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4. Describe the features of Windows CE, PalmOS and Symbian OS.

Features of Windows CE: High resolution colour/display, touch screen, and stylus keypad. Comples APIs, but gives the user a PC-like feel and Windows-like GUI. PIM, MS office, Internet Explorer features. CompactFlash card slot to extend memory and extension card slots. Built-in microphone for voice recording. A cradle, on which the handheld device rests, and connects it to a PC via USB port, Infrared or Bluetooth. Bluetooth and Infrared communication with other devices. Digital camera card. Games Microsoft Windows Media Player and other media players. ActiveSync for synchronizing mobile data with PC using USB port, IR port or Ethernet. High processor clock speed.

Features of PalmOS: Simple APIs compared to windows CE. OS memory requirement is low (16 MB). It needs lesser processor clock speed and therefore lesser energy requirements. PIM, address book, task-to-do organizer. SMTP(simple mail transfer protocol) email download, offline creating and sending POP3(post office protocol) email, Internet browsing functions. Windows organizer and PDA(personal digital assistant) Wireless communication including e-mail, Internet browsing, messaging and multimedia applications such as playing music. A cradle connects handheld devices to PCs. HotSync for synchronizing with PCs via serial port or IR port. Extension card slots. A display resolution of 256K colour touch screen. PalmOS devices can be integrated with GSM/CDMA cellular phones. Third party apps like games, travel and flight planner,calculators,graphic drawings, slide shows, etc.

Features of Symbian OS: Supports WLAN High-end security enhancement features. Graphics support including support for 3D drawing. Hindi and Vietnamese language support. Native support for Wifi and Push-to-talk. Low boot-time and improved memory management and performance.

High-speed data connectivity using EGPRS (EDGE). Advanced voice features like hands-free speaker phone and conference calling capability. Large storage which includes 80 MB of built-in memory and multimedia card (MMC) slot. Supports MS office formats and slide shows. PIM interfaces for applications like calendar, contacts, Microsoft Outlook express, IntelliSync wireless email etc., Internet connectivity for web browsing. PC synchronization feature. Includes Adobe Acrobat reader for PDF files. Supports HP mobile printing with compatible printers for wireless printing via Bluetooth.

7. What are the various constraints of working with mobile devices? Mobile devices are limited in various ways such as hardware limitations, quality of mobile service, security during communication and transmission, connectivity troubles, etc., We mention some of the constraints below:

1. Quality and security of service: The greatest challenge facing mobile computing is maintaining quality of service along with the provisioning of seamless access to all users. 1.1. Accessibility Smart labels on packages have limited access because their transmitted signals are low in power. An RFID access is limited and the transmissions require hotspot close by due to low signal strength. 1.2. Range

Signal strength is inversely proportional to square root of the distance from the transmission source. In addition, there is degradation of signal quality due to reflection, scattering and diffraction. Therefore, the access to a mobile device is limited to the range up to which the signal strength is such that it can be separated from the noise and up to which multi-path delays can be compensated for by digital signal processing techniques to restore signal quality.

1.3. Connectivity There may be connectivity loss or intermittent connectivity in certain situations. The atmospheric conditions and changes in environment may affect signal strength. Water has refractive index of 1.33 compared to air resulting in change in velocity of light to 2.25x108 m/s and subsequent attenuation of UHF and near microwave region frequencies. Hence, in the event of rain, there may be complete loss of connectivity. 1.4. Security Unsolicited ads and unwanted messages may be drop-delivered to a device. Virus attacks on mobile devices can cause a software crash or even corrupt the hardware. Hackers may hack into a device and render it functionless or threaten integrity and security of the data stored on the device. Noise signals transmitted by an attacker can jam a mobile device. Repeated transmission of unwanted signals by an attacker can drain the resource of the device. Energy resources are depleted when computations are forced and authentication algorithms are run repeatedly. 1.5. Mobility Non-availability of access point and other infrastructural issues restrict the mobility of a device. Non-availability of base station or Wi-Fi hotspots to provide connectivity in remote areas. Usage of different standards in different regions may limit the operability of the device. 2. Energy constraints in devices: All mobile devices have limited energy stored in their battery and therefore, they need to be recharged after short periods of time. Also, battery power is limited due to considerations such as size, weight and bulk of mobile device. Hence the following criteria needs to be satisfied in order to cope up with the energy constraints in mobile devices: 2.1. Mobile computing strategy 2.2. Processor design 2.3. Transceiver design and programming 3. Hardware limitations: All mobile devices face hardware constraints too. 3.1. Memory Most mobile devices do not support hard disk drives and CD drives due to size limitations.

Innovative and alternative memory devices like internal flash drives, card slots are used.

3.2. Bandwidth Availability of bandwidth is limited by the frequency spectrum that a regulator allots to a service provider. The service provider is not permitted to air signals at any random frequency and signal strength. The service must use the frequency spectrum efficiently and is affected by the technology used. Limited bandwidth may become an obstacle to seamless connectivity and quality of signals aired when a large number of mobile devices simultaneously demand network connectivity.