Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Earlier shall was used in the future tense with I and We.

Fewer people use it in English than before. It's still used in questions (asking for advice, offering help and making suggestions).

Discussing the future using going to

We say something is going to happen when it has already been planned. For example:Q) Are you going to fly to Germany? A) No, we're going to drive. We also use it to show something has already been decided. For example:"We're going to buy a new car next year." We also use going to when we can see something is about to happen. For example:-

"Look at that cloud. I think it's going to rain."

"Watch out! He's going to crash into that tree!" You can also use going to to predict the future based upon the evidence now. For example:"It looks as though Manchester United are going to win the European cup. "I think my friend Louise is going to have a baby."

Form of the Simple Future Tense

The Simple Future is formed with will + the base form of the verb.

affirmative short form I will > I'll > You will > You'll > He will > He'll > She will > She'll > stay. It will > It'll > We will > We'll > You will > You'll > They will > They'll > negative short forms I will not > I'll not > I won't > You will not > You'll not > You won't > He will not > He'll not > He won't > She will not > She'll not > She won't > stay. It will not > It'll not > It won't > We will not > We'll not > We won't > You will not > You'll not > You won't > They will not > They'll not > They won't >

Notes on the form of the Simple Future Tense

1. Shall and will Will is used with all persons, but shall can be used as an alternative with I and we in pure future reference. Shall is usually avoided with you and I: You and I will work in the same office. 2. Contractions Shall weakens to /S@l/ in speech, but does not contract to 'll in writing. Will contracts to 'll in writing and in fluent, rapid speech after vowels (I'll, we'll, you'll, etc.) but 'll can occur after consonants. So we might find 'll used: e.g. - after names: Tom'll be here soon. - after common nouns: The concert'll start in a minute. - after question-words: When'll they arrive? 3. Negatives Will not contracts to 'll not or won't; shall not contracts to shan't:

We won't or shan't go. (I/We will not or shall not go).

In American English shan't is rare and shall with a future reference is unusual. 4. Future Tense When we use will/shall for simple prediction, they combine with verbs to form tenses in the ordinary way: Simple Future: I will see Future Progressive: I will be seeing Future Perfect: I will have seen Future Perfect Progressive: I will have been seeing

Uses of the 'will/shall' future

1. 'Will/shall' for prediction briefly compared with other uses Will and shall can be used to predict events, for example, to say what we think will happen, or to invite prediction: Tottenham will win on Saturday. It will rain tomorrow. Will house prices rise again next year? I don't know if I shall see you next week.

This is sometimes called 'the pure future', and it should be distinguished from many other uses of will and shall: e.g. I'll buy you a bicycle for your birthday. [promise] Will you hold the door open for me please? [request] Shall I get your coat for you? [offer] Shall we go for a swim tomorrow? [suggestion] Just wait - you'll regret this! [threat]

Though all the above examples point to future time, they are not 'predicting'; they are 'coloured' by notions of willingness, etc. Will/shall have so many uses as modal verbs that some grammarians insist that English does not have a pure future tense. 2. 'Will' in formal style for scheduled events

Will is used in preference to be going to when a formal style is required, particularly in the written language: The wedding will take place at St Andrew's on June 27th. The reception will be at the Anchor Hotel. 3. 'Will/shall' to express hopes, expectations, etc. The future is often used after verbs and verb phrases like assume, be afraid, be sure, believe, doubt, expect, hope, suppose, think: I hope she'll get the job she's applied for.

The Present with a future reference is possible after hope: I hope she gets the job she's applied for.

Lack of certainty, etc. can be conveyed by using will with adverbs like perhaps, possibly, probably, surely: Ask him again. Perhaps he'll change his mind.

Time adverbials with the 'will/shall' future tense

Some adverbials like tomorrow are used exclusively with future reference; others like at 4 o'clock, before Friday, etc. are used with other tenses as well as the Future: I'll meet you at 4 o'clock.

Now and just can also have a future reference: This shop will now be open on June 23rd. (a change of date) I'm nearly ready. I'll just put my coat on.


Thanks to Ken Anderson for pointing out the following:"I'm going to Germany." isn't really the future tense. You would have to say "I'm going to go to Germany."

Discussing the future using shall/will

When we give information about the future or predict future events that are not certain we usually use shall/will. For example:Q) Who do you think will win the election?" A) "I'm not sure but I think the current party will win." We can also use shall/will to make promises for the future. When leaving work I would say - "Goodnight, I'll (I will) see you tomorrow." Shall/Will is often used when we just decide to do something. For example:The phone is ringing - If I decide to answer the phone I would say - "I'll (I will) get it." It can also be used in formal situations to express planned events and is preferred in formal written English. For example:The party will start at 10.00pm. There's another way to discuss the future here.

Future: Will
In English, there are many ways of expressing future time. One of the most common is using the modal auxiliary verb will. This page will explain the main meanings of will and show you how to form the future with will.

1. Using will with verbs

Will, like all modal verbs in English, does not change its form, and it is followed by the simple form of the main verb. Will is NOT usually used in first person questions. Note also that will is often shortened to ll. This diagram should make the situation clearer: Subject I Statement I will stop smoking. I'll stop smoking. You will stop smoking. You'll stop smoking. He will stop smoking. He'll stop smoking. She will stop smoking. She'll stop smoking. It will be hard to stop. It'll be hard to stop. We will stop smoking. We'll stop smoking. They will stop smoking. They'll stop smoking. Question [not usually used]


Will you stop smoking?


Will he stop smoking?


Will she stop smoking?


Will it be hard to stop?


[not usually used]


Will they stop smoking?

Negatives are formed with will not or won't: He will not stop smoking. He won't stop smoking.

2. The meaning of will future forms

Will is usually used in three situations: Situation Volunteering to do something Example "Will someone open the window for me?" "I'll do it!" "I've made up my mind. I'll go to Whistler for my vacation." "Dad, I don't want to clean my room!" "You'll do it, and you'll do it NOW!"

Deciding to do something

Forcing someone to do something.

Will is NOT usually used for fixed plans or scheduled events.

Simple Future Tense

I will sing The simple future tense is often called will, because we make the simple future tense with the modal auxiliary will.

How do we make the Simple Future Tense?

The structure of the simple future tense is: subject + auxiliary verb WILL invariable will + main verb base V1

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the simple future tense: subject + I auxiliary verb will main verb open the door.

+ You She We

will will will you they not not

finish be leave arrive want

before me. at school tomorrow. yet. on time? dinner?

? Will ? Will

When we use the simple future tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: I will you will he will she will it will we will they will I'll you'll he'll she'll it'll we'll they'll

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we contract with won't, like this: I will not you will not he will not she will not it will not we will not they will not I won't you won't he won't she won't it won't we won't they won't

How do we use the Simple Future Tense?

No Plan

We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Look at these examples:

Hold on. I'll get a pen. We will see what we can do to help you. Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.

In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of speaking. We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:

I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow. I think I will have a holiday next year. I don't think I'll buy that car.

We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:

It will rain tomorrow. People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. Who do you think will get the job?

When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. Examples:

I'll be in London tomorrow. I'm going shopping. I won't be very long. Will you be at work tomorrow?

Simple Future
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.

[will + verb] Examples:

You will help him later. Will you help him later? You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb] Examples:

You are going to meet Jane tonight. Are you going to meet Jane tonight? You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

Complete List of Simple Future Forms

USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action

"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something. Examples:

I will send you the information when I get it. I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.

Will you help me move this heavy table? Will you make dinner? I will not do your homework for you. I won't do all the housework myself! A: I'm really hungry. B: I'll make some sandwiches. A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep. B: I'll get you some coffee. A: The phone is ringing. B: I'll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise

"Will" is usually used in promises. Examples:

I will call you when I arrive. If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance. I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party. Don't worry, I'll be careful. I won't tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan

"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not. Examples:

He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii. A: When are we going to meet each other tonight? B: We are going to meet at 6 PM. I'm going to be an actor when I grow up. Michelle is going to begin medical school next year. They are going to drive all the way to Alaska. Who are you going to invite to the party? A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake? B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction

Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences,

the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning. Examples:

The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. John Smith will be the next President. John Smith is going to be the next President. The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards. The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.