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- Solutions Manual for Electric Circuit Analysis David Johnson
- Sample Building Specifications
- SAMPLE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
- Construction Specifications
- Foot Bridge
- Chemical Soil Stabilization
- Construction Specification
- Pedestrian Loads and Dynamic Performances of Lively Footbridges an Overview
- Footbridge
- intelligent transport system
- Footbridge Dynamics - Danish Guidelines & Examples
- PS_Construction_Specifications_Example_Format
- Tuned Mass Damperv2
- Aspergillus Niger and Sodium Chloride Chapter I
- Intelligent Transport System1
- Footbridge Guidelines EN03
- an-investigation-into-the-use-of-lime-stabilized-clay-as-subgrade-material
- Construction Specifications Sample
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Christian MEINHARDT Dr.-Ing. Project Engineer Gerb Vibration Control Systems Essen, Germany Summary

Oliver DRESSEN Dipl.-Ing. Project Engineer Gerb Vibration Control Systems Essen, Germany

Frank DALMER Dipl.-Ing. Project Engineer Gerb Vibration Control Systems Essen, Germany

This contribution gives an introduction about the design and application of Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD). Especially the practical adaptation of the theoretical defined optimum specification and the effect of all relevant parameters will be discussed. Additionally a short definition of vibration susceptibility will be followed by experimentally determined values for damping ratios in order to the type and material of the brigde-construction. Finally some example project will give an insight to the practical application of TMDs. Keywords: 1. Footbridge; Damping Ratio; Tuned Mass Damper; TMD Specification

Introduction

Due to the trend of constructing ever lighter and filigree load-carrying structures, footbridges are becoming more susceptible to vibrations caused by pedestrians or wind. Usually, these vibrations impact only the serviceability of the bridges since the desired level of comfort is no longer attained. However, in some cases, the vibrations of the bridges are so extreme that damages can arise or, in extreme cases, the structural integrity of the bridge can be at risk. The primary reason for the occurring, perturbing vibrations is resonance. That means the vibrations only occur for an excitation of the structure with a frequency which is similar to the natural frequency or a multiple of it. A complex structure exhibits more than one natural frequency. The number of natural frequencies that are in range of those which will be excited by wind- or human- induced vibrations depends on the engineering design, the dimensions and material of the structure.

Fig.1

Each natural frequency is associated with a defined natural mode which characterizes the swinging behavior of the structure. Natural modes can be bending modes in vertical and horizontal direction or torsional modes. They appear in

different orders, where the order of the mode exposes the number of minima and maxima for the certain kind of bending or torsional mode. The higher the order of the natural mode, the higher is the associated natural frequency. For the case that an excitation causes a resonance-like vibration state, the damping associated with the natural mode of the considered structure is relatively small. Damping is a combination of material damping, depending on the used material, and on the structural damping which is defined by the structures constructive design. Concrete structures reveal a higher damping than do steel structures, not only because concrete exhibits a higher material damping, but also because the interaction between concrete and reinforcement increases the general damping. Welded steel structures, for example, are supposed to exhibit the lowest damping. The small damping in the case of a resonance-like excitation effects a slow abatement of the vibrations. In order to improve the dynamic behavior of a footbridge, the structural stiffness of the bridge has to be increased so that its natural frequencies are out of the range typically excited by pedestrians or wind, or structural damping of the bridge has to be increased. The most effective way to increase the structural damping and improve the dynamic behavior is the application of dampers (buffers, shock absorbers, Dampers) or TMDs (Tuned Mass Dampers) that significantly reduce resonance-like excitation related vibrations. A TMD is a vibrating mass that displays movements which are contrary to those of the main structure. To attain these contrary movements, the mass is elastically support and tuned for the frequency that has to be eliminated. The contrary movements cause inertial forces that compensate the structures movements by depriving vibration-energy from the structure. That leads to an increase of damping. Additionally the interaction between TMD and structure causes a subdivision of the natural frequencies (Fig. 2).

Fig.2

The advantage of using TMDs is that, unlike with the use of dampers, shock absorbers etc., no fixed-point are required. It is simply force-fitted to the structure. Compared to the additional structural mass that is required to increase the structural damping conventionally, the necessary TMD mass is only fraction, which allows also a subsequent application with no bigger improvements in the structural design. The following will give an introduction about an evaluation of footbridges regarding their vibration susceptibility especially to human induced vibrations and will define empirical values to estimate structural damping ratio of footbridges. For an application of Tuned Mass Dampers the definition of the optimum specification is discussed and compared to practical conditions. The design of TMDs will also be introduced. Finally some example projects will be presented.

2. Vibration susceptibility to human induced vibrations In general bridges that display natural frequencies which are in range of excitation frequencies for human activities are susceptible to vibration. The frequency ranges for walking, running and jumping are displayed in Table 1.

Table 1

For natural frequencies of horizontal natural modes, the frequency ranges divides by two (0.7 Hz 1.3 Hz) since walking or running causes an alternating excitation in horizontal direction. Ambitions to compensate horizontal vibrations can furthermore lead to the known lock-in effect. In case it is not avoidable that natural frequencies of the bridge are in the mentioned range, the resulting vibrations are affected by the structural damping ratio which is usually between 0.2% - 2.0%. Figure 3 gives an overview about experimental determined damping ratios related to the type of bridge. The critical acceleration value is generally defined by 0.5 m/s (5%g - value for frequencies about 2 Hz) or by 0.5 f 0.5[m/s] respectively 0.25 f 0.78[m/s]. Since humans are more sensitive to vibrations in horizontal direction, the critical value in this direction is about 1-2% g.

Fig. 3

Experimentally determined Damping Ratios for several types of Footbridges depending on their natural frequencies

3. Practical adaptive TMD specifications - optimization The TMD specifications effective mass, tuning frequency and TMD damping ratio- can be determined regarding a two degree of freedom model (see Fig. 4).

Dynamic Amplification

without TMD

Frequency Ratio

Fig. 4

Two degree of freedom model - Amplification functions for several tuning frequencies

(1)

An amplification function can be derived by using the equations of motion for the coupled structures mass and the TMD mass (1), by applying an exponential approach (2), (3) an simplifying the equation using the terms that are displayed in.(4).

(2)

(3)

(4)

Introducing dimensionless terms (5) and identifying the natural frequencies H,T using (6) leads to the system of equations (7) that can be used to calculate the amplification functions for the deflection UH0 under a static load FH displayed in Fig. 5 for several tuning frequencies.

(5)

(6)

(7)

Beside the tuning frequency fT of the TMD and its Damping ratio cT the TMD effect significantly depends on the ratio between the structures mass and the TMD-mass . By comparing the results, optimum values (minimum amplification) for the TMD specifications can be defined that depend from each other. An analytical optimization of the TMD specification considering all parameters becomes difficult. Therefore DEN HARTOG has specified a solution, disregarding the structures damping (8).

Eq. (8) 7

The diagram, shown in Figure 5, shows the curves for the optimized TMD parameters which should be only applied for harmonic excitations of the structure.

fT/fH

opt

fT/fH opt

= mT/mH

Fig. 5

Regarding the practical application of TMDs, two problems have to be considered that influence the design of the dampers. On one hand it is difficult to achieve the optimized damping ratio for all conditions and for the life cycle of the structure that has to be protected. On the other hand, the dynamic loads, caused by the relative movements of the TMD shall be limited to minimize the impact to the structure as well as to guarantee the TMD performance for its life cycle. These supplementary conditions to the optimum TMD specification lead to the question how much the reduction effect of a TMD depends on the damping ratio and the tuning frequency, which also varies due to the nonlinearities, temperature or additional masses on the bridge. Figure 6 shows the amplification functions for four variations of TMD specifications. The movements of the structure without and with TMD are shown as well as the movements of the TMD itself. The diagrams show that the TMD movements reduce with a bigger TMD mass. Also it can be seen, that the reduction effect increases with an increase of the TMD mass while the increase of the TMDs damping ratio does not effect the reduction due to the TMD.

Fig. 6

The variation with a bigger TMD mass is also less effected by the shifted frequency. These trends can be summarized by the graphs that are displayed in Figure 7. The diagrams withdrawn from an analytical two degree of freedom model - show that the Amplitude reduction, which is displayed by the factor that is characterized by the structures movement US and the movement of the bridge without a TMD U0 strongly depends on the applied TMD mass. That also applies for the relative TMD movements UT / U0 which become smaller by using a higher TMD mass. The diagram also shows that an reasonable increase of the TMD damping ratio (< 30%) compared to the optimum damping ratio opt does not effect the reduction US / U0 while an undervalued damping ratio decreases the reduction effect and leads to bigger TMD movements UT / U0. So for a practical adaptation, the TMD ratio should be set greater than the optimum damping ratio to limit the TMD movements and to guarantee the effectiveness of the damping element (viscous damper) which might be subjected to fluctuations (temperature / humidity etc.) Figure 7 also shows that reduction effect is less influenced by a detuning - for example due to incorrect dynamic calculations that were used for the design or due to nonlinear ascendancies such as temperature or additional masses when the tuning frequency is lower than the structures natural frequency. That means that a tuning frequency below the optimum frequency fopt should be specified. Again the lower the tuning frequency regarding the structures natural frequency, the smaller are the relative movements.

Fig. 7

Left: Amplitude reduction due to a TMD depending on the frequency ratio f/fH and the damping ratio /opt Right: Normalized TMD movements UT/U0 depending on the frequency ratio f/fH and the damping ratio /opt

The results of this theoretical examination have been considered for the design of TMDs in several projects. Particulars about the design components are described in the following chapter. Figure 8 shows the experimentally determined reduction ratio US / U0 depending on the applied TMD mass related to the modal mass of the structure for conducted projects and displays a fair agreement with the theoretical results.

Fig. 8

Experimentally determined reduction ratio against the applied mass ratio for several conducted projects

4. Design of a TMD TMDs are composed of an elastic supporting mass, which is tuned by its mass and the spring rate of the applied spring for the frequency of the perturbing vibrations. An integrated viscous damper-element (VISCO Damper) restricts the excited motions of the TMD mass. The optimal tuned frequency is defined by various optimization criteria. Usually the frequency of the tuned mass is insignificant below the natural frequency which should be reduced by the TMD. The tuned frequency of a TMD can not be adjusted precisely and varies by about +/- 0.05 Hz. Practical applications show that this tolerance is adequate. The integrated VISCO-Dampers feature 10% - 20% of critical damping. This value refers to the TMD and not to the decreased effect for the considered structure.

Fig. 9

Of particular importance is the endurance of the features of the VISCO-Dampers, namely that they effectively diminish vibrations that occur under load cases like vandalism or permanent wind excitation. The diminishing effect of TMDs essentially depends on the damping of the structure and the applied mass of the TMD. The smaller the damping of the structure, the bigger is the diminishing effect by applying TMDs. The dependence on the applied mass is similar The bigger the TMD-mass, the bigger is the effort to reduce the vibrations. Another effect of a bigger TMD-mass is the

efficacy regarding a deferral of the natural frequencies due to live loads like vehicles or people. These two significant parameters of a TMD, the tuned frequency and the internal damping, should be adjustable to the relevant load cases of the structure. 5. Example Projects The new footbridge Erich-Edegger-Steg in Graz/Austria was completed in 1992. The bridge is a girder bridge with a bracing below the superstructure. The span is 58 m. Since the opening pedestrian induced vibrations were observed. The dynamical investigation of a student showed that the bridge could easily be excited by pedestrians in the first natural frequency. This first natural vibration mode corresponds to the first vertical bending mode of the footbridge. Therefore the application of tuned mass dampers to reduce the perturbing vibration state was realized. In this project two TMDs with a vibrating mass of 1000 kg each were tuned to the perturbing first natural frequency of 2.0 Hz. The modal mass of the bridge was estimated to approx. 60 t. The TMDs were installed in the area of the middle of the span. As shown in Figure 11 the damping ratio of the structure could be increased significantly by that measure. The damping ratio without TMDs was determined to D = 0,7 %. The measurements after the installation of the TMDs the damping was approx. D = 3.5 Hz.

Fig. 10

Erich Edegger Steg in Graz/Austria equipped with vertical TMDs-Decaying behaviour with and without TMDs

In 2007 the Stadtbahnbrcke in Gera/Germany was erected to connect a residential area with a local city railway station. Already in the planning stage of that footbridge the installation of tuned mass dampers to avoid big movements of the structure was taken into consideration. It is a cable stayed bridge with a span of about 130 m. The damping ratio for the relevant natural frequency of this slender structure is very low. Decisive for the comfort criteria were the movements in the horizontal bending mode at approximately 0.8 Hz and the vertical bending mode at approximately 1.6 Hz. To ensure a comfortable passing of the footbridge one horizontal TMD with a mass of 2.4 t and four vertical TMDs with a mass of 900 kg each were designed. It turned out that the available space for the TMDs was restricted by the lateral girders. Due to these circumstances the required vibrating mass of the TMDs had to be parted in an elaborate method. Especially the design of the horizontal TMD was challenging but led to a unique design as shown in Figure 11. The following vibration measurements of the completed footbridge (Fig. 11) has shown that with the application of the

tuned mass dampers the structural damping ratio could be increased up to approximately D = 4.5 % in the mentioned bending modes.

Figure 11

Assembled TMDs for the project Stadtbahnbrcke in Gera, vertical acting and horizontal acting TMDs

Occasionally TMDs are already installed before the bridge is erected on site so a subsequent tuning of the TMD is required. That tuning is usually realized by changing the pendulum length, the TMD spring rates or the TMD mass. Figure 12 shows the effect of a subsequent tuning by increasing the already noticeable TMD effect and the structures damping ratio.

ohne Tilger

without TMD m it Tilger with TMD (not tuned) m it justiertem Tilger with tuned TMD

Figure 12

6. Summary Theoretical examinations of the optimum TMD specifications have shown, that practical adaptive specification vary from the optimum criteria defined by DEN HARTOG. Especially the relative TMD movements have to be restricted to guarantee life cycle and a maintenance free performance which is usually required. That also applies to the required damping ratio of the TMD which also has to be maintained for the TMD lifetime. 7. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] C. PETERSEN ,Dynamik der Baukonstruktionen, Vieweg Verlag, 1996 J.P. DEN HARTOG,Mechanische Schwingungen, 2. Edition, Springer Verlag, 1952 B. WEBER, Lecture Tragwerksdynamik, ETH Zrich, 2002 H. BACHMANN, W. AMMAN,Schwingungsprobleme bei Bauwerken: Durch Menschen und Maschinen induzierte Schwingungen, IABSE, 1987 H. BACHMANN, Vibration Problems in Structures- Practical Guidelines, Birkhuser Verlag, 1995 C. PETERSEN, Schwingungsdmpfer im Ingenieurbau, Maurer und Shne GmbH, 2001 H. GRUNDMANN ET AL., Schwingungsuntersuchungen von Fugngerbrcken, Bauingenieur Vol. 68, Springer Verlag, 1993 Y. MATSUMOTO ET AL., Dynamic Design of footbridges, IABSE, 1978 H. BACHMANN, Lebendige Fugngerbrcken eine Herausforderung, Bautechnik Vol. 81, Ernst und Sohn, 2004

[10]

H. KRAMER, Dynamische Belastung durch Fugnger, Bauingenieur Vol. 73,Springer Verlag, 1998

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