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Incompressible Aerodynamics Lab

Effects of Flaps and Slats

Submitted By: Submitted To:

Group # 02 Miss Huneza Atta

Group Member:  Shahzad Malik  Muhammad Ishaq Khan  Haseeb Farrukh  Abdul Raheem Ansari

BE-09 (AERO) 13-01-2012

January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Contents
Objectives ............................................................................................................................. 2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 3 Wind Tunnel: .................................................................................................................... 3 Airfoi Having Slats and Flaps: .......................................................................................... 3 Theory .................................................................................................................................. 5 Wind Tunnel: .................................................................................................................... 5 Lift:................................................................................................................................... 6 Lift due to pressure differences: .......................................................................... 6 Lift due to flow on both sides of the wing: .......................................................... 6 Drag: ................................................................................................................................. 7 Types of Drag: .............................................................................................................. 7 Frictional Drag .............................................................................................................. 7 Pressure Drag: ............................................................................................................... 7 Reason of Drag: ............................................................................................................ 7 Flaps: ................................................................................................................................ 7 Types of Flaps: .............................................................................................................. 9 Leading edge slats: ...........................................................................................................10 Types of Slats: .............................................................................................................10 Procedure.............................................................................................................................11 Observations & Conclusion..................................................................................................12 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................................13

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Objectives

 To calculate the lift and drag on an airfoil without using flaps and Slats.

 To calculate the lift and drag on an airfoil using flaps.

 To calculate the lift and drag on an airfoil using slats.

 To calculate the lift and drag on an airfoil using flaps and slats.

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Apparatus
Wind Tunnel:

Airfoi Having Slats and Flaps:

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Theory
Wind Tunnel:
A wind tunnel is a research tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects. It helps us to predict the behaviour of aircraft or any other aerodynamic body. The flow similarity parameters are used which are Mach number and Reynold number.

Air is blown or sucked through a duct equipped with a viewing port and instrumentation where models or geometrical shapes are mounted for study. Typically the air is moved through the tunnel using a series of fans. The airflow created by the fans that is entering the tunnel is itself highly turbulent due to the fan blade motion (when the fan is blowing air into the test section when it is sucking air out of the test section downstream, the fanblade turbulence is not a factor), and so is not directly useful for accurate measurements. The air moving through the tunnel needs to be relatively turbulence-free and laminar. To correct this problem, closely spaced vertical Page | 5

January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS] and horizontal air vanes are used to smooth out the turbulent airflow before reaching the subject of the testing. Due to the effects of viscosity, the cross-section of a wind tunnel is typically circular rather than square, because there will be greater flow constriction in the corners of a square tunnel that can make the flow turbulent. A circular tunnel provides a smoother flow. The inside facing of the tunnel is typically as smooth as possible, to reduce surface drag and turbulence that could impact the accuracy of the testing.

Lift:
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction. If the fluid is air, the force is called an aerodynamic force.

Lift due to pressure differences:


Lift may also be described in terms of air pressure: pressure is the normal force per unit area. Wherever there is net force there is also a pressure difference, thus deflection/flow turning indicates the presence of a net force and a pressure difference. This pressure difference implies the average pressure on the upper surface of the wing is lower than the average pressure on the underside.

Lift due to flow on both sides of the wing:


In the picture above, observe that the air is turned both above and below the wing so both the upper and lower surface contribute to the flow turning and therefore the lift.

Variation of the pressure around an airfoil as obtained by a solution of the Euler equations.

In fact, for typical airfoils at subsonic speeds the top surface contributes more flow turning than the bottom surface, and the pressure deviation along the top is significantly larger than along the bottom. A common explanation describes Page | 6

January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS] lift as merely the result of the air molecules bouncing off the lower surface of the wing, but since this ignores the airflow around the top of the wing it usually leads to incorrect results. However, at hypersonic speeds, this model becomes applicable.

Drag:
When a body moves through any fluid, it experiences an opposing force which resists its motion. This force is known as Drag. Types of Drag:

 Frictional drag 
Frictional Drag Frictional drag comes from friction between the fluid and the surfaces over which it is flowing. This friction is associated with the development of boundary layers, and it scales with Reynolds number . Frictional drag is important for attached flows (that is, there is no separation), and it is related to the surface area exposed to the flow Pressure Drag: Pressure drag comes from the eddying motions that are set up in the fluid by the passage of the body. This drag is associated with the formation of a wake, which can be readily seen behind a body, and it is usually less sensitive to Reynolds number than the frictional drag. . Pressure drag is important for separated flows, and it is related to the cross-sectional area of the body.

Reason of Drag: Formally, both types of drag are due to viscosity (if the body was moving through an an inviscid fluid there would be no drag at all), but the distinction is useful because the two types of drag are due to different flow phenomena.

Flaps:
Flaps are normally hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed an aircraft can be safely flown at and to increase the angle of descent for landing without increasing air speed. They shorten takeoff and landing distances as well as improving climb rate. It does this by increasing the amount of lift generated, by lowering the stall speed and increasing the drag.

ressure drag.

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS] Extending flaps primarily increases the camber or curvature of the wing airfoil raising the maximum lift coefficient - or the lift a specific wing section may generate. This allows the aircraft to generate as much lift but at a lower speed, reducing the stalling speed of the aircraft, or the minimum speed at which the aircraft will maintain flight. Extending flaps increases drag which can be beneficial during approach and landing because it slows the aircraft. On some aircraft a useful side effect of flap deployment is a decrease in aircraft pitch angle which improves the pilot's view of the runway over the nose of the aircraft during landing, however the flaps may also cause pitchup, depending on the type of flap and the location of the wing. There are many different types of flaps used, with the specific choice depending on the size, speed and complexity of the aircraft they are to be used on, as well as the era in which the aircraft was designed. Plain flaps, slotted flaps, and Fowler flaps are the most common. Flaps used on the leading edge of the wings of many jet airliners are called Krueger flaps. The Fowler, FaireyYoungman and Gouge types of flap increase theplanform area of the wing in addition to changing the camber. The larger lifting surface reduces wing loading and allows the aircraft to generate more lift at a given speed and reduces stalling speed but although the effect is similar to increasing the lift coefficient, raising the planform area of the wing does not necessarily change the lift coefficient which is dependent on the camber, not the chord.

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS] Types of Flaps:

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Leading edge slats:


Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a result of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying slats an aircraft can fly at slower speeds, or take off and land in shorter distances. They are usually used while landing or performing maneuvers which take the aircraft close to the stall, but are usually retracted in normal flight to minimize drag. Types of Slats: Automatic - the slat lies flush with the wing leading edge until reduced aerodynamic forces allow it to extend by way of springs when needed. Fixed - the slat is permanently extended. This is sometimes used on specialist low-speed aircraft (these are referred to as slots) or when simplicity takes precedence over speed. Powered - the slat extension can be controlled by the pilot. This is commonly used on airliners.

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Procedure
1. First we put NACA 0015 airfoil in a wind tunnel with undeployed flaps and slats at zero angle of attack. 2. Then we balanced the weights attached with the wind tunnel. 3. Then we started the wind and set the velocity to 6 ft/sec. 4. The airfoil experienced forces due to which weights were displaced from their zero position. 5. Then we balanced again the weight which gave us lift and drag. 6. Then we deployed the flaps and set the airfoil at zero angle of attack. 7. Repeated steps 2-5. 8. Then we deployed slats and set the airfoil at zero angle of attack. 9. Repeated steps 2-5. 10. Then we deployed both (slats and flaps). 11. Noted all the readings.

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Observations & Conclusion


Free Stream Velocity = V = 6 ft/s Angle of Attack = = 0o

Without Slats & Flaps


Velocity (ft/s) Angle of Attack Lift (lb/ft^2) Drag (lb/ft^2)
6 0 0 0

Flaps Deployed
6 0 1.07 0.25

Slats Deployed
6 0 0.49 0.135

Both Deployed
6 0 1.13 0.23

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January 13, 2012 [EFFECT OF FLAPS AND SLATS]

Conclusion
We concluded from our experiment that with the deployment of slats and flaps individually, the lift and drag increases at same speed and angle of attack. But with the deployment of both together will increase the lift more than the drag.

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