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A Research Report


Effect of advertising on brand image of coca-cola

Submitted to

U.P. Technical University, Lucknow for the partial fulfillment of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Guided by: Miss .Deepti Tyagi Submitted By: Mayank Jain


Roll No- 0722670028





I Mayank jain under signed hereby declare that the research report on Effect of advertising on brand image of coca-cola complied and submitted under the guidance of Miss. Deepti Tyagi is my original work. The empirical finding in this reports are based on the annual reports of the company. While preparing this report, I have not copied material from any report.

Mayank jain M.B.A. IV Sem. Roll No. 0722670028


Presenting a research project of this type is an arduous task, demanding a lot of time. I cannot in full measure appreciate and acknowledgement the kindness shown and help extended by various persons in this endeavor. I will remember all of them with gratitude. My sincere thanks are also due to Miss. Deepti Tyagi (Faculty of Management) for their significant help extended for the successful completion of the project. I highly the help I got from them in providing me and lot of information regarding the functioning of this organization. My sincere thanks are also due to Mr. Amit Tyagi (Head of Management) for their significant help extended for the successful completion of the project. I highly the help I got from them in providing me and lot of information regarding the functioning of this organization. I am always beholden to my God, for always being with me and showing me the right ways, my family, for always doing favors to me and my friends and colleagues consistently helped with encouragement and criticism throughout the project work, for always lifting my sights to higher vision, raising my personality beyond normal limitation and for realizing me my strengths and potential, as I did not always welcome her exhortation, try again; you can do better. But this project owes a great deal to it and so do I.


Research Project is the first step into the Industry and this of vital importance because it provides first hand practical knowledge of business environment. The Project helps us to get acquainted with the horizon of the corporate activities like how the company is organized, what it produces, how the products are manufactured, how the products are marketed, what is the Distribution channel, how the department of marketing is organized and managed. I got the opportunity to do the Research Project on Effect of advertising on brand image of coca-cola in the field of Marketing. In this report Firstly, I am trying to analyse Market for coca-cola company & their services. Secondly, I have also made a Data Base which gives complete information about different industries, its products and projects. Finally there are some recommendations, which I think if implemented definitely will be fruitful for the company.

Mayank jain M.B.A. IV Sem. Roll No. 0722670028

Acknowledgement Preface

Page No.

Executive summary Objective of the study Introduction History of the company Preparation of the soft drinks Product Profile Research Methodology o Research design o Data collection

6 8 10 13 20 25 43 45

Comparative arena

Data Analysis & Interpretation SWOT Analysis Findings Conclusion Limitation Recommendation & Suggestions Questionnaire Bibliography

52 61 65 67 69 71 74


I have done two surveys, one is Route Ride Survey and another one is advertising of brand image survey. In trade channels, I counted the types of channel from where the cold drink is selling for example like Pan Shop, Tea Stall etc. and also the average sale of the cold drink at that shop. I have also found out the percentage monopoly of coke and Pepsi in these outlets. After that I have done another survey related to advertising of products In these outlets in which we covered each and every retailers at every route and we have to check that all the brands and packs of coke are visible or not or which one is visible in comparison to Pepsi. At every route we found some problems related to shortage of brands and problem of improper visit of company officers to the retailers thats why the retailers prefer to sell Pepsi in comparison with Coke. And the other problem is that the retailers getting product at cheaper cost in comparison form what they are getting from distributor.



To ensure consumer requirement, their problems suggestions &

modifications. b. c. d. e. f. Company advertising Effect of advertising of brand image Advertising policy To know the daily sales figures of each brand. To know dealers suggestion, comments what amore they require

from company. g. To gather problems of modifications, alternation needed by average

consumers from company. h. Position in soft drink market acknowledge about future brands



Moon Beverage Limited is a franchisee of Coca cola international which manufacture coca cola products coca cola industry is a U.S.A. based multinational company which produce soft drink and also interfere in the fields of food (snacks). When India left the ban from the international soft drink manufactures coca cola was the fist company who joined Indian market with there tow flavour i.e. coca cola (Cola), 7 UP (clear lemonade). That time COCA COLA have competition with only thumps Up. As coca cola starts to dominate the thumps up products. In 1993 Coca cola international entered the Indian market and had collaboration with thumps up. Now thumps up are the owned brand of coca cola. They have joined Indian market with coke (cola) and fanta (orange). At present there is a great competition in the field of soft drink industry and advertising war is continue between COCA COLA & PEPSI. Both companies want to dominate each other in advertising world. COCA COLA is one step ahead the Pepsi. They are the global sponsors of cricket world cup 1999 while the coke was the official cold drink of wills world cup 1996. But COCA COLA prepare a prepare a brilliant aid with slogan Nothing official about it and gain a great advantages. This competition is very god soft drink industry and consumer as well. At present Coca cola and coke have balanced market share in Indian market.


Coca cola also brought in celebrities which further emphasized their business all over India. The most effective was with the introduction of Amitabh Bachan, Shohrukh khan, kareena kapor and ricky martin. Further, coca cola is used to sponsoring various corporate and cultural events all over India, which help to create brand awareness among to user groups.




Coca-Cola was formulated in 1886 by Dr. John Pemberton, a Pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia. The drink was sold ad refreshing elixir at the fountain counter of Jacobs Pharmacy of which Dr. John Pemberton was part owner, unaware that the pharmacist had given birth to caramel colored syrup which is now the chief ingredient of the worlds favorite drink. Today the white-on-red flow of Coca-Cola is familiar sight in more then 195 countries. The syrup combines with the carbonate water to fuel a $16.2 billion corporation that has captured a 46% Slice of the global soft drinks market. The company estimates that the drink is served more than 773 million times every day and if all Coke ever produced were filed in standard bottles and placed end to end it would wrap around the equator 21, 161 times. The story of Coca-Cola is a story of a drink and its charm with the consumer. The story of ecstasy and again that the drink has caused to those dedicated to its growth Pemberton first managed to sell and average of 9 drinks per day, though a shop called Jacobs pharmacy, in 1891, Candler bought Coca cola for $ 2,300. The year after align with four companies he formed the Coca-Cola company with the initial stock of $100,000. Coca-Cola was registered at the US patent office in 1893, and began selling at soda fountains for 5 cents a glass of therapeutic

refresliment 1894, 1 got into bottles, courtesy a candy merchant Joseph Boedenharn of Mississippi. Five years later; the drink was being bottled on a regular basis under a region wise frairclrising system; and its l u s t competitor Pepsi cola, CocaColas first bottling plant opened in Chattanooga, Tennessee followed by another in Atlanta in 1900. The unique taste of cola was an outstanding success. Over the next two decade the number of plants crossed 1000. In a bit to difference the product, the company adopted 6.5 ounce, pale green contour bottle designed by the root glass company of Terri Haute, Indiana. Today it is an intrinsic part of the brand. The company broadened its horizons when Robert Wood the son of a banker who acquired to Company for $25 million in 1919, assumed charge in 1923. tie began by upgrading bottling operations, brought in innovations like a six-bottle carry home carton, and gear 111) advertising support. It Was Under Wood Ruff that the brand. Known affectionately as coke by now associated it self with sportive events. By the early 1940s the brand was selling as the real thing to set it self apart from me to Colas. As a time went by the company brought out some new aerated drinks. The first one Manta appeared in the selves in 1960. Its birth was an accident, the companys German name is an attempt to produce Coca Cola without some key ingredients, turned out into an










dependence on just one put a cap on growth welcomed it. While Fanta was being rolled out the company bought minute made corp. Which in 1967 was combined with Duncan foods to pave way for the Coca-Cola foods. Several beverages followed the most notable being sprite, a lemon drink developed in the late 1950 and formally launched in 1961. Coca-Cola had diversified the company into businesses and it even had a steam generator and boiler making division. Robert C Goizueta, Cuban born 27 years veteran took over as the Coca-Cola unlike Pepsi Company depended on a single brand. The best insurance policy that he figured was to let coke evolve to the summer slacking it with variants, even reinventing if needed. In 1982, the company launched what is now considered among the worlds most successful brand extensions Diet Coke, under the leadership of Sergio Zyman, the head of us marketing. The idea was to retain the loyalty for the Health conscious drinker who loved the taste but hated the calories. After this it came out with caffeine free versions of its main drinks. Yet in the US the company kept losing ground to Pepsi. Zyman, a former Pepsi marketer argued that the correct strategy was to replace 98 year old with better tasting cola, label it as New Coke and blare the news which is exactly what the company did more than a decode ago in 1985.

But when placed on the shelves it did not budge. On wide spread protest it was recalled after 79 days. The company has about 100 brands in its portfolio but coke, Fanta and sprite account for most of its sales. In 1994, the real things coke sold over 52.5 billion liters. For the taste of it diet coke along with CocaCola light sold 8.5 billion liters, which makes it the worlds two top non cola drinks sold over 6.5 billion liters each. Which sprite aimed at the independent youngster two does not care what as others drink (the as line obey youre a thrust). In 1993, Coca-Cola reentered India after a 16 years long exile, four years Pepsi made its debut India. While Coke plays on brand nostalgia, Pepsi address the young crowd, which unlike a in America is a dominate ort if the population here.



Coca-Cola Company marks a mile stone on Wednesday, 24 th, March 1899 Chattanooga; where its first bottling plant was started 100 year ago by two men struck one of the most lucrative business deals in US history. Joseph Whitehead and Benjamin Thomas offered Coca-Cola Company owner Asia Candler a dollar for the right to bottle soft drinks in 1899. Today 1 billion soft drinks are sold each day in more than 200 countries around the world. Candler had purchase what would become the Cola Company for $2,300 eight years earlier from John Pemberton, an Atlanta Pharmacist who astonished the world. Candler though the bottling venture would never succeed, but he signed the contract with White Head and Thomas any way, and the rest is history, Bob Lovell, vice president of marketing for Coca-Cola bottling Company. United Inc., said in telephone interview from Chattanooga. Lovell said Thomas had seen Cuban Fields hand drinking Pina Fria a Pineapple beverages, from bottles while he was stationed in Cuba during Spanish American War. When he returned to Chattanooga, he decided to pitch the


idea of bottle soft drinks to coke, which was then sold only as a fountain beverage. It occurred to that Coca-Cola in bottles would be very popular, Lovell said, Mr. Candler did not see any future in it because the containers were not sound, but thats how it all came about. Thomas and Whitehead promised to pay one dollar for the right to bottle CocaCola, but legend has it that no money changed hands.




A soft drinks is a mixture of concentrated sugar syrup and treated water. The factor that affect the soft drink industry and has resulted in the great competition are: a. Conversion of hard water to soft water: it is highly technical process, which requires experienced personal, huge investment and quality of soft drinks. b. Impulse: soft drink business behavior is not governed by branch loyalty so the emphasis is not only on creating the market but also on retaining it. c. Availability: the availability of right brand at the right place and at the right time is the main aim for wining consumers in soft drink business. d. Seasonal business: the main consumption of soft drink is in summers and hence most of the profits are to be made in this season only.



Today India is one of the most potential markets, with population of around 900 million people, the Indian soft drinks market was only of 200 cases per year. This was very low even compared to Pakistan and Philippines. Population and potential market are two major reasons for major multinational companies of entering India. They feel that a huge population coupled with low consumption can only lead to an increase in the soft drink market. Another increase in the sale of soft drinks in the scorching heat and the climate of India, which is suitable for high sale of soft drinks. All these factors together have contributed to a 30% growth in the soft drinks industry. If the demand continues growing at the same rate, within two years the volume could touch 1 billion cases. All these factors are the reasons for the entry two giant of the soft drink industry of the world to enter the Indian market. These two giants Pepsi and Coca-Cola, Themselves share 96% of the soft drink market share. Rest is shared by Cadburys Schweppes, Campa Cola and other soft drink brands. But was the scene same 20 years ago? The answer is No. 1970 was the year of pure soft drinks Campa cola and Parle people (Thums up and Limca).


Soft drink consists of a flavor base, sweetener amid carbonated water. In general terms non-alcoholic drinks are considered as soft drinks this name soft drink was given by Americans as against hard which is mainly alcoholic. The major participants involved in the production and distribution of soft drink are concentrate and syrup producers, bottlers and retail channel. Concentrate producers manufacture basic soft drink flavors and retail channel refers to business location that tells or serves the products directly to consumers. Soft drink is not a product, which a person plans to buy before hand, but is an impulse purchase. Lots of sale depends upon the strength of merchandizing done at the point of sale. It all begin in 1977, a change in government at the center led the exit of CocaCola which preferred to quit rather to dilute its equity to 40% in compliance with the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). The first national cola drink to pop up was double seven. Delhi oil cokes exit, switched over to Campa Cola. The beginning of 1980s saw the birth of another cola drink, Thums up, Parle the Gold spot people, launched it in 1978-79, as Refreshing Cola. By the mid-eighties Mc Dowells launched Thrill, and by the late eighties three was Double Cola, which entered in India market, as a NRO-run out

fit with its plant in Nasik { Maharastra }, in 1978 Parle, Indian soft drinks. market (share 33%) with its gold spot and Limca brands. Later Thums Up also started Thums Up. At the same time the threat to the Indian soft drinks was that of fruit drinks. In 1988, fruit drinks market was valued at Rs. 40 crores and grew at the rate 20%. Coca-Cola entered Indian by buying up to 69% of the 1,800 crore soft drink market { i.e. 5 Parle Export brands of Thums Ups Limca Gold spot, Citra & Maaza }.Today the scene has changed making it a direct battle between two giant Coca-Cola and Pepsi. The picture will become clearer by looking at the India market shares in the beverage industry. One of the strongest weapons in Coke armory is the flexibility it has empowered its people with. In Coke every employee, may he be a manager or salesman, have an authority to take whatever steps lie or sloe feels will make the consumers aware of the brand and increase its consumption. Thus Coke believes in establishing and nurturing creditability of the salesman and making commitment to grow business in accounts. All these factors together led to a high growth in the Indian market and constantly increasing market share.




The soft drink market all over the world has been witnessing a neck to neck battle between the two major players, Coca-Cola and Pepsi since the very beginning. The thirst quenchers are trying hard to have the major chunk of the pie of carbonated soft drink market. Both the players are spending their energies in building capacity, infrastructure, promotional activities etc. Coca-Cola being 11 years older than Pepsi has dominated the scene in most of the soft drink markets in the world and enjoying leadership in terms of market share. But the Coca Cola people are finding it hard to keep away Pepsi, which has been narrowing the gaps regularly. The two are posing threats to each other in every nook and corner of the world. While Coca-Cola has been earning most of its bread and butter through beverage sales, Pepsi has a multi products portfolio with some portion from the same business. The two warriors are face to face once again here in India with different strategies and tactics to attack the rival. Coca-Cola is focusing upon the joint ventures with the existing bottlers (FOBO) franchise owned

b o t t l i n g o p e r a t i o n s to enhance its control on manufacturing and marketing of its products range and attain the quality standards of its class.

Countering it Pepsi has taken the battle in its own hands by floating as investment of $ 95 billion to set Pepsi Company. India holdings, as subsidiary for {COBO} Company owned bottling operations. Both the companies are following different path to reach the same destiny i.e. to fetch the bigger portion of aerated soft drink market. Both consider India a huge potential market, as per capita consumption here is a mere 3 serving annually against the world average of 80. Therefore, they are putting in their. Best efforts to woo the Indian consumer who has to work for 1.5 hours to buy a bottle of soft drink. In comparison to the international norms minutes, a major hurdle to cross over for both the athletes for getting No.1 position comparison to the inter. Coca-Cola is well set with its 53 bottling sites through out the country giving it an edge over competition by processing a well-built bottling and distribution set-up. On the other hand, Pepsi, with two more years in India, has been able to set an image of a winner in India and has been able to get the pulse of the India soft drink market. The soft drink giants are leaving on stone unturned and her for the long terms. Coca-Cola has been penetrating the market through its wide product range with a determination to change consumption pattern of soft drink in India. Firstly, they upgraded the whole industry by introduction 300 ml bottles, which in turn had given the industry a booming growth of 20% as

compared to the earlier 5%. They want to develop a coca culture here and are working on a strategy to offer soft drink in every possible package. In Coca-Cola camp, the idea of competition has not come from Pepsi, but from the other beverages such as tea, coffee, nimbu pani, water etc. Pepsi is quite aggressive in its approach to Indian Consumer. They are desperately working on the strategy to be winners in the hot cola war between two big barons. According to Pepsi philosophy, its the madness that encourages executive to drink, to conjure up those creative tactics to knock the fizz out their competition. Pepsi had plumbed a large on the visibility of its blue red and white logo. They have been going with aggressive marketing by putting Sachin Tendulkar, Akshay Kumar and now Shahrukh Khan in their advertisement to endorse their brand, the role models for its targeted consumer the teenagers. They have increased the fizz in the market place by introducing the dispensers called Fountain Pepsi and has been enjoying a lead over its rival there.

Coca-Cola on the other hand, has been working on the saying slow and steady wins the races side by retailing to every more of its competitor. They


have procured the shield of Thums Up with a handsome market share in Indian soft drink market. Countering Pepsis international commercial that used two chimpanzees to cock a snoop at coke, Thums Up come with the ad line, Dont be Bandar, taste the Thunder. Also Thums Up has been positioned now very near to that young image of Pepsi and giving it a though time. These cool merchants have put everything on fire. It Coke got the status of the official drink of wills. World Cup, Pepsi blushed as nothing official about it. As Thums Up projected as Saaree Jahan Se Achcha Pepsi was passionate enough with Freedom to be and now the Yeh Dil Mange More when Thums Up came with Thunder blast, the other offered Pepsi stuff card. If red is meant for coke, Pepsi has chosen to be blue.



Coke decides on its marketing strategies at a national level and lends them a local flavor. For example, while festival mood plays a strong role in marketing, it is activated for Durga Puja in Calcutta, Dandiya in Gujarat, etc., Coke has its focus on the youth market in India. As a first step toward catching the attention of the youth, coke signed on cricket heroes Saurav Ganguly a n d Javagal Srinath. It slowly started talking about youth passions like cricket, films, festivals and food. Soon the advertisements started giving the message, Eat Cricket, Sleep Cricket, Drink only Coca-Cola And now it has started modifying film hits to frame catch lines that appeal to the youth. This particular strategy has worked well for coke. Coke is focused on distribution to ensure that its products are within customers reach. And it saves its focus has begun to pay it dividends. As per mid-1998 figures coke is selling as many bottles in the hinterland of Punjab as it does the four metros.











opportunities it also has its own disadvantages. The economic slowdown in various overseas markets and the strong dollar had their impact on Coca-Cola revenues and bottom line in 1998. But the company optimistic about the future. M Douglas Investor, the Chief Executive Officer of the Coca Cola Company says, This past year 1998 has been a challenging period for the CocaCola Company as ecoiioinic environment became more uncertain in the later part of 1998, we strongly believe that our fundamental

opportunities for long term growth have not changed. As long as maximization of share holder wealth remain Cokes focus for its future is assured Goizueta had stated and proven to the world that focus on shareholder wealth does more good to the company than focus on revenues and it is not that coke does not enjoy volumes for it is worlds No.1 soft drink manufacture. It is not content with this title and is aiming at higher volumes year after year. Surely coke will continue to grow. Point on Roberto had reduced the company basically to its trademark and the returns are so astronomical as to be off the boards. It just absolutely added a jet engine to their performance.



The Coca-Cola Company is global player and approximately 70 % of its volume and 80 % of its profit come from outside the United States of America. Although it was perceived as a standardized brand across the world, Coca-Cola had been quietly fine turning its international marketing strategies to suit the needs of individual national markets. Only the brand Coca-Cola, sprite and Fanta were marketed globally. In Latin America and Europe, where a heavy consumer preference existed for lemon lime and orange sodas. Coke had developed a wide range of formulations and flavors to cater the needs of different countries. In El Salvador and Venezuela, a version of Fanta called Fanta Kolita a cream soda type of drink became extremely popular. Similarly, in Indonesia Coke had been selling pineapple and banana Limca, Maaza and Thums Up in 1993.



One of the driving forces behind cokes bottling system are that is anchored by 10 strategically signed business partners of the Coca-Cola Company, the anchor bottlers. Anchor bottlers are a group of select companies throughout the Coca-Cola system that are distinguished by A pursuit of the same strategies aims as the Coca-Cola Company in the development of the non-alcoholic beverage business. A commitment to long term growth. Equity position by the Coca-Cola system. Service to a large, geographically divers area. Sufficient financial resources to make long-term investments. Management expertise and depth.



One of the values of the coca-cola system is presence that coca cola should exist everywhere. In the words of former CEO India operations - Richard Nicholas, Our goal is to have coke available within an arms reach of desire. To fulfill this goal, coca-cola not only produces products, but also has an effective systems to distribute the all over India.

Distribution Sales + Delivery + Merchandising + Local Account Management. Distribution of Cokes products includes the activities of sales, delivery merchandizing and local accounts management. These are two major types of distribution systems


In direct distribution, the bottler partner direct control over the activities of sales, delivery, merchandizing and local account management. In indirect distribution, an organization which is not a part of the cocacola system has control of one or more of the distribution elements (sales, merchandizing and local accounts managements). With direct distribution there are two types of sales:



In conventional sales, all the distribution activities (Sales, Delivery, Merchandizing and Local Accounts Management) are performed by the same persons. In advanced sales, sales and delivery are performed by different people within the coca-cola system.

Difference between a customer a n d c o n s u m e r s.

A consumer is some one who drinks coca-cola products. A customer is a business location which sells or serves coca-cola products to consumers.

One the products are delivered to the customers they are promoted at the point-of-purchase to maximize the companys sales opportunities, merchandizing involves looking at the presentation of the products through the eyes of the consumers. It is ail on-going process that help the company present its products properly to the consumers in the market place for instance, is the display attractive? Are the product neatly organized.


PRESENTING THE PRODUCTS They are as follows: Secondary Display Coolers Vending Machines Post Mix / Pre Mix


Just after independence, the Maharaja of Patiala oversaw his coca-cola hoarding from his huge, ornate palace, Coca-Cola export representative Frank Harrold, was awed by the Maharajas opulent life style. In 1993 after coca-cola returned to India after a 16 year absence (beorge Fernandes threw the company out of the country in 1977 on the pre text that it had refuse to divalge its formula to Indian officials), CEO of the Coca-Cola company, Robesto boirueta Salivated over a virtually untapped market of 840 million people.



Goal for the 90s To place coca-cola within an arms reach of desire. CONSUMER ACTIVITY CLUSTERS: Grocery shopping Other shopping & services Eating and drinking Entertainment / Recreation / Leisure Travel / Transportation / Hospitality Educational At Work

THE 3AS: The strategy for reaching in creasing numbers of consumers in India is based on the belief that consumers will buy our products it they are Available, Affordable a n d Acceptable.



Focus on the consumer and customer. To provide quality customer services, and caring about the quality of performance in respective jobs. Caring enough about what we do, to it the best we know how. The 3As is Coca-Cola underlying strategy for meeting its goal to reach increasing numbers of consumers. How does coke position its limited resources to help meet its good? Let us explore the specific ways in which the Coca-Cola system addresses each of the 3As.

Some of the ways in which, the Coca-Cola Company hopes to increase availability of its product include improved or innovative packaging, dispensing systems, distributions system, marketing.

The ways to address affordability include pricing decisions, as well as resource management. To make its product available at a price affordable to the consumer. Continually processes more efficient and therefore more costeffective.


Making coca-cola brand products the beverage choice for any occasions depends on a variety of strategies to reach the target audience. The common strategies adopted to effect acceptability which youth market activities, community programs, and other activates.

The image is communicated all around the world in advertisement on media such as newspaper, magazines, radio and televisions. The list goes on. However, image is much more just advertising every person working within the coca-cola system is part of the image whether one is involved in creating its advertising making its quality products or selling merchandizing and distributing its beverage their hard work and aptitude will say something to the people about its product.

Coca-cola system flow chart Raw material Coca-cola Company Bottler Customer Consumer


The soft drink market can be segmented on the basis of place of consumption or on the basis of type of products. The segmentation on the basis of place of consumption divides the market into two parts: On-premise-80% of the consumption of soft drinks is on premise i.e. restaurants, railways stations, cinema etc. At-home- the rest 20% of the market compromises of the soft drink purchased for consumption at home. The market can also be segmented on the basis of types of products into cola products and non-cola products. Cola products account for nearly 61-62% of the total soft drinks market. The brands that fall in this category are Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Thumps Up, diet coke, Diet Pepsi etc. Non-cola segment which constitutes 36% can be divided into 4 categories based on the types of flavours available, namely: Orange Cloudy Lime Clear Lime Mango




Flavour based soft drinks constitute around 17% of the market. Tie segment is largely dominated by national brands like Fanta of Coca Cola and Miritida Orange of PepsiCo, which collectively forth 15% of the market rest of the market is in hands of smaller brands like Crush( earlier of Cadbury Schweppes and now of coca Cola), Gold Spot etc.

Flavour constitutes 14% of the market and is largely

dominated by Limca of coca cola and Miranda Lemon of PepsiCo. Limca is the market leader with around 70-75% of the market followed by Miranda Lemon.

This segment of the market witnessed good growth initially

with all the players launching their brands in the segment. But now the growth in the segment has slowed down. The brands available in this segment are. 7 Up of Pepsi, Sprite of Coca Cola and Canada Dry (earlier of Cadbury Schweppes and now of Coca cola). The segment constitutes 3% of the total soft drinks market.



This flavour segment constitutes 2% of the total soft drinks

market and it directly competes with mango based fruit drinks like Frooti. The leading brands in this segment are: Maaza of Coca Cola, Mangola (Earlier of Dukes now of PepsiCo) and Slice of PepsiCo. There is very thin line of difference between the clear and cloudy lime. The most obvious feature is that clear lime has to be bottled in green bottles as sunlight harms the drink and changes the taste. There are some small local brands at city or regional levels. Most of these are either merging with the two big players (Coca Cola and Pepsi) or they command a very small - less than 3%, of the total market ill their respective areas.




The product range of the coke has listed brands: Coke: 200ml, 300ml, 500 ml, 1lt, 1.5lt, 2lt. Thums up: 200ml, 300ml, 500 ml, 1lt, 1.5lt, 2lt. Limca: 200ml, 300ml, 500 ml, 1lt, 1.5lt, 2lt. Fanta: 200ml, 300ml, 500 ml, 1lt, 1.5lt, 2lt. Sprite: 300ml, 500 ml, 1lt, 1.5lt, 2lt. Mazza: 300ml, 2lt. Diet coke: 300ml, 1.5 lt, 2lt. Kn. Soda: 300ml, 500ml Kn. Water: 500ml, 1lt, 2lt.



Research Design specifies the methods and procedures for conducting a particular study. A Research Design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research Design is broadly classified into three types as 1 Exploratory Research Design 2 Descriptive Research Design 3 Hypothesis testing Research Design On the basis of the objective of study, the studies which are concerned with describing the character tics of a particular individual, or of a group of individual under study comes under Descriptive Research Design. Descriptive Research Design: In this research design the objective of study is clearly defined and has accurate method of measurement with a clear cut definition of population which is to be studied.


FORMULATING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM Two steps are involved in formulating the research problem: 1 Understanding the problem 2 Rephrasing the problem into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view. The training sessions are conducted in the beginning of training in order to make us clear about the task provided and how to handle the different situations. PREPARING THE RESEARCH DESIGN The research design is developed to collect the relevant information with minimum of efforts, time and money. Marketing Research Objectives: 1 To undertake a prior market study before doing owns research. 2 Type of Study: Descriptive. 3 Research Area: Meerut. 4 Source of Information: Primary Data. 5 Data Collection Instrument: Book and Magazine.

Research Approach: Survey Method.

SAMPLING DESIGN A Sample Design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure adopted in selecting items for the sample. The main constitution of the sampling design is as below1. Sampling Unit

2. Sample Size 3. Sampling Procedure SAMPLING PROCEDURE The procedure to choose the respondents to obtain a representative sample, a non-probability sampling technique is applied for the target market. Non-Probability Sampling: It is a purposive sampling which deliberately chooses the particular units of the universe for constituting a sample on the basis that the small mass that they so select out of a huge one will be typical or representative of the whole. Judgment sampling: To select population members who are good prospects for accurate information?

DATA COLLECTION The survey process is not complete without consulting the Distributor & Retailers and customers. The distributors are the key nodes that make the chain moving effectively. So the response made by them is also an essential criterion to involved and reaching for certain decisions. There are several ways of collecting appropriate data that differ considerably in the context of money costs, time, and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. The tools used for data collection are as:


PRIMARY DATA The primary data are those data, which are collected afresh and for the first time. And happen to be original in character. The primary data to be collected for the study areDirect Personal Interview Under this method of collecting data there is faceto-face context with the person from whom the information is obtained. The data collected are from the respective selected doctors and chemists visited regularly. The pattern used is Structured and Indirect Interview.

SECONDARY DATA Secondary data means data that are already available i.e., they refer the data, which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. When the researcher utilizes secondary data, then he has to look into various sources from where he can obtain them, IN this case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data. Usually published data are available in: 1. Various publications of the central, state and local governments; 2. Various publications of foreign government or of international bodies and their subsidiary organization; 3. Technical and trade journals: 4. Books, magazines and newspapers;

5. Reports and publications of various associations connected with business and industry, banks, stock, exchanges etc.; 6. Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists etc. In different fields, and 7. Public records and statistics, historical documents, and other sources of published information. The sources of unpublished data are many; they 8. May be found in diaries, letters, unpublished biographies and autobiographies and also may be available with scholars and research workers, trade associations, labor bureaus and other public/private individuals and organizations. The data collected from the various efforts and sources are Analyzed and as shown distinctively from the next page.


Taj Ganj Piple mandi Kent Agra Singi Gali Agra Raja Mandi Ram bagh Rue Mandi Hathi Ghat

The main aim behind the dealers survey to know about the reach of Miranda lemon and get a comparative position of coke and Coca cola. By the help of certain chart and graphs as shown on the following pages with the help of their pictures we can easily make certain conclusion.




The soft drink market of India are by and large controlled and governed by the two soft drink giant company, Coca cola and Pepsi. The only presence of the two giant company doest mean absence of competition rather a neck to neck competition, a dual strategy and counter strategy is all time present to capture a greater market share. For extracting the total market strength, two companies have a wide variety of soft drinks. Different flavor and different packs are available form both the companies. Let us take a glimpse of the different falvour available for both companies.

FLAVOUR 1. Cola 2. Clear lemon 3. cloudy lemon 4. orange 5. fruit juice 6. soda 7. Vanilla 8. Water

COCACOLA Thumsup, Coke Sprite Limca Fanta Mazza Kinely Vanillacoke Kinely

PEPSI Pepsi Mountaindew, 7-up Lemonmirinda Mirinda Slice Everess No flavour Aquafina


Q-1 Which brand you prefer in your outlet?

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%





INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 60% have stock of cock and 40% have stock of pepsi in outlets.


Q-1 Which type of sign board having you?

12% 41% 47% partially clear no sign board clear sign

INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 41% outlets have clear sign board. 12% of outlets have partially clear board and 47% outlets have clear sign board.


Q-3 Are you having warm Display of sign Board to Attract Customers?



No display clear display 61% partially display

INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 33% outlets have partially warm display. 61% of outlets have clear warm display and 6% outlets have no warm display.


Q-4: Are you having Cold Display of sign Board to Attract Customers?

14% No coke fridge good display partially



INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 30% outlets have good display. 14% of outlets have partially cold display and 56% outlets have no coke fridge.


Q-5: Are you having All Range of Flavour and Packs ?

12% no range ok 88%

INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 12% outlets have no range of flavours and packs and 88% outlets have all range of flavors and pack.


Q-6: which Media of Advertising is superior to attract the customers?

3% 5%



Hording T.V. Radio Pumplet

INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 3% of total advertising of coca-cola by radio . 5% of total advertising of coca-cola by pump let. 16% of total advertising of coca-cola by hording and 76% of total advertising of coca-cola by television.

Q-7:Which area is covered by you?

15% 40% 20% 10% 15%

Bijli Ghar Piple mandi loha mandi Taj Mahal Taj Ganj

INTERPRETATION:This chart shows that 10% of total retailer covers Taj Mahal. 15% of total retailer covers Bijli ghar. 15% of total retailer covers Loha mandi and 20% of total retailer covers Piple Mandi.




In a most competitive market like soft drinks, one has to be very strategic against all the business activities of the rivals. A constant review of the market situations and fitness of the self is the must to keep in line with the competition. Specially in the soft drink market, it has a rivalry, which is more than any other industry, where each player tries to maximize its market share on the cost of others. Packaging is one where there is a very crucial battle going on. This battle is in fact called the mother of battle in Indian soft drink market. One of the major tools of this battle is of course packaging. To win the situation coke must analyze the external environment to identify threats and opportunities to adopt to the strategic fit. For this internal strengths and weakness must be analyzed.

1. 2. Coke is the most popular brand in world. Coke is enjoying maximum market share in the Indian market. In fact it is more than 50%. 3. 4. 5. Coke is being backed by a strong force of 53 franchises. Coke is having an edge over pepsi by having a large number of products. The shape of bottle of coke is much more attractive than Pepsi.



Crate of coke is not attractive but also more safer for the glass bottles in comparison to Pepsi.


Bottle crown quality of coke is much better than pepsi, due to its workability as there are complaints of rusting in and around the crown of pepsi. This is more common during the rainy season.


Coke has takeaway bottles which are not available with pepsi in 250 ml. bottles.


Parles strength ahs directly come to come without doing much efforts in establishing themselves.

10. 11. 12.

Coke of 200ml . Has infact increased the overall sales of cola marker. The writing style of coke is more attractive than pepsi. The can of thums up which belong to coke is more appealing due to its colour schem.

1. There are complaints of coke can regarding leakage.

The Pepsi is attracting new generation segment due to availability of fountains , this is being lacked by coke where fountain machines overall in comparison to Pepsi are less. Specially in Agra, there is no fountain machine of coke available, whereas Pepsi has 35 machines.

3. Form the retailers of coke, it was also notice that limca bottles have a problem of chip i.e. on operating the glass cracks slightly

1. The market growth rate is very high infact 30% per annum. 2. The brand name coke speak most highly i.e. coke is at the top of the mind among consumers. 3. The growing market may be captured with greater number of package in run it is a threat to Pepsi as the market demand is very heterogeneous. 4. The launching of 250 ml coke has seen the overall growth in coca segment. 5. Thumps up cans adopting the blue color has infact eaten the main plant of Pepsi of its blue color.

1. The threats risk of potential entrants due to Cadburys future entry are very considerable. 2. Local lemon soda is also a big threat to coke, as most of the buying power of lower class segment is exhaust by these bottles. 3. The threats of seasonal drink like fruit juice are also considerable as the time of peak season; the rates are Rs. 4/- per large glass. 4. Pepsi adopted a strategy to lower down the prices against the launch of 200 ml coke. 5. The inclination of new generation is towards pepsi due to color concept adopted by the company.



After visiting nearly 100 cutlets I found that there are some common problem of retailers which are as follows. 1. The first and the major problem among the retailers are non-availability of Cokes all ranges of flavours and packs. 2. The second problem is faced by retailers is that they do not want to display the warm and cold display because it will consume their time and place. 3. Retailers are asking about schemes. They are complaining that they are not getting proper facilities, although their sale is very good. They do not have chairs and tables and in some cases if they have it is not in good condition. 4. The other problem is that equipments provided by the company (freeze) are not in good condition which is affecting their sale in season.



Following are the certain conclusions from consumers survey. 1. The comparative sale of Coca cola and is near about equal. Coca cola is getting a lead by the help of its coca flavour. 2. Limca is in a far better position in lemon flavour. 3. Consumer likes only the aid of Miranda lemon they not want to try Miranda lemon. 4. Fountain Coca cola is not easily available in Muzaffarnagar. But if it will be there than there is a chance of better sales. 5. Coca cola have a sale of 56% in cola flavour. 6. But overall sale of all favors in near about equal Coca cola have 51% of soft drink market while coke have 49% of share market. 7. The advertisement of Coca cola and Miranda lemon is mostly liked by the maximum people. 8. There is a big scope for fountain Coca cola in cinema halls, shopping complex, bus stand railway station etc.




Following are the certain limitations, which I face during the competition of my project report. 1. Many people in from rural area they feel themselves unsuitable for the answer. 2. Small size of sample. 3. I have done my project in December and January so there is chance of variation in the result of survey. 4. Many people dont give answer of all questions. 5. Look of sufficient time for the proper administration of the research because time is very important to do a research. Time of two months has been allocated which is very small and not sufficient for cover the all of the area. 6. Non-availability of the money was the second limitation of this study. Since the researcher has to find his study by his own source of finance. The lack of financial sources was another of this study. Since the research has been conducted on the human being who were the retailer of the different brands of soft drinks. Human behaviors are the changing phenomenon.




Following are certain recommendation according to the consumers survey: 1. The Coca cola should be stronger. 2. Miranda lemon also should be strong with a flavour something extraordinary. 3. More scheme should be introduced with Miranda lemon, 4. New flavour should be introduced in India soft drink market. 5. Distribution channel must be improved. 6. There must be less foam more liquid in the glass of fountain Coca cola. 7. Fountain Coca cola should b more strong. 8. Glass quality of fountain Coca cola should be improved. 9. Fountain Coca cola should be easily available everywhere.



In cold drinks Coke and Thumps Up have strong brand awareness and availability but Pepsi itself has a strong availability in comparison t o its competitions. So the company should try to make coke, Limca, Thums Up and other brand widely available.

Company should motivate the retailers to display its brand effectively, for this they should provide the free samples for display.

Communication gap between retailers and management should be reduced.

Problems of the retailers should solved by the company in most possibly lesser time.

Sales promotion should be implemented with in time and should live up to the promise kept.

Sprite, Kinley Soda is not much popular so, Coca-Cola should try to promote these less popular brands through increase their visibility in warm and cold display.

Salesman distributing products should carry and provide all the brands to all retailers.


Time to time visit of routes should be done by senior executives, so that problem in the market are solved effectively, Remember a officer or executive can convince them more what a salesman can not do.


Name: Address: Telephone No.

Q-1 Which brand you prefer in your outlet? 1. Coca cola [ ] 2. Pepsi [ ]

Q-2: Which type of sign board having you? 1. Partially Clear 3. No Sign Board Q-3 Are you having warm Display of sign Board to Attract Customers? 1. Partially Display 3. No display Q-4: Are you having Cold Display of sign Board to Attract Customers ? 1. Partially 3. No coke fridge Q-5: Are you having All Range of Flavour and Packs ? 1. No Range 2. OK 2 Good display 2 Clear display 2 Clear Sign

Q-6: which Media of Advertising is superior to attract the customers? 1. Hording 3. Radio 2. T.V 3. Pumplet.


Q-7:Which area is covered by you? 1. Bijli Ghar 3. Loha Mandi 5. Taj Ganj Q-8: Behavior of salesman of coke (a) Outstanding (c) Average Q-9: which Company provide better service (a) Coke (b) Pepsi (c) Other (b) Good (c) Poor 2. Piple Mandi 4. Taj Mahal

Q-10: In the buying situation what do you prefer? (a) Brand (c) Scheme (b) Price (d) Any another



REFERENCE BOOK Marketing Research (Author- G C Beri) (Publish by Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. LTD., New Delhi) Third Edition(2002).Page No.135, Para 3 Marketing Management (Author- Philip Kotler) (Publish by Pren Tice-hall of India PVT. LTD., New Delhi) Ninth Edition(2002) Page No.292, Para 2. Research Methodology (Author- Bhandrai) Print 2004, second edition. Page No.115, Para 3.

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