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OFFICIAL BUT UNFORMATTED

Management of Medical Emergencies


For all emergencies 1. Discontinue dental treatment 2. Call for assistance/someone to bring oxygen and emergency kit 3. Position patient:ensure open and unobstructed airway 4. Monitor vital signs 5. Be prepared to support respiration, support circulation, provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and call for emergency medical services

Condition

Signs and symptoms

Treatment

Drug dosage

Drug delivery* Oral

Allergic reaction Hives; itching; (mild or delayed) edema; erythema skin, mucosa, conjuctiva Allergic reaction (sudden onset): anaphylaxis Urticaria-itching, flushing, hives; rhinitis; wheezing/difficulty breathing; bronchospasm; laryngeal edema; weak pulse; marked fall in blood pressure; loss of consciousness

1. Discontinue all sources of allergycausing substances 2. Administer diphenhydramine This is a true, lifethreatening emergency 1. Call for emergency medical services 2. Administer epinephrine 3. Administer oxygen 4. Monitor vital signs 5. Transport to emergency medical facility by advanced medical responders 1. Sit patient upright or in a comfortable position 2. Administer oxygen 3. Administer bronchodilator 4. If bronchodilator is ineffective,

Diphenhydramine 1 mg/kg Child: 10-25 mg qid Adult: 25-50 mg qid1 Epinephrine 1:1000 0.01 mg/kg every 5 min until recovery or until help arrives1,2

IM or SubQ

Acute asthmatic attack

Shortness of breath; wheezing; coughing; tightness in chest; cyanosis; tachycardia

1. Albuterol (patients or emergency kit inhaler)

Inhale

2. Epinephrine 1:1000 IM or 0.01 mg/kg every SubQ 1,2 15 min as needed

OFFICIAL BUT UNFORMATTED administer epinephrine 5. Call for emergency medical services with transportation for advanced care if indicated Local anesthetic toxicity Light-headedness; changes in vision and/or speech; metallic taste; changes in mental status confusion; agitation; tinnitis; tremor; seizure; tachypnea; bradycardia; unconsciousness; cardiac arrest 1. Assess and Supplemental oxygen Mask support airway, breathing, and circulation (CPR if warranted) 2. Administer oxygen 3. Monitor vital signs 4. Call for emergency medical services with transportation for advanced care if indicated

Local anesthetic reaction: vasoconstrictor

Anxiety; tachycardia/ palpitations; restlessness; headache; tachypnea; chest pain; cardiac arrest

1. Reassure patient Supplemental oxygen Mask 2. Assess and support airway, breathing, and circulation (CPR if warranted) 3. Administer oxygen 4. Monitor vital signs 5. Call for emergency medical services with transportation for advanced care if indicated

OFFICIAL BUT UNFORMATTED Overdose: benzodiazepine Somnolence; confusion; diminished reflexes; respiratory depression; apnea; respiratory arrest; cardiac arrest 1. Assess and support airway, breathing, and circulation (CPR if warranted) 2. Administer oxygen 3. Monitor vital signs 4. If severe respiratory depression, establish IV access and reverse with flumazenil 5. Monitor recovery (for at least 2 hours after the last dose of flumazenil) and call for emergency medical services with transportation for advanced care if indicated 1. Assess and support airway, breathing, and circulation (CPR if warranted) 2. Administer oxygen 3. Monitor vital signs 4. If severe respiratory depression, reverse with naxolone 5. Monitor recovery (for at least 2 hours after the last dose of naloxone) and call for emergency medical services with transportation for advanced care if indicated Flumazenil 0.01 - 0.02 mg/kg (maximum: 0.2 mg); may repeat at 1 min intervals not to exceed a cumulative dose of 0.05 mg/kg or 1 mg, whichever is lower)1 IV (if IV access is not available, may be given IM)

Overdose: narcotic

Decreased responsiveness; respiratory depression; respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest

Naxolone 0.1 mg/kg up to a 2 mg1,2 May be repeated to maintain reversal.

IV, IM, or SubQ

OFFICIAL BUT UNFORMATTED Seizure Warning aura disorientation, blinking, or blank stare; uncontrolled muscle movements; muscle rigidity; unconsciousness; postictal phase sleepiness, confusion, amnesia, slow recovery Feeling of warmth; skin pale and moist; pulse rapid initially then gets slow and weak; dizziness; hypotension; cold extremities; unconsciousness IM = intramuscular 1. Recline and position to prevent injury 2. Ensure open airway and adequate ventilation 3. Monitor vital signs 4. If status epilepticus, give diazepam and call for emergency medical services with transportation for advanced care if indicated 1. Recline, feed up 2. Loosen clothing that may be binding 3. Ammonia inhales 4. Administer oxygen 5. Cold towel on back of neck 6. Monitor recovery Diazepam Child up to 5 yrs: 0.2-0.5 mg slowly every 2-5 min with maximum=5 mg Child 5 yrs and up: 1 mg every 2-5 min with maximum=10 mg1 IV

Syncope (fainting)

Ammonia in vials

Inhale

*Legend:

IV = intravenous

SubQ = subcutaneous

1. Hegenbarth MA, Committee on Drugs. Preparing for Pediatric Emergencies: Drugs to Consider, American
Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatrics 2008;121(2):433-43.

2. Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010;122:S876-S908 DISCLAIMER: This information is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all medications that may be used in all
emergencies.