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Sustainable Water Management

Mochammad Amron Director General of Water Resources

Presented in International Workshop on Sustainable Water Management for Agriculture


Bogor, 13 December 2011

Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Public Works Directorate General of Water Resources

OUTLINE
1. Background. 2. Current Condition of Water Resources in Indonesia. 3. Vision, Mission, and Policy Direction of Directorate General of Water Resources. 4. IWRM Implementation in Indonesia. 5. Challenges in Water Management. 6. Preparedness of Drought Anticipation 7. Concluding Remarks.
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1. Background

Background
Indonesia consists of about 17.508 island of which 6,000 are inhabited The archipelago covers 8 million square km of the earths surface with total land area of about two million km2 Indonesias population is estimated at about 232 million with growth rate of 1,66% Republic of Indonesia is divided into 33 provinces, 400 regencies and 92 cities Indonesia has varied rainfall distribution from 800 4000 mm/year. The rainfall are mostly concentrated within 5 (five) months whereas the other 7 (seven) months faces dry season.
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WATER USAGE CONDITION


WATER AVAILABILITY (106 m3/yr)
POTENTIAL RELIABLE CAPACITY

3,221,000 UTILIZED (106 m3/yr

691,300

UNUTILIZED (106 m3/yr)

175,100 (25.3%) DMI (106 m3/yr) 34,100 (19.5%)


DOMESTIC & MUNICIPAL (106m3/yr)

516,200 (74.7%)

IRRIGATION (106 m3/yr) 141,000 (80.5 %) INDUSTRY (106 m3/yr) 27,700 (15,8%)
Source : Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap, 2010 5

6,400 (3,7%)

Water Potential in Indonesia and Water Availability per Capita


Total Indonesia TP: 3221 PC: 16.8

Kalimantan

TP: 1008 PC:

98.8

Sulawesi

TP:

247 PC:

18.3

Papua & Maluku


TP: 981 PC: 251.5

Sumatera

TP: 738 PC:

18.4
Java

TP: 187 PC: 1.6 TP:

Sunda Kecil

60 PC:

5.5

TP = Total Potency (billion m3/yr) PC = Per Capita (1.000 m3/capita/yr)


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2. Current Condition of Water Resources In Indonesia

Current Condition of Water Resources in Indonesia


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Supply of Raw Water, DMI Water and Water Conflicts. Floods and Drought. Conversion of Land Use and Ground Water. Water Pollution. Erosion and Sedimentation. Global Climate Change Impact. Institutions, Community Participation and Information System.

Issues and Problems


DEFORESTATION

FLOOD HIGH POPULATION

DROUGHT

WATER WASTE

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL


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3. Vision, Mission, and Policy Direction Directorate General Of Water Resources

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Vision and Mission


Vision : Water resources are managed comprehensively and integrally with an environmental concept, with the aim of realizing sustainable water resources benefits for optimal public welfare

Missions : 1) water resources conservation, 2) efficient use of water resources; 3) control of water destructive potential; 4) empowerment and improved role of community, business, and government; and 5) improvement of data and informations availability and transparency.
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Policy Direction in Water Resources Management


a. Prevent conflict inter region, inter sector, and inter generation in order to strengthen the national security and the unity of the nation. b. Encourage integrated water resource management process inter sector and inter region in central level, province level, district/city level, and river basin level. c. Balance water resources conservations and its utilization to reach the sustainable water. d. Balance the social function and economic value of water. e. Develop budgeting system of water resource management. f. Develop institutional arrangement in water resource management which can open the opportunity to increase the community participation.
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4. IWRM Implementation in Indonesia

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Water System in Indonesia


Integrated water resources management includes : natural system non natural system

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Water System in Indonesia


Integrated of natural system management, includes : Upstream and downstream regions. Quantity and quality of water. Precipitation, surface water and underground water. Land use and water use.

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Water System in Indonesia


The integration of the non natural system Integration of inter-related sectors The integration between stakeholder Integration between administrative areas
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Water System in Indonesia


The success of integrated water resource management needs to be measured through three main criterias, those are: Economic efficiency. Justice. Sustainability of the environment.

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Water Resources Management Coverage based on Law (UU No. 7 Tahun 2004)
Efforts to
PLAN EXECUTE MONITOR EVALUATE

Operation of
Water Resources Conservation:
1. Water Resources Preservation and Conservation Water Preservation Water Quality Management & Water Pollution Control

Water Resources Utilization:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Administration Supply Utilization Development Operation 1. 2. 3.

The Control of Water Damaging Potentials:


Prevention Handling Recovery

2. 3.

Maintenance of the sustain-ability of the existence of water resources supportability and the function of water resources

Sustainable water resources utilization by prioritizing the fulfillment of the rudimentary living needs of the people in an impartial manner.

Prevent, handle and recover of environmental damages caused by water damage potentials.

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INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
1. SPATIAL PLANNING 2. LAND USE MONITORING AND CONTROL 3. FOREST MANAGEMENT 4. LAND REHABILITATION AND SOIL CONSERVATION 5. RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RECHARGE AREA.

WATER SOURCES MANAGEMENT


1. WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT 2. WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT 3. FLOOD MANAGEMENT 4. RIVER INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT 5. RIVER ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

WATER USE MANAGEMENT

1. WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT 2. EFFICIENT USE OF WATER 3. IRRIGATION WATER AND WASTE WATER SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

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INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


Water resources management is based on RBT (a territory unitary of WRM in one or more river basins and/or small islands). Central government. responsible to manage inter-state, interprovinces, and nationally strategic RBTs, Provincial government. responsible with inter-districts RBTs, and district/regency government. responsible with RBTs in one district/regency. The whole area is divided into 133 river basin territories (RBTs) where 69 RBTs are central government responsibilities and the rest of 64 RBTs are local government responsibilities. The implementation of water management in RBTs are done by river basin territory management units (river basin organizations/ RBOs). It has been established a National Water Council, 13 Provincial water Councils and 12 River Basin territory Water Councils.
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Institutional Framework / Roles


Institutional Framework/Roles
Minister, Governor, Regent, REGULATOR Mayor, legislatif
COORDINATION BOARD (WATER COUNCIL)
Implementation Unit : Forestry, OPERATOR Water Resources, Local Government

DEVELOPER

Government, corporate : private/ public

USER and PUBLIC

User: Agriculture , Energy, Industry, Plantation Public: Expert/ NGO /Customary Community

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Mainstreaming Climate Change into WR Policy and Strategy


BALI Action Plan

Mitigation WR Policy and Strategy Adaptation

PRESIDEN STATEMENT:G20 2009 and COP 15.

Indonesia: Low Carbon Development

1. Emission reduction target of 26% in 2020 will be equal to 0.767 Gt. 2. Reduce further to 41%, an additional emission reduction of about 0.422 Gt.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Forestry sector Energy sector Waste sector Agriculture sector Transport sector Industrial sector Peat emission
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Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies on Water Sector


Adaptation and mitigation strategies: Improve the service quality of Water Resources Infrastructure to national food resilience and reduce susceptibility against floods, landslides and drought. Develop the disaster risk management for flood and water related disaster. Enhancing water saving campaign, efficiency use and water demand management. Support reforestation, especially in the critical river basin catchments area. Considering climate change impact, Water Resources management should be held in integrity through holistic approach and supported by strong institutional system and involving all stakeholders concerned.
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5. Challenges in Water Management

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Challenges for Water Security / Lessons Learned


Challenges for Improving Water Security Imbalance between supply and demand in spatial and temporal perspective Degraded river basin conditions Water supply and sanitation provision Budget allocation of the government institutions Human Resources Development Climate Change impacts Lessons Learned to date Water Resources Law Integrated Water Resources Management
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GettingChallenges for Water Security / Right the Legal, Institutional and Financial Arrangements
As Institutional and Governmental Stakeholders

Lessons Learned

Legal Arrangements Strategic plan Implementation plan or Master plan Technical recommendations Institutional Arrangements River Basin Territory water council Performance benchmarking of RBO Financial Arrangements National budget Sharing with local governments & other institutions Public Private Partnership WRM service fee
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6. Preparedness of Drought Anticipation

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Preparedness of Drought Anticipation


I. Provision of infrastructure and increase reliability of water resources
Construction of reservoirs; Increase capacity of water supply by rehabilitation and improvement of reservoirs; Operation and Maintenance of the reservoirs and water resources; Develop small reservoirs on part of agriculture land.

(1)

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Preparedness of Drought Anticipation


II. Water Management Effort Construction of reservoirs; Make Water Allocation which is based on the water balance of each river basin; Intensive monitoring of water availability in reservoirs by monitor the reservoirs water level; Eficiency of water consumption for irrigation purposes (80% of Water used for irrigation). Improving the capacity of water absorption on the catchment area and conservation effort to improving the ground water availability and also to decresing drainage load Applying the rainwater harvesting technology and make surface runoff networks, especially for areas that frequently in clean water crises.

(2)

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Preparedness of Drought Anticipation

(3)

Eficiency of Water Consumption can be done by: Intensive monitoring of leakage in irrigation network; Application of water consumption priority; Optimization of planting areal; Prevention of illegal water consumption in the river and the channel Application of system rotation in water usage and application of water saving technologies; Applying the principle of water usage repeatedly. Water in the drainage channel can be pumped back to the agricultural land.
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Preparedness of Drought Anticipation


III. Empowering the farmers Application of cropping schedule and cropping system in accordance rotation period of planting and plant species that have been agreed in the planting plan; Counseling of efficient and effective water consumption through the Water Efficient Movement and increasing the awareness of environmental conservation; Application of SRI methods. In 2009 applied to the six provinces with a total area of 69.50 ha and increased to an area of 3159.9 ha in 2010.

(4)

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Preparedness of Drought Anticipation


IV. Drought Mitigation Provision of Water Pump. Currently available 95 units of water pump (capacity 25 liters/second) spread at 6 BBWS/BWS in Directorate General of Water Resources Supply the clean water through water tank truck and public hydrant for water crises area Coordination with BNPB and the other sectors for disasters and climate anomaly anticipation Implementation of Weather Modification Technology cooperate with the other sectors (BPPT, BMKG, LIPI, Local Goverment)

(5)

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7. Concluding Remarks

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CONCLUDING REMARKS
Water resources management is based on a holistic and integrated approach. On the implementation WRM should be supported by 3 aspects : legal, capacity of institutions, and finance. Establishment of WR Council is important to accommodate the aspiration of all stakeholders. Participation of all stakeholders in all process of water resources implementation is needed.
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CONCLUDING REMARKS
As an archipelagos and developing country, Indonesia that is the one of the most vulnerable countries has to prepare activities plan in detail dealing with natural disaster and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Considering climate change impacts and clearly to define Who do What, water resources management should be held in integrity through holistic approach and supported by strong institutional system and involving all stakeholders.
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Thank You

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