., n - (4) Further let us suppose that for each integer valued xj, we can assign lower and upper bounds for the optimum values of the variable by Lj xj Uj j = 1, 2, . r (5) This is the main idea behind the branch and bound technique. Consider any variable xj, and let I be some integer value satisfying Lj I Uj 1. Then clearly an optimum solution (1) through (5) also satisfies either linear constraint. x j I + 1 (6) Or the linear constraint xj I (7) To explain how this partitioning helps, lets assume that there were no integer restrictions (3), and it yields an optimal solution to LPP (1), (2), (4) and (5). This indicates x1 = 1.66 (for example). Then you formulate and solve two LPPs each containing (1), (2) and (4). But (5) for j = 1 is modified to be 2 x1 U1 in one problem and L1 x1 1 in the other. Further to each of these problems, process an optimal solution satisfying integer constraint (3). Then the solution having the larger value for z is clearly the optimum for the given IPP. However, it usually happens that one (or both) of these problems have no optimal solution satisfying (3), and thus some more computations are required. Now let us discuss, step wise, the algorithm that specifies how to apply the partitioning (6) and (7) in a systematic manner to finally arrive at an optimum solution. Lets start with an initial lower bound for z, say z(0) at the first iteration, which is less than or equal to the optimal value z*. This lower bound may be taken as the starting Lj for some xj. In addition to the lower bound z(0), you also have a list of LPPs (to be called master list) differing only in the bounds (5). To start with (the 0th iteration) the master list contains a single LPP

consisting of (1), (2), (4) and (5). Let us now discuss the procedure that specifies how the partitioning (6) and (7) can be applied systematically to eventually get an optimum integer-valued solution. Q 5. How can you use the Matrix Minimum method to find the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem. Ans:- Let us consider a TP involving m-origins and n-destinations. Since the sum of origin capacities equals the sum of destination requirements, a feasible solution always exists. Any feasible solution satisfying m + n 1 of the m + n constraints is a redundant one and hence it can be deleted. This also means that a feasible solution to a TP can have only m + n 1 positive component; otherwise the solution will degenerate. It is always possible to assign an initial feasible solution to a TP, satisfying all the rim requirements. This can be achieved either by inspection or by following some simple rules. You can begin by imagining that the transportation table is blank that is initial xij = 0. Matrix minimum method Step 1: Determine the smallest cost in the cost matrix of the transportation table. Let it be cij . Allocate xij = min ( ai, bj) in the cell ( I, j ) Step 2: If xij = ai cross the ith row of the transportation table, decrease bj by ai and proceed to step 3. If xij = bj cross the ith column of the transportation table, decrease ai by bj and proceed to step 3. If xij = ai= bj cross either the ith row or the ith column, but not both. Step 3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 to reduce transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied. Whenever the minimum cost is not unique, make an arbitrary choice among the minima.

7 6 6 4

3 5 8 4

7 9

11 3 2 4

11 2 10 9 2 22

11 2 6 2

Ans;4 1

9 7 6 6 4

12 4 3 5 8 4

9 2 7 1 9 11 6

6 7 1 11 5 2 2

9 5 3 4 2 4

10 5 5 6

11 2 10 9 2 22

Z=X11xC11+X12xC12+X22xC22+X23xC23+X33xC33+X34xC34 =9X4+12X1+3X4+7X2+9X1+11X1+2X5+2X4 =36+12+12+14+9+11+10+8 = 112 The minimum transportation cost is Rs. 112

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