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2nd Middle East District Cooling Summit Doha ,Qatar

Green District Cooling Plants

Albert H. Haykal
Trane Middle East
11/28/2010 Green District Cooling Plants 1

Carbon Emissions in GCC are among the highest in the World

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_carbon_dioxide_emissions_per_capita 11/28/2010 Green District Cooling Plants 2

Benefits of

Building Green
Environment
Sustainable :Consumes less natural resources Protects air, water, biodiversity

Health, safety

Enhances occupant comfort Improves indoor air quality

Community

Reduces strain on local infrastructure Improves quality of life

Economy

Lower total cost of ownership . Increases productivity Enhance property value

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Green District Cooling Plants

Carbon Footprint of D.C. Plants


A carbon footprint is "the total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person" . For simplicity, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted. The carbon footprint is a subset of the more comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment(LCA). Carbon Emissions of Chilled Water Plants
Embedded Carbon Foot print . Direct Carbon Emissions (via refrigerant leak ) . Indirect Carbon emissions (via electric power consumption). Make up water Carbon content. Others (Chemicals ,Bleed off, maintenance , etc ) .

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Green District Cooling Plants

Life Cycle Assessment


The international standard for Life Cycle Assessment, ISO14040 (ISO, 2006), states that: LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product by: compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs; and interpreting the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment phases in relation to the objectives of the study. LCA studies the environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout a products life (i.e., from cradle to grave), from raw material acquisition through production, use and disposal. The general impacts needing consideration include resource use, human health, and ecological consequences.

Raw Materials

Transport

Production

Distribution

Storage and Retail

Transport

Storage and Consumption

Disposal

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Case Study: 30,000 Tons Typical Chiller Plant UAE 12 nos. Chillers. Average size 2500 tons. Chillers in series-series counter-flow configuration. No chilled water storage. Open Type cooling tower (6 cells) Fresh make up water supply. Primary and Secondary chilled water and condenser water pumps.

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Green District Cooling Plants

Chiller Plant Carbon Balance


Construction Phase Inputs Equipment Materials Labor Transport Machineries Power Outputs Chemicals /Debris Operation Phase Inputs Water Electrical Power Labor Chemicals Spare Parts Outputs Water Vapor Cooling Tower Bleed off Chemicals Ref. Emissions
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Disposal Phase Inputs Machineries Power Transport Labor Outputs Debris Refrigerant Emissions Chemicals

Chillers Carbon Balance


Construction Phase Embedded Inputs Equipment/ parts Raw Materials Labor Manufacturing Power Transport Outputs Chemicals /Debris Operation Phase Inputs Water Electrical Power Labor Chemicals Spare Parts Outputs Ref. Emissions Disposal Phase Inputs Transport Labor Outputs Debris Refrigerant Emissions

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Chiller Embedded Carbon


Construction Phase

Description

Carbon

(Tons CO2) % of total

Total Raw materials carbon footprint Manufacturing Carbon Total Transport Carbon Total Embedded Carbon

1557.49 122.40 374.04 2053.93

75.83% 5.96% 18.21%

100.00%

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Chillers Operation -Direct Carbon Footprint Chillers Refrigerant Emissions


Low Pressure (R-123) / Medium Pressure (R-134a)
R-123 Tons Lbs of Refrigerant GWP
30,000 Tons 40,800 Lbs 76

R-134a
30,000 Tons 72,000 Lbs 1,320

Annual Leakage Rate* 0.50% 2.00% Annual Refrigerant Loss 204 Lbs 1440 Lbs Global 1 Year CO2 Equivalent 15,504 Lbs 1,900,800 Lbs Warming 25 Year CO2 Equivalent 387,600 Lbs 47,520,000 Lbs
Emissions (Tons CO2) 175.8 Tons 21,551 Tons

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Chillers Operation Indirect Carbon Emissions Operation for 25 years


Operational Carbon for the chiller plant due to Electrical power
Total Capacity (Tons)
Chillers Plant Estimate

Chiller yearly total electric consumption (kW-hr per year) 63,000,000 90,000,000

Total KW-hr for 25 years

30,000 30,000

Base CO2 CO2 Emissions emissions for 25 years (Kg CO2 / kw- (Tons ) hr ) 1,575,000,000 0.577 908,775 2,250,000,000 0.577 1,298,250

Operational Carbon for the chiller plant due to make up Water Supply
Total Capacity (Tons) Yearly make up water volume (liters)
Plant/chiller Estimate Total chiller Carbon Total Plant Carbon

Total make up water for 25 years (liters) 17,100,000,000

Equivalence CO2 CO2 emissions Emissions for 25 years (kg co2/1000 liters) (Tons CO2) ) 3.256 55,678 964,453 1,353,928

30,000 30,000 30,000

684,000,000

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Summary of chillers Carbon Footprint


Summary of chillers Carbon Footprint
Description Raw Materials Manufacturing Transportation Total Embedded Ref. Emissions Electrical power Make up Water Total operation Total Carbon Footprint Carbon footprint Percent of (Tons CO2) total (%)

1,557.5 122.4 374.0 2,053.9 175.8 908,775.0 55,678.0 964,628.8 966,682.7

0.16% 0.01% 0.04% 0.21% 0.02% 94.01% 5.76% 99.79% 100.00%

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What Is Important Over the Life of a Chiller ?

Electric Energy (94.01%)

Make up water (5.76%)

Embedded Carbon (0.21%) Refrigerant Emissions (0.02%)

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Summary of chillers Carbon Footprint


(Only Emissions adjusted for Medium pressure R134a Chillers)
Summary of chillers Carbon Footprint
Description Carbon footprint (Tons CO2) KG CO2 per Ref. Tons Percent of total (%)

Total Embedded Ref. Emissions Electrical power Make up Water Total operation Total Carbon Footprint

2,053.9 21,551.0 908,775.0 55,678.0 986,004.0 988,057.9

68.5 718.4 30,292.5 1,855.9 32,866.8 32,935.3

0.21% 2.18% 91.98% 5.64% 99.79% 100.00%

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What Is Important Over the Life of a Chiller ?

Electric Energy (91.98%)

Make up water (5.64%)

Refrigerant Emissions (2.18%)

Embedded Carbon (0.21%)

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Estimated Plant Carbon Footprint low pressure chillers


Summary of Plant Carbon Footprint

To be offset by planting 50.87 Million Tree !!

Description Carbon footprint (Tons CO2) Percent of total (%) Est.Total Embedded 30,000.0 2.17% Ref. Emissions(Low Pressure) 175.8 0.01% Electrical power 1,298,450.0 93.80% Make up Water 55,678.0 4.02% Total operation 1,354,303.8 97.83% Total Carbon Footprint
1,384,303.8

100.00%

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What Is Important Over the Life of a Chiller Plant ?

Electric Energy (93.8%)

Make up water (4.02%)

Embedded Carbon (2.17%) Refrigerant Emissions (0.01%)

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Conclusion:
Power consumption is by far the biggest contributor to Carbon footprint. To reduce the carbon footprint Increase chiller/system efficiency. Recycled raw material will have minor effect on total Carbon Footprint. TSE or Sea Water will have minimal impact on carbon footprint. Additional / larger heat exchange area will deliver attractive payback. Refrigerant emissions: Negligible for Low pressure chillers while more important than embedded carbon for Medium pressure chillers .

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Albert Haykal
District Cooling Leader Trane Middle East

Trane P.O. Box 31000 Dubai ,U.A.E Tel 04-3460080 Fax 04-3460081 Mobile :050-6162474 Albert_haykal@trane.com
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Summary
Focus on reduction of power consumption Embedded plant carbon is relatively negligible . Water in GCC has a carbon footprint but for the plant , it is relatively small . Direct Carbon Emissions are negligible for low pressure (R123)chillers but might be more important for Medium pressure chillers
.

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