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Welcome to 3.

091

Lecture 15
October 14, 2009

Introduction to Crystallography

Images by Inductiveload at Wikipedia.

The Big Picture

electronic structure Bohr atom Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum numbers Aufbau principle multielectron atoms Periodic Table patterns
octet stability bonding state of aggregation gas liquid solid 3.091

primary: ionic covalent metallic van der Waals secondary: dipole-dipole London dispersion hydrogen

solid: that which is dimensionally stable, i.e., has a volume of its own

classifications of solids: bonding type atomic arrangement

classifications of solids: bonding type atomic arrangement

Sn
1.40 1.62 16.31 3.67/7.7 11.50 C
o

white
Tetragonal
a = b = c, = = =90o

7.03 290.4

301.25

0.228 0.668

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Photo by Will Wysong on Flickr.

Figure 12.4 Figure 12.4

4 Lattice Types

Bravais Lattice

Parameters

Simple (P)

Volume Centered (I)

Base Centered (C)

Face Centered (F)

Triclinic

a1 = a2 = a3 12 = 23 = 31 a1 = a2 = a3 23 = 31 = 900 12 = 900 a1 = a2 = a3 12 = 23 = 31 = 900

Monoclinic

7 Crystal Classes

Orthorhombic

Tetragonal

a1 = a2 = a3 12 = 23 = 31 = 900

Trigonal

a1 = a2 = a3 12 = 23 = 31 < 1200 a1 = a2 = a3 12 = 23 = 31 = 900 a1 = a2 = a3 12 = 1200 23= 31= 900


a3

Cubic

Hexagonal

a2 a1

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Courtesy of National Academy of Sciences, U. S. A. Used with permission. Source: Caspar, Donald L. D., and Eric Fontano. "Five-fold Symmetry in Crystalline Quasicrystal Lattices." PNAS 93 (December 1996): 14271-14278. Copyright 1996 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

Figure 12.5

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.
Source: Fig. 12.5 in Averill, Bruce, and Patricia Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications. San Francisco, CA: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2007. ISBN: 080538039.

Figure 12.5c

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse. Source: Fig. 12.5 in Averill, Bruce, and Patricia Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications. San Francisco, CA: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2007. ISBN: 080538039.

Figure 12.10

Image by Eloy at Wikipedia.

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse. Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse. Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse. Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse. Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.

All M. C. Escher works 2010 The M. C. Escher Company The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

All M. C. Escher works 2010 The M. C. Escher Company The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

All M. C. Escher works 2010 The M. C. Escher Company The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

Figure 12.5a

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse. Source: Fig. 12.5 in Averill, Bruce, and Patricia Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications. San Francisco, CA: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2007. ISBN: 080538039.

All M. C. Escher works 2010 The M. C. Escher Company The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

All M. C. Escher works 2010 The M. C. Escher Company The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com

All M. C. Escher works 2010 The M. C. Escher Company The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com

a = f(r) or 4r = packing density

2r 4 a 3 a 0.5

4r/3 2 a 0.68

22r

0.74

3 1 1 4 3 2 2

1 8 x = 1
8 1 6 x = 3
2 = 4 lattice
points/unit cell

FCC

Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.
Source: Fig. 12.5 in Averill, Bruce, and Patricia Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications.
San Francisco, CA: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2007. ISBN: 080538039.

a = 407 pm

4r

a
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Fig. 5 in Aquaro, Donato. "Thermal Mechanical Analysis of a Solid Breeding Blanket."
Fusion Engineering and Design 69 (2003): 511-518. Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.

Houses at LEstaque
Georges Braque
1908

Courtesy of Rod Nave/HyperPhysics. Used with permission.

Courtesy of Rod Nave/HyperPhysics. Used with permission.

Colored Golds:
FCC with zest

pure Au
Cu(low)
Cu(high)
Ni Al In Cr yellow
yellow
pink white purple
blue green

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3.091SC Introduction to Solid State Chemistry


Fall 2009

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