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KIMATHI UNIVERSITY.

NAME: SIMON MWANGANGI KISWILI.

REG: B010-0054/2008.

UNIT: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS.

UNIT CODE:

TASK: ASSIGMENT

LEECTURE:

DATE OF SUBMISSION: 30th mar.2012.

Critical analysis of the role of environmental organizations on economic development in Kenya.

There are several environmental organizations in Kenya which ensure betterment of environment, and thus economic development in Kenya. These are: National Environmental Management Authority. Green Belt Movement. East Africa Wildlife Services. Ministry of industrialization Ministry of water and irrigation. Ministry of Environment and Mineral resources Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife.

National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). NEMA wholly supports the concept of eco-towns. These have the following features: Zero emissions 3 Rs Green procurement Focus is on industrial system and overall urban planning and ecosystems. Ultimate goal is the greening of cities with the attendant eco-industrial parks.

It coordinates various environmental activities being undertaken by lead agencies and promotes the integration of environmental consideration into development policies, plans, programmes. NEMA establishes and reviews, in consultation with relevant lead agencies land use guidelines. It also advices government on the implementation of relevant international conventions, treaties and agreement to which Kenya should be party. It undertakes and coordinates research in the field of environment and disseminates information about the findings of such research. It monitors and assesses activities, including activities being carried out by relevant lead agencies, inorder to ensure that the environment is not degraded by such activities. It undertakes, in cooperation with relevant lead agencies, programmes intended to enhance environmental education. It is currently coordinating the education for sustainable development (ESD) programme that promotes a balanced form of development that takes into societal,

ecological and environmental aspects. Among implementation strategies being employed are partnership and use of ICTs.Aspect of ESD is: life-long learning in different context and attitudinal change. This kind of forum provides platform for critical partinerships, networking and information exchange. NEMA works closely with Kenya Bureau of Standards; this ensures issuance, suspension or revocation of E.A Licenses and Environmental Audit. This act as indicator that shows ongoing activities conforms to good environmental practice. It prepares and issues an annual report on the state of the environment in Kenya. The report is developed using expertise and data from variety of stakeholders. It is submitted to the National Assembly for adoption and is meant to: inform policy; Protect indigenous property rights of local communities in respect of biological diversity.

NEMA facilitates research in environmental management, capacity building, environmental awards, environmental publication, scholarships and grants through the Environmental Trust Fund. It recommends appropriate legal and fiscal incentives that may be used to encourage business community to incorporate environmental requirements into their planning and operational process. It also identifies and appraise trend in the development of urban and rural settlements, their impacts on the environment, and strategies for the amelioration of their negative impacts. It also takes the stock of the natural resources in Kenya and their utilization. It promotes the integration of environmental considerations into government policies, plans, programmes and projects. It is in charge of formulating water quality regulations. This includes making sure that there is sanity in water supply. The commercial oriented public enterprises which provides water must conform to the standard on quality, service levels and performance established by Water Service Regulatory Board (WASREB). NEMA ensures development in Kenya through provision of quality water and services in rural and urban areas. For example, Kibera sanitation.Therefore, NEMA, ensures: improved drinking water sources, improved sanitation facilities, continuity of water supply, waste water treatment e.g. Dandora waste stabilization pond system treats industrial and domestic sewerage in Nairobi. Economic efficiency in water provision is indicated by: collection rate, non-revenue water, metering ratio and labor productivity.

Ministry of water and irrigation. Its functions in environmental matters extend to: water resources management policy water and sewerage service policy water quality and pollution control Dam construction schemes Flood control and land reclamation Waste water treatment and disposal policy National water conservation and pipeline corporation National irrigation policy Water services regulatory boards Water resources management Authority Public water schemes and community water projects.

The ministry has done a lot to conserve environmental scarce resources like water, which is very essential in human life, and is getting scarce with time due to environmental degradation .This has made Kenya to be better compared to what it was some years back. There are gains due to reforms made, guided by National Water policy of 1999 and the water Act of 2002.These gains are: A scaling up of investments in water storage to cushion Kenya against frequent drought and flood disasters. Focus on capacity building for the new sector institutions to improve performance. Improved coordination among sector players to minimize duplication and optimize on useful resources. Decentralization of operations from the centre to the field and thereby reducing bureaucracy and enhance efficiency in water service provision. A phenomenal tenfold increase in investment in the last 10 years in the water sector used to overhaul run down infrastructure and expansion. There is a proposal plan to be done in the future. This includes: A Marshall plan to develop water storage on the scale that will provide water security for Kenyans in times of draught and to promote social and economic development. The development is aimed to raise Kenya beyond the minimum global standard of 1000 cubic per capita.This development will require capital investment worth ksh.90B in next 10years.

Improvement of provision of water in rural area and informal settlement. Sanitation agenda to be adhered to as constitution states. Application of new and renewable energy in the sector to reduce cost of operation and maintenance of water utilities.

Ministry of industrialization. This ministry is actively concerned on the use of machines, equipments, motors which emit carbon in the air thus polluting the environment. It is determined to control and get rid of anything which pollutes the environment through emission of harmful gasses and other substances. Industrialization P.S Dr. Eng. Karanja said that the government will not allow any emissions caused by inefficiency in equipments and machines because this was contributing to adverse impact of the environment. The government will set standards that will see vehicle owners comply with quality requirements; this will stop carbon emission which depletes ozone layer. Setting of standard and then putting a mark of quality is a sure measure to reduce emission, enhance efficient and save energy. The motor makes will have to make motor efficient to reduce carbon emission, since motor is the prime mover of most industrial activity. He explained that introduction of standards and labels in the country aims at measuring efficiency of equipment in relation to something in order to make production cleaner. Government is developing standards for specified industrial appliance and equipments in residential, commercial industrial sectors to make them efficient save energy while protecting the environment. They will be labeling anything that meets this criterion to indicate that it has complied with quality standards. Government is in association with development agencies. The progrramme is expected to mitigate climate change by improving energy efficiency, increase availability of new power and reduce green house gasses emission. There is a bill which calls for EAC concern to eliminate polythene materials as they pollute the environment. The bill seeks to ensure friendly packaging materials, prevent any type of pollution caused by polythene materials in lakes, rivers and oceans, protect infrastructure including drainage systems, biodiversity and livestock and brand East Africa as green and clean. Green Belt Movement An NGO that focuses on planting of trees, environmental conservation, community development and capacity building. It organizes women in rural areas to plant trees, combat deforestation, restore their main source of fuel for cooking, generate income, and stop soil erosion. Since 1977, over 40M trees have been planted. Over 30,000 women trained on forestry, food processing, bee-

keeping and other trade that help them earn income while preserving their lands and resources. Communities in Kenya have been motivated and organized to both prevent further environmental destruction and restore that which has been damaged. Through its activities it has ensured development in Kenya, by conserving the environment, education and training, and job creation. East African Wildlife Society. It promotes the conservation and wise use of the environment, but especially wildlife, by advocating for rational policies and appropriate resource management regime, in conjunction with promoting best practice and good governance. It has ensured East Africa economic, social and ecological integration into development programs and agendas; where sustainable livelihood benefits are experienced by people; where nature and natural resources are conserved and that the beuty,richness,and diversity of our environment is maintained by all.