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Introduction to HPTLC Methods of Analysis for Drugs Thin layer chromatography (TLC); also know as planar c h r o m a t o g r a p h y o r f l a t b e d chromatography is like

all other chromatographic techniques, a multi-stage distribution process.H P T L C i s t h e m o s t s i m p l e s e p a r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e t o d a y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a n a l y s t . I t c a n b e considered a time machine that can speed your work and allows you to do many things at a timeusually not possible with other analytical techniques.
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TLC / HPTLC are often found more troublesome than GLC / HPLC as quantitative TLC is anoff-line technique, hence automation is difficult and because of its open character, is highl

Reversed phase : Stationary phase is non polar, Mobile phase is polar, Polar compounds eluted first because of lower affinity with stationary phase, Non-Polar compounds retained because of higher affinity with the stationary phase. Pre- conditioning (Chamber saturation): Un- saturated chamber causes high R F values,

Saturated chamber by lining with filter paper for 30 minutes prior to d e v e l o p m e n t - uniform distribution of solvent vapours - less solvent for the sample to travel- lower R F values. Chromatographic development and drying: After development, the plate and mobile phase is removed from the plate t o a v o i d contamition of lab atmosphere, Dry in vacuum desicator (avoid hair drier) because essential oil c o m p o n e n t s m a y evaporate. Detection and visualization: Detection under UV light is first choice- non destructive, Spots of fluorescent compounds can be seen at 254 nm (short wave length) or at 366 nm(long wave length), Spots of non fluorescent compounds like ethambutol, dicylomine etc-dipping the plates in0.1 % iodine solution, When individual component does not respond to UVd e r i v a t i s a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r detection. Quantification: Sample and standard should be chromatographed on same plate -after d e v e l o p m e n t chromatogram is scanned, Camag TLC scanner III scan the chromatogram in reflectance or in transmittance mode by absorbance or by fluorescent mode-scanning speed selectable up to 100 mm / s spectra recording is fast-36 tracks with up to 100 peak windows can be evaluated, Calibration of single and multiple levels with linear or non-linear regressions are possiblewhen target values are to be verified such as stability testing and dissolution profile, single level calibration is suitable, Statistics such as RSD or CV report automatically, Concentration of analyte in the sample is calculated by considering the sample initiallytaken and dilution factors. Documentation: E-Merck introduced plates with imprinted identification code, supplier n a m e , i t e m number, batch number and individual plate number,

Avoid manipulation of data at any stage, All work performed is documentated in a project worksheet. Parameters that are affected by the changes in chromatographic conditions are: Retention factor ( R F ), Peak purity.

S e l e c t i o n o f c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c l a ye r Sample and standard preparation Layer pre-washing Layer pre-conditioning Application of sample and standard Chromatographic development Detection of spots S c a n n i n g Documentation of chromatic plate

When individual component does not respond to UV d e r i v a t i s a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r detection. Quantification: Sample and standard should be chromatographed on same plate -after d e v e l o p m e n t chromatogram is scanned, Camag TLC scanner III scan the chromatogram in reflectance or in transmittance mode by absorbance or by fluorescent mode -scanning speed selectable up to 100 mm / s spectra recording is fast-36 tracks with up to 100 peak windows can be evaluated, Calibration of single and multiple levels with linear or non-linear regressions are possiblewhen target values are to be verified such as stability testing and dissolution profile, single level calibration is suitable, Statistics such as RSD or CV report automatically, Concentration of analyte in the sample is calculated by considering the sample initiallytaken and dilution factors. Documentation: E-Merck introduced plates with imprinted identification code, supplier n a m e , i t e m number, batch number and individual plate number, Avoid manipulation of data at any stage, All work performed is documentated in a project worksheet. Parameters that are affected by the changes in chromatographic conditions are: Retention factor ( R F ),

Peak purity.

1. Retention factor ( R F ): Retention factor ( R F ) is defined as the amount of separation due to thesolvent migration through the sorbent layer as shown in the formula. It depends on time of development and velocity coefficient or solvent front velocity.Migration distance of substance R F = ----------------------------------------------------------------Migration distance of solvent front from origin 2. Peak purity: The null hypothesis these spectra are identical can in this case (purity) wi tht w o sided significance. During the purity test the spectrum taken at the first p e a k s l o p e i s correlated with the spectrum of peak maximum [r (s, m)] and the correlation of the spectra takenat the peak maximum with the one from the down slope or peak end [r (m, e)] which is used asa reference spectra for statistical calculation. An error probability of 1 % only be rejected if thetest value is greater than or equal to 2.576. F ig. 7: Schematic procedure for HPTLC [12] HPTLC Method design and development [14] S e t t h e a n a l yt i c a l o b j e c t i v e f i r s t t h a t m a y b e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o r q u a l i t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r separation of two components/multicomponent mixtures or optimization of analysis time before