You are on page 1of 6

Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods

Method Description Benefits Limitations Key Areas Of Use

A presentation given to an Suitable for use with Potentially a very - conveying large
Lectures audience with little (if any) large groups of passive learning amounts of information
interaction or feed back learners, where experience. Lack of in a limited time
participant is limited learner participation, - encouraging and directing
because of numbers. requires learners to further private study
The lecture can be fully understand and
planned precisely assimilate the
and used to convey a information as it is
large amount of presented.
information in a short
period of time.

Formal A presentation incorporating Suitable for The learners have

a variety of techniques and conveying the opportunity to Any programme of learning
teaching allowing for participation by information to groups participate but may involving group teaching.
the learners in the form of of learners. not wish to do so.
questions and discussion. Participation by the The communication
learners may keep will then be all one
their interest and lead way and the session
to a degree of will be little different
involvement. from a lecture.

Demonstrations A session where a skill is Particularly suitable Does not guarantee

learned following a formal for teaching skills. A that learning will take Craft courses, laboratory
procedure such as: skill may be broken place. Must be work, office skills, musical
-description of skill; down into small consolidated by skills.
illustration of end-product; stages which can be practice in order to be
‘slow motion’ demonstration practiced, enabling effective as soon as
may be followed by one or expertise to be possible after the
more at normal speed developed in small demonstration. Works
-summary of main points of stages. well only if fully
demonstration; re-emphasis visible to all learners
of any health and safety and well performed.
procedures It may be too ‘slick’
-performance of skill under and , as a result, the
supervision learners may not fully
-feedback on performance appreciate the
complexity of the
task; conversely it
may be bungled and/
or poorly prepared
and , as a result, the
tutor may lose face
and the learners’
The demonstration
must be clearly
visible to the whole

Team teaching The work of several classes -economise on -organisation may Coursers which:
taking the same course is specialist staff become too rigid -require elaborate
closely co-ordinated. -enables staff to -lectures to several demonstration, films,
Teachers taking those concentrate on their groups gathered outside speakers
classes work as a team, particular special together may be -have larger numbers of
taking different roles with interests un-stimulating for learners and few specialist
groups of varying size. -frees staff for learners and strain lecturers
supporting activities for lecturers and -have well motivated
; preparing material, may provide learners.
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
Method Description Benefits Limitations Key Areas Of Use

marking , etc. problem of note

-gives learners making and
contact with several participation
tutors rather than -rooms of the right
one size may not be
-enables new available
lecturers to be
inducted and the
work of absent
lecturers to be
-several groups may
be taught at the
same time by one

Search or Learners are placed in -allows learners to Poorly motivated Particularly successful
discovery situations requiring self- demonstrate and learners may with more highly
directed learning under develop a wide regard the freedom motivated learners.
the tutor’s general range of skills and of learner – Underpins the move
guidance. Exercise, persona; qualities. centred strategies towards competence –
tasks or games are used These include the as an opportunity based education and
– enabling learners to ability to show to do very little. training with its highly
make their own initiative, to take individualized approach
discoveries. responsibility and and emphasis on self-
plan , to solve directed learning.
problems, make
decisions and
-is a highly active
and participative
form of learning.
-opportunity for
involvement may
encourage poorly
motivated learners

Discussion Knowledge, ideas and Particularly -learners may stray To follow up a visit or a
opinions on particular suitable where: from the subject- talk by a visiting speaker
subjects are freely -the content matters or fail to or the showing of a film
exchanged among the involves matters of discuss it usefully or video. Of course
tutor and learners. opinion -whole session many of the best
-tutors aim to may be unfocused discussions are
change attitudes. and woolly spontaneous and
Useful for obtaining -learners may unplanned.
feedback about the become
learners’ level of entrenched in their
understanding and attitudes rather
ability to apply than be prepared
knowledge. to change them
-group leader may
talk too much,
intervene too
readily to fill
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
Method Description Benefits Limitations Key Areas Of Use

Role play Learners practice being -learners can Learners may: The training of social
in particular roles by practice and -be embarrassed workers, managers and
acting out a face-to-face receive advice -suffer loss of others involved in
situation that represents and criticism in the confidence personal relationships;
real life-work situation safety of a learning -not take the role the training of tutors,
for instance. Each situation play seriously through microteaching.
participant should have -practice in role
sufficient background play provides
information to allow a guidelines for
proper understanding of future behavior
the part to be played. - learners gain
insight into the
motives and
attitude of other
- a highly active
experience that
enables learners
to draw their own
conclusions and
formulate their
own needs

Case Studies A history of an event or -particular suitable Learners may not -courses focusing on
set of circumstances where a cool look realize that human behaviour
where the relevant at a problem or set decisions taken in -training in decision-
details are examined by of circumstances the training making (management)
the learners. Case free from the situation are -diagnostic work in any
studies fall into two pressures of the different from those subject area
broad categories: actual event is which have to be
beneficial made ‘on the spot’
-Those in which the -useful opportunity in a life situation
learners diagnose the to exchange ideas
causes of a particular about solutions to
problem or draw common work
conclusions about a problems
certain situation
-Those in which the
learners set out to solve
a particular problem

Simulation Learners may be asked -a highly active -must be realistic -teaching practice
to undertake a particular form of learning and the expected personnel selection
task, such as solving a -particularly result reasonably -courses for armed
problem using the same suitable for any attainable by all forces and ‘emergency’
procedures as those situation where learners services- police, first aid,
which operate in real life learners need to -may be expensive fire
situation. Simulation practise making and time onsuming -in-service training
often involves a practice choices and to prepare industry and commercial
session or a test of following through / public sector
knowledge acquired the implications of organisations
prior to the exercise their choices
-frequently used
instead of formal
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
Method Description Benefits Limitations Key Areas Of Use

tests to find out

how much learners
have assimilated
and how well they
can apply new

Games/ ice Games take all kinds of -similar to those of Badly handled they -can be used to good
breakers forms but often involve role plays can fall flat, effect in most subject
competition (and -allow participation embarrassing or areas – but must be
cooperation), teams, by learners of even alienating used tactfully and
points, scoring etc. They varying ability and antagonizing skillfully in appropriate
are often used to -add variety / assist learners situations
simulate real-life in problem-solving -management education
situations and allow and in
learners to experience understanding
roles where they are inter-personal
required to make relationships
decisions and present to -can be used to
case. introduce
Ice breakers can be competition (or
used when a group first promote co-
meets to establish a operation) and
good rapport quickly, provide motivation
enable learners to get to
know each other and
help diffuse possible
tensions or they may be
used at the beginning of
regular sessions to
establish an appropriate
group atmosphere

Individual /group These may be longer than -both stimulate and Project must have -as part of a process of
class work exercises – assess initiative and learners’ full interest formal continuous
projects and giving the learner much creativity and co-operation. assessment
assignments greater opportunity for the -provide feedback on Assignments may be -in practical courses, work-
display of initiative and learners’ personal copied or taken from based courses, and
creative ideas. The qualities as well as a limited range of integrated work
particular task may be their range of sources.
negotiated with the tutor, knowledge and
but the strategy to follow to attitudes.
meet the objectives is left to
the learner to decide.

Projects or assignments are

often integrated activities –
involving more than one
Seminars Assignments for individuals - can be challenging -help may be needed -optional parts of a course
or groups who report on a and stimulating with stuffy, -to assess learners abilities
topic and lead discussion experience presentation skills
-help develop skills
involved in stating
and arguing a case,
making a
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
Method Description Benefits Limitations Key Areas Of Use

Small Groups/ Groups of learners are split -provide an -provision of sufficient -management training
into smaller sub groups to opportunity for basic information is -in service training; often
Syndicates work ( sometimes in learners to show essential used in conjunction with
competition with the other initiative -group work activity simulation exercises where
groups) on related -can be highly must be well planned groups work concurrently
problems/ issues motivating and prepared and on the same ( or different)
seen to be relevant life-like problems

Brain –storming A group is given a topic or -a good method for -requires good group Buzz groups are a way of
question and for five or ten introducing a topic management and splitting learners into sub-
minutes members say -makes everyone feel timing groups. The term describes
anything that occurs to involved and valued the common practice of
them in connection with it. A as a contributor briefly dividing up a group
recorder writes up anything -often helps to throw of learners into sub-groups
that is said however new or unexpected to discuss an issue or topic
irrelevant silly or light on a topic focused on by, for instance
challengeable – on a board -stimulates creative a video –before full group
or flip chart. thinking discussion. One of the
At the end of the members of each buzz
brainstorming members group can act as a recorder
elaborate on their of information and spokes
comments and can discuss person at the stage when
and evaluate all the ideas the large group has
produced. The following reconvened – the plenary
ground rules are important: stage.
-call out suggestions in any -particularly useful for
order problem-solving
-don’t explain or justify your
-don’t comment initially on
other people’s suggestions
Individual/ A more personal -useful for -insufficient time The development of
small/group exchange or opinion and reviewing progress may be available competence based
tutorials feedback, often on a one and discussion, for tutorials. education and training,
to one basis specific with its highly
assignments and individualized approach,
projects. will require tutors to
-an opportunity to spend more time
provide individual coaching individual
counselling and learners, helping with
guidance study problems,
negotiating and
renegotiating targets and
generally providing
guidance and support on
an individual basis.

Learning-group May take the form of May be extremely -learners may have Useful in most learning
informal or occasional motivating – insufficient programmes.
meetings between two especially where experience or Particularly valuable in
or more learners or self- contact with a tutor knowledge of topic open/flexible learning
help groups meeting on is limited -personality
a regular basis clashes may occur
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
Method Description Benefits Limitations Key Areas Of Use

Open learning Open learning is the Particularly useful Open learning Where learners are well
term used to describe where access to requires motivated and willing to
any form of learning conventional investment in high work independently for
where the provider courses is quality materials significant periods of
enables individuals restricted (e.g. for and in training time.
choice over any one or domestic, work or tutorial and
more of a number of geographical administrative staff
aspects of learning. It reasons). Learners to adopt a more
frequently involves the can work through flexible, learner-
use of materials open learning centred role.
developed specially to materials at their Where such
allow independent own pace- often at investment is
learning. The tutor’s role home or during lacking learners
is usually a combination quiet times at work can rapidly
of ‘resource manager’ – although the become
guide and advisor. materials may be demotivated
used in a college – especially where
based workshop. there are repeated
An individualized problems
approach is being
embodied in the
move towards
competence based
education and
training and the
introduction of
National Vocational
Qualifications. This
is likely to lead to
increasing use of
open learning in
the education