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FLOOR HEATING ++ Lecture 2c

• Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D.

• Professor,

• International Center for Indoor Environment and Energy

15/02/2009

Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

 

1

RadiantRadiant surfacesurface heatingheating andand coolingcooling systemssystems

 

FloorFloor

WallWall

CeilingCeiling

   
   
 
   
 

ThermoThermo ActiveActive BuildingBuilding SystemsSystems

 

WindowWindow

 
Floor Floor   Room Room    

FloorFloor

 

RoomRoom

 
Floor Floor   Room Room    
 
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     

ReinforcementReinforcement

Reinforcement Reinforcement  
Reinforcement Reinforcement  
Reinforcement Reinforcement  
Reinforcement Reinforcement  
 
         
   
 
   
 

ConcreteConcrete

 

RoomRoom

PipesPipes

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Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

 

2

Determination of Heating and Cooling Capacity

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Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

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STANDARDS

prEN 1264-2, 2007: Prove methods for the determination of the thermal

output

of floor eating systems using calculation and

test methods

EN 1264-1, 1999: Floor heating: Systems and components - Part 1 :

Definitions

and symbols

EN 1264-3, 1999: Floor heating: Systems and components - Part 3 :

Dimensioning

EN 1264-4, 2001: Floor heating: Systems and components - Part 4:

Installation

prEN 1264-5, 2007: Heating and cooling surfaces embedded in floors,

ceilings

and walls Determination of thermal output and

cooling output

EN15377-1, 2007: Embedded water based surface heating and cooling

systems:

cooling capacity

Determination of the design heating and

EN15377-2, 2007: Embedded water based surface heating and cooling

systems:

Design, Dimensioning and Installation

EN15377-3, 2007: Embedded water based surface heating and cooling

systems:

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Optimizing for use of renewable energy sources

Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

4

SURFACE HEATING AND COOLING

Heat transfer coefficient 11,5 10,5 11,0 11,0 9,5 8,0 8,5 8,0 7,5 6,5 5,5 6,0
Heat transfer coefficient
11,5
10,5
11,0
11,0
9,5
8,0
8,5
8,0
7,5
6,5
5,5
6,0
7,0
Wall
Ceiling
Heating
Cooling
Floor

W/m 2 K

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SURFACE HEATING AND COOLING

 

Heat transfer coefficient

Floor heating and Ceiling cooling:

q =

8,92 (θ S,m - θ i ) 1,1

Wall heating and Wall cooling:

q =

8 (θ S,m - θ i )

Ceiling heating:

q =

6 (θ S,m - θ i )

Floor cooling

q =

7 (θ S,m - θ i )

Where

q

S,m

i

is the heat flux in W/m2 is average surface temperature is room design temperature (operative)

 

θ

θ

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SURFACE HEATING AND COOLING

Max. - Min. Surface temperature

45 40 40 35 o 35 C 30 27 25 20 29 17 15 17
45
40
40
35
o
35
C
30
27
25
20
29
17
15
17
20
Wall
20
Ceiling
Perimeter
Heating
Cooling
Floor
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MAXIMUM HEATING AND COOLING CAPACITY

160 165 99 72 99 42 0 42 42 Ceiling Perimeter
160
165
99
72
99
42
0
42
42
Ceiling
Perimeter

Floor

80

60

40

20

200

180

160

140

120

100 W/m 2

Wall

Heating

Cooling

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Universal single power function

(EN1264)

FLOOR HEATING

• CALCULATION OF THE HEAT OUTPUT W/m²

• System factor B will depend on type of system and type of pipe

System constant~ 6.5 - 6.7 Factors Temperature difference (Room - water) m m m TDu
System constant~ 6.5 - 6.7
Factors
Temperature difference
(Room - water)
m
m
m
TDu
Ba 
a
a
a
 t
B
T
D
u
w
Floor covering
Pipe spacing
Pipe diameter
Screed covering
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HEATING CAPACITY

• Floor covering a B , spacing a T , and covering a D factors in tables

• m T = 1- T/0.075

(T = Pipe spacing, m)

• m u = 100 ( 0.045 - s u ) (s u = covering thickness, m)

• mD= 250 ( D-0.020 )

(D = Pipe diameter, m )

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Table A.1 : Floor covering factor a B depending on the thermal resistance R ,B of the floor covering and the thermal conductivity E of the screed for type A and C systems

 

R ,B

           

(m 2 K/W)

 

0

0,05

0,10

0,15

 

E

 

(W/(m.K))

 

a B

 

2,0

   

1,196

0,833

0,640

0,519

 

1,5

   

1,122

0,797

0,618

0,505

 

1,2

   

1,058

0,764

0,598

0,491

 

1,0

   

1,000

0,734

0,579

0,478

 

0,8

   

0,924

0,692

0,553

0,460

 

0,6

   

0,821

0,632

0,514

0,433

NOTE : The floor covering factor a B may be determined with the following equation:

 

1

s

u,0

 

a

B

1

 

u

s

u

, 0

, 0

 

E

R

, B

where= 10,8 W/m 2 K; u,0 = 1 W/m.K; s u,0 = 0,045 m

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HEATING CAPACITY

FACTOR FOR FLOOR COVERING, a B 1.50 1.06 1.00 0.76 0.92 0.49 0.60 0.69 0.46
FACTOR FOR FLOOR COVERING, a B
1.50
1.06
1.00
0.76 0.92
0.49
0.60 0.69
0.46 0.55
0.50
1.20
0.00
0.80
0.15 0.1
0.05
0
0.69 0.46 0.55 0.50 1.20 0.00 0.80 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 m 2 K/W 15/02/2009 Bjarne

m 2 K/W

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COOLING CAPACITY

• Total factor for the following example

• 17 mm pipe

• 45 mm concrete above pipes

• Concrete ~ 1,2 W/mK

1 0,96 0,77 0,52 0,66 0,57 0,42 0 0,1 300 150
1
0,96
0,77
0,52
0,66
0,57
0,42
0
0,1
300
150

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,01

75

T, mm

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Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

R b , m 2 K/W

14

COOLING CAPACITY

• Cooling capacity in W/m²for the following example

• 17 mm PEX-pipe

• 45 mm concrete above pipes

• Concrete ~ 1,2 W/mK

• Space temperature 26 °C

• Supply water temperature 14 °C

• Return water temperature 19 °C

W/m

2

15/02/2009

50 46 37 40 25 30 32 27 20 20 10 0,01 0 0,1 300
50
46
37
40
25
30
32
27
20
20
10
0,01
0
0,1
300
150
75
T
mm

Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

R b

m 2 K/W

15

Heating/ cooling capacity, EN1264 and EN 15377

ALUMINUM HC device: Floor Heating & Cooling (type B), R=0.01~0.1, T=150 & 300

T=150, R=0.01 160 T=150, R=0.1 T=300, R=0.01 140 T=300, R=0.1 120 100 80 60 40
T=150, R=0.01
160
T=150, R=0.1
T=300, R=0.01
140
T=300, R=0.1
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Heat exchange [W/m2]

Heating/cooling medium differential temperature ΔθH=θH-θi [°C]

15/02/2009

Figure 4.17 Heat exchange between the surface (with ceramic tiles, wooden parquets or carpet R ?B =0.1 and no covering R ?B =0) and the space when aluminium heat conductive device used

Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

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Thermal resistance methods

Thermal resistance methods 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 17 Pipes embedded in a massive concrete layer
15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 17 Pipes embedded in a massive concrete layer 15/02/2009 Bjarne
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Pipes embedded in a
massive concrete layer
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Thermal resistance method

  q 1 R s 1 1  v R t  c R
 
q
1
R
s
1
1
v
R
t
 c
R
s
2
2
q
2

15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 19 Capillar tubes 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 20
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Capillar tubes
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Thermal resistance methods   R 1  v R t  c s 
Thermal resistance
methods
R 1
v
R t
c
s 
2
R 2

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Thermal resistance method

2   15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 21 Thermal resistance method 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen,
2   15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 21 Thermal resistance method 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen,
2   15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 21 Thermal resistance method 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen,

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Thermal resistance method

Thermal resistance method 15/02/2009 R i R HC R e Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 23 Thermal

15/02/2009

R i R HC R e
R
i
R
HC
R
e

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Thermal resistance methods

q i

K Δθ

H

H

W/m

²

H

K H

 

Hi

is the differential temperature of the heating/cooling medium

equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity

K

H

1/(

R

HC

R

i

)

W/m²

C

Total thermal resistance between the heat source and the conducting layer

15/02/2009

R HC

m² °C/W

T

T RT R   R R

R

R,con

2



U

CL

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15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 25
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Finite Element Method

15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 25 Finite Element Method 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 26
15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 25 Finite Element Method 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 26

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Laboratory testing

Laboratory testing 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 27 UNIFORMITY OF FLOOR SURFACE TEMPERATURE Maximum Mean

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UNIFORMITY OF FLOOR SURFACE TEMPERATURE Maximum Mean Minimum 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 28
UNIFORMITY OF FLOOR SURFACE
TEMPERATURE
Maximum
Mean
Minimum
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RADIANT FLOOR COOLING

RADIANT FLOOR COOLING 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 29 COOLING CAPACITY CALCULATED CAPACITY IN AN ATRIUM
15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 29 COOLING CAPACITY CALCULATED CAPACITY IN AN ATRIUM WITH DIRECT
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COOLING CAPACITY
CALCULATED CAPACITY IN AN ATRIUM
WITH DIRECT SUNSHINE ON THE FLOOR
148
155
129
135
115
107
W/ 2 m
95
75
55
35
15
25
20
15
Supply water temperature, o C
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Heating/ cooling capacity, EN1264 and EN 15377

ALUMINUM HC device: Floor Heating & Cooling (type B), R=0.01~0.1, T=150 & 300

T=150, R=0.01 160 T=150, R=0.1 T=300, R=0.01 140 T=300, R=0.1 120 100 80 60 40
T=150, R=0.01
160
T=150, R=0.1
T=300, R=0.01
140
T=300, R=0.1
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Heat exchange [W/m2]

Heating/cooling medium differential temperature ΔθH=θH-θi [°C]

Figure 4.17 Heat exchange between the surface (with ceramic tiles, wooden parquets or carpet R ?B =0.1 and no covering R ?B =0) and the space when aluminium heat conductive device used

15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 31 Diagram for 17x2 mm pipe 45 mm screed 
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Diagram for
17x2 mm pipe
45 mm screed
 = 1,2 W/mK
T water-average – t room
Pipe distance
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Floor surface temperature
Floor covering
Heat supply
Water Pressure drop Wa ert lf ow rate
Water
Pressure drop
Wa ert
lf ow rate

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The design supply water temperature is determined according to the room with the highest heat load or with the highest heat resistance of the floor covering.

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Calculation of the water supply temperature

Heat resistance of the floor covering R ,B = 0,15 m 2 K/W Pipe spacing 15 cm Design heat loss 80 W/m 2

From the dimensioning diagram

Difference between average water temperature and room:

 H = 28,9 K

Average water temperature:

HM = 20°C + 28,9 K = 48,9 °C

Temperature difference (supply-return) for the critical room: EN1264 = 5 K

Design supply water temperature:

Vdim = HM + /2 = 48,9°C +2,5 K = 51,4 °C

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80 W/m 2  FB = 27,3 °C 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 0,15m 2
80 W/m 2
 FB = 27,3 °C
15/02/2009
Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU
0,15m 2 K/W
°C 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 0,15m 2 K/W Diagram for dimensioning  H  H

Diagram for dimensioning

 H

HM

= 28,9°C

= 48,9 °C

Vausl = 51,4 °C

Boundary

conditions

S å = 45 mm å = 1,2 W/mK

36

DIMENSIONING AND DESIGN

• Pipe diameter

• Pipe spacing

• Pipe layout

• Water flow rate

• Pipe circuits

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rate • Pipe circuits 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 37 Kombizone 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU

Kombizone

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RL

VL

Perimeter and occupied space 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 39 RL VL RL VL Occupied

Perimeter and occupied space

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RL

VL

RL

VL

space 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 39 RL VL RL VL Occupied space 15/02/2009 Bjarne W.

Occupied space

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RL

VL

Cover as much surface as possible Possible solution
Cover as much surface as possible
Possible solution

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VL

RL

as possible Possible solution 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 41 VL RL 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen,

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15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 43 R L V L Joints in the concrete 15/02/2009

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R

L

V

L

15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 43 R L V L Joints in the concrete 15/02/2009 Bjarne

Joints in the concrete

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Example 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 45 Floor area Correction for covered surface Korrektur af
Example 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 45 Floor area Correction for covered surface Korrektur af
Example 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 45 Floor area Correction for covered surface Korrektur af
Example 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 45 Floor area Correction for covered surface Korrektur af
Example 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 45 Floor area Correction for covered surface Korrektur af

Example

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Floor area
Floor area

Correction for covered surface

Korrektur af Normvarmetabet Største varmestrøm Bad tages ikke med 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 46
Korrektur
af
Normvarmetabet
Største varmestrøm
Bad tages ikke med
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Tilslutningsledninger gennemgående 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU
Tilslutningsledninger
gennemgående
15/02/2009
Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU
gennemgående 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU Total rørlængde egen varmekreds 47 15 Forbindelses rör

Total rørlængde

15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU Total rørlængde egen varmekreds 47 15 Forbindelses rör 14 13 12

egen varmekreds

47

15 Forbindelses rör 14 13 12 11 10 9 45 46 47 48 49 50
15
Forbindelses
rör
14
13
12
11
10
9
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
Varmeafgivelse [W/m]

Dimensionerende fremlöbstemperatur [°C]

45 mm Beton, Ü = 1,2 W/mK

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15/02/2009

Vandstrøm:

Water flow

q

r

0,86

F

T

R

c T

T

F

T

R

q r : Vandstrøm l/h

c: Vands varmefylde Wh/kgC

Water flow

Specific heat capacity

Φ: Varmeydelse W

Heat supply

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Tryktabsdiagramdiagram for 17 x 2 mm rør
Tryktabsdiagramdiagram
for 17 x 2 mm rør

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Pressure drop 14 x 2 mm pipe Water Pressure drop Water flow rate
Pressure drop 14 x 2 mm
pipe
Water
Pressure drop
Water flow rate
15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 51 Valve position 5 1 / 4 14 15/02/2009 Bjarne
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Valve
position
5 1 / 4
14
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Valve position 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 53 INSTALLATION • Floor systems • Wall systems

Valve position

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INSTALLATION

• Floor systems

• Wall systems

• Ceiling systems

• TABS Thermo Active Building Systems

• Pre-fabrication

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1. 3. Screed-concrete 2. Pipe Plastic foil 4. Insulation 5. Acoustic insulation 6. PE foil
1.
3.
Screed-concrete 2. Pipe
Plastic foil
4.
Insulation 5. Acoustic insulation
6.
PE foil
7.
covering
8. Concrete slab
15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 55 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 56
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RadiantRadiant surfacesurface heatingheating andand coolingcooling systemssystems

FloorFloor

and and cooling cooling systems systems Floor Floor Wall Wall Ceiling Ceiling Thermo Thermo Active Active

WallWall

and cooling cooling systems systems Floor Floor Wall Wall Ceiling Ceiling Thermo Thermo Active Active Building

CeilingCeiling

systems systems Floor Floor Wall Wall Ceiling Ceiling Thermo Thermo Active Active Building Building Systems

ThermoThermo ActiveActive BuildingBuilding SystemsSystems

WindowWindow

Active Building Building Systems Systems Window Window 15/02/2009   Room Room        

15/02/2009

 

RoomRoom

 
  Room Room  
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
 
 
 
 
 
         
 
   
 
 

RoomRoom

PipesPipes

FloorFloor

      Room Room Pipes Pipes Floor Floor Reinforcement Reinforcement Concrete Concrete Bjarne W.

ReinforcementReinforcement

ConcreteConcrete

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Reinforcement Reinforcement Concrete Concrete Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 59 15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 60

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Calculation methods

1. Rough sizing method based on a standard calculation of the cooling load (accuracy 20-30%). To be used based on the knowledge of the peak value for heat gains (section 5.1)

2. Simplified method using diagrams for sizing based on 24 hours values of heat gains (accuracy 15-20%, section 5.2).

3.

Simplified model based on finite difference method (accuracy 10-15%). Detailed dynamic

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Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU
62
15/02/2009 Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU 63
15/02/2009
Bjarne W. Olesen, ICIEE-DTU
63