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26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

College National University of Sciences & Technology Comparison of OFDM, SC-F DMA and MC-CDMA as Access

Comparison of OFDM, SC-FDMA and MC-CDMA as Access Techniques for Mobile Communication

Zohaib Shaikh Department of Telecommunication, I2CT, Mehran UET, Jamshoro Jamshoro, Pakistan

zohaibshaikh87@gmail.com

Waseem Mahar Department of Telecommunication, I2CT, Mehran UET, Jamshoro Jamshoro, Pakistan waseemmahar@yahoo.com

Ahad Jan Pathan Department of Telecommunication, I2CT, Mehran UET, Jamshoro Jamshoro, Pakistan

ahad.jan94@gmail.com

Abstract --a limited amount of bandwidth is allocated for wireless services. A wireless system is required to accommodate as many users as possible by effectively sharing the limited bandwidth. Therefore, in the field of communications, the term multiple access could be defined as a means of allowing multiple users to simultaneously share the finite bandwidth with least possible degradation in the performance of the system. There are several multiple access techniques.

In this paper, we have compared Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of access techniques such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Single- Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) and Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC- CDMA) that are used in uplink and downlink channels for wireless communication. Through our analysis, we will be able to conclude, on the basis of BER results, which of the Access techniques are better for uplink and downlink for wireless communication. (Abstract)

Keywords-components; OFDM, SC-FDMA,

MC-CDMA, BER (keywords)

I.

INTRODUCTION

The technique of multi-carrier transmission has received wide interest, especially for high data rate broadcast

applications. It provides the basic principle of transmitting data simultaneously through

a band-limited channel without interference

between sub-channels (without inter-channel interference, ICI) and without interference between consecutive transmitted symbols (without inter-symbol interference, ISI) in the time domain [1]. In multi-carrier transmission, the Fourier Transform is used for baseband processing instead of a bank of

sub-carrier oscillators.

The basic principle of multi-carrier modulation relies on the transmission of data by dividing a high-rate data stream into several parallel low rate sub-streams. These sub-streams are modulated on different sub-

carriers [2, 3, 4]. Since the amount of filters and oscillators necessary is considerable for

a large number of sub-carriers, an efficient

digital implementation of a special form of multi-carrier modulation, called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), with rectangular pulse-shaping and guard time was proposed [4]. OFDM can be easily realized by using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). OFDM, having densely spaced sub-carriers with overlapping spectra of the modulated signals, abandons the use of steep band-pass filters to detect each sub- carrier as it is used in FDMA schemes. Therefore, it offers high spectral efficiency.

26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

College National University of Sciences & Technology Another access technique called SC- FDMA. DFT-spread OFDM is

Another access technique called SC- FDMA. DFT-spread OFDM is a single- carrier FDMA scheme that guarantees a low PAPR. This is essential for the power

efficiency of the mobile terminal transmitter.

A certain amount of flexibility in resource

allocation and scheduling is achieved with

DFT-spread OFDM in the uplink.

Following this section, in section 2, the basic principles of single-carrier and multi-carrier transmission are outlined. Section 3 presents the mathematical model

of the systems under consideration in this

paper. The simulations results are discussed

in section 4, and finally some conclusions

are drawn in section 4.

II. SINGLE-CARRIER TRANSMISSION & MULTI-CARRIER TRANSMISSION

High data rate requires smaller symbol period, however, if symbol period is less than delay spread then we have ISI. Therefore, we have limited data rate with single carrier transmission. Having multiple carriers and making the symbol period on each carrier higher than the delay spread of the channel effective rate will be high because we are using multiple carriers (serial to parallel conversion) [1]. This is similar to FDM where we use different carriers in non-overlapping frequency bands bands that degrade the spectral efficiency. This problem of poor spectral efficiency can be resolved using OFDM, due to the orthogonality property of the carriers we place them as close as possible ensuring bandwidth efficiency. Compared to conventional SC (Single-Carrier), MC (Multi-Carrier) offers higher spectral efficiency by avoiding the need for large guard bands between users' signals. The main advantages of multi-carrier transmission are its robustness in frequency selective fading channels and, in particular, the reduced signal processing complexity by equalization in the frequency domain.

complexity by equalization in the frequency domain. Figure 1. Shows orthogonality of sub- carriers To take

Figure 1. Shows orthogonality of sub- carriers

To take the advantages of both multi-carrier modulation and the flexibility offered by the spread spectrum technique, both techniques can be combined known as Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS). This has introduced new multiple access scheme called MC-CDMA. The basic MC-CDMA signal is generated by a serial concatenation

of classical DS-CDMA and OFDM. Multi-

carrier modulation and multi-carrier spread spectrum are today considered potential candidates to fulfill the requirements of next-generation (4G) high speed wireless multimedia communications systems, where spectral efficiency and flexibility are considered as the most important criteria for

the choice of the air interface.

III. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

The

transmitter

and

receiver

of

OFDM, SC-FDMA and MC-CDMA are shown in figure 2, 3 and 4 respectively. OFDM is actually a template of MC-CDMA

and SC-FDMA. In this paper, main differences and performance of these systems are focused.

A communication system with multi-carrier

modulation transmits Nc complex-valued

,Nc 1, in

parallel on to Nc sub-carriers. The source symbols may, for instance, be obtained after

source symbols1 Sn, n = 0,

26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

College National University of Sciences & Technology source and channel coding, interleaving, and symbol

source and channel coding, interleaving, and symbol mapping. The source symbol duration Td of the serial data symbols results after serial-to-parallel conversion in the OFDM symbol duration

Ts NcTd

(1)

The principle of OFDM is to modulate the Nc sub-streams on sub-carriers with a spacing of

Fs T

(2)

in order to achieve orthogonality between

the signals on the Nc sub-carriers, presuming a rectangular pulse shaping.

TheNc parallel modulated source symbols

,Nc 1, are referred to as an

OFDM symbol. The complex envelope of an OFDM symbol with rectangular pulse

shaping has the form

Sn, n = 0,

x t Sne π ,

N

(3)

A key advantage of using OFDM is that

multi-carrier modulation can be implemented in the discrete domain by using an IDFT, or a more computationally efficient IFFT. When sampling the complex envelope x(t ) of an OFDM symbol with rate

1/Td the samples are

xv

N

where

N

Sne π

N

,

(4)

v 0,1,2 … , Nc 1.

, Nc

1, is the IDFT of the source symbol

, Nc 1. The block

diagram of a multi-carrier modulator employing OFDM based on an IDFT and a

multi-carrier demodulator employing

The sampled sequence xv, v = 0,

sequence Sn, n = 0,

inverse OFDM based on a DFT is illustrated in Figure 2.

When the number of sub-carriers increases, the OFDM symbol duration Ts becomes large compared to the duration of the impulse response τmax of the channel, and the amount of ISI reduces. However, to completely avoid the effects of ISI and thus, to maintain the orthogonality between the signals on the sub-carriers, i.e. to also avoid ICI, a guard interval of duration

Tg rmax

(5)

has to be inserted between adjacent OFDM symbols. The guard interval is a cyclic extension of each OFDM symbol, which is obtained by extending the duration of an OFDM symbol to

Ts Tg Ts

(6)

The discrete length of the guard interval has to be

Lg N

T

(7)

samples in order to prevent ISI. The sampled sequence with cyclic extended guard interval results in

xv

N

N

where

Sne π /N ,

v Lg … , Nc 1.

(8)

The output of the channel, after RF down- conversion, is the received signal waveform y(t ) obtained from convolution of x(t ) with the channel impulse response h(τ , t) and addition of a noise signal n(t ), i.e.

y t x t r h r, t dr n t (9)

26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

College National University of Sciences & Technology The received signal y(t ) is passed through an

The received signal y(t ) is passed through an analogue-to-digital converter, whose

output sequence yv, v = Lg,

the received signal y(t ) sampled at rate 1/Td . Since ISI is only present in the first Lg samples of the received sequence, these Lg samples are removed before multi-carrier demodulation. The ISI-free part v = 0, ,Nc 1, of yv is multi-carrier demodulated by inverse OFDM exploiting a DFT. The output of the DFT is the multi-carrier

, Nc

1, consisting of Nc complex-valued symbols

demodulated sequence Rn, n = 0,

,Nc 1, is

Rn

N

yve π /N ,

(10)

Since ICI can be avoided due to the guard interval, each sub-channel can be considered separately. Furthermore, when assuming that the fading on each sub-channel is flat and ISI is removed, a received symbol Rn is obtained from the frequency domain representation.

where

Rn HnSn Nn,

(11)

n 0,1,2, … , Nc 1

where Hn is the flat fading factor and Nn represents the noise of the nth sub-channel. The flat fading factor Hn is the sample of the channel transfer function Hn,i according to Equation (11) where the time index i is omitted for simplicity. The variance of the noise is given by

б E |Nn|

(12)

The following matrix–vector notation is introduced to describe multi-carrier systems concisely. Vectors are represented by boldface small letters and matrices by boldface capital letters. The symbol (·) T denotes the transposition of a vector or a matrix. The complex-valued source symbols

Sn,

parallel

represented by the vector

n

=

0,

in

.

.

.

,

one

Nc

1,

OFDM

S s ,s ,…,s N T

transmitted in

are

symbol,

(13)

The Nc × Nc channel matrix

H= H

0

H N ,N

0

(14)

is of the diagonal type in the absence of ISI and ICI. The diagonal components of H are the complex-valued flat fading coefficients assigned to the Nc sub-channels. The vector

n N ,N ,…,N N T (15)

represents the additive noise. The received symbols obtained after inverse OFDM are given by the vector

r R ,R ,…,R N T (16)

The block diagram of OFDM is shown in figure 2. User generates the serial data stream which is then M-ary Phase Shift Keying (either Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or any other) modulated. After converting the modulated data into parallel streams, are mapped onto the subcarriers. Since all these operations have been taken into frequency domain, eventually IFFT is taken to convert into time domain that is to be transmitted into medium. Receiver of OFDM is just a replica of transmitter.

The block diagram of SC-FDMA is shown in figure 3. In SC-FDMA, we have taken DFT before OFDM operation is performed so it is also called DFT-spread OFDM. DFT-spread OFDM guarantees low PAPR. This is essential for the power efficiency of the mobile terminal transmitter. A certain amount of flexibility in resource allocation and scheduling is achieved with DFT-spread OFDM in the uplink. PAPR of

26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

College National University of Sciences & Technology SC-FDMA is much lower because of single carrier

SC-FDMA is much lower because of single carrier transmission.

In order to achieve MC-CDMA, the basic template of OFDM is changed. The block diagram of MC-CDMA is shown in the figure 4. The M-ary Phase Shift Keying (either Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or any other) modulated streams are spread by SF factor. So energy of data stream is spread over wide spectrum due to this reason, transmitted MC-CDMA’s signal have lower PAPR. However, in the receiver, combiner is used to combine the EbNodB of repeated data bits (repeated data by factor of SF). Therefore, at the receiver, repeated data bits are combined to increase the SNR that results in lower BER. Also, it is noted that OFDM provides lower BER than SC- FDMA.

User Rx data MPSK MPSK Serial to Demod parallel converter Parallel to serial converter OFDM
User
Rx data
MPSK
MPSK
Serial to
Demod
parallel
converter
Parallel to
serial
converter
OFDM
(IFFT)
Equalizer
AWG
Inverse
OFDM
(FFT)
Rayleig

Figure 2: OFDM block diagram

Rx data MPSK Demod Parallel to serial converter
Rx data
MPSK Demod
Parallel to
serial
converter
M ‐ point (IFFT) Equalizer Inverse OFDM (FFT)
M ‐ point
(IFFT)
Equalizer
Inverse
OFDM
(FFT)

Figure 3: SC-FDMA block diagram

IV. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

In this section, in order to measure the BER performance of OFDM, SC-FDMA and MC-CDMA, we have considered the parameters shown in table 1.

Since FFT sampling frequency is 20MHz, so FFT size is Sampling FFT frequency times data symbol duration= FFT size=20e6*3.0e- 6=64. Similarly, no. of cyclic prefix is Sampling frequency times cyclic prefix duration=CP=0.8e-6*20e6=16. BER of stated access techniques are simulated by using these parameters. Parameters and simulation results are shown in below.

26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

College National University of Sciences & Technology User Rx data MPSK MPSK Demod Spreader De‐ spreader
User Rx data MPSK MPSK Demod Spreader De‐ spreader Serial to parallel Combiner converter Equalizer
User
Rx data
MPSK
MPSK Demod
Spreader
De‐ spreader
Serial to
parallel
Combiner
converter
Equalizer
OFDM
(IFFT)
Inverse
OFDM
(FFT)
AWGN
Rayleigh

Figure 4: MC-CDMA block diagram

Parameter

Value

`FFT size.

64

FFT Sampling frequency

20MHz

Data Subcarrier

52

Cyclic prefix duration, Tcp

0.8us

Data symbol duration, Td

3.2us

Number of Cyclic Prefix

16

Total subcarriers

80

Table 1: Parameters used in simulation

Figure 5 actually shows BER performance of OFDM, SC-FDMA and MC-CDMA with QPSK modulation. Graph clearly shows BER and Eb/No values.

BER QPSK MC-CDMA,SC-FDMA,OFDM with 6-tap Rayleigh 0 10 MC-CDMA SC-FDMA X: 2 OFDM Y: 0.07695
BER QPSK MC-CDMA,SC-FDMA,OFDM with 6-tap Rayleigh
0
10
MC-CDMA
SC-FDMA
X: 2
OFDM
Y: 0.07695
-1
10
X: 4
Y: 0.03677
X: 2
X: 6
Y: 0.06609
Y: 0.01237
X: 4
-2
10
Y: 0.02773
X: 8
Y: 0.003724
X: 6
Y: 0.008672
X: 8
-3
10
X: 2
Y: 0.002552
Y: 0.001719
X: 4
Y: 0.0008073
X: 6
Y: 0.0004948
X: 8
-4
10
Y: 0.0002604
-5
10
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Bit Error Rate

Eb/No, dB

Figure 5: BER of OFDM, SC-FDMA and

MC-CDMA with QPSK

BER 16PSK MC-CDMA,SC-FDMA,OFDM with 6-tap Rayleigh 0 10 X: 2 X: 4 Y: 0.2439 X:
BER 16PSK MC-CDMA,SC-FDMA,OFDM with 6-tap Rayleigh
0
10
X: 2
X: 4
Y: 0.2439
X: 6
Y: 0.1955
Y: 0.1485
X: 8
Y: 0.09801
X: 2
-1
10
X: 4
Y: 0.2395
X: 6
Y: 0.187
Y: 0.1359
X: 8
Y: 0.08353
X: 2
Y: 0.03973
-2
10
X: 4
Y: 0.01637
X: 6
Y: 0.006862
X: 8
-3
10
Y: 0.002617
-4
10
MC-CDMA
SC-FDMA
OFDM
-5
10
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Bit Error Rate

Eb/No, dB

Figure 6: BER of OFDM, SC-FDMA and

MC-CDMA with 16PSK

Figure 6 shows BER performance of OFDM, SC-FDMA and MC-CDMA with 16PSK modulation. Through these graphs we can easily judge the performance of OFDM, SC-FDMA and MC-CDMA.

26 th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences &

26th IEEEP Students’ Seminar 2011 Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

V.

CONCLUSIONS

Figure 5 and 6 show BER values for stated multiple access techniques with QPSK and 16PSK modulation schemes respectively. However, MC-CDMA provides lower BER than OFDM and SC- FDMA. Reason is that, in MC-CDMA combiner is used at the receiver. We know that in MC-CDMA MPSK user’s modulated data spread over wider bandwidth with respect to SF (Spreading Factors) as shown in figure 4. Therefore, at the receiver, repeated data bits are combined to increase the SNR that results in lower BER. Also, it is noted that OFDM provides lower BER than SC-FDMA. So OFDM performance is better than SC-FDMA. But MC-CDMA performance is better than both OFDM and SC-FDMA. The authors intend to extend this research by working on PAPR evaluation and reduction of stated multiple access techniques.

REFERENCES

[1]

K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier

[2]

and Spread Spectrum Systems. John Wiley and Sons, 2003. Alard M. and Lassalle R., “Principles of

[3]

modulation and channel coding for digital broadcasting for mobile receivers,” European Broadcast Union Review, no. 224, pp. 47–69, Aug. 1987. Bingham J. A. C., “Multicarrier

[4]

modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 28, pp. 5–14, May 1990. Cimini L. J., “Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 33, pp. 665–675, July 1985.

orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 33, pp. 665–675, July 1985.