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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS

SUBJECT CODE EXPERIMENT CODE EXPERIMENT TITTLE COURSE CODE

BFC 3121 MA3 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

KOD ETIKA PELAJAR (KEP)


JAB. KEJ. SUMBER AIR & ALAM SEKITAR FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & ALAM SEKITAR KUiTTHO
Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa saya telah menyediakan laporan ini dengan daya usaha saya sendiri. Saya juga mengaku tidak menerima atau memberi sebarang bantuan dalam menyediakan laporan ini dan membuat ikrar ini dengan kepercayaan bahawa apa-apa yang tersebut di dalamnya adalah benar.

___________________________ Tandatangan Pelajar Nama : _______________________________ No. Matrik :____________________________ Tarikh :________________________________

FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY SHORT REPORT
SUBJECT CODE EXPERIMENT CODE & TITTLE COURSE CODE DATE STUDENTS NAME GROUP GROUP MEMBERS NAME BFC 3121

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

NAME OF LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR DATE OF SUBMISSION MARKS

ATTENDANCE/ DISCIPLINE INTRODUCTION DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES TOTAL

EXAMINER COMMENTS:

/10% /5% /15% /15% /25% /5% /5% /80% APPROVAL STAMP

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY EXPERIMENT : BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND ( BOD)

PAGE NO: EDITION : REVISION NO: EFFECTIVE DATE : AMENDMENT DATE:

1/4 MA3 03 01/12/07 20/11/07

1.0 OBJECTIVE To measures the strength of the water sample ( water, wastewater, etc) based on the amount of oxygen needed to stabilize the organic matter in the sample. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES i) ii) the student be able to describe the importance of BOD in the environmental studies. the students be able to measure the BOD of samples with the right sample size.

______________________________________________________________________________
3.0 THEORY Biochemical Oxygen Demand is a common, environmental procedure for determining the extent to which oxygen within a sample can support microbial life. This method is popular in many environmental laboratories analyzing waste water, compost, sludge, and soil samples. When a measurement is made of all oxygen consuming materials in a sample, the result is termed Total Biochemical Oxygen demand ( TBOD ) , or often just simply Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Because the test is performed over a five day period, it is often referred to as a five Day BOD , or a BOD5. In addition, this procedure is only suitable for samples void of serious matrix interferences. To gain a broader appreciation of oxygen demand, additional avenues of interest may be explored including CBOD (carbonaceous oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand), and TOC (total organic carbon). Because of complications measuring this ultimate BOD (BODu), BODu is usually extrapolated from laboratory 5-day BOD bottle tests BODt = BODu ( 1 e-kt ) In many biological treatment plants, the facility effluent large numbers of nitrifying organisms which are developed during the treatment process. These organisms can exert an oxygen demand as they convert nitrogenous compounds (ammonia and organic nitrogen) to more stable forms (nitrites and nitrates). At least part of this oxygen demand is normally measured in a five day BOD. Sometimes it is advantageous to measure just the oxygen demand exerted by organic (carbonaceous) compounds, excluding the oxygen demand exeried by the nitrogenous compounds. To accomplish this, the nitrifying organisms can be inhibited from using oxygen by the addition of a nitrification inhibitor to the samples.The result is termed Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand or BOD.

PREPARED BY : ROSLINDA SESWOYA SIGNATURE : DATE : 20 NOVEMBER 2007 FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY EXPERIMENT : BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND ( BOD) PAGE NO: EDITION : REVISION NO: EFFECTIVE DATE : AMENDMENT DATE: 2/4 MA3 03 01/12/07 20/11/07

4.0 EQUIPMENT & REAGENTS :


1. 5 units 300 mL BOD Bottles

2. Incubator , capable of maintaining 20 1 0c


3. 100 mL beaker 4. 100 mL graduated cylinder 5. 2 units 25 ml meaning pipettes 6. DO meter 7. pH meter 8. Phosphate Buffer Dissolve 8.5g KH2PO4, 21.7g K2HPO4, 33.4g Na2HPO4, and 1.7g NH4Cl in deionized water. Adjust pH to 7.2, if necessary, with either 1 N H2SO4 or NaOH. Dilute to one liter. 9. Magnesium Sulfate Dissolve 22.5g MgSO4.7H2O and dilute to one liter. 10. Calsium Chloride Dissolve 27.5g CaCl2 and dilute to one liter. 11. Ferric Choloride Dissolve 0.25g FeCl3.6H2O and dilute to one liter. NOTE: To prepare dilution water, add one mL of each of the four solutions listed above to one liter of deionized water. Saturate with DO by drawing a vacuum through the solution. 5.0 PROCEDURES 1. 2. 3. Collect the sample. Measure the pH of the sample. BOD measurement Determine the sample size Determine three sample size volume ( number of BOD bottles) Prepare a blank of dilution water

6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION Write the results in bench sheet

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY EXPERIMENT : BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND ( BOD)

PAGE NO: EDITION : REVISION NO: EFFECTIVE DATE : AMENDMENT DATE:

3/4 MA3 03 01/12/07 20/11/07

7.0 DATA ANALYSIS 7.1 Calculate for the average BOD 7.2 Show all the calculation and state if any of the data needs to thrown out.

7.3 The dillution water blank can not deplete more than 0.2 mg/L. Was this criteria met? 7.4 Does you sample shows a toxic effect?
7.5 Could you rely on your BOD results? Why?

7.5 By referring to Sewage/Effluent Standard (DOE, Malaysia ) could your sample be discharge to
river untreated? If not, suggest the associated treatment for BOD removal. 8.0 DISCUSSION

Q1. a) Calculate the min / max volume of sample to be added to prepare as estimated BOD _____________ mg/L. b) Why must samples containing cautic alkalinity or acidity be adjusted before preparing BOD dilution? c) The completed composite sample arrive in the lab at eg:_________________,_______________) What is the latest day and time the sample can be started for BOD. d) Describe the function of BOD bottles cap and seal water.

Q2. a) Why must samples containing residual chlorine be dechlorinated before preparation of BOD dilutions? b) What reagents are required to chemically dechlorinate a BOD sample? c) What must be done to samples which have been dechlorinated or adjusted for pH variations?

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY EXPERIMENT : BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND ( BOD)

PAGE NO: EDITION : REVISION NO: EFFECTIVE DATE : AMENDMENT DATE:

4/4 MA3 03 01/12/07 20/11/07

Q3. a) State the formula to calculate i) seed correction ii) BOD5 (seeded) b) Calculate the seed correction and BOD5 (seeded) for the data given as below Dilution #1 BOD5 of Seed Material mL of seed material mL of sample Start D.O. Final D.O. 95 mg/L 2 mL 100 mL 7.8 mg/L 2.9 mg/L

Q4. a) 30 mL of wastewater are placed in a 300 mL BOD bottle. The sample is diluted to fill the bottle. The DO concentrations at the beginning and the end of 5-day incubation period are 7.3 mg/L and 1.8 mg/L respectively. What is the BOD? b) The BOD5 of a wastewater was determined to be 250 mg/L. If the reaction coefficient was 0.23 l/d, calculate i) ultimate BOD, ii) BOD3 and iii) BOD remaining at 3 days Q5. a) What is seeding process in BOD measurement? b) Explain preparation of seed material. c) What materials can be used to seed a BOD sample Q6. What is the significance of dissolved oxygen ? Q7. a) With regard to precision, ten percent duplicate or replicate samples should be run. This would result in one duplicate sample or one replicate sample being run every ten samples. Differentiate replicate and duplicate sample b) When are DO levels at their highest and their lowest and why?

Bench sheet

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND ( BOD)


Analyst: Date: Time :

Sample Details: Source:

pH

Pretreatment: Alkalinity/Acidity Sample Volume : __________mL I N NaoH : __________mL I N N2SO4:__________mL Comments:

Sample Type

Sample ID

Volume Sample ( mL)

Dilution Factor

Initial DO (mg/L)

Final DO ( mg/L)

DO Depletion ( mg/L)

BOD (mg/L)

Blank BOD--Blank BOD--Blank BOD--Average BOD


( show the calculation)

Cancelled Data/ Result:

BOD__ BOD__ BOD__

= = =