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Chapter 27 EARLY QUANTUM PHYSICS AND THE PHOTON

Conceptual Questions
1. The temperature of the filament drops as the bulb is dimmed. The frequency of maximum radiation output from a blackbody decreases as its temperature drops. Thus, as the temperature of the bulb decreases, less high-frequency light is radiated and the emitted radiation becomes increasingly red. 2. The photoelectric effect describes the mechanism by which electrons are ejected from materials when certain frequencies of electromagnetic radiation are incident upon them. The first puzzling feature of this effect was that brighter light increases the current of electrons but does not affect their kinetic energy. This is understood with the photon model of light because increasing the intensity of the radiation simply increases the number of photons colliding with the material but does not increase their energy. The second puzzling feature was that the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons depends upon the wavelength of the photons. This too is explained by the photon theory because a shorter wavelength photon has a greater energy, and therefore, will provide a larger kick to the photoelectron. The third puzzling feature was that for a given metal there is a threshold frequency below which no electrons will be emitted. This is an understandable phenomenon because some minimum amount of energy is required to set the electrons free from the material to which they are bound, and if the photon energy is too low, an electron will not be ejected after absorption of a photon. The final puzzling feature of the photoelectric effect was that electrons are emitted virtually instantaneously after turning on a photon source. This too makes sense as a result of the photon theory because each individual photon carries enough energy to cause a photoelectron to be emittedonly a single photon is required to start a photocurrent. 3. In the photon model of light, the energy of a photon is determined solely by its frequency. UV photons are thus more energetic than visible photons, and therefore, have the potential to inflict more damage to skin cells. Furthermore, the energy of UV photons is sufficient to ionize atoms or molecules in the skin, causing significant damage to individual skin cells. Even high intensity visible light would not be as much of a threat, because the energy of the visible photons is insufficient to cause ionization. 5. A blackbody at a higher temperature emits radiation at higher frequencies than does a blackbody at a lower temperature. Reddish stars are therefore cooler than bluish stars, with yellow and white stars falling between. 8. When the energy corresponding to the frequency of the incident photons is below the threshold level, no photoelectrons are emitted. This occurs because the amount of energy needed to overcome the attraction between the material and the electrons has not been reached.

12. Yellow light has a lower frequency (longer wavelength) than green light, and red light has a lower frequency still. Since the photons of yellow light dont have sufficient energy to eject electrons from the metal, photons of red light certainly wont either. More intense yellow light would not eject electrons either, since it is only the photon energy that matters. Violet light on the other hand has a higher frequency than green light, so we would expect electrons to be ejected by violet light regardless of the intensity.

Problems
2. Strategy The energy of a photon of EM radiation with frequency f is E = hf . The frequency and wavelength are related by f = c.

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College Physics

Chapter 27: Early Quantum Physics and the Photon

Solution Compute the energy. hc 1240 eV nm E = hf = = = 1.8 eV 7.0 102 nm 4. Strategy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from silver is the work function for silver. The work function is related to the threshold frequency f 0 by = hf 0 . Solution Compute the minimum energy.

= hf 0 = (4.136 1015 eV s)(1.04 1015 Hz) = 4.30 eV


6. (a) Strategy The threshold wavelength is 0 = 288 nm. The threshold wavelength is related to the threshold frequency by 0 f0 = c. The work function is given by Eq. (27-8). Solution Find the work function. hc 1240 eV nm = = 4.31 eV = hf 0 = 288 nm 0 (b) Strategy Use Einsteins photoelectric equation. Solution Calculate the maximum kinetic energy. hc 1240 eV nm K max = hf = = 4.306 eV = 4.6 eV 140 nm 7. Strategy The work function for the metal is = 2.60 eV. Use Eq. (27-8) to find the maximum wavelength of the

photons that will eject electrons from the metal. The frequency and wavelength are related by f = c.
Solution Find the longest wavelength. c hc 1240 eV nm f 0 = = , so = = = 477 nm . h 2.60 eV 18. Strategy The minimum wavelength can be found by equating the photons energy and the electrons kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the electron is equal to the electric potential energy of the electron, eV. Use Eq. (27-9). Solution Find the minimum wavelength. hc hc 1240 eV nm hf max = = K = eV , so min = = = 31.0 pm . eV 40.0 103 eV min 21. (a) Strategy Use the Compton shift, Eq. (27-14). Solution Find the wavelength of the incident photon. h h = (1 cos ), so = (1 cos ) me c me c

e

= 29.5

= 2.81 1012 m

6.626 1034 J s

(9.109 1031 kg)(2.998 108 m s )

(1 cos 29.5)

= 2.50 1012 m .
(b) Strategy The kinetic energy of the electron plus the energy of the scattered photon is equal to the energy of the incident photon. Use Eq. (27-10).
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Chapter 27: Early Quantum Physics and the Photon

College Physics

Solution Find the kinetic energy of the electron. K e + E = E , so hc hc 1 1 = (1240 109 eV m) = 55.6 keV . Ke = E E = 12 m 2.81 10 12 m 2.4954 10 23. Strategy Use the Compton shift, Eq. (27-14). Solution (a) Find the Compton shift in wavelength. h = (1 cos ) = (2.426 pm)(1 cos80.0) = 2.00 pm mec (b) Find the wavelength of the scattered photon. = , so = + 2.00 pm = 1.50 102 pm + 2.00 pm = 152 pm . 24. Strategy Use the Compton shift, Eq. (27-14). Solution Find the wavelength of the incident photons. h = (1 cos ), so mec h = (1 cos ) = 124.65 pm (2.426 pm)(1 cos100.0) = 121.80 pm . mec
124.65 pm

= 80.0

= 100.0

28. Strategy The energy of the scattered photon is the initial photon energy minus the kinetic energy of the electron. The energy of the scattered photon is related to its wavelength by E = hf = hc . Solution Find the energy of the scattered photon. E = E K = 240.0 keV 190.0 keV = 50.0 keV Find the wavelength. hc 1240 eV nm = = 0.0248 nm = 24.8 pm = E 50.0 103 eV

29. Strategy The change in kinetic energy of the electron is the difference in the energies of the incident photon and the scattered photon. Solution Find the change in kinetic energy. hc hc 1240 eV nm 1240 eV nm K = E E = = = 2.4 104 eV 0.0100 nm 0.0124 nm

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