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# Trimorphic Number

A number

## are the same as

. 49 is trimorphic since

(Wells

1986, p. 124). The first few are 1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 24, 25, 49, 51, 75, 76, 99, 125, 249, 251, 375, 376, 499, ...

Narcissistic Number

An

## -narcissistic number. It is also

sometimes known as an Armstrong number, perfect digital invariant (Madachy 1979), or plus perfect
number. Hardy (1993) wrote, "There are just four numbers, after unity, which are the sums of the cubes of
their digits:

, and

These are odd facts, very suitable for puzzle columns and likely to amuse amateurs, but there is nothing in
them which appeals to the mathematician." Narcissistic numbers therefore generalize these "unappealing"
numbers to other powers (Madachy 1979, p. 164).

The smallest example of a narcissistic number other than the trivial 1-digit numbers is

(1)

The first few are given by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 153, 370, 371, 407, 1634, 8208, 9474, 54748, ... (Sloane's
A005188).

base-10

-narcissistic numbers

1 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
3 153, 370, 371, 407
4 1634, 8208, 9474
5 54748, 92727, 93084
6 548834
7 1741725, 4210818, 9800817, 9926315

## 8 24678050, 24678051, 88593477

9 146511208, 472335975, 534494836, 912985153
10 4679307774
32164049650, 32164049651, 40028394225, 42678290603, 44708635679, 49388550606,
11
82693916578, 94204591914
14 28116440335967
16 4338281769391370, 4338281769391371
17 21897142587612075, 35641594208964132, 35875699062250035
19 1517841543307505039, 3289582984443187032, 4498128791164624869, 4929273885928088826
20 63105425988599693916
21 128468643043731391252, 449177399146038697307
21887696841122916288858, 27879694893054074471405, 27907865009977052567814,
23
28361281321319229463398, 35452590104031691935943
24 174088005938065293023722, 188451485447897896036875, 239313664430041569350093
1550475334214501539088894, 1553242162893771850669378, 3706907995955475988644380,
25
3706907995955475988644381, 4422095118095899619457938
121204998563613372405438066, 121270696006801314328439376,
27 128851796696487777842012787, 174650464499531377631639254,
177265453171792792366489765
14607640612971980372614873089, 19008174136254279995012734740,
29
19008174136254279995012734741, 23866716435523975980390369295
1145037275765491025924292050346, 1927890457142960697580636236639,
31
2309092682616190307509695338915
32 17333509997782249308725103962772
33 186709961001538790100634132976990, 186709961001538790100634132976991
34 1122763285329372541592822900204593

35 12639369517103790328947807201478392, 12679937780272278566303885594196922
37 1219167219625434121569735803609966019
38 12815792078366059955099770545296129367
39 115132219018763992565095597973971522400, 115132219018763992565095597973971522401

As summarized in the table above, a total of 88 narcissistic numbers exist in base 10, as proved by
D. Winter in 1985 and verified by D. Hoey. T. A. Mendes Oliveira e Silva gave the full sequence in a posting
(Article 42889) to sci.math on May 9, 1994. These numbers exist for only 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16,
17, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, and 39 (Sloane's A114904) digits. The series of
smallest narcissistic numbers of

digits are 0, (none), 153, 1634, 54748, 548834, ... (Sloane's A014576).

## -narcissistic numbers can exist only for

, since

(2)

for

Sloane

base-

narcissistic numbers

1, 2, 5, 8, 17

## 4 A010344 1, 2, 3, 28, 29, 35, 43, 55, 62, 83, 243

5 A010346 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 18, 28, 118, 289, 353, 419, 4890, 4891, 9113
6 A010348 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 99, 190, 2292, 2293, 2324, 3432, 3433, 6197, ...
7 A010350 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 25, 32, 45, 133, 134, 152, 250, 3190, ...
8 A010354 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 20, 52, 92, 133, 307, 432, 433, ...
9 A010353 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 41, 50, 126, 127, 468, ...

## . A table of the largest

known narcissistic numbers in various bases is given by Pickover (1995). A tabulation of narcissistic
numbers in various bases is given by Corning.

## -digit numbers which are the sums

of any single power of their digits. For example, 4150 is a 4-digit number which is the sum of fifth powers of
its digits. Since the number of digits is not equal to the power to which they are taken for such numbers, they
are not narcissistic numbers. The smallest numbers which are sums of any single positive power of their
digits are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 153, 370, 371, 407, 1634, 4150, 4151, 8208, 9474, ... (Sloane's A023052),
with powers 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 4, 4, ... (Sloane's A046074).

## -digit numbers equal to the sum of

th powers of

their digits (a finite sequence) are called Armstrong numbers or plus perfect number and are given by 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 153, 370, 371, 407, 1634, 8208, 9474, 54748, ... (Sloane's A005188).

## If the sum-of- th-powers-of-digits operation applied iteratively to a number

eventually returns to

, the

## smallest number in the sequence is called a -recurring digital invariant.

The numbers that are equal to the sum of consecutive powers of their digits are given by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 89, 135, 175, 518, 598, 1306, 1676, 2427, 2646798 (Sloane's A032799), e.g.,

(3)

## th powers of the digits of a

-digit number

for

, 2, ... are 1, 2,

## 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1, 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, ... (Sloane's A101337).

A positive integer which is divisible by the sum of its digits, also called a Niven number (Kennedy et al. 1980)
or a multidigital number (Kaprekar 1955). The first few are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18, 20, 21, 24, ...
(Sloane's A005349). Grundman (1994) proved that there is no sequence of more than 20 consecutive
Harshad numbers, and found the smallest sequence of 20 consecutive Harshad numbers, each member of
which has

digits.

## Grundman (1994) defined an

the sum of its digits in base
sequences of consecutive

## or 3, there exists an infinite family of

Define an all-Harshad (or all-Niven) number as a positive integer which is divisible by the sum of its digits in

all bases

## . Then only 1, 2, 4, and 6 are all-Harshad numbers.

Prime number
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97.

Composite number
The first 105 composite numbers (sequence A002808 in OEIS) are
4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38,
39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69,
70, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99,
100, 102, 104, 105, 106, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122,
123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 140.

Powerful number
A powerful number is a positive integer m that for every prime number p dividing m, p2
also divides m. Equivalently, a powerful number is the product of a square and a cube,
that is, a number m of the form m = a2b3, where a and b are positive integers. Powerful
numbers are also known as squareful, square-full, or 2-full. Paul Erds and George
Szekeres studied such numbers and Solomon W. Golomb named such numbers powerful.
The following is a list of all powerful numbers between 1 and 1000:
1, 4, 8, 9, 16, 25, 27, 32, 36, 49, 64, 72, 81, 100, 108, 121, 125, 128, 144, 169, 196, 200,
216, 225, 243, 256, 288, 289, 324, 343, 361, 392, 400, 432, 441, 484, 500, 512, 529, 576,
625, 648, 675, 676, 729, 784, 800, 841, 864, 900, 961, 968, 972, 1000

Square-free integer
In mathematics, a square-free, or quadratfrei, integer is one divisible by no perfect
square, except 1. For example, 10 is square-free but 18 is not, as it is divisible by 9 = 32.
The smallest square-free numbers are
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38,
39, ...

An Achilles number is a number that is powerful but not a perfect power. A positive
integer n is a powerful number if, for every prime divisor or factor p of n, p2 is also a
divisor. In other words, every prime factor appears at least squared. All Achilles numbers
are powerful. However, not all powerful numbers are Achilles numbers: only those that
cannot be represented as mk, where m and k are positive integers greater than 1.
Achilles numbers, put laconically, are powerful but imperfect (as in not a perfect power)
like Achilles, a hero of the Trojan war.

##  Sequence of Achilles numbers

A number n = p1a1p2a2pkak is powerful if min(a1, a2, , ak) 2. If in addition gcd(a1,
a2, , ak) = 1 the number is an Achilles number.
The Achilles numbers up to 5000 are:
72, 108, 200, 288, 392, 432, 500, 648, 675, 800, 864, 968, 972, 1125, 1152, 1323, 1352,
1372, 1568, 1800, 1944, 2000, 2312, 2592, 2700, 2888, 3087, 3200, 3267, 3456, 3528,
3872, 3888, 4000, 4232, 4500, 4563, 4608, 5000 (sequence A052486 in OEIS).

 Examples
108 is a powerful number. Its prime factorization is
, and thus its prime factors
2
2
are 2 and 3. Both 2 = 4 and 3 = 9 are divisors of 108. However, 108 cannot be
represented as mk, where m and k are positive integers greater than 1, so 108 is an
Achilles number.
Finally, 784 is not an Achilles number. It is a powerful number, because not only are 2
and 7 its only prime factors, but also 22 = 4 and 72 = 49 are divisors of it. Nonetheless, it
is a perfect power:

## So it is not an Achilles number.

Perfect number
In mathematics, a perfect number is defined as a positive integer which is the sum of its
proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of the positive divisors excluding the number
itself. Equivalently, a perfect number is a number that is half the sum of all of its positive
divisors (including itself), or (n) = 2n.

The first perfect number is 6, because 1, 2, and 3 are its proper positive divisors, and
1 + 2 + 3 = 6. Equivalently, the number 6 is equal to half the sum of all its positive
divisors: ( 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 ) / 2 = 6.
The next perfect number is 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14. This is followed by the perfect
numbers 496 and 8128

Practical number

## In mathematics, and in particular number theory, a practical number or panarithmic

number is a positive integer n such that all smaller positive integers can be represented
as sums of distinct divisors of n. For example, 12 is a practical number because all the
numbers from 1 to 11 can be expressed as sums of its divisors 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6: as well as
these divisors themselves, we have 5=3+2, 7=6+1, 8=6+2, 9=6+3, 10=6+3+1, and
11=6+3+2.
The sequence of practical numbers (sequence A005153 in OEIS) begins
1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 18, 20, 24, 28, 30, 32, 36, 40, 42, 48, 54, ...

Practical numbers were used by Fibonacci in his Liber Abaci (1202) in connection with
the problem of representing rational numbers as Egyptian fractions. Fibonacci does not
formally define practical numbers, but he gives a table of Egyptian fraction expansions
for fractions with practical denominators (Sigler 2002). In the modern mathematical
literature, beginning with Srinivasan (1948), practical numbers have been studied for
their similarities with prime numbers. A characterization by Stewart makes it possible to
determine whether a number is practical by examining its prime factorization. Any even
perfect number and any power of two is also a practical number.