Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 90

# PART I FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING 1.

1 DEFINITION OF TERMS

OF

CONTROL

Control engineering - engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. Control the process in a system in which one or several input variables influence other output variables as a result of the laws pertaining to the system. Controlling is characterized by the open-loop sequence of actions via the single transfer element or the control chain. ( according to DIN 19226) Control engineering is closely related to electrical engineering, as electronic circuits can often be easily described using control theory techniques. The field of control within chemical engineering is often known as process control. It deals primarily with the control of variables in a chemical process in a plant. It employs many of the principles in control engineering, and is a well-established field in its own right.

Other engineering disciplines also overlap with control engineering, as it can be applied to any system for which a suitable model can be derived. As shown in the Fig 1, the input variables xe ..acting on this system are linked in a self- contained box (representative of the system) and issued as output variables xa.. and these variables now act on the energy flow or mass flow to be controlled.
Fig 1.1

## xe1 xe2 xe3 In general: xa = f ( xe )

xa1 xa2

The term control is often applied to the complete system in which controlling takes place, not only to the control operation itself. Fig 1.2 shows the block diagram representing the control itself together with the system to be controlled.

## Fig 1.2 Distubance z1 Controlled System Energy flow/ Mass flow

Controller Output y

## Sequence of actions (Action loop)

Controller

Disturbance z2

Example 1.1: If the output of an air compressor is controlled by the quantity drawn in, then: The opening and closing of the valve is the control operation

The valve, whose setting affects the quantity drawn in, is the control element

## The opening provided by the valve is the controlled variable y.

The handwheel with which the valve is actuated is the control device.

The varying load on the compressed air system caused by the users that affects the control system is the disturbance z. This also applies to speed fluctuations or variations in the degree of efficiency caused by the compressor. On the account of the open action loop of the control system, it is not possible to compensate for such disturbance variables.

## Process Control (process control engineering)

4

an engineering discipline that deals with architecture, mechanisms, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process. uses analog sensors to monitor real-world signals and digital computers to do the analysis and controlling; makes extensive use of analog/digital and digital/analog conversion. In practice, process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms:

Discrete Found in many manufacturing, motion and packaging applications, discrete process control systems use a device called a programmable logic controller (PLC) to read a set of digital and analog inputs, apply a set of logic statements, and generate a set of outputs. Robotic assembly, such as that found in automotive production, can also be characterized as discrete process control. Batch Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in specific ways for particular duration to produce an intermediate or end result. One example is the production of adhesives and glues, which normally
5

require the mixing of raw materials in a heated vessel for a period of time to form a quantity of end product.

Continuous Often, a physical system is represented though variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time. The control of the water temperature in a heating jacket, for example, is an example of continuous process control.

Hybrid - applications having elements of discrete, batch and continuous process control

What is a control system? a device or set of devices that manage the behavior of other devices.

an interconnection of components (mechanical, electrical, optical, thermal or hydraulic) connected or related in such a manner as to command, direct, or regulate itself or another system to maintain a desired output.

What is a controller? a component of a system that makes it operate within desired limits.

a device that attempts to control the states or outputs of a dynamic system. Generally, it accomplishes this using feedback to correct disturbances to the system; known as closed-loop control.

## Types of control loops:

open-loop controller does not use feedback to control states or outputs of a dynamic system. Open-loop control is used for systems that are sufficiently well characterized to predict what inputs are necessary to achieve the desired states or outputs. E.g. the velocity of a motor may be well characterized for the voltage fed into it, in which case feedback may not be necessary. closed-loop controller uses feedback to control states or outputs of a dynamic system.

## Fig. 1.3 Closed-loop Control System Disturbance z1

Controlled System

## Controlled Variable x Energy/ Mass flow

Sequence of actions

## Controller output (Error) y

Controller

Command variable w

Disturbance z2

Example 2: house heating/ air-conditioning system: In this example: thermostat acts as the controller which directs the activities of the heater. heater or the air-conditioner is the processor that warms or cools the air inside the house. the air coming into the heater or air-conditioner is the input. the air going out of the heater or air conditioner is its output. the air temperature readings inside the house are the feedbacks. and finally, the house is the environment in which the heating/air-conditioning system operates.

What is feedback? In cybernetics and control theory, feedback is a process whereby some proportion or in general, function, of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. Often this is done intentionally, in order to control the dynamic behavior of the system. Feedback may be:

negative, which tends to reduce output, or positive, which tends to increase output.
9

Automatic control process in which the controlled variable is continuously measured and compared with another variable, the command variable, the process being influenced according to the result of this comparison by modifying to match the command variable. The sequence of actions resulting from this takes place in a closed loop, the control loop. The purpose of the closed loop control is to match the value of the controlled variable to the value specified by the command variable even if perfect equalization is not attained under the prevailing circumstances.
(according to DIN 19226)

## Example 3 Process: Desired outcome: cooling a room

reach/ maintain a defined temperature constant over time, say 20 o C Controlled variable: temperature Input variable: Setpoint: temperature, since it is measured by a thermometer and is used to decide whether to cool or not 20 o C

10

Manipulated variable: state of the cooler (the setting of the valve allowing chilled water to flow through it) Controlled System the part of the total system to be influenced. Actuator element that acts on the mass flow or energy flow to be controlled and is located at the input to the controlled system. Actuating path path along which the actions determining a control operation are transmitted. Controller part of the actuating path causing the controlled system to be influenced by the actuator; the control or automatic control proper whose elements link the input signals in accordance with the respective laws. Disturbance point - point at which a factor acts that is not influenced by the system and which disturbs the condition to be maintained.

11

Variables and their ranges in the actuating path: Controller output y output from the controller and at the same time input variable to the control system. Controller output range yh range within which the output maybe adjusted. Desired value xA value to be acted upon by the control Control range xAh range within which the desired value may be when the control is operated properly. Command variable w value introduced from the outside to the control chain or to the control loop whose output value is to follow in a predetermined manner (ie. setpoint device in close loop control, input signal in open loop control.) wh range of command variable Disturbance variable z variable acting from the outside that influences the intended action of the control. zh range within which the disturbance variable may be allowed without adversely affecting the operability of the control.

## What are the common types of control systems?

12

The common types of controllers, with many variations and/ or combinations of which are: Logic controls Pure logic controls were historically implemented by electricians with networks of relays, and designed with a notation called ladder logic. Nowadays, most such systems are constructed with programmable logic controllers. Logic controllers usually respond to switches or photoelectric cells, and cause the machinery to perform some operation. Logic systems are great for sequencing mechanical operations in places like elevators and factories, but notably poor at managing continuous process controls in such places as oil refineries and steel mills. Logic systems are quite easy to design, and can handle very complex operations. Logic systems may be designed with a system similar to Boolean logic. (Logic gates that are primarily electronically-controlled but can also be constructed from electromagnetic relays, electronic diodes, fluidics, optical or even mechanical elements are commonly employed.

## Linear or feedback controls

13

Linear controls use negative feedback to keep some desired process within an acceptable range. For example, a thermostat is a simple negative feedback control; when the temperature goes below a threshold, control starts. Systems that include feedback are prone to hunting, which is oscillation of output resulting from improperly tuned inputs of first positive then negative feedback. In the furnace example, the valve may open and shut indefinitely in a cycle as the furnace heats, and then overruns the target temperature. This is bad because it stresses the system. In a furnace, the constantly turning valve will quickly wear out. More expensively, the fluctuating temperature causes expansion and contraction all through the furnace, causing unnecessary, very expensive mechanical wear. Most systems have similar problems. Often, if the response of the system is slowed down enough to prevent oscillation, the system doesn't respond fast enough to work in normal situations. To resolve the problems, the most common feedback loop scheme has mathematical extensions to cope with the future and the past. This type of loop is called a Proportional-IntegralDerivative Loop, or PID loop. If the error curve is graphed over time, the past is considered by adding a number proportional to the area under the curve over a certain amount of time in the past (this is the "integration"
14

part). The future is considered by the adding a number proportional to the slope of a line tangent to the error's curve at the present time (this is the "differential" part). A PID loop always adds its result to the current output, so that it effortlessly floats to a new steady output level. Most real feedback loops are concerned about wearing out control machinery like valves, by adjusting them many times per second. Therefore, they often have a deadband, a region around the current value in which no control action occurs. In commercial controls, the deadband is programmable. Another common method is to filter the feedback loop. A filter eliminates undesirable frequencies (cycles) from the system under control, which perfectly eliminates oscillations. Many systems oscillate at just one frequency. By filtering out that frequency, one can use very "stiff" feedback and the system can be very responsive without shaking itself apart. Some feedback controls operate through complex indirect effects. For example, in an airplane's autopilot, the flight plan determines the desired numbers (where to move) that drives everything. Each mechanical control has a differential equation that takes the desired movement in six different axes (roll, pitch, yaw, forward, back and up), and calculates the control's position. Usually each input and output number is filtered for particular oscillations of the aircraft or the control part.
15

The most complex linear control systems developed to date are in oil refineries (Model Predictive Control). The chemical reaction paths and control systems are normally designed together using specialized computeraided-design software. When the automated controlsystem design techniques pioneered by oil refinery controls were applied to aircraft control systems, they caused a revolution, speeding design times by a hundred-fold or more. Now, the core codes of many modern aircraft autopilots are actually themselves coded by computer programs. Feedback loops can be combined and modified in many ways. Usually if a system has several measurements to be controlled, a feedback loop will be present for each of them. Fuzzy logic Fuzzy logic is an attempt to get the easy design of logic controllers, and yet control continuously-varying systems. Basically, a measurement in a fuzzy logic system can be partly true, that is, if yes is 1, and no is 0, a fuzzy measurement can be between 0 and 1. The rules of the system are written in natural language, and translated into fuzzy logic. For example, the design for a furnace would start with: "If the temperature is too high, reduce the fuel to the furnace. If the temperature is too low, increase the fuel to the furnace."
16

Measurements from the real world (such as the temperature of a furnace) are converted to values between 0 and 1 by seeing where they fall on a triangle. Usually the tip of the triangle is the maximum possible value, which translates to "1." Fuzzy logic then modifies Boolean logic to be arithmetical. Usually the "not" operation is "output = 1 input", the "and" operation is "output = input 1 multiplied by input.2", and "or" is "output = 1 - ((1 input 1) multiplied by (1 input 2))". The last step is to "defuzzify" an output. Basically, the fuzzy calculations make a value between zero and one. That number is used to select a value on a line whose slope and height converts the fuzzy value to a real-world output number. The number then controls real machinery. If the triangles are defined correctly, and rules are right, the result can be a good control system. When a robust fuzzy design is reduced into a single, quick calculation, it begins to resemble a conventional feedback loop solution. For this reason, many control engineers think one should not bother with it. However, the fuzzy logic paradigm may provide scalability for large control systems, where conventional methods become unwieldy or costly to derive. Fuzzy electronics is an electronic technology that uses fuzzy logic, instead of the two-value logic more commonly used in digital electronics.
17

What is a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)? PLC is a microprocessor based device with either modular or integral input/output circuitry that monitors the status of field connected "sensor" inputs and controls the attached output "actuators" (motor starters, solenoids, pilot lights/displays, speed drives, valves, etc.) according to a user-created logic program stored in the microprocessor's battery-backed RAM memory. a small computer used for automation of real-world processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. Where older automated systems would use hundreds or thousands of relays and cam timers, a single PLC can be programmed as a replacement. Programmable controllers were initially adopted by the automotive manufacturing industry, where software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control panels. the functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include capabilities beyond typical relay control: sophisticated motion control, process control, Distributed Control System and complex networking Inputs and Outputs of PLCs:

Digital signals behave as switches, yielding simply an On or Off signal (logical 1 or 0, respectively). These
18

are interpreted as boolean values by the PLC. Pushbuttons, limit switches, and photo-eyes are examples of devices providing a digital signal. Digital signals generally use either voltage or current, where a specific range is denominated as On (logical 1) and another as Off (logical 0). A typical PLC might use 24VDC I/O (with values near 24V representing On and values near 0V representing Off). Initially PLCs had only digital (discrete) I/O. Analog signals behave as volume controls, yielding a range of values between zero and full-scale. These are typically interpreted as integer values by the PLC, with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. Pressure, flow and temperature transducers, scales and gas leak detectors can provide analog signals. Analog signals generally use voltage or current as well, but do not have discrete ranges for On or Off. They define a range of valid values, typically the range in which the I/O device operates reliably. PLC models introduced in the last 20 years typically have more or less powerful functions for analog I/O.

PLCs of the modular type have a limited number of connections built in for signals such as digital inputs,
19

digital outputs, analog inputs and analog outputs. Typically, expansions are available if the base model does not have sufficient I/O. Rack-style PLCs have processor modules without I/O and separate I/O modules, which may occupy many racks giving thousands of discrete and analog inputs and outputs. Often a special high speed serial I/O link is used so that racks can be remotely mounted from the processor, thereby saving on wiring costs especially for large plants. The average amount of inputs installed in the world is three times that of outputs for both analog and digital. The need for this rises from the PLC's need to have redundant methods to monitor an instrument to appropriately control another. PLCs intended for use in larger I/O systems have peer-to-peer communication between processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to have individual control while allowing the sub-systems to coordinate over the communication link. These communication links are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations. Examples As an example, say the facility needs to store water in a tank. The water is used as needed, but spilling is not permitted. The PLC has two digital inputs from float switches, and a timer. The PLC controls two digital outputs to open and
20

close the two inlet valves into the tank, and an error light. The valves are one after the other so that either valve can turn off the water. This means that the water can be turned off even if one valve breaks. The valves have repeaters, little sensor switches, so the logic controller can sense whether they are open or closed. If both float switches are off (down) the PLC will open the valves to let more water in, and starts a timer. If both float switches are on, both valves turn off. When the timer is done, it turns off both valves anyway, to prevent spills, and if both switches are not on, and both valves closed, an error light turns on to indicate that a switch or valve is broken. A test button provides a way to restart the timer and retest the switches. The maintenance engineer will have a schedule to test such equipment. Another example might use a load cell (the sensor of a scale) that weighs the tank and a rate valve. The logic controller would use a PID feedback loop to control the rate valve. The load cell is connected to one of the PLC's analog inputs and the rate valve is connected to one of the PLC's analog outputs. This system fills the tank faster when there's less water in the tank. If the water level drops rapidly, the rate valve can be opened wide. If water is only dripping out of the tank, the rate valve adjusts to slowly drip water back into the tank. In this system, the tricky thing is adjusting the PID loop so the rate valve doesn't wear out from many continual small adjustments. Many PLCs have a
21

"deadband", a range of outputs in which no change is commanded. In this application, the deadband would be adjusted so the valve moves only for a significant change in rate. This will in turn minimize the motion of the valve, and reduce its wear. A real system might combine both approaches, using float switches and simple valves to prevent spills, and a rate sensor and rate valve to optimize refill rates. Programming PLCs programs are generally written in a special application on a personal computer then downloaded over a custom cable to the PLC. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile memory. Early PLCs were designed to be used by electricians who would learn PLC programming on the job. These PLC's were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic of relay logic. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Another method is State Logic, a Very High Level Programming Language designed to program PLCs based on State Transition Diagrams. Recently, the International standard IEC 61131-3 has become popular. IEC 61131-3 currently defines 5 programming languages for programmable control
22

systems: FBD (Function Block Diagram), LD (Ladder Diagram), ST (Structured Text, Pascal type language), IL (Instruction List) and SFC (Sequential Function Chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations. What is PID? A Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller or PID is a standard feedback loop component in industrial control applications. It measures an "output" of a process and controls an "input", with a goal of maintaining the output at a target value, which is called the "setpoint". An example of a PID application is the control of a process temperature, although it can be used to control any measurable variable which can be affected by manipulating some other process variable. For example, it can be used to control pressure, flow rate, chemical composition, force, speed or a number of other variables. The basic idea is that the controller reads a sensor. Then it subtracts the measurement from a desired "setpoint" to determine an "error". The error is then treated in three different ways simultaneously:

Proportional - To handle the present, the error is multiplied by a negative proportional constant P, and sent to the output. P represents the band over which a controller's output is proportional to the error of the
23

system. E.g. for a heater, a controller with a proportional band of 10 deg C and a setpoint of 20 deg C would have an output of 100% at 10 deg C, 50% at 15 Deg C and 10% at 19 deg C. Adding the change to the output makes the output self-adjusting. For example, if the burner were to get dirty, decreasing the heater's efficiency, the baseline output would just drift upwards a bit, and then restabilize. Integral - To handle the past, the error is integrated (or averaged, or summed) over a period of time, and then multiplied by a constant I, and added to the proportional output. I represents the steady state error of the system. Using the Proportional term alone it is not possible to reach a steady set point temperature. Real world processes are not perfect and are subject to a number of environmental variables. As these variables are often constant they can be measured and compensated for. Using the Proportional example above; at 19.9 deg C the controller output is 1%, at this temperature environmental losses through heat transmission are 3%. In this scenario the system controller will never be able to reach setpoint, however it can be corrected by introducing an Integral term, which will attempt to remove errors that last for some time. In practice, the Integral term of a controller only considers a relatively short history of the controller.
24

Derivative - To handle the future, the first derivative of the error (its rate of change) is calculated with respect to time, and multiplied by another constant D, and summed with the proportional and integral terms. The derivative term is used to govern a controller's response to a change in the system. The larger the derivative term the more rapidly the controller will respond to changes in the process value. This is a good thing to reduce when trying to dampen a controller's response to short term changes.

The generic transfer function for a PID controller is: H(s) = (Ds2 + Ps + I)/ (s + C); with C being a constant (typically .01 or .001). Tuning a PID loop There are several methods for tuning a PID loop. The choice of method will depend largely on whether or not the loop can be taken "offline" for tuning, and the response speed of the system. If the system can be taken offline, the best tuning method often involves subjecting the system to a step change in input, measuring the output as a function of time, and using this response to determine the control parameters.
25

If the system must remain online, one tuning method is to first set the I and D values to zero. Increase the P until the output of the loop oscillates. Then increase I until oscillation stops. Finally, increase D until the loop is acceptably quick to reach its setpoint. The best PID loop tuning usually overshoots slightly to reach the set-point more quickly, however some systems cannot accept overshoot. Effects of changes in parameters ParameterRise Time Overshoot P I D Settling S.S. Error Time Small Decrease Increase Decrease Change Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate Small Small Decrease Decrease Change Change

Another tuning method is formally known as the "ZieglerNichols method". It starts in the same way as the method described before: first set the I and D gains to zero and then increase the P gain until the output of the loop starts to oscillate. Write down the critical gain (Kc) and the oscillation period of the output (Pc). Then adjust the P, I and D controls as the table shows: Ziegler-Nichols method Control P Tr Td
26

P PI PID

## 0,5Kc 0,45Kc Pc/1,2 0,6Kc Pc/2 Pc/8

Problems The PID controller algorithm itself has few problems. Most problems arise from instrumentation connected to the controller. One common problem is "integral windup." It might take too long for the output value to ramp up to the necessary value when the loop first starts up. Sometimes this can be fixed with a more aggressive differential term. Sometimes the loop has to be "preloaded" with a starting output. Another option is to disable the integral function until the measured variable has entered the proportional band. Some PID loops control a valve or similar mechanical device. Wear of the valve or device can be a major maintenance cost. In these cases, the PID loop may have a "deadband." The calculated output must leave the deadband before the actual output will change. Then, a new deadband will be established around the new output value. Another problem with the differential term is that small amounts of noise can cause large amounts of change in the output. Sometimes it's helpful to filter the measurements, with a running average, or a low-pass
27

filter. However, low-pass filtering and derivative control cancel each other out, so reducing noise by instrumentation means is a much better choice. Alternatively, the differential band can be turned off in most systems with little loss of control. The proportional and differential terms can also produce undesirable results in systems subjected to instantaneous "step" inputs (such as when a computer changes the setpoint). To avoid this, some PID algorithms incorporate setpoint weighting where the setpoint and the process output are treated separately. Setpoint weighting introduces two parameters that are used to multiply the error entering the proportional and derivative terms to change the response to setpoint changes. The error in the integral term must be the true control error to avoid steady-state control errors. It should be noted that these parameters do not affect the response to load disturbances and measurement noise. In practice, PID controllers are usually used as PI controllers, especially when dealing with measurements involving significant noise or delay (e.g. chemical composition, temperature). Many industrial PID systems actually measure the differential of the output quantity, which is always continuous (i.e., never has a step function), and usually moves in the same direction as the error.
28

Theory Development of PID control originated from the observation that a proportional-only control can only eliminate the error between setpoint and process variable at one particular setpoint. At any other setting, there would be an offset between the setpoint and the true process value. Metaphorically, an operator could reset the controller setpoint by hand, until the actual process eventually stabilized at the desired value. In older control literature this is referred to "reset" action as a result. The derivative term reflects the ability to observe the rate of change of the process variable and again adjust the setpoint in anticipation of the final value. Again, an older term for this action is "rate". A PID loop can be mathematically characterized as a filter applied to a frequency-domain system. Mathematical PID loop tuning induces an impulse in the system, and then uses the controlled system's frequency response to design the PID loop values. In loops with response times of several minutes, mathematical loop tuning is recommended, because trial and error can literally take days just to find a stable set of loop values. Optimal values are harder, and yet can save a company huge amounts of money. Commercial software is available from several sources, and can easily pay for itself if a PID loop runs a large, or expensive process.
29

Some digital loop controllers offer a self-tuning feature in which very small setpoint changes are sent to the process, allowing the controller itself to calculate optimal tuning values.

Nomenclature Proportional Band is sometimes referred to as Gain Integral Band is sometimes referred to as Reset Derivative Band is sometimes referred to as Rate Gain and proportional band are related but inverse quantities. A controller setting of 100% proportional band means that a 100% change of the error signal (setpointprocess variable) will result in 100% change of the output, which is a gain of 1.0. A 20% proportional band indicates that 20% change in error gives a 100% output change, which is a gain of 5. There are three different forms of the PID controller. They are the standard or "non-interacting" form, the series or "interacting" form and the parallel form. The standard form is the ideal form where the terms are noninteracting in the time domain. The series or "interacting" algorithm applies the gain term to both integral and derivative terms (think of a PD and PI controller in series); this is effectively how older pneumatic and some analog controllers worked. It is the
30

most restricted form of the three. The parallel form is the most general, "mathematician's" form and is the most flexible of the three. However, it is also the form where the parameters have little physical interpretation. It is mostly used when tuning the PID algorithm mathematically. The series form is said to be the most intuitive to tune and is the classical form. The standard form admits complex zeros, which is useful when controlling oscillatory systems. Furthermore, the parallel form allows for pure proportional or integral action.

How to get one PID controller functionality is a common feature of programmable logic controllers (PLC). They can also be implemented with any physical system that can produce ratiometric behavior and integration. Mechanical systems (usually the cheapest) can use a lever, spring and a mass. Pneumatic controllers were once common, but have been largely replaced by digital electronic controllers. Electronic systems are very cheap, and can be made by using an amplifier, a capacitor and a resistance. Software PID loops are the most stable, because they do not wear out, and their high expense has been decreasing.

31

Automobile cruise control is an example of an application area outside of the process industries. In this case, the system is a car. The goal of cruise control is to keep the car at a constant speed. Here, the output variable of the system is the speed of the car. The primary means to control the speed of the car is the amount of gas being fed into the engine. A simple way to implement cruise control is to lock the position of the throttle the moment the driver engages cruise control. This is fine if the car is driving on perfectly flat terrain. On hilly terrain, the car will slow down when going uphill and accelerate when going downhill; something its driver may find highly undesirable. This type of controller is called an open-loop controller because there is no direct connection between the output of the system and its input. One of the main disadvantages of this type of controller is the lack of sensitivity to the dynamics of the system under control. What is a sensor? A sensor is a technological device or biological organ that detects, or senses, a signal or physical condition and chemical compounds.

32

Artificial sensors Most sensors are electrical or electronic, although other types exist. A sensor is a type of transducer. Sensors are either direct indicating (e.g. a mercury thermometer or electrical meter) or are paired with an indicator (perhaps indirectly through an analog to digital converter, a computer and a display) so that the value sensed becomes human readable. Aside from other applications, sensors are heavily used in medicine, industry and robotics. Since a signal is a form of energy, sensors can be classified according to the type of energy they detect.

For example: light sensors: photocells, photodiodes, phototransistors, photoelectric tubes, CCDs, Nichols radiometer, Image sensor sound sensors: microphones, hydrophones, seismic sensors. temperature sensors: thermometers, thermocouples, temperature sensitive resistors (thermistors), bi-metal thermometers and thermostats heat sensors: bolometer, calorimeter radiation sensors: Geiger counter, dosimeter subatomic particle sensors: scintillometer, cloud chamber, bubble chamber electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter electrical voltage sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter
33

electrical power sensors: watt hour meters magnetism sensors: magnetic compass, flux gate compass, magnetometer, Hall effect device pressure sensors: barometer, barograph, pressure gauge, air speed indicator, rate of climb indicator, variometer gas and liquid flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer, flow meter, gas meter, water meter chemical sensors: ion-selective electrodes, pH glass electrodes, redox electrodes, lambda sensors motion sensors: radar gun, speedometer, tachometer, odometer, turn coordinator orientation sensors: gyroscope, artificial horizon, ring laser gyroscope mechanical sensors: position sensor, selsyn, switch, strain gauge proximity sensor- A type of distance sensor but less sophisticated. Only detects a specific proximity. A combination of a photocell and LED or laser. Applications in cell phones, paper detector in photocopiers, auto power standby/shutdown mode in notebooks and other devices. distance sensor (noncontacting) Several technologies can be applied to sense distance: Initialization free sensing scanning laser- A narrow beam of laser light is scaned over the scene by a mirror. A photocell sensor located at an offset responds when the beam is reflected from an object to the sensor, whence the distance is calculated by triangulation. acoustic: uses ultrasound time-of-flight echo return. Used in mid 20th century polaroid cameras and applied also to robotics. Even older systems like Fathometers (and fish finders) and other 'Tactical
34

Active' Sonar Sound Navigation And Ranging) systems in naval applications which mostly use audible sound frequencies. focus. A large aperature lens may be focused by a servo system. The distance to an in-focus scene element may be determined by the lens setting. binocular. Two images gathered on a known baseline are brought into coincidence by a system of mirrors and prisms. The adjustment is used to determine distance. Used in some cameras (called range-finder cameras) and on a larger scale in early battleship range-finder electromagnetic time-of-flight. Generate an electromagnetic impulse, broadcast it, then measure the time a reflected pulse takes to return. Commonly known as - RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) are now accompanied by the analogous LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), all being electromagnetic waves. Acoustic sensors are a special case in that a pressure transducer is used to generate a compression wave in a fluid medium (air or water) light time-of-flight. Used in modern surveying equipment, a short pulse of light is emitted and returned by a retroreflector. The return time of the pulse is proportional to the distance and is related to atmospheric density in a predictable way. Initialized systems. These require starting from a known distance and accumulate incremental changes in measurements.

35

coherent laser- interference between transmitted and reflective lightwaves are counted and the distance is calculated. Capable of high precision. whisker sensor- A type of touch sensor and proximity sensor.

What is a transducer? A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy to another, or responds to a physical parameter. A transducer is in its fundamental form a passive component. If the component is electrical then it generally has two electrical terminals. Transducers are devices that transform an input signal to an output signal of a different type.
List of transducers Electrochemical: battery fuel cell pH probe Rechargeable battery Electromechanical: actuator circuit breaker dynamo
36

Electroactive polymers galvanometer MEMS motor, linear motor piezoelectric quartz relay servomechanism strain gauge used in weight/force measuring. switch Electroacoustic: gramophone pick-up hydrophone - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical form loudspeaker, earphone - converts changes in electrical signals into acoustic form microphone - converts changes in air pressure into an electrical signal piezoelectric crystal - converts pressure changes into electrical form Photoelectric: Laser diode, light-emitting diode - convert electrical power into forms of light photodiode, phototransistor - converts changing light levels into electrical form solar cell - converts light energy into electrical energy Electromagnetic: antenna (electronics) - converts airborne RF signals into electrical form cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual form
37

fluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power into visible light magnetic cartridge - converts motion into electrical form photocell or light-dependent resistor (LDR) - converts changes in light levels into resistance changes reed switch - converts a strong magnetic field into a switch activation tape head - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form Magnetic: Hall effect sensor - converts a magnetic field level into electrical form Electrostatic: electrometer liquid crystal display (LCD) Thermoelectric: thermocouple Peltier cooler thermistor (includes PTC resistor and NTC resistor) Others: Geiger-Mller tube used for measuring radioactivity. Electronic. These components change one electrical parameter in response to another. By some definitions these are electronic components, not transducers. diode gyrator varicap diode, varactor diode, tuning diode negative impedance converter, NIC Schottky diode

38

transistor, Field effect transistor (FET) Transorb tunneling diode varistor voltage-dependent resistor Zener diode Electrical. These components change one electrical parameter in response to another. By some definitions these are passive electronic components, not transducers. capacitor inductor transformer resistor Mechanical. gear

What is a servomechanism? In its most general definition, a servomechanism, usually just shortened to servo, is a device used to provide mechanical control at a distance. For example, a servo can be used at a remote location to proportionally follow the angular position of a control knob. The connection between the two is not mechanical, but electrical or wireless, for example. The most common type of servo is that mentioned, which gives positional control. Servos are commonly electrical or partially electronic in nature, using an electric motor as the primary means of creating mechanical force, though other types that operate on hydraulic or magnetic
39

principles are available. Usually, servos operate on the principle of negative feedback, where the control input is compared to the actual position of the mechanical system as measured by some sort of transducer at the output. Any difference between the actual and wanted values is amplified and used to drive the system in the direction necessary to reduce or eliminate the error.. Servos are found in many applications. Servos are used to operate the throttle of engines that use a cruise control. Fly-by-wire systems in aircraft use servos to actuate the control surfaces that control the aircraft. Radio controlled model airplanes use servos for the same purpose. Typical servos give a rotary (angular) output, though linear types are common too, using a screw thread to give linear motion, or using a linear motor. Another device commonly referred to as a servo is used in automobiles to amplify the steering or braking force applied by the driver. In this form this device is not a true servo, but rather a mechanical amplifier. What is meant by Motion Control? Motion control is the automation field of controlling the position and/or velocity of actuators, usually electric motors.
40

Typical architecture is: a motion board to generate the trajectory and close the position loop, sometimes also the velocity loop (this is called servo control) a drive or amplifier to transform the velocity or torque signal into a high power electrical current a motor for the actuation some mechanic (gearbox...) a feedback sensor to return the motor position to the motion board and the amplifier.

Motion control is an important part of robotics, but is also more and more at the heart of special machines, where the kinematics are usually simpler. The latter is often called General Motion Control (GMC). For example, motion control is widely used in the packaging, printing or assembly industry. The most popular control functions are:
move at constant speed move to a desired position following a velocity, acceleration and jerk limited trajectory (S-Curve). The ability to change the destination during a motion is a big plus for productivity. electronic gearing or caming: the position of a slave axis is "geared" to the position of a master axis. In the case of caming, a pre-defined profile is applied in addition. The difficulty in e-gearing is the engaging phase, when the master is already moving.
41

What is an actuator? An actuator is the mechanism by which an agent acts upon an environment; a mechanism that puts something into automatic action. The agent can be either an artificial intelligence agent or any other autonomous being (human, other animal, etc). Some examples of actuators of these various agents include: Human - Arms, hands, fingers, legs Part picking robot - Grasping mechanism, moving parts. Examples include solenoids and voice coil actuators. In engineering, actuators are a subdivision of transducers. They are devices which transform an input signal (mainly an electrical signal) into motion. Electrical motors, hydraulic pistons, relays, comb drive, piezoelectric actuators, thermal bimorphs, Digital Micromirror Devices and electro-active polymers are some examples of such actuators.

42

Motors are mostly used when circular motions are needed, but can also be used for linear applications by transforming circular to linear motion with a bolt and screw transducer. On the other hand, some actuators are intrinsically linear, such as the piezoelectric actuators for example. What is meant by Digital Control? Digital control is a branch of control theory that uses digital computers to act as a system. Depending on the requirements, a digital control system can take the form of a microcontroller to an ASIC to a standard desktop computer. Since a digital computer is a discrete system the Laplace transform is replaced with the Z-transform. Also since a digital computer has finite precision extra care is needed to ensure the error in coefficients, A/D conversion, D/A conversion, etc. are not producing undesired or unplanned effects. The need/use of digital control can readily be understood in the use of feedback. Since the creation of the first digital computer in the early 1940s the price of digital computers has dropped considerably, which has made them key pieces to control systems for several reasons:

43

Flexibility: easy to configure and reconfigure through software Static operation: digital computers are much less prone to environmental conditions than capacitors, inductors, etc. Scaling: programs can scale to the limits of the memory or storage space without extra cost Adaptive: parameters of the program can change with time

Digital feedback One usage of a digital control system is as the controller in a feedback system. The rest of the system can either be digital or analog. Some examples of analog systems with a digital feedback controller are: Airplanes HVAC Motors PID controllers Radar Robotics The typical setup for a digital feedback controller is A/D conversion as inputs D/A conversion as outputs A program that relates the outputs to the inputs
44

The programs can take numerous forms and perform many functions: A digital filter for low-pass filtering A state space model of a system to act as a state observer A telemetry system

1.2 DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS (Definition DIN 19 237): 1.2.1 According to the form of information representation:

Control System

## Binary Control System

45

ANALOGUE CONTROL SYSTEM - operates mainly with analogue signals within the signal processing, - signal processing makes use of continuously active functional elements; ie, various information is assigned continuously point by point to a range of values. DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM - uses digital signals and processes numerically represented information, - signal processing mainly makes use of digital devices such as counters, registers, memories and arithmetic units. - the information to be processed is usually represented in binary code; ie, the range to be considered is divided into a finite number of separate value ranges, and one specific item of information is assigned to each range of values. BINARY CONTROL SYSTEM - processes binary input signals into binary output signals, which are not part of numerically represented information, chiefly using logic, timing and memory devices, - a single parameter with only two possible values: 1 and 0

46

1.2.2 According signal processing - this method is concerned with the way in which the signals in a control system are combined, influenced and finally processed. (DIN 19 237)
Control System

Synchronous

Asynchronouss

Logic

Sequence

47

## SYNCHRONOUS CONTROL SYSTEM

- control system in which signal processing takes place in synchronism with a timed signal
ASYNCHRONOUS CONTROL SYSTEM

- a control system operating without timed signals, in which the signal changes are initiated only by changes in the input signal
LOGIC OPERATION CONTROL SYSTEM

- a control system which assigns particular signal states of the output signals to the signal states of the input signals, on the basis of Boolean logic; - its behavior corresponds to that of a variable command system. Example:

48

## SEQUENCE CONTROL SYSTEM

- a control system using a mandatory step-by-step sequence, in which the sequencing from one step to the next programmed step depends on certain conditions; ie, the first being satisfied. - The stepping can be specially programmed (eg. Jumps, loops, branches).
TIMED SEQUENCE CONTROL SYSTEM

- a control system in which the sequencing conditions are dependent only on time - includes devices that can be used to create the sequencing conditions such as timers, counters used as timers, cam drum of cam belts running at constant rotation.
49

## PROCESS-DEPENDENT SEQUENCE CONTROL SYSTEM

- a control system in which the sequencing conditions only depend on the signals of the controlled installation (process); - operates in a closed action loop, where the controlled variable is continuously measured and compared with the command variable, the process being influenced according to the result of this comparison by modifying to match the command variable. 1.3 Signals - represents information, wherein the representation may refer to the value or the change in values of a physical dimension and may refer to transmission, processing or storage of information; - in abstract considerations, reference to physical dimensions can be omitted thus may also refer to values or changes in values of mathematical quantities. - either analog, discrete, or digital, which includes the binary type also known as the on-off signal. Note: Whereas one mainly operates with analog signals in automatic control, digital signals are used more extensively in control engineering, and the digital signals
50

are mainly in the form of binary signals. These binary signals are of considerable significance to information processing, owing to the ease by which they could be produced and processed (eg. switches, etc). 1.3a) Analog signal - a signal in which various information is assigned continuously point by point to a range of values. The information content Ip (information parameters) of this signals can therefore assume a value within certain limits (DIN 19 226). Example 1.3a Considering a continuously changeable pressure reading in a system, say 0..600kpa, each intermediate value of the range maybe assigned a specific signal: - if the pressure is indicated in a Bourdon gage, each intermediate value corresponds to a specific position of the pointer this position representing an analog signal 1.3b) Discrete signal - signals whose information parameter Ip can only assume a finite number of values within certain limits. There is no distinct relationship between the

51

values; a particular item of information is assigned to each value. Example 1.3b) Traffic density according to time of the day.

1.3c) Digital signal - a signal whose information parameter is broken down into a finite number of intervals and each interval is assigned a given meaning Example 1.3c) With reference to Example 1.3a; - if the dial is now divided into separate value ranges, say in pressure steps of 50kpa and if each range is assigned a specific item of information, say: 50100kpa, value 1 101150kpa, value 1.5 151 200kpa, value 2 then, we are dealing with digital signals.
52

1.3d) Binary signal - a single parameter signal with only two values, contains only two items of information such as: Yes - No, Present Not Present Or On Off

Example 1.3d

53

In order to avoid signal overlaps, a sufficiently wide region must be provided between the two value ranges, say, Logic 0 = 0 5V, Logic 1 = 10V 20V. The signal value can fluctuate within the upper value range, however it is still detected as one; the same applies to the lower value range. In this way a certain rejection of interference is achieved. Thus, the signal value must either be in the lower or upper value range; if the signal value is in the safety region (illegal zone), a valve, for example, will assume an indifferent state which would result in malfunctions. 1.3.1 Signal flow diagram - the symbolic representation of the effective relationships between the signals in a system or in a number of interacting systems a) Block and line of action, consists of: - rectangle (Fig 1.3a) for representing the relationship between output and input signals - line of action for representing signals as well as their directions Fig. 1.3a

54

b) Linkage points (Fig 1.3b) - addition points represented by a circle and arithmetic sign written with it
Fig 1.3b xe1 + xa1 + xe4 + xa2

## Xe2 xe4 - a change of sign can be represented as: xe + xa

c) Branch points - the line of action that splits into several branches and the signal passes into each branch without any change in magnitude (See Fig 1.3c).
Fig. 1.3c x x x x
55

d) Arrangements: A signal flow diagram can be made up of any or combination of the three basic structures: Chain Parallel Loop
Fig 1.3d) Closed loop in the signal flow diagram Xe1 x Xe2=y y xd = w-x + w

1.4 Organization (breakdown) of the control chain In the preceding sections, the controller has been represented as a self-contained box or block with inputs and outputs. This block can be broken down even further to show the arrangement of the individual components, at the same time, shows the signal flow (Fig 1.4).
Fig. 1.4
Actuating device Signal output/ execution of instruction

Processing element

Signal processing
56

Input element

Signal input

Hardware breakdown

Signal flow

The control chain is thus characterized by the signal flow from signal input via signal processing to signal output/execution of instruction. In terms of hardware, this means that input devices, processing devices, and output devices must exist for these signals. 1.4.1 Examples of hardware elements of the control chain: Signal elements: - limit switches with cam, roller operation - contact-less signallers such as proximity switches, light barriers, air barriers, reflex sensors, etc. - manual pushbuttons, switches, foot switches, etc. b) Processing elements: - electronic logic elements - magnetic contactors - valves reversed by pressure - pneumatic logic elements c) Final control elements: - power contactors - pneumatic and hydraulic control valves
a) 57

d) Drive elements: - electric motors, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic and hydraulic motors. Related hardware terms: Signal transformer or transducer - device which transforms an input signal as clearly as possible into an output signal, where necessary using auxiliary energy. Among others, this group of devices includes amplifiers and signal converters (DIN 19 226) - device which converts one type of energy to another, or responds to a physical parameter. A transducer is in its fundamental form a passive component.

Signal amplifier device with auxiliary energy for power amplification Signal converter device in which the input and output signals have different structure 1.5 Distinction between types of controls in relation to energy requirements a) controls without auxiliary energy - power required to adjust the final control element is provided by the input element of the control b) controls with auxiliary energy

58

- power required to adjust the final control element is supplied entirely or in part by a source of auxiliary energy. - It is possible to operate with different levels of energy within the control chain: working energy and control energy. 1.6 Control chain with auxiliary energy The above subdivision means that additional devices must be introduced into the control chain for signal transformation. These devices consist of amplifiers or converters depending on whether or not the same form of energy is used for the operative part and the control part. Based on these considerations, an extended control chain can now be dawn up (Fig 1.6). Fig. 1.6
Place of correction
Controlled system

## Execution of instruction Actuating device Signal output

Operative Part
Transformer
59

Processing element

Controller
Signal processing

Input element

Signal input

Example Control with the same type of energy for the control and operative part. Parts of different with (there being two widths) approaching a conveyor belt are sensed by a feeler mechanism and sorted by means of a pneumatic cylinder (Fig. 1.7); distance between parts sufficiently large to prevent overlapping. 1.6 Types of energy for operative part and control part In practice, it is not always easy or straightforward to select the right control system. Apart from the immediate requirements of the problem, the auxiliary requirements in particular, such as for examples: place of installation, environmental influences, available manpower and technology, etc., determine the solution. If a system uses different types of energy for the operative and control parts, it employs what maybe termed as mixed

60

technology, which is now being used to an increasing extent in control design 1.6.1 Operative Part Types of working media: - mechanical - electrical - hydraulics - pneumatics Criteria for system selection: - force - displacement - type of motion - speed - physical size - life - sensitivity - working safety Characteristics:
Creation of straight line motion Electrical Complex and expensive as it is necessary to convert by mechanical means or short displacement possible with lifting magnets and small forces possible with comparable linear motor, large Hydraulics Very simple, working speed not too high (up to 0.5m/sec max) very small dimensions, large to very large forces can be achieved Pneumatics Simple and cheap, high working speeds (up to 2m/s), stroke length limited (up to 2m depending on design), force obtainable is limited (up to 40000N max, small dimensions
61

physical size Creation of rotary Very high motion efficiency, large physical size, speed limited, speed and torque regulation difficult General Energy storage difficult, energy transmission good and fast, energy costs low, elements not overload-proof or only by elaborate means, not intrinsically explosion-proof

Simple, not very high speeds can be obtained, speeds constant even in the low range, high efficiency, high torque Storage of energy only to a limited degree, limited and slow transmission (distance covered can be up to 102m, speed of 2-6m/s), high energy costs, elements are overload-proof, line installation difficult and expensive (working with high pressure and the system must be completely sealed

Simple and cheap, high operating cost due to poor efficiency, high speed (up to 500000/min) Energy storage no problem, limited and slow transmission (distance up to 103m, speed 2040m/s) very high energy costs, elements overload-proof, intrinsically explosion-proof, simple regulation of working speed, torque, feed force

1.6.2 Control part Control media: mechanical electrical (electromechanical) electronics normal-pressure pneumatics low-pressure pneumatic hydraulics

62

Criteria for system selection - signal speed - switching times of elements - working safety of elements - life - sensitivity to environmental influences - space requirement - ease of maintenance

Characteristics:
Electrical Signal speed Electronics NormalHighpressure pressure pneumatics pneumatics Approx. 40 to 100-200m/s 70m/s normal, to some extent speed of sound Limited by speed of signal >10ms >10ms

63

## times of elements Reliability

Sensitive to Very sensitive dust, humidity to dust, humidity, interference fields Very small Digital, analog Electronic valves, transistors

Space large requirement Main type of digital signal processing Components Contactors, relays

Very sensitive to environmental influences, clean working air very long life Very large digital Directional control valves

Insensitive to environmental influences, sensitive to contaminated air Small Digital, analog Static, dynamic elements

1.6.3 Controls can also be distinguished according to the type of operating sequence as follows (DIN 19226):
Control

Pilot Control

Memory Control

Program Control

64

Time-schedule Control

## Coordinated motion control

Sequence Control

Pilot control - there is always a unique relationship between command variable and output variable Example I.6.3a) Copying on machine tools, wherein the movements of the tracer pin are uniquely related to the movements of the tool Example 1.6.3b) Brightness control, where the brightness of the lamp is at all times related to the position of the resistor or of the transformer.

Memory Control - After removing of taking back the command variable, the value reach by the output variable is retained until an opposing signal is presented. Example 1.6.3c) Switch-on and switch-off of an electric motor by means of a pressure switch( see Fig 1.7): Fig. 1.7

65

If the ON button b1 is operated, contactor c1 pulls up and, owing to the holding circuit, continues to be connected electrically when b1 is released. The obtained condition - motor running, is thus preserve until an opposing signal, in this case provided by operating the OFF button b2, is inputed into the control, and then the new condition motor standstill, is again maintained until the opposing signal is provided. Example 1.6.3d) Controlling the advance and return movement of a pneumatic cylinder by means of a manual switch (Fig 1.8). Fig 1.8

66

In this case, the condition obtained by the output variable (the position of the cylinder piston) is retained after the command variable operation of switches 1.2 and 1.3 until the opposing signal is presented. Timed-schedule Control - the command variables are supplied by a time-dependent program transmitter (program storage device, ie., camshaft, cam disk, program belt, punch tape or card, etc.) Coordinated Motion Control - the command variables are provider by a program transmitter, the output variables of which are dependent on the distance covered (displacement or position of a movable part of the controlled system). Example 1.6.3e) Movement of a double acting cylinder (Fig 1.9) Fig 1.9

67

The advance motion is triggered by operating the START button 1.2; the return motion being effected by a limit switch after a certain distance is covered. In this case, program input depends on the position of the limit switch 1.3 Sequence Control - the operating sequence program is stored in a program transmitter which runs through the program step-by-step in accordance with the conditions reached at any one time by the controlled system. The program maybe fixed, or it maybe variable and specified by means of punch cards, punch tapes, magnetic tapes or other suitable storage media. - Is identified by having a program transmitter and also equipment that is capable of interrogating the conditions prevailing in the system.
68

Example: Tool/work movement in a NC or CNC machines. 1.6.3 Comparison and definitions of program control systems The type of control used in a particular requirement for a program control depends solely on the problem at hand: the requirements imposed, environmental influences and the auxiliary conditions. In this case, no generally valid recommendations can be made for the application, and at best one can only define particular characteristics for each system. The following represents a summary: Time-schedule control - centrally stored program and simple to program, - usually compact construction, simple connection, - time-constant program execution - program execution insensitive to disturbing factors and independent of machine operating sequence hence no operating sequence reliability, disturbances in the machine operating sequence have no effect on the program execution Coordinated Motion Control - program defined by the arrangement of limit switches and signal elements, hence the layout is not clearly arranged and is not easy to service, difficult to install; - operating sequence reliability provided by displacementdependent sequence, disturbances in the machine operating sequence are registered, program execution maybe interrupted. Sequence Control

69

- where the advantages of a central program transmitter (time-sequence control) and that of the check of machine status (operating sequence reliability) are combined; - requires that both program transmitter and equipment for checking the momentary status exist - it is possible to advance the program transmitter step-bystep (e.g. stepping motor) 1.7 Means of representing motion sequences and switching conditions Movement sequences and switching conditions of working and control elements must be represented in a clear fashion. As soon as one is confronted with a rather more difficult problem, the relationships can be identified quickly and if certainty only if a suitable form of representation has been selected. Only neat representation allows large-scale projects to be understood clearly. - Writing down in chronological sequence - Tabular form - Vector diagram - Abbreviated notation - Graphical representation in diagram form Example 1.7) Packages arriving on a roller conveyor (Fig. 1.10) are lifted by a pneumatic cylinder A and pushed onto another conveyor by a second conveyor cylinder B. The problem requires that cylinder returns only when A has reached the rear end position. Fig. 1.10

70

## 2. Working OUT a Control Problem

Step 1. Define the problem, determine the working conditions Define the objectives Define working operations Identify auxiliary conditions with respect to: Ease of operation External safety of the system
71

Reliability of performance Others Auxiliary conditions can be defined as: Auxiliary conditions for functional sequence Start conditions Setting-up conditions Safety Auxiliary conditions for operating influences Environmental influences Supply Personnel Possible auxiliary conditions for functional sequence for start and setting-up conditions: Automatic (AUT) Single cycle- one sequence of operations Continuous cycling continuous operation Jogging operations step-by-step cycling of the sequence of motions Manual (MAN) Setting-up: each working element can be operated separately in any sequence Setting: by operating the set button, the system is brought to a defined position

Safety conditions:

72

EMERGENCY STOP- the position of the working elements assumed when this condition applies must be clearly defined beforehand. EMERGENCY STOP Unlocking the system can be again released for further operation. Step 2. Determine the working energy (media) and select the working elements. Working media can be anyone or combinations of the following: Mechanical Electrical Hydraulics or pneumatics Criteria for selection: Force Displacement Type of motion (linear, rotary, etc) Speed Physical size Life Sensitivity Safety Step 3. Make a positional sketch of the working elements. It is always advisable to make a positional sketch based on the description of the problem. This should make it easier to identify the factors involved and the arrangement of the working elements, and possibly their method of working. Step 4. Determine the sequence of operations.

73

The movement sequences and switching conditions of the working and control elements must be represented in a clear fashion. This would enable the designer to identify the relationships of movement sequences quickly and with certainty. Means of representing the working sequence: Writing down in chronological sequence A. Tabular form B. Vector diagram C. Abbreviated notation D. Graphical representation in diagram form Motion Diagrams: Displacement-step diagram the displacement is recorded in relation to the various steps (changes in the condition of any component). If the system has several working elements, these are represented in the same manner and drawn one beneath the other. The relationship is provided for by the steps. Displacement-time diagram the displacement is drawn in relation to time; time is drawn linearly and establishes the relationship of movement between individual components. Whereas the displacement-step diagram allows the relationship to be seen more clearly, overlaps and varying speeds can be shown better in the displacement-time diagram. If the diagrams are to be made for rotating working elements, the same basic procedure should be followed. However, the changes in condition with respect to time are no longer accounted for, i.e. in the displacement-step diagram, a
74

change of condition (e.g. switching on an electric motor) does not extend over a whole step but is entered directly on the step line. Control Diagram In the control diagram, the switching condition of a control element is shown in relation to the steps or the times, the switching time itself not being considered, e.g. the condition of a relay being open or closed. Note: The following is recommended: - The control diagram should if possible be drawn in conjunction with the motion diagram. - Steps or times should be entered linearly and horizontally. - Height and separation are optional, but should be selected to ensure clarity. Step 5. Choose the type of control and control energy. It is to be emphasized that the operating conditions (environmental influences, availability of technology, etc) are extremely important considerations. Step 6. Draw the circuit diagram. When all the above points have been determined and clarified, the circuit diagram may now be drawn up. The sequence to de adopted depends on the control energy used. This calls for the accurate knowledge of the equipment, and the behavior of the various components in the particular technology selected.

75

Example 2.1 A fixture or special machine is to be designed such that rectangular parts measuring 80mm x 60mm x 50mm can be stamped on one side, the operating sequences being automatic. Data: Material: Aluminum alloy Required stamping force: 800N Quantity: approx. 8000 parts/day Weight of punch: approx. 80N

SOLUTION: Step 1) Definition of problem and conditions a) Working operations to be performed: - Stack parts (gravity fed magazine) - Feed in parts (push) - Hold parts (clamp) - Work on parts (punch) b) Determination of auxiliary requirements - Start the system by means of manual START button. - Selector switch with Single-cycle or Continuous - Magazine sensing - if the magazine is empty, the system should stop at the starting position and should not be possible to start again until the magazine has been filled.

76

- Emergency Stop when latched, the system should stop and go back immediately to the starting position and would be ready to start again only after the Emergency Stop button has been unlatched. Step 2. Selection of working energy and dimensioning of working elements - Motion required: straight-line movements - Forces required: small (punching force 800N max) - Length of movement: max 200-300mm - Working speed: w/ 8 hours operating time, approximate 3.6sec/part - Working energy selected: pneumatic Working elements required: - Feed cylinder - Clamp cylinder - Punch cylinder - Ejector cylinder Step 3. Positional sketch

Step 4. Determination of sequence of operations Working sequence: Push in A Clamp A Stamp B Unclamp A Eject C
77

Displacement-step diagram:

Step 5. Selection of type of control - Program control (automatically performed working program in accordance with specific rules - Coordinated program control to be selected due to: 1. Certainty of operation 2. For the scope of the problem, probably the cheapest (no program transmitter). 3. No change of program necessary With regard to working media and scope of the problem, there are two possibilities: pneumatic and electrical, and in this case, a completely pneumatic solution is the most favorable only one form of energy for both working and controlling, hence no converter necessary high degree of operating reliability insensitive Diagrammatic representation of pneumatic circuit diagrams a) Building up the circuit diagram - layout should correspond to the control chain flowchart, that is, there should be a signal flow from the bottom to the top

78

- all elements for the energy supply should also be drawn in at the bottom, and the energy should be distributed from the bottom to the top b) Designating the elements - designating using digits: applicable for complex controls and particularly in such systems where possibility cannot be considered because of overlapping. System for serial numbering: .0: working elements .1 control elements .2, .4,. All elements which have influence on the advance movement of the working element concerned .3, .5,. All elements which has an influence on the return movement .01, .02,. Elements between control element and working element, e.g. throttle valves - designation is composed of the group no. and serial numbering within a group Example: 4.12 element no 12 in group 4 Classification of groups: Group 0: all energy supply elements Group 1, 2, 3 individual control chains (per cylinder) Designation using letters - Used especially where circuit diagrams are being developed methodically. To some extent, when this involves calculations and listings, which can be performed more easily and more clearly using letters.

79

- Working elements are designated by capital letters, signal and limit switches by small letters. - In contrast to the preceding type of designation, limit switches or signal elements are not assigned to the group that they influence but to the cylinder that acts on them. A, B, C.. a0, b0, c0 designation of working elements designation of limit switches which are actuated in the rear end positions of the cylinders designation of limit switches which are actuated in the extended rod positions of the cylinders

a1, b1, c1

Representation of devices - all devices should be drawn in the circuit diagram in the starting position.
Definition of positions Normal position: Initial position: position assumed by the moving parts of the valve when it is not connected position assumed by the moving parts of the valve after it has been installed in a system and supply pressure has been connected.

Illustrative Examples: 1. It is required that the piston rod of a double acting-cylinder travels out if either a manual button of pedal is operated, then returns to its starting position, at a regulated speed, after reaching the forward end

80

position. (when the signal element which initiates the forward travel is no longer operated) 2. A double-acting cylinder is to be controlled such that after being given a start signal, the piston performs oscillatory motion between the end positions until a reverse signal is inputted. The cylinder piston should then remain stationary in the rear end. 3. It is required for the piston rod of a double-acting cylinder to travel outand-in in a jogging operation. It must be possible for the piston to be stopped at any desired position and to be held at the same position, as much as possible by air, when a button is released. 4. The piston rod of a double-acting cylinder is to travel out only when a push button is operated momentarily and acknowledgement signal exist at the same time from a limit switch indicating a particular state within the system. A limit switch in the forward end position of the piston rod controls its return movement. 5. The piston rod of a double acting cylinder is travel out on being given a manual starting signal and be reversed in the forward end position, however, the return movement may only takes place if maximum pressure has built up the end position of the cylinder. 6. After operating a manual button, the piston of a double acting cylinder travels out and remains stationary in the forward end position for a certain adjustable period of time, then returns automatically.

## Circuits for speed regulation on cylinders

1.

Reducing the speed This is achieved by using throttle valves. If only one direction of motion is to be influenced, a check valve is

81

connected in parallel to the throttle valve. Depending on the type of equipment, the are three possibilities that can be considered: a) Constant non-adjustable restriction b) Throttle constant over the stroke but manually adjustable c) Throttle continuously adjustable over the stroke Regarding installation of throttle valves, there are two possibilities: - supply air throttling - exhaust air throttling
2.

Increasing the speed Purely from a control engineering point of view, the speed can be increased only by fitting a quick exhaust valve. If this is not sufficient, other methods must be applied such as changing port areas, different layout and selection of the elements, etc.

## Circuits with Shuttle and Two-pressure Valves

Shuttle Valves used in cases where the same operation is to be initiated by two signals, ie, where signals are to be brought together. The shuttle valve is frequently termed as pneumatic OR element.
No. of valves, nv = en 1; where e = no. of signals

Two- pressure valves used in applications where an operation maybe performed only when two (or more) signals are received simultaneously; also termed as Pneumatic AND element.

## Pressure Operated Controls

Pressure controlled reversal with mechanical end position checking using limit switches. Sequence valve 1.3 should be set such that the switching point is just less than the prevailing working pressure. As the maximum pressure can
a. 82

build up only when the piston is stationary in the cylinder, a signal can be given through the sequence valve only when the piston is stationary, a condition which arises normally only when the end position has been reached. To make certain that the end position has in fact been reached, limit switch 1.5 is also interrogated. b. Pressure controlled reversal without mechanical checking of the end position. In this type of circuit, however, reversal does also occur if the piston is stopped in any intermediate position that is where the maximum pressure can build up. This type of control can be used only where the demands with respect to certainty of operation are not too great or where there is no possibility of using limit switches or alternatively where reversal is required when specific opposing force arises.

Circuits with time behavior Pneumatic time elements can be formed very simply from combinations of directional control valves, throttle relief valves and volumes. Regardless of whether this combination has been formed by

83

connecting single elements or by a self-contained unit, the symbol for the time element is made up of the various functions required. It should be noted that in pneumatic timing circuits particularly, the construction of the elements used may not be disregarded since, for example, a poppet valve has quite different switching characteristics from a slide valve. Time circuits for defined time-dependent reversal:
a. Start-delayed time behavior

84

## Time circuits for pulse shaping:

a. Pulse shortening

b. Pulse stretching

Example.

The time commences after the end position has been reached, 1.1 reverses at the end of the time set on throttle 1.3 and the throttle returns.

85

## Basic circuits with contactless signal transmitters

Reflex sensor an element from which air is emitted through an annular nozzle to which air is supplied and puts out a signal through a centrically arranged channel; two connections are required as shown in the symbol below.

## a) Air gate comprises or an emitter nozzle and a supplied air collector

c) Back-pressure nozzle used to a limited extent as a switching element. This requires the outlet opening to be completely closed to obtain its full effectiveness. The actuating force (area of opening X pressure) required is very low. One of its advantages is that it can be supplied with and output pressure at normal levels.

Since the output signals from the air gate and reflex sensors are lowpressure signals, it is necessary to incorporate amplifiers. As these amplifiers must be supplied with low pressure in order to attain the high level of amplification, the general amplifier symbol is also provided with a supply pressure connection. For directional control valves operated by amplified signals, the symbol may be drawn directly on the directional control valve.

86

Illustrative Examples: 1. A double-acting cylinder is to travel out when an air barrier is momentarily interrupted, its return movement is to be controlled by a proximity-type limit switch (reflex sensor) in the forward end position.

It is necessary to connect valve 1.4 between 1,2 and 1,1 because the air gate outputs a signal in the uninterrupted state whereas this signal is required only when the air gate is interrupted. Thus a valve with open normal position must be used for reversal.

87

If the signal from the reflex sensor is also provided through an intermediate valve, the circuit shown below (Fig. 2/58) applies. This arrangement has the advantage that the signals from 1,2 and 1.3 are available as normal pressure signals after valves 1.4 and 1.5 and can thus be utilized directly in the control.

Controlling the advance and return movements of a double-acting cylinder by means of back-pressure. Example A double-acting cylinder is to be controlled in both directions by backpressure nozzles. The sequence of movements is to be initiated and terminated by a switch. The initial position is always to be the rear end position.

88

Constructing the Circuit Diagram for coordinated motion controls. (General Procedure) Define auxiliary conditions - Where simpler types of controls are concerned, and where the disadvantages of cutting out signals by means of idle return rollers can be accepted, the use of such can be justified. - In all other cases, signal cut-out by means of reversing valves should be incorporated. - Include auxiliary conditions in a control, after the basic circuit for a function has been completed and these requirements should be incorporated singly; that is the circuit diagram should be expanded step by step to ensure that the circuit retains its over-all clarity, even where elaborate controls are concerned. Draw the motion diagram Draw the circuit diagram: a) Draw the working elements b) Draw the associated final control elements c) Draw the required signal elements without symbol. If impulse valves are used as final control elements, two driving signals and hence, two signal elements are required initially per impulse valve. d) Draw in the energy supply e) Connect control lines f) Number the elements g) Transpose the motion diagram into the circuit diagram (programming of the circuit by positional allocation of the limit switches to the respective switching element). h) Check where signal cut-outs are required. This check can be made in the motion and control diagram. i) Draw in the actuating controls j) Where applicable, incorporate the auxiliary conditions.

89

Example 1. Packages arriving on a roller conveyor are lifted by pneumatic cylinder and pushed to another conveyor by a second cylinder, which may then perform a return stroke only after the first cylinder has reached the rear position. The start signal should be provided by means of a manual button, each signal initiating one cycle.

90