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Is defined as an electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than UV radiation produced by the bombardment of atoms by high energy electrons in x-rays

xtube.

UNIT 13: X-RAYS


discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Rontgen in 1895.
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13.1 Properties of X-rays


Its properties are x-rays travel in straight lines at the speed of light. light x-rays cannot be deflected by electric or magnetic fields. (This is convincing evidence that fields they are uncharged or neutral particles) particles x-rays can be diffracted by the crystal lattice if the spacing between two consecutive planes of atoms approximately equal to its wavelength. x-rays affect photographic film. film x-rays can produce fluorescence and photoelectric emission. emission x-rays penetrate matter. Penetration is least with matter materials of high density. density
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13.2 X-rays Production


X-rays are produced in an x-ray tube. Figure 13.1 shows a schematic diagram of an x-ray tube. Tungsten target X-rays Evacuated glass (anode) tube

Cooling system

Electrons

Heated filament (cathode)

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Power supply High voltage source for heater Fig. 13.2a An x-rays tube consists of an evacuated glass tube to allow the electrons strike the target without collision with gas molecules. A heated filament as a cathode and is made from the material of lower ionization energy. a target (anode) made from a heavy metal of high melting point such as tungsten and molybdenum. a cooling system that is used to prevent the target (anode) from melting. 3

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a high voltage source that is used to set the anode at a large positive potential compare to the filament. When a filament (cathode) is heated by the current supplied to it (filament current If), many electrons are emitted by thermionic emission (is defined as the emission of electrons from a heated conductor). conductor These electrons are accelerated towards a target, which is maintained at a high positive voltage relative to cathode. The high speed electrons strike the target and rapidly decelerated on impact, suddenly x-rays are emitted. Less than 1% of the energy supplied to an x-ray tube is converted to xrays, the rest is converted to heat, so the tube is designed with a heat cooling system. X-rays emission can be considered as the inverse of the photoelectric effect. In the photoelectric effect, e.m. radiation effect effect e.m. incident on a target causes the emission of electrons but in an x-ray xtube, electrons incident on a target cause the emission of e.m. tube e.m. radiation (x-rays). (xThe radiation produced by an x-ray tube is created by two completely difference physical mechanisms refer to : characteristic x-rays. continuous x-rays (called bremsstrahlung in german which is braking radiation) radiation 4

13.2.1 Characteristic X-rays The electrons which bombard the target are very energetic and are capable of knock out inner shell electrons from the target atom, creating inner shell vacancies. When these are refilled by electrons from the outer shells, the electrons making a transition from any one of the outer shells (higher energy level) to the inner shell (lower energy lower) vacancies and emit the characteristic x-rays. Its energy is given by

E = E f Ei = hf

(13.2a)

Since the energy of characteristic x-rays equal to the differences in two energies level, thus its energy is discrete . Then its frequency and wavelength also discrete. Figure 13.2b shows the production of characteristic x-rays. hc High speed electron Electron in the shell Nucleus M L K

E2 = EL EM = hf 2 =

E1 = EK EL = hf1 =
vacancy

hc

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Fig. 13.2b

13.2.2 Continuous X-rays (Bremsstrahlung) Some of high speed electrons which bombard the target undergo a rapid deceleration. This is braking. As the electrons suddenly come to rest in the target, a part or all of their kinetic energies are converted into energy of e.m. radiation immediately called Bresmsstrahlung, that is Kinetic energy of the electron (K) = Energy of e.m. radiation (E) e.m.

1 2 mv = hf 2

(13.2b)

These x-rays cover a wide range of wavelengths or frequencies and its energies are continuous. Note: The intensity of x-rays increase : xwith the number of electrons hitting the target and therefore with filament current. current with the increasing in voltage across the tube because this increases the energy which the electrons hit the target and so makes more energy available for x-rays production.

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13.3 X-rays Spectra


Since there are two types of x-rays are produced in the same time in xray tube, hence the x-rays spectra consist of line spectra (known as characteristic lines) and continuous spectrum. lines spectrum At low applied voltage across the tube, only a continuous spectrum of radiation exists. As the applied voltage increases, groups of sharp peaks superimposed on the continuous radiation begin to appear. These peaks are lines spectra (characteristic lines) where it is depend on the target material. material Figure 13.3a shows the graph of x-rays intensity against the wavelength of emitted x-rays represented the x-rays spectra. X-rays intensity K

No x-rays is xproduced if

The area under the graph =the total intensity of x-rays K

Lines spectra (characteristic lines)

< min

Continuous spectrum

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Fig. 13.3a

0 min

1 2 3

Wavelength,

13.3.1 Characteristic lines The characteristic lines are the result of electrons transition within the atoms of the target material due to the production of characteristic xrays (section 13.2.1). There are several types of characteristic lines series :

K lines series is defined as the lines spectra produced due to electron transition from outer shell to K shell vacancy. Electron transition from L shell (n=2) to K K line K line K line

shell vacancy (n=1) Electron transition from M shell (n=3) to K shell vacancy (n=1) Electron transition from N shell (n=4) to K

shell vacancy (n=1) L lines series is defined as the lines spectra produced

due to electron transition from outer shell to L shell vacancy. L line Electron transition from M shell (n=3) to L

L line
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shell vacancy (n=2) Electron transition from N shell (n=4) to L

L line

shell vacancy (n=2) Electron transition from O shell (n=5) to L shell vacancy (n=2)
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M lines series is defined as the lines spectra produced

due to electron transition from outer shell to M shell vacancy. Electron transition from N shell (n=4) to M M line

M line M line

shell vacancy (n=3) Electron transition from O shell (n=5) to M shell vacancy (n=3) Electron transition from P shell (n=6) to M

shell vacancy (n=3) These lines spectra series also can be explained by using the energy level diagram as shown in figure 13.3b. n

EP EO EN EM
EL

L K K L L

M M

6 5 4 3

(P shell) (O shell) (N shell) (M shell) (L shell)

K
Fig. 13.3b

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EK

(K shell)
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These characteristic lines is the characteristic of the target material where for difference material the wavelengths of the characteristic lines are different. Note that the wavelengths of the characteristic lines not changes when the applied voltage across x-ray tube changes. changes 13.3.2 Continuous Spectrum (background) The continuous spectrum is produced by electrons colliding with the target and being decelerated due to the production of continuous x-rays (section 13.2.2). According to the x-rays spectra (Figure 13.3a), the continuous spectrum has a minimum wavelength. The existence of the minimum wavelength is due to the most energetic x-ray where the kinetic energy of an electron accelerated through the xray tube is completely converted into a photon of x-ray. This happen when the electron colliding with the target is decelerated and stopped in a single collision. If the electron is accelerated through a voltage V, then its kinetic energy is given by 1 2

K = eV =

When the kinetic energy of the electron is converted into a photon, thus

mv

eV = hf max =
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hc min

10

hc (13.3a) eV where V : applied voltage e : magnitude of the electron charge min =


From the eq. (13.3a), the minimum wavelength depends on the applied voltage across the x-ray tube and independent of target material. 13.3.3 Penetrating Power (quality) of X-rays The strength of the x-rays are determined by their penetrating power. The penetrating power depends on the wavelength of the x-rays where if their wavelength are short then the penetrating power is high or vice versa. hc Penetrating E = hc By rearranging eq. (13.3a) : = power eV increases

decreases

P=

X-rays with low penetrating power are called soft x-rays, those with high penetrating power are called hard x-rays.
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E t

Example 1 : An x-ray tube has an applied voltage of 20 kV. Calculate a. the maximum frequency and minimum wavelength of the emitted x-rays. b. the maximum speed of the electron produced the x-rays with maximum frequency. (Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s , m = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C ) Solution: V=20x103 V a. The maximum frequency of the emitted x-rays is

eV = hf max f max = 4.83 1018 Hz and the minimum wavelength is c = fmaxmin min = 6.21 1011 m
1 2 K = mvmax = hf max 2 2hfmax vmax = m vmax = 8.38 107 m s 1

b.

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Example 2 : The energy of an electron in the various shells of the nickel atom is given by the table below: Shell Energy (J) x 10-15 K L M -1.36 -0.16 -0.08

If the nickel is used as the target in x-ray tube, calculate a. the wavelength of the K-line. b. the wavelength of the K-line. (Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s , m = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C ) Solution: a. The wavelength of the K-line is

E = EK EL E = 1.20 1015 J (negative sign : emission) hc E = K K = 1.66 1010 m


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b. The wavelength of the K-line is

hc K K = 1.55 1010 m E =

E = EK EM E = 1.28 1015 J (negative sign : emission)

Example 3 : (exercise) Electrons are accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 10 kV in an x-ray tube. Calculate : a. the resultant energy of the electrons in electronvolt; b. the wavelength of the associated electron waves; c. the maximum energy and the minimum wavelength of the x-rays generated. (Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s , m = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C ) Ans. :10 keV, 1.23 x 10-11 m, 1.60 x 10-15 J, 1.24 x 10-10 m

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13.3.4 The Factors influence the X-rays Spectra Filament current : When it is increased, the intensity of the x-rays spectra also increased as shown in figure 13.3c. X-rays intensity

Fig. 13.3c : x-rays xintensity against wavelength graph (x-rays spectra) (x-

Initial Final

0 min
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1 2 3
No change

Wavelength,
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Applied voltage (p.d.) across x-ray tube: When it is increased, the (p.d.) xtube intensity of the x-rays spectra also increased, the minimum wavelength is decreased and the wavelengths of the characteristic lines remain unchanged as shown in figure 13.3d. X-rays intensity

Fig. 13.3d : x-rays xintensity against wavelength graph (x-rays spectra) (x-

Initial Final

0 fi
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1 2 3
No change

Wavelength,
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Target material: When the target material is changed with heavy material material (greater in atomic number), the intensity of the x-rays spectra increased, the wavelengths of the characteristic lines decreased aand the minimum wavelength remain unchanged as shown in figure 13.3e. X-rays intensity

Fig. 13.3e : x-rays xintensity against wavelength graph (x-rays spectra) (x-

Initial Final

0
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min

'11 22 3 3
'
'

Wavelength,
17

No change

13.3.5 The Difference between x-rays emission spectra and optical atomic emission spectra. is from the production aspect. X-rays spectra Optical atomic spectra is produced when the is produced when the innerelectron from ground state most shell electron knocked rises to the excited state. out and left vacancy. This vacancy is filled by electron After that, the electron return from outer shells. to the ground state and emits energy of e.m. The electron transition from radiation whose produced outer shells to inner shell the emission spectrum. vacancy emits energy of xray and produced x-ray spectrum. 13.3.6 Moseleys Law In 1913, Henry G.J. Moseley studies on the characteristic x-rays spectra for various target elements using the x-ray diffraction technique. He found that the square root of the frequency of K characteristic lines is proportional to the atomic number of the target element where its relationship shown : (13.3b) fK = a Z b

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where f K

: frequency of the K line; a,b : constant Z : atomic number of the target element

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From the eq. (13.3b), the graph of square root of the frequency of K characteristic lines against the atomic number is shown in figure 13.3f. 1

f K 10 - 8 (Hz 2 ) 24

Zr Fig. 13.3f

16

8 0 8

Cu Co Zn Cr Ni Ti Fe Cl K V Al Si

16

24

32

40

Moseleys law is considerable importance in the development of early quantum theory and the arrangement of modern periodic table of element (Moseley suggested the arrangement of the elements according to their atomic number, Z).

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13.4 X-rays Diffraction Braggs Law


X-rays being diffracted by the crystal lattice if their wavelength approximately equal to the distance between two consecutive atomic planes of the crystal. The x-rays diffraction is shown by the diagram in figure 13.4a. C R T

Fig. 13.4a

A Q

air crystal

d dsin From the figure, the path difference L between rays RAC and TBO is given by L = PB + BQ L = d sin + d sin L = 2d sin (13.4a) dsin
The condition for constructive interference (bright bright):
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L = n ; n = 1,2,3,...

(13.4b)

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By equating eq. (13.4a) and (13.4b), hence

2d sin = n
where

(13.4c)

d : separation between atomic planes : glancing angle (the complement of incident angle or diffraction angle) : wavelength of x - rays n : diffraction order = 1,2 ,3 ,... Eq. (13.4c) is known as Braggs law and the angle also known as Bragg
Bragg angle. Note : The number of order n depends on the glancing angle where if

is increased then n also increased.

The number of orders are maximum when glancing angle =90. =90 If n=1 1st order bright, the angle 1st order glancing angle If n=2 2nd order bright, the angle 2nd order glancing angle

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Example 4 : An x-rays of wavelength 0.36 x 10-10 m is diffracted by a crystal at an angle 4.8 (1st order). Calculate the distance between two consecutive atomic planes of the crystal used. Solution: =0.36 x10-10 m,=4.8 By applying the Braggs law, thus

,n=1

Example 5 : A beam of x-rays of wavelength 0.03 nm is incident on a crystal. The separation of the atomic planes in the crystal is 2.60 x 10-10 m. Calculate a. the glancing angle for first order. b. the maximum number of orders observed. Solution:

2d sin = n d = 2.15 1010 m

=0.03 x10-9 m, d=2.60x10-10 m

a. Given n=1 Using the Braggs law, thus b.


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n maximum when =90 , hence

2d sin = n = 3.31o

2d sin = n nmax = 17

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Example 6 : Intensity

A B(25 kV)

(x10-2 nm)

Curves A and B are two x-rays spectra obtained by using two different voltage. Based on the diagram, answer the following questions: a. Explain and give reason, whether curves A and B are obtained by using the same x-ray tube. b. If curve B is obtained by using a voltage of 25 kV, calculate the voltage for curve A and obtained the Plancks constant. (Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1 and e = 1.60 x 10-19 C )
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Solution: A=2.5

x10-11 m, B=5.0 x10-11 m, VB=25x103 V

a. For both curves, the characteristic lines spectra occurred at the same value of wavelengths. That means the target material used to obtain the curves A and B are the same but the applied voltage is increased. Therefore the curves A and B are obtained by using the same x-ray tube. b. By applying the equation of minimum wavelength for continuous x-ray, hc Curve A : A = (1) Curve B :

eVA hc B = eVB

(2)

By dividing eq. (2) with (1) :

By substituting the value of VA into eq. (1) :

B VA = A VB VA = 50 kV

h=
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AeVA c

h = 6.67 1034 J s
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13.5 Uses of X-rays


In medicine : x-rays are used to diagnose illnesses and for treatment. treatment Soft x-rays of low penetrating power are used for x-rays xphotography. X-rays penetrate easily soft tissues such as the photography flesh, whereas the bones which are of higher density absorb more x-rays. Hence the image of the bones on the photographic x- rays plate is less exposed compared to that of the soft tissues. Hard x-rays are used in radio therapy for destroying cancerous xcells. It is found that cancerous cells are more easily damaged by cells x-rays than stables ones. In industry : x-rays are used to detect cracks in the interior of a metal. metal X-rays are used to study the structure of crystal by using x-ray spectrometry since they can be diffracted (Braggs law). Bragg law

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THE END
Next Unit
UNIT 14 : Laser

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