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:..

.. . - :
, 2005 . - 140 .
,

,
,
,
(A-PON, BPON, E-PON G-PON),
,
.
,
1997-2005 ..
,
, ,

.


.

,
.

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
2. A-PON
2.1.
2.2. ATM

2.3.
2.4. - QoS
2.5. - QoS
2.6. AAL
2.7. ATM
2.8. ATM
2.9. A-PON MAC
2.10. A-PON
2.11. MBS
2.12. A-PON
3. B-PON
3.1.
3.2. ONT
3.3. ONT
3.4. OMCI
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3.10.
3.11.
3.12. ONT
4. E-PON
4.1.

4.2. E-PON
4.3. E-PON
4.4. E-PON
4.5. E-PON
4.6. PMD
4.7.
4.8. E-PON
4.9. E-PON
5. G-PON
5.1. G-PON
5.2.
5.3. PMD G-PON
5.4. GTC G-ON
5.5. G-PON
5.6. G-PON
5.7. PON
5.8. G-PON PON
6.
7.

PC
(NT)
CTIO(IFpon)
(UNI)

- ;
- (Network Terminal);
- (Interface Passive Optical Network);
- (User-Network Interface)

CTM-N
()

- N;
- ( );
- ( ) (Service Node
(SNI)
Interface);

- ;

- ;

- ;

- ;

- ( );
()
- (Adaption Function);
- (Integrated Services Digital
(ISDN)
Network);
- (B-ISDN) - (Broadband-ISDN);
AAL
- ATM (ATM Adaptation Layer);
AK
- (Acknowledgement);
AR
- (Acknowledge Request);
AN-LT
- (Access Network Line Termination);
- (Asynchronous Transfer
ATM
Mode);
BW
- (Bandwidth);
CES
- (Circuit Emulation Service);
CPCS
- (Common Part Convergence Sublayer);
- (Cyclic Redundancy
CRC
Check);
- (Convergence
CS
Sublayer);
- (Coarse Wavelength
CWDM
Division Multiplexing);
DB
- (Destination Bit);
DBA
- (Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment);
-
DBRu
(Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream);
DSL
- (Digital Subscriber Line);
- (Dense Wavelength
DWDM
Division Multiplexing);
GEM
- G-PON (G-PON Encapsulation Mode);
HDTV
- (High Definition Television);
HN
- (Home Network);
LAN
- (Local Area Network):
LMI
- (Line Interface Module);
MAC
- (Media Access Control);
MAN
- (Metropolitan Area Network);
MIB
- (Management Information Base);
MT
- (Message Type);

NRZ
OAN
OAM
OMCl
ONT
QoS
PCBd
PDU
Plend
PLOAM
PLOu
PLSu
PM
PMD
Port-iD
Psync
RMS
RTT
SDU

T-CONT
TDMA

UAS
UPC
VC
VCI
VP
VPI

- (Non Return Zero);


(Optical Acces Network);
- (Operations, Administration and
Maintenance);
- (ONT Management and Control Interface);
- (Optical Network Terminal);
- (Quality of Service);
- (Physical Control
Block downstream);
- (Protocol Data Unit);
- (Payload Length
downstream);
- OAM (Physical Layer OAM);
-
(Physical Layer Overhead upstream);
-
(Power Levelling Sequence upstream);
- ,
(Perfomance Management);
- , (Physical Media Dependent);
- (Port Identifier);
- (Physical synchronization);
- (Root Mean Square);
- (Round Trip Time);
- (Service Data Unit);
- (Transmission Convergence);
- (Transmission Container)
- (Time Division
Multiplex Access);
- (Terminal Equipment);
- (Unavailable Seconds);
- (Usage Parameter Control);
- (Virtual Channels);
- (Virtual Channel Identifier);
- (Virtual Path);
- (Virtual Path Identifier);



(). ,
(Optical Acces Network) .

10
, .
, , , - ,
, - . ,
:
, , .

.

.

- , .. .
,

. , ,
( , ),
( ).
, ,
- () PON (Passive Opticai Network),
-. 3 !)
, , -
G.982 G.983.I,
13 : G.9S3.2, ..., G.983.10, G.984.1, ...,
G.984.4, 802.3 (3u, 3z, , 3ah).
,
,
-
: A-PON , ATM 155 622 /, B-PON , A-PON
( - broadcasting) , G-PON , A-PON
2,5 / (G - Gigabite), E-PON - , Ethernet.

-
() ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network) :
(ATM), Ethernet, (-)
.
- , ( )
.

,
.

:
1. ;
2. .
:
1. ( )
, ;
2. ;
3. , .

( ).

.
.
, )).
, ,
, ,
.

1.1
1.1 , :

(FTTH - Fibre To The Home) - (


);
(FTTCab - Fibre To The Cabinet) - (,
);
(FTTB - Fibre To The Building) - (
);
(FTTC- Fibre To The Curb) -
( ).

:
,

- () HFC (Hybrid Fibre Coaxial).
:

;
;
,
.

1.2 , :

, OJIO (OLT - Optical Line Terminal);


, (ONU - Optical Network Unit);
, (ODN - Optical Distribution
Network).

(
). (
, ), ;/
( , ) , , .
.
().
( ) (
, 1) / () .
,
.
(). 1.1.
(ONT - Optical Network Terminal) ,
, ..
ATM, () , Ethernet .

(FTTH) - (
)
(FTTCab) - (, )

(FTTB) - ( )
(FTTC) - (
)
-
-
- (
)
-
1.1.
,
, ()
:
) (
);
) ( )
( )
;
)
(

).
( .)
.

() (1).
1.2,
() (V).
() , ..
.
1.2 ()
( AF - Adaption Function).

. , /, /.
, Q3,
1.2.
1.3 ().
.
.

1.2

1.3
/ :
1. ,
;
2. ,
.

.
/
,
, \ .

1.3 :
1. , /, /
! ;
2. Q;m, - /
/
.

/.
, IIOC.
, 110C,
:
: ,
,
,
1310 1550 ;

;
:
, .

.
1.4.
, :
1. , - (booster);
2. 2 - (preamplifier);
3. - (line amplifier).

, ,
().
( )
, , ; ,
,
.

/' / ( 1.3).
,
(
, , . ..).

1.4
/
( 1.3 1.5)
/ /,, (. 1.3)
. :

;
,
45.104-97
( . )
( . )
;
,
45.107-97
( . 11)
( . )
.

1.5 ,
. j-
Lj
:
: hj : nj (1(>1,;> 1 );
Kj ();
().
Aj () j-
:
Aj= ctpCKj + aOBLj + mjaHC + anH lOlg*l/ ni
: apc () - ;
0(1/) - ;
() - ;
() - ;
I Olg () .

j- (.
- G.982):

: mdj -
( );
m,-j - -
;
maj
( j- )
() .
:

,
, / ( )
/ ,
:

,
;
.

1.5 -



;
;
,

;
;
;
;
;
;
..

/ --
T04fCa~K-TG4KC.
--
.
--
.
,
,
.
/ --
, , .
1995 .,
FSAN (Full Service Access Networks),

.
( 1.1).
A-PON - ,
ATM. ATM A-PON
155 /. : (622
/), ..

, - Broadband PON (BPON). B-PON, ,
- , Hthernet
. FSAN,
( 1 /) PON,
- G-PON (Gigabit PON).
, ,
,
IP, .
1.1

ATM PON (APGN),


Broadband PON
(B-PON)

Ethernet PON (EPON)

Gigabit PON (O-PON)

0.155/0.622

,
/

i.25

1.25 2.5

0.155/0.622

,
/

1.25

0.155/0.622/1.25/2.5

(,

, Ethernet,
);

-
Ethernet);

(,
.
Eihernct, );

IP;

PON
( WDM).
, , -,
, -,

,
.
1995 FSAN
,
ATM,
.
, .
ATM
A-PON, B-PON G-PON. ATM
Ethernet
. Ethernet ATM
:
Ethernet
, .
, Ethernet.
, Ethernet
:
1. 10 /;
2. Ethernet TERR 802.3,

;
3. IEEE 802.3Q,
;
4. DilTServ,
,
;
5. MPLS (Muity Protocol Label Switching)
, .
, Ethernet
. , Ethernet
,
IEEE
802.3.
2000 EFM (Ethernet in the first mile - Ethernet
), IEEE 802.3ah.
PON, Ethernet,
Ethernet PON (E-PON) 802.3.
( 2001 )
EFMA (Ethernet in the first mile alliance). EFM
IEEE, EFMA
. 2004
IEEE Std 802.3ah-2004,
EFMP (EFM PON) . EFMP - ,
- . E-PON.

1.2

1.2.1 -
- -
. :

,
;
,
;
,
;
, ,
, ,
(1260 - 1340 ) (1480 1580 ),
-;
,
.

( );
;

();
() ;
;
;
;
;
;
();
;
().

1.2.2

, ,
(),


().
, OP ,

.
,
, .
() , ,
.

() ,
, .
: ( coupler),
(star coupler), , .
( -) N
, 1.6, :
N .
N
() N
(), 1.7.
,
, ,
, 1.8,
.

- ,
.
1.9 ,
. 2 (
) ( ).

1.9
1.8.
\
( ), 12
- .
:
- (insertion loss, IL) -
( i ) (j)

- (return loss, RL; -


i-
( . ) (cipj)

(2)
- (passband)- ,
;
- (splitting loss, SL) -

. , N

(3)
- (splitting ratio, SR) - ,

-
,

, 100% .
, .., ()
(), ( )
( ):
- (directivity, D;) -
( )

i-oro
i-ro ( ()
,
(4)
- (isolation, 1() (
) i-ro
X,
,

(5)

1.2.3
()
. ( ) ,
0-20 ,
.
(Insertion Loss
Tolerance),
.
:
1. () ;
2. .

1.2.4
- () (
)
. ().
,
(),
,
, .
,
.
:

( );
,
( ) ;
;

,
( ) .

1.2.5

(1-2 ) ( 30 ) .
:

- ,
;
(operation wavlength range) - ,
;
(insertion loss) -
( );
(backword loss) -
( );
, (polarization dependent loss) -
- .

1.2.6

,
. ,
.
.
:
- lxN - ,
N ,
1.10;

- 2xN - , ,
2, 1.11;

- 2xN ,
, 1.12.

- 2xN - ,
I, 1.13.

1.13
:

;
;
;
() .

1.2.7
- ,
. , ,

.

1.2.8
,
,
.
.

1.2.9

/
.
() :

FC/PC - ;
ST - ;
SC - .

;
;
;
;
/ ().

1.2.10

() .
.

;
;
;
.

1.2.11

1.14 - /
.
1.14 / .
, , .

() () -
(-), ,
().
(-) ,

.
(), , , -,
-
, fi .
-, ,
,
-. , -


i- .
, .
:

( );
( );
( );
( );
( ).

1.3


64 / ().
( )
:

1 - , 2 ;
2 - , 32 ;
3 - , 64 .

, .
, ,
, 1.1.
.
( ) :

1 - , 4 800
, 200 ;
2 - , 4 800
, 100 .


1.2.
1.2
1

20

, ,
, 16
, 8

10

, ,
, 32
, 16

- 5 20 ;
- 10 25 ;
- 15 30 .

-, ,
5 .

1.3.1
, , ,,,, 0, ,
, 1.4, 1.5 1.6 1.3.

1.3
, /

155,52

622,08

155,52

,
1.3, 1.4 1.5 : - .

. -
G.652.
1.4

( )

155,52

155,52

1480-1580

1260-1360


NRZ
NRZ


(
)

45.104


,
,


(
),

32

32

1) 2)

-4

-2

-4

-2

+2

+4

+1

+3

10

10

()

-15

-15

,

,

1,8

5,8

- 20 ,

30

30

3)

,

( )

,
,

-20

-20

10-10

10-10

-30

-8

-33
-11

-30

-33

-9

-12

72

72

1.15 1.6
10

10

1.5

( )

622,08

622,08

1480-1580

1260-1360


NRZ
NRZ


(
)

45.104

32

32

),
1) 2)

-4

-2

-2

-2

+2

+4

+3

+3

10

10

()
,

-15

-15

1,4

- 20 ,

30

30

3)

,

( )

,
,

-20

-20

10-10

10-10

-28

-6

-33
-11
72

-28

-33

-7

-12
72

1.15 1.7
10

10

1.6

( )

155,52

155,52

1260-1360

1260-1360


NRZ
NRZ


(
)

. 1.16

-6

-6


(
),

32

32

1) 2)

-4

-2

-4

-2

+2

+4

+1

+3



, (
)

(-10) (-10)

10

10

()
,

-15

-15

5,8

5,8

- 20 ,

30

30

( 3)

,

45.104
RMS

0,02

0,02

( )

,
,

-20

-20


10-10

10-10

-33

-30

-33

-9

-12

-30

-8

72

72

10

10

-11

- 1), 2), 3) 1.4-1.6.


1)

/ /
20 .
2)

,
/ / 20
.
3)

- 20
45.104.


,
- 20
/

()

1.15
1.7
, / f1 f0 1() 2()
155.52/155.52

65

6,5

0,075

0,75

155.52/622.08

250

25

0,075

0,75

1.16

1.4.

,
,
19.10.98 . 187, . 1,2, 3.
, : ,
, ,
, ..
,
, - ..
: ,
(), 45.047.
, , /

.
- . :
1. , .. ;
2. , .. .

:
1.
2.
3.
4.

;
;
;
.

,
Q3 (
1.2).
(
), ( ) ,
.
.
F
PC, MT .
, ,
-
45.047.

2. A-PON
2.1.
A-PON ATM ( ),
.
ATM . ATM
,
, ,
, ATM
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
ATM
() ATM

.

2.2. ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM)

, ISDN.
ATM ,
.
, ATM, ,
:


(, ) , ,

;
,
.

ATM -
,
.
ATM 20-
. ATM
PNNI (Private NNI),
.
ATM ,
.25, PNNI.

2.3.
, ATM, , -
53 . ATM . 48
, - 5 .
,
ATM -

24 ,
(
) ATM.
, 53 , 155 /
3 .
, 125 .
,
. - ,
.

2.4. - QoS
ATM ,
, 4 ,

. ( -service class)
ATM.
, ,
. ,
,
. :

(Constant Bit Rate, CBR);


(Variable Bit Rate, VBR).

, ,

:

,
, ATM
;

,
ATM.

, ,
:

, CBR VBR;

; , ATM, -
(
).

ATM 2.1.
2.1 ATM

- CBR.


.
.
: ,
- VBR.


.
.
: , .

- VBR.

.

.
: ,
: frame relay X25, LLC2, TCP
- VBR.

.
D
.
: ,
(IP, Ethernet, DNS, SNMP)
X


:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Peak Cell Rate (PCR) - ;


Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) - ;
Minimum Cell Rate (MCR) - ;
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) - ;
Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) - ;
Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) - ;
Cell Delay Variation (CDV) - .

,
PCR, .


.
ATM
QoS,
. QoS ATM CTD, CDV
CLR. ,
, , .

ATM .
ATM,
(, )
. ATM
,
, -

. QoS.


QoS, , "Best Effort"
.
- Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR).
-, ,
ATM ,
. UBR , .

2.5. - QoS
, Ethernet Token Ring,
(Open Systems Interconnection - OSI). ATM
, .
ATM, ANSI, - ATM Forum,
:
1. ;
2. ATM;
3. ATM.

ATM 2.!,
ATM - 2.2.

2.2. ATM
ATM OSI.
ATM
OSI .

2.6. AAL

(ATM Adaptation Layer, AAL)


AAL1-AAL5, ATM
ATM .
. AAL
(Segmentation And Reassembly, SAR).
AAL (, ,
) () , AAL
, ATM,
ATM . AAL
-Convergence Sublayer, CS.
. , ,
,
( , ),
,
(.25, frame relay).
AAL ,
1... ,
, SAR AAL
( ATM)
AAL, ATM ,
48- ,
. AAL
AAL
.
AAL tie
. ,
AAL, - .
AALI
(CBR), , ,
. ATM
, . AALI
ATM 1 2 ,
47 46 .
, ,
.
, 125 ,

, 125x46 . ,
.
AAL1
.
AAL3/4 -
(VBR).
, ,
. AAL3/4
,

.
.
AAL5 AAL4 ,
,
.
AAL5 , ATM
,
. ATM AAL5
,
.
- ,
ATM, AAL.
( , )
, , , QoS.
ATM QoS: , -
.
,
.
QoS AAL
. -
.
ATM,
.

2.7. ATM
AIM
,
. ATM ,
ATM - (VPI)
(VCL). ATM
-
, -, -
,
(, -
). ATM ,
2.3.

2.3 ATM.
(Generic Flow Control)
.
. (Virtual Path Identifier, VPI)
(Vitual Channel Identifier, VCI)
I 2 . ,
(VPI) (VCI) .
(Payload Type Identifier, ') 3-
, , (,
). ,
- Explicit Congestion Forward
Identifier, IIFCI - , FHCN frame relay,
.
(Cell Loss Priority, CLP)
, DE frame relay - ATM ,
,
. , CLP-0
, CLP-1 - .
. (Header Error Control, )
, .
,
, ,
.
, ,
ATM,
, . ,
CTM-N ATM (
, , ,
), . ATM
5 , CTM-N, ,
ATM,
. ,
. , ATM
ATM ,
.

ATM VPI/VCI.
ATM -
.
VPI, VCI .

.
, .
ATM
VPI, VCI,
, VCI,
VPI .
.
ATM
Q.2931.
, Q.2931,
() . Q.2931
"-" (point-to-point) "" (point-to-multipoint). ,
, ATM
, .
"-" ,
.
,
.
ATM 20- .
, ISO 7498.

- .! 64, 1 AFI, 8 IDI
- (15 ), 11 DSP (Domain
Specific Part) :

4 DSP - High-Order Domain Spesific Part (HODSP), , ,


ATM,
PNNI, , CIDR IP;
6 - End System Identifier
(ESI), - ATM,
- IEEE;
1 ,
, .

ESI -
IEEE, 3 ,
- , .
ATM
. ESI-,

, ,
.
CALL SETUP Q.2931,
,
, QoS.
,

. ,
CALL SETUP
, , .

2.8. ATM


ATM
, (service categories) no
.
ATM,
AAL. AAL,
,
. ,
, AAL . ATM
UNf Q.2931
. AAL,
, '
QoS. AAL
.
ATM ,
:

CBR - ;
rtVBR - ,

;
nrtVBR - ,

;
ABR - ,

;
LJBR - ,
.


, , ,
ATM - ATM,
AAL.

2.9. A-PON MAC


() ()
, .
A-PON MAC.
, :

;
;
.

.
1)
- ,
- ,

.
, , .
PON
. ,
, .

. , ,
(RTT),
.
,
,
. , -
( G.983.I 0-20 ),
. , 2-10"1 /,
- 1
10 . 20 RTT 0,2 .
, ,
.

.
.
,
MAC ,
' . ,

, , .
,
.
, ,
-. ,
, 2-3 . PON
:

;
;

.

2)
-

. ,
PON .
- .
-
, .
.

ATM
( ).
. , ,
.
,
.
3)
, , ,
.
,
TDM , ,
. ,
ATM.
, ,
- .
.
10 / Ethernet 64 (8 ).

ATM ( ) .
A-PON ,
(clock phase alignment),
. ATM
,
.

2.10. A-PON
MAC A-PON :

;
, , ;

A-PON MAC /.
. ,
, ,
.
/ FSAN A-PON
. c - G.983.1.
2.4 A-PON
155/. 56 53 : 2 PLOAM + 54

56 ATM 53 .
52 ATM 56 MBS 56 ,
.

ATM - ,
PLOAM (physical layer operation and maintenance).
, 27 . PLOAM 26
, ATM. 54

/.
.

, PLOAM. A-PON
ATM. ATM
ATM. , ATM - 56 .
-
, .
, -
.
, ATM,
PLOAM

ATM, .
PLOAM 26 ? PLOAM
52 ATM - ATM
.

2.11. MBS
MBS (multi burst slot)
. .
8 -, ( 2.5).
PON 32 ,
32
MBS, . 64
MBS. 155 / 0,15 .
32 0,6 . ,
0,6 - -
. ,
.
PLOAM, ,
, , ,
0,6 RTT ( 20
RTT 0,2 ), 0,8 .
. - :
(3 ), ATM; ABR/GFR
VBR, 8 16 , ;
CRC (8 ).

2.5 MBS

2.12.
A-PON
- G.983.1 IV
A-PON,

ON c .
,
( ). PON,
, ,
PON .
G.983.1 .

- G.983.5:



( 2.6). 2xN.
;
PON,
( 2.7).
,
.

.
, .

.
.


.
, , ,
.
.
50 , ,
- G.983.5.
.

2.7.

3. B-PON
3.1.
B-PON A-PON
- G.983.3 ,

, , (triple play)
() .
B-PON : Fibre to the Home (FTTH),
Fibre to the Building/Curb (FTTB/C) Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTCab). ,
FTTH Fibre to the Business (FTTBusiness).
, ,
, .
3.1 B-PON,
1.
, 3.1,
, ONT
(OMCI-ONT Management Control Interface) , -
( ONT OLT
- ).
B-PON, A-PON,
ATM 2.
, OMCI.

3.2. ONT
ONT ( 3.2):

AN-LT (access network line termination);


UNI-LT ,
FTTB - , UNI ONT
;
ATM-Mux ATM /.

3.1 B-PON
- Terminal Equipment
NT - Network Terminal
HN -Home Network
ONU - Optical Network Unit
ONT - Optical Network Termination ODN - Optica! Distribution Network
OLT - Optical Line Termination

3.3. ONT

VP (Virtual Path), - VC (Virtual Channels),
ATM
.
, ATM.
OLT ONT ATM VP , ONT
OMCI . ATM VP
:

Q;
Service Node (SN) VB5.2 Broadband Bearer
Connection Control (B-BCC) .

, ONT ATM . ONT OLT


VC ,
, .. ONT
VPI (Virtual
Path Identifier). - VPI

.

, ATM
( )
(
).

3.4.
OMCI
OMCI (ONT Management and Control Interface) OLT ONT.
OLT:

ONT;
UNI ONT;
;

.

OMCI ATM OLT ONT


, ONT . OMCI
- ONT , ONT . OLT
ONT .
OMCI ONT ():

;
;
;
;

3.5.
,
ONT. :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

;
UNI - ;
CTPr-pons ATM;
Interworking VCC Termination Points (non-ATM UNIs only) - VCC
(Virtual Channel Connection) ( ATM UNI);
OAM flows - (Operations Administration and
Maintenance) ;
;
,
AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer) ;
service profiles - ;
traffic descriptors - .

ONT
OLT ( 3.3).


, .
,

, .

3.3
( )
, . ,
, , .
,
.
, , .

3.6.

ONT .
. OMCI
:

ONTb.i>on - ONT ,
ONT, .
, ONT
;
Subscriber Line Cardholder ONT.
.

ONT .
, UNI.
;
Subscriber Line Card - . ONT
UNI
.
ONT, OLT Expected Piug-in
Unit Type, .. . ,
/ ONT OLT, "Expected
Piug-in Unit Type" OxFF

(255), , "plug-and-play".
,
, .

. ONT ,
.
ONT,
OLT "Expected Plug-in Unit Type"
0x00 (0), .. no LMI (Line Interface Module)
. ONT
, OLT;
UNI -
ANI (Access Network Interface),
ONT. ONT.
NT . ,
(Management Information Base -
), ANI.
ATM UNI ONT,
.
/ ONT /
;
Ethernet UNI - Ethernet UNI
ONT, .
/ ONT /
;
CES (Circuit Emulation Service - ) UNI
- CES
UNI ONT,
.

/ ONT /
;
(Transmission Convergence) Adapter B-PON
, ATM
(, , ),
- , BISDN. ,
ATM
.
/ ONT / ATM UNI
;
VCC -
ONT, (, CES, IP)
(, nxDS0/DSl/DS3/E3/Ethemet). ATM
(nxDSO/DS I /DS3/E3/Frame Relay/Ethernet)
ATM . ONT
OLT.

CES :
pointer list - ,
,
:

- VP b-pon
Nx64 kbit/s
VCC.
.|.0 Nx64 kbit/s CES UNI
;
- VP CTPn.P0n
VCC,
CTP|j_|.ON CES UNI
.

Ethernet :
VP .n
VCC.
CTPB.n
Ethernet UNI .
CTPb_.n -
VP
ONT.
ATM (VP ONT)

VP CTPH-pon
-.
VP CTP1M>ON ,
QLT:

( )
VP *- -
(
VP .n ( ANI UNI) ATM VP
) ATM VP .

OLT:

;
.

, VP .n ATM. VP
VCC .
OLT , VP .n
, OLT .
POTS (Plain Old Telephone System -
) UNI -
POTS UNI ONT,
( , ).
/ ONT /
POTS.
.

,
,
.
ONT AM (Operations Administration,
Maintenance - ),
UNI. , Fia
( 3.4) .
ONT .
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
, .
, ,
(,
).

3.4 AAL
, .

. .

,

( ).

3.7.
ONT . ,
FTTBusiness ONT,
ATM. (Monitoring History 1_0\) :

1. UPC (Usage Parameter Control)


UPC
15 . ONTn-pow-
. OLT;
2. AAL I ( ATM, I: AAI.,
).
15 SAR (Segmentation and
Reassembly) CS (Convergence Sublayer)
. , .. Header Errors .
OLT,
VCC AAL 1. OLT;
3. AAL 5 ( ATM, 5: AAL
; ,
)
15 SAR (Segmentation and Reassembly)
CS (Convergence Sublayer)
. , CRC (Cyclic
Redundancy Check) - ,
.
, OLT,
VCC AAL 5. OLT;
4. Ethernet -
15
Ethernet.
.
OLT /
Ethernet UNI;
5. CES (Circuit Emulation Service) -
15
(DS1/E1/J1/J2) CES UNI.
OLT
/ CES UNI.
DS1/DS3/E1/E3/JI/J2.
- G.784.

.
ES (Errored Seconds) - , SES (Severely
Errored Seconds) - , . 10 .
SES , , UAS (Unavailable Seconds) -
.
, - (),
ONT
. ,
, .

.

-
, ATM
( ).
(Transmission Convergence) B-ISDN,
- 1.321.
,
ATM .
/ ONT / ATM UNI
.
AAL 2 CPS. ATM, 2: AAL
. AAL-2
. 15
AAL 2.
(CPSInPkts), .
OLT
VCC, AAL 2.
OLT.
Priority queueB.p0N -
ONT. VP CTPb-pon.
, .
/ /
.
: ONT,
- 32.
N-oro , ONT
. OLT
. OLT
, ONT OLT.
. , ONT .
. ONT OLT

. , UPC (Usage Parameter Control) -
. UPC
,
(QoS) .)
, ONT. UPC
VP/VC , ,
.
, UPC OLT .
PON MAC, UPC. MAC
ONT, . , CPE
(Customer Premises Equipment), ONT .
QoS .

, ,

, ,

,
.
,
.

(SEA - Service Level Agreement)
( , ).
SLA ,
, ,
,
,
( , ,
),
( ).
-
,
.

MAC Bridge (Perfomanc Management -


,
) -
MAC bridging,
Ethernet ONT.
ONT.
OLT /, /
MACBridgeServiceProfile.
MAC Bridge Port PM -
port bridging,
Ethernet ONT.
OLT / /
MACBridgeServiceProfile.
- 15

ONT. .
/ OLT /
POTS UNI.
- 15
VPC(Virtual Path Connection).
OLT.

3.8.
, .

( )
.
, ,
, . .
,
), .

3.9.

, .
, - billing.


, ,
.

3.10.

, ..
,
.
, ,
.
.


() - TMN (Telecommunication Network Management),
-, ISO, ANSI ETSI.

, ( ,
, , ),
. ,
,

, .
( 3.5).
:
1) (Network Element Layer, NE)
: , , , , . .
B-PON,
, .
2) (Network Element Management Layer) - .
.

.
.

.
.

3.5
3) ( Management Layer).
,
,
. .
,
.
4) (Service Management Layer)

, .
,
, .
, ,
, , . .

.

,
.
, ,
.
5) - (Business Management Layer)

, .
,
,
. -


.
(),

(), ,
.
,
. ,


,
.

3.11.

(flow-control) (recovery)
OMCI
stop-and-wait,
.
:
OLT , ONT,
, stop-and-wait
identifier,
. CRC (Cyclic
Redundancy Check) ,
.
.

.
.

3.12.
ONT
ONT
ONT
53- ATM. 3.6.
ATM
Header

Transaction
Correlation

Message
Type

Device
Identifier

Message
Identifier

Message
Contents

AAI.5
Trailer

(5 bytes)

Identifier (2
bytes)

(1 byte)

(1 byte)

(3 bytes)

(33 bytes)

(8 bytes)

3.6 ONT

.
ATM Header
VP1/VCI.
Transaction Correlation Identifier
,
. - OLT - (transaction, identifier)
.
.
0x0000, - ( ):

0 ;
1 - .

OLT ,
.
, OLT
. , ..
OLT ONT ,
ONT,
.
Message type
. ( 3.7)

8 ~ DB (destination bit) . OMCI


0.
7 - AR (Acknowledge Request) . ,
. , .
, 1,
- - , .
6 - (Acknowledgement) . ,
- . ,
- 1, - 0. 5 - MT (Message Type) ,
, :

0 3 - ;

4 3 ! . 3.1.

3.1

Create

yes

Create complete
connection

ATM VP

yes

Delete

yes

Delete complete
connection

ATM VP

yes

Se7

yes

Get

yes

10 Get complete
connection

ATM VP

yes

11 Get all alarms

yes

12 Get all alarms next

yes

13 MSB upload

MIB

yes

14 Ml upload next

yes

15 MIB reset

yes

16 Alarm

no

17 Attribute value
change

no

18 Test

ves

19 Start software
download

yes

20 Download section

'

21 End software
download

yes

22 Activate software

yes

23 Commit software

yes

24 Synchronize Time

OLT ONT

yes

25 Reboot

ONT, PON IF

yes

26 Get next

yes

27 Test result

no

yes/no
yes


Device Identifier
. ( - G.983.1)
0x0.
Message identifier
:
- . ,
, .
- 256.
.
-65 536.
- G.983.2.
Message contents.
. .
, .
. 0 -
, -
. ,
0x00.
:
1. Command processed success/idly - .
, .
, , , Get/Set/Test/Reboot
ONT,
.
2. Command processing error - . ,
ONT,
3), 4),...
3. Command not supported - . ,
(message type) ONT.
4. Parameter error . ,
ONT .
5. Unknown managed entity - . ,
ONT.
6. nknown managed entity instance
. , ONT
7. Device busy - . ,
, .. ONT
.

8. Attribute(s) failed or unknown - ()


. ,
ONT, /
, .
, / :
o optional attribute mask coding
.
;
o attribute execution mask coding -
.
/ .
ONT,

1,
ONT 0.
/ ONT,
0,
1.
AAL 5
(. 3.8):
1. CPCS (Common Part Convergence Sublayer - ) - User-toUser-Indication (CPCS-UU) - - CPCS.
0x00
;
2. The CPCS Common Part Indication (CPCS-CPI) - CPCS.
0x00
. CPCS-SDU. 0x0028;
3. CRC , 32
- G983.1. CPCS-SDU(Common Part Convergence SublayerService Data Unit) -
CPCS.

3.8 CPCS-PDU AAL 5

4. E-PON

4.1.
E-PQN
- 20
1 /.
,
,
.

,
. ,
. ,
,
().
. -
, , -.
- .
, -,
, .
- .

, :

,

, ;
,
;
,
;
,


;
,
, , ,
,
;
,
;
, ,
,
,

(FTTx).

4.2. E-PON
E-PON 4.1.

E-PON
( ).
:

- ;
;
;
.

, ,
, .
, , ,
.
E-PON -
.

4.3. E-PON


,
E-PON (, , ).

:
1. -,
. ,
- DS-1, DS-3, STS-1,
-1;
2. ,
/TDM ;
3. IP ATM ,
;
4. ,
.

4.1 E-PON
:

;
Ethernet ;
;
;

4.4. E-PON
E-PON
.
, ,
.
, (Ethernet, El ..). E-PON
, ,
.
, E-PON
CATV, , IP .
,
E-PON .
70%
FTTB 80% FTTH.
:

, El, DS-3,
IO/100BASE-T, IP
( );

, ,
:

;
;
Ethernet.

4.5. E-PON
Ethernet IEEE 802.3ah

(MAC), MAC ( IEEE 802.3) .
,
(PMD). E-PON
, PMD, (2), MAC.
, ()
.
(OSI - Open System Interconnection)
4.2.

GM11 - ,
MD1 - ,
- ,
-
-
PCS -
PHY -
-

PMD - ,
-
4.2 2 OSI
- 2
1000 /, , .

(PCS) O0QBASE-X ().
(), ,
, 2 .
2 .
. ,
, .
(RS) (GMII)
MAC (PHY).
RS ( MAC)
2 -. ,
(LLID).
, E-PON,
, ( 4.1):

1000BASE-PX10-D.
! ;
I000BASB-PX10-U.
! 0 ;
1000BASE-PX20-D.
20 ;
1000ASE-PX20-U.
20 ;

4.1 E-PON


(/)

()

5000 ASEPX10-D

1000

10

I0O0BASEPX1O-U

1000

10

1000BASHPX20-D

1000

20

1000 ASEPX20-U

1000

20

4.6. PMD
(PMD) 1000BASE-PX10 1000BASE-20
1000BASE-X - (2)
20
1:16. E-PON
PMD PMD .
PMD .
,
.
1000ASE-PX-U 1000BASE-PX-D
() 1000ASE-X
, (MD1), . ,
1000BASE-PX 10(20) PMD 1000BASE-PX10(20)-U
1000BASE-PX10(20)-D PMD . ,
1000BASE-PX20-D PMD IOOOBASE-PX10-1/ PMD.
.
10 20 .
, 1490 1310 . ,

(FEC).
4.2 PMD.
4.2 PMD

1000ASE
PX10-U

1000BASE
PX10-D

1000ASE
PX20-U

1000BASE
PX20-D

1310

0.5 - 10

20
5

1490

1310

1490

0.5 -20
19

24

23.5

10

1000BASE-PX10 1000BASE-PX20 :

2 ;
1000 / 10
1:16;
1000 / 20
1:16;
10:1.

PMD 8/10
PMD . PMD
, .
:
1. PMD UN1TDATA.request.
PMD.
: PMD_UNITDATA.indicate (tx_bit). ,
PMD_UNITDATA.request
.
tx bit : "0" "1".
r
1.25 /. . PMD

, (fvlDf - Media Dependent Interface);
2. PMD_UNITDATA.indicate.
PMD . :
PMD_UNITDATA.indicate (rx_bit). ,
PMD_UNITDATA.indicate .
r_bit : "0" "1". PMD
MDI;
3. PMDS1GNAL. request.
PCS ,
. : PMD_S1GNAL.request
(tx^enable). tx enable : "ENABLE"
() "DISABLE" () ,
PMD s "" "". PCS
, tx_enable.
PMD , ;
4. PMD_SlGNAL.indicate. PMD
MDI. : PMD_SIGNAL.indicate
(SIGNALJ>ETECT). SIGNALJDETECT :
"" () "FAIL" (), , PMD
("") ("FAIL"). PMD
, SIGNALJDETECT.
PMD 1000BASE-PX ,
PMD MDI. PMD
, 4.3,
, - .
(2),
.
(), . 1 4, ,
1000BASE-PX PMD.
PMD ,
PMD LJNITDATA.request (tx_bit).
PMD MDI. "1" tx_bit
.
PMDjSlGNAL.request (tx_enable).
, : "1", ""
" ".

PMD , MD1
PMDJUMTDATA.indicate(rx_bil).
, ,
rx_bit "1".

4.7.
1000BASE-PX
- G.652 60793-2. 4.3
" .


, . ,

MDI. ,
MDI , 4.4.

4.3 1G00BASE-PX

.4.4
4.3

SMF

1310 115501

0.4

0.25

1100<<1324

0.093

/*

4.4
.
4.4

1000

SE-PX10
I000BASE-PX20

SMF


1310

10

23.0

, 20

, 5

1550

1310

1550

20

21.0

26.0

26.0

19.5

24

23.5

10

20

4.8. E-PON
E-PON
,
Ethernet.
, Ethernet
ATM ( A/B-PON, GPON). , 4.5.
E-PON :
( - -
.

4.5
() Ethernet 802.3, .
1: N
( 4.6).
1490 . 1550
- ( ).
Ethernet ,

- .

4.6
()
1310 ( 4.7).
, , , . ,
E-PON -.
-, E-PON
, ,
. E-PON, ,

,
.

E-PON

(CSMA/CD - Carries-Sens Multiple
Access with Collision Detection)He :


Gigabit Ethernet , E-PON
20;
, CSMA/CD,

(, ),
.


, .
, .. ,
. ().
,
, E-PON.

.
,
.
Ethernet. ,
, , .

4.9.
E-PON
Ethernet IEEE 802.,
. 64 ,

. Fast Ethernet (100BASE-FX/TX),
( Ethernet 10 /),

(12 ), (8 )
.
E-PON . ,
Ethernet E-PON .
, .
Ethernet, ( 4.8), ,
( 4.86):

SOP (start of packet) - 1, ;


, 4;
LLID (logical link identificator) - 2,
E-PON. LL1D -
- E-PON.
("unicast" "multicast" - "" ""?. 15
E-PON;
CRC (circle redundancy check) - 1, .

4.8 (, , ) Ethernet E-PON


, E-PON
E-PON-. E-PON
- .
PON 802.3,
LLID. ,
. ,
,
, LLID
LLID.
E-PON Ethernet:

DA (destination address) - 6 , - .
(unicast),
(multicast) (broadcast);
SA (source address) - 6 , - ;
L/T (length/type) - 2 , ;
, ;
Pad () -
;
FCS (frame check sequence) - 4,
, ,
.

E-PON
(), 4.8 64 .
E-PON .
:

L/T - 2, 0x8809.
E-PON ;
opcode (optional code) - 2, .
,
: GATE, , REPORT,
;
TS (time stamp) 4, ;
message - 40 , .
, .

5. G-PON
5.1. G-PON
G-PON (Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network) -
, A-PON.
PON ,
,
. G-PON
,
. ,
Ethernet, ,
.. G-PON 7
:

155 /, 1.2 / down;


622 / up, 1.2 / down;
1,2 / up, 1.2 / down;
155 / up, 2.4 / down;
622 / up, 2.4 / down;
1.2 / up, 2.4 / down;
2.4 1 '/ up, 2.4 / down.

,
. , FTTH
FTTB , ,
xDSL,
.
, ,
1:64. G-PON
1:128, .
,
.
OLT ONT/ONU 20 .
,
G-PON.
10 OLT ONT/ONU 1.25
/ . G-PON
60 .
, G-PON
,
G-PON.
,
. ,
ONU, ONU
, , .
G-PON
. , G-PON:
1. ,
, 5.1;
2. OLT ,
OLT , 5.2;
3. OLT ONU
, 5.3.

5.1 ,

5.2 , OLT
OLT

5.3 , OLT
, OLT ONU
:

;
.


, , .
,
,
.

5.2.

1.
() ,
, .
1.2 "V" "".

() (),
(AF),
, xDSL .

Q3.
:
- (Transmission Convergence), .
: PON
(adaptation sublayer). G-PON,
(PMD - Physical Media Dependent),
GTC (G-PON Transmission Convergence), GTC :
GTC framing sub-layer - ; adaptation sub-layer -
.

5.3. PMD G-PON


PMD - G-PON,
G-PON ,
.
:

1244.16 //155.52 /;
1244.16 //622.08 /;
1244.16 //1244.16 /;
2488.32 //155.52 /;
2488.32 //622.08 /;
2488.32 //1244.16 /;
2488.32 //2488.32 /.

,
,
- G.652.
PMD ,
.

.
(WDM),
, .
2 ,
.
,
.
:


,
3- 1480-1500 ;

,
2- 1260-1360 .

:

2- 1260-1360 .

, ( ) - NRZ.
1
, 0
.
PMD

10-25 dB: ;
15-30 dB: .


. ,
, .
, ,
-
, .

5.4. GTC G-ON


(Transmission Convergence) G-PON.
5.4 (Transmission Convergence)
G-PON - GTC .

5.4 GTC

GTC : GTC (GTC framing sub-layer)


(GTC adaptation sublayer).
:
* :
(PLOAM -Physical Layr Operations,
Adminisration and Maintenance), ATM
(GEM- G-PON Encapsulation Mode) .
, PLOAM, ATM GEM
, .
, .
* :

.
*
Alioc-ID (. . 5.7):
/ ATM
GEM , Alioc-ID.
(GTC adaptation sub-layer) : ATM
, GEM OMCI . ATM GEM
PDU (Protoco! Data Unit) ATM
GEM ,
.
ATM , GEM 1
:
* :
ATM ATM
.
* GEM :
GEM ,
.
ATM GEM
OMCI, VPI/VCI ATM Port-ID
GEM. OMCI OMCI
GEM . OMCI
ATM GEM 1. OMCI
, OMCI
ATM GEM .

, GTC , / ,
, ,
, U,
. 5.4, GTC
ATM , GEM , Embedded OAM and PLOAM
GTC .
Embedded OAM ,
GTC . 5.4 , PLOAM
PLOAM , .
, PLOAM .
SOU (Service Data Unit)
ATM GGM. / PDU (Protocol Data Unit)
ATM GEM. , PDU (Protocol Data Unit)
OMCI . GTC
(Embedded OAM), PLOAM and OMCI
/ (. . 5.5).
GTC SDU (Service Data Unit)
OMCI U (. . 5.6).
GTC (G-PON Transmission Convergence) ,
2 , ATM,
GEM.
. (ONU)
.
(OLT) ,
( ), OLT 1,
ONU. ,
ONU .
/-
GTC : Embedded OAM,
PLOAM OMCI. Embedded OAM PLOAM
PMD GTC. OMCI
( ).
GTC -
.
,
GTC.
: , , DBA
.
PLOAM ,
GTC .
PMD GTC ,
.
OMCI ,
GTC. G'I'C ATM GEM

, OMCI. GTC


. / 5.5.
U-
, U-, ,
(ATM GEM), a VPI Port-ID,
. 5.6 ,
, Port-ID/VPI.

5.5 C/M
GTC , ,
, Allocation ID (Alloc-ID),
. , GEM ,
12- Port-ID, ,
ATM , VPI. ,
T-CONT. T-CONT
, Alloc-ID, (. . 5.7). TCONT BW
(QoS) BW
. , T-CONT
ATM GEM ,
(ATM GEM) Alloc-ID.

5.6 U- PortID/VPI
ATM GEM GTC:
ATM GTC:

, ATM ,
ONU. ONU ATM
, a ATM . VPI
ATM ATM ;
ATM T-CONT.
T-CONT ATM, GEM . OLT ,
T-CONT, Alloc-ID,
ATM , ATM .

GEM GTC:

GEM GEM
ONU. ONU . GEM
. 12- PORT-ID
GEM GEM .
GEM T-CONT.
T-CONT ATM, GEM . OLT ,
T-CONT, 11-,
GEM , GEM .

GTC ,
. ,
, ,

, .
5.7.

5.7 /
OLT PCBd (Physical Control Block
downstream) . ,
ONU ,
. ,
GNU .
, OLT
64 /.
5.7 , ONU T-CONT, TCONT , ONU
.
GTC
5.8 GTC
.

(PCBd), ATM GEM .
.
PLOu (Physical Layer Overhead upstream) .
, PLOAMu,
PLSu, DBRu .
PON.

5.8 GTC
.
5.9.

.......
N*53 bytes
5.9
, 125 .
125 1.24416 /,
2.48832 /. 1.24416 / 19440 ,
2.48832 / 38880 .
PCBd .
5.10 (PCBd)
.
, .
, OLT, ( PCBd)
(ONU). ONU,
PCBd , , .

Coverage of this BIP

Coverage of next B1P

5.10 (PCBd)
Psync (Physical synchronization) 32
ONU .
056310.

Ident 4 .
Ident ,
,
.
PLOAM 13 PLOAM .
BIP 8 ,
.
Plend ATM
. .
BWmap 8 .

T-CONT. , Plend
ATM n- 53 ATM .
Plend/Alen .
ATM . ATM
VPI , .
ONU ATM .
GEM GEM .
PCBd and ATM .
GEM 12-
Port-ID, . , ONU
GEM .
.
5.11.

5.11

.
ONU. BWmap .

, OLT, ONU
:
1. (PLOu);
2. , ,
(PLOAMu);
3. (PLSu);
4. (DBRu).

BWmap OLT , PLOAMu,


PLSu, DBRu .
OLT
.
5.12.

5.12 GTC
PLOu
. PLOu ,
ONU.
1 8 ,
.
ONU-ID field 8
ONU. .
, ONU , ONU , 255.
Ind ,
OLT,
PLOAM (PLOAMu) 13 ,
PLOAM .
PLSu 120 ONU
. ONU
.
, ONU.
DBRu (Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream)
, -CONT.
DBA T-CONT.
8-, 16-, 32-.
CRC .
CRC-8.

(Upstream payload section )


GTC . ATM ,
GEM DBA .
, payload section ATM ,
, 5.13.

5.13 GTC , ATM


ATM ,
53 . ,
. payload
ATM , 53 . ATM
, ,
.
, payload section GEM ,
, 5.14.
GEM .
,
. OLT GEM .

5.14 GTC , - GEM

, payload section DBA ,


, 5.15.

5.15 GTC , - DBA

DBA ONU
. DBA payload .
. payload
, ,
.

5.5.
G-PON
PON ,
(ONU), .
ONU ,
, . PON
, .
, ,
, , ,
.
PON , ONU
ONU.
-
.
, G-PON -
(AES - Advanced Encryption Standard).
,
16 .
- 128, 192 256 .
AES ,
G-PON .
Counter Mode (CTR). , 16
.

.
,
.

.
G-PON
128 ,
.
Counter mode (CTR)
-,
(OLT), (ONU). - 46
2 . 30 (interframe counter), 16 (intra-frame counter).

. , 1.244 /
0 4859.
,
Ident PCBd . (ONU)
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
ATM ,
(XOR) 48 .
, ATM 53 , 48 , ,
3- .
, 48
.
, GEM ,
Port-ID.

,
,
.
, GTC
, ,
. 5.16.
OLT ONU,
.
.
.
1 .
,
. 46-
128 AES . 46 3
, 138 , 10
. 128 AES
, -,
.

5.16

G-PON. , OLT
ONU, Port-TD, VPI
. ONU, OLT ,
.
OLT. OLT
< > <key request_message> PLOAM. ONU
, OLT. GNU
< > <shadow_key_register>.
PLOAM , 2 PLOAM .
3 .
Key Index, OLT
.
- Keyjndex ,
ONU OLT.
OLT - , OLT
<key_request_message>, ONIJ. OLT
,
.
OLT ,
< > <shadow keyregister>.
. OLT ,
. ONU Key_switching_time.
ONU ,
, . OLT ONU
< > < > active_key_register.
ONU OLT .

5.6.
G-PON
,
G-PQN , OMCI

(ONT Management and Control Interface). 5.17


, 3.1.

ONT
OLT.
(OMCI)
OLT ONT. OLT
:
1. , NT;
2. (UNI) ONT;
3. ONT
;
4. .
OMCI GEM, ATM
OMCI OLT ONT.
OMCI , . OLT
, ONT .

5.17
OMCI OLT ONT.
, 1 3
G-PON :

;
;
;
;
.

,
,

(UNI), ,
.
,
,
..,
.

, . ,
, ,
.

. ,
.

5.7. PON
, , PON
.
,
.

. ,
,

watchdog'o, ,
.
: (
) PON-

. ,
, . , PON
, ,
.
,
PON.
,
( , 25-26 ).
(, GPON)

Fiber To The Curb Fiber To The Building.


,
. ,
.

,

,
.

5.8. G-PON
PON
PON,
. : A-PON, B-PON, F.-PON,
G-PON. G-PON
, .
G-PON (Gigabit PON).
155 / 2488 / ,
, ,
- AES,
, -. ,
G--PON, 32/64/128
, ,
.

6.

-
,
-
(, , ).

.
,
.

().
:



;
( /)
;


, ,
;
, ,
;
,
.

, -
, ,

.
,

,
,
.

.

()
, , III
, .. , (.

2005 , , , 1996 ., 1, . 3.7.17).



0,92 ,
.

MUC
(
, , ., 1996 .).



.

7.



1310 1260 - 1380 ( ) 1550
1480 - 1580 ( ).
,
. -,
( 5-7 50 15$ ) .
, 2005
() 10 / 30 .
100 / 10 . .
-, all wave (, SMF-28e Coming)
1260 1625 ,

(CWDM) .
,
-.
CWDM ,
.
CWDM (DWDM)
.
( ) CWDM DWDM
.

, (VCSEL)
(MEM).

, ,
, ..
()
. .
(VCSEL - vertical cavity surface emitting lasers),
,

- ,
.

.
CWDM
DWDM MPA.S GMPA.S,
- MEM.
-
,

.
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
(Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing, CWDM)
, 20 (
25 ). ,
(DWDM). WDM
CWDM ,
(
). CWDM- 18
, . DWDM CWDM- ,
, .
CWDM ,
!

///FR CWDM.
CWDM

' .
CWDM-
.
, ,
. CWDM
DWDM, CWDM
. 8- CWDM ,
19" , ( ) 482 200
44 ,
. 32- DWDM (
) 482 300 400 ,
. DWDM
,
. CWDM- 30-50 , DWDM-
- 300-500 . 7.2
CWDM DWDM.

7.2 CWDM DWDM

,
. CWDM
(
(ETSI)) , DWDM- .
DWDM-
W
, .

,
. 7.2
,
DWDM CWDM .

DWDM-, :
1.
2.
3.
4.

;
;
;
, -
CWDM - ,
/;
5.

.
7.2
DWDM CWDM
CWDM

DWDM

( )

482 200 44

482 300 400

30 - 50

300 - 500


.
,
CWDM- ,
.
, 16-18 ,
,
, .
CWDM.
,
/

.
/, ,

.
DWDM, CWDM

/ (OADM, optical add-drop multiplexer)
(OXC, optical cross connector).

, .. .
,
,
. ,
CWDM, 15 DWDM 0,8 ,
8- CWDM- 120 .
, CWDM-
DWDM, 8- 64 . 7.3
CWDM- DWDM-.
,
.
CWDM , , ,

.

7.3. CWDM DWDM


, , .
,
- -.
,

,
-
- .
,
, .

, -
( , ) , . ,
,
, .
-
/. ,
,
.
7.4 .
,
.
.
. ,
"--", 1-6 4-7, ,
2-3-5-8, .
,
.
.
1.


. ,

ATM, ..
,
, ,
.
2. ,
, , ,
,
/ (OTDM),
,
..,

.
,
,
, ,
. , ,
, ..

.

7.5 ,
.

-
-
-
-
-

7.5
,

.


1. .., .., P.M. . -
. , , ., 1993.
2. .., .., .., ..
- .
- ., , 1995.
3. .. , , 1995,
2.
4. .., .., .., ..
, , 1996, 9.
5. P.P. - . -, ., 1998.
6. .., .., ..
, , ! 998, 10.
7. ..
. , , , . 2000.
8. .., .., O.K., ..
- , , 2003,
9.
9. .., .., O.K., ..
,
, 2003, 9.
10. ..
- . , ,
-2000, ., 2004.
11. .. . ,
. , , 2000, ., 2004.
12. .., O.K., ..
DWDM CWDM , , 2004, 2.
13. .., O.K., ..
, -, 2004, 1.
14. .., O.K., ..
, -, 2004, 1.
15. .., P.P. PON. 1.
, LIGHTWAVE RUSSIAN EDITION, 2004, 1.
16. .., P.P. PON. 1.
, LIGHTWAVE RUSSIAN EDITION, 2004, I.
17. .., P.P. PON. 2.
ETHERNET , LIGHTWAVE RUSSIAN EDITION, 2004, 2.
18. .., P.P. PON. 3.
, LIGHTWAVE RUSSIAN EDITION, 2004,
3.
19. .. ,
, , 2004.

20. 45.047-99 -
. .
. '
21. 45.178-2000
. . .
22. 45.036-99
.
23. 45.07-2001
,
.
24. 45.186-2001 -
. .
25. 45.200-2001 - .
.
26. 45 286-2002 -
.
27. O.K., .., .. -
, ,
3, 2003
28. .. ,
, 2, 2003
29.
2005 , .1, 2, , 1996 .
30.
, . 1,2,3.
19.10.98 ., N 187.
31. 45.180-2001 -
- -
- .
32. 26599-85 -. .
33. 45.201-2003 -. .
.
34. 45.202-2003 -
. . .
35. 60875-1 Generic Specification for Fibre-optic Branching Devices
( - )
36. 60869-( Generic Specification for Fibre-optic Attenuators (
- ).
37. 6)931-1 Fibre-optic Terminology (
).
38. 61202-1 Generic Specification for Fibre-optic solators (
- ).
39. 60876-1 Generic Specification for Fibre-optic Switches (
- ).
40. 60874-1 Generic Specification for Fibre-optic Connectors (
- ).
41. 61073-1 Generic Specification for Splices for Optical Fibres and Cables
( - ).
42. - .
(TMN).
43. - 1.112 ().
. ,

44. - 1.
.
45. - f.321 -
.
46. - 1.361 ATM BISDN
47. - 1.363 ATM B-ISDN.
48. - 1.371 B-ISDN.
49. - G.651
- 50/125 .
50. - G.652 .
51. - G.653 .
52. - G.654 , 1550 .
53. - G.655 .
54. - G.661
- .
55. - G.662
.
56. - G.663
.
57. - G.671 .
58. - G.681
, ,
.
59. - G.691
.
60. - G.692
.
61. - G.784
. 0 .
62. - G.983.1
.
63. - G.983.2
B-PON.
64. - G.983.3 A broadband optical access system with increased service
capability by wavelength allocation!.
65. - G.983.4 A broadband optica] access system with increased service
capability using dynamic bandwidth assignment (DBA).
66. - G.983.5 A broadband optical access system with enhanced
survivability.
67. - G.983.6 ONT managrment and control interface specifications for
B-PON system with protection features.
68. - G.983.7 ONT managrment and control interface specifications for
dynamic bandwidth assignment (DBA) B-PON system.
69. - G.983.8 B-PON OMCI support for IP, ISDN, video, VLAN
tagging, VC cross-connections and other select functions.
70. - G.983.9 B-PON ONT managrment and control interface (OMCI)
support for wireless Local Area Network interfaces.

71. - G.983.10 B-PON ONT managrment and control interface (OMCI)


support for Digital Suscribcr Line interfaces.
72. - G.984.1. Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-PON):
General characteristics.
73. - G.984.2. Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-PON):
Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer specification.
74. - G.984.3. Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-PON):
Transmission convergence layer specification.
75. - G.984.4 Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-PON):
ONT management and control interface specification.