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PROJECT REPORT ON

Submitted By

NACHIKET DIGHE

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

PROF. SACHIN KAMATH

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PART COMPLETION OF MMS TO THE

Chetanas R.K. Institute of Management & Research Bandra (East), Mumbai 400 051. APRIL 2011

DECLARATION

This is to declare that the study presented by me to Chetanas R.K.Institute of Management and Research, in part completion of the MMS under the title Study of strategic and design considerations to arrive at an automobile logo had been done under the guidance of PROF.SACHIN KAMAT

NACHIKET DIGHE (MMS 2009-2011)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the study presented by (NACHIKET DIGHE) to the Chetanas R.K. Institute of Management and Research, in part completion of the MMS under the title Study of strategic and design considerations to arrive at an automobile logo, has been done under the guidance of (PROF.SACHIN KAMAT).

The project is in the nature of original work that has not so far been submitted for any Diploma of Chetanas R.K. Institute of Management & Research or any other University / Institute. References of work and related sources of information have been given at the end of report.

Signature of the Guide

Signature of the Director

PROF.SACHIN KAMAT

Dr. FIRDOS.T.SHROFF

CHETANAS R.K. INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & RESEARCH

Study of strategic and design considerations to arrive at an automobile logo


Project report
By

Nachiket Dighe
MMS - Roll no. 71 Mob: 09869608945 E-mail: nachiket747@yahoo.co.in

Submitted to:

Prof. sachin kamat

Table of contents

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2 : PROJECT Objectives Scope & Limitations of the project CHAPTER 2.1 History of logos CHAPTER 2.2 List of logo designers CHAPTER 2.3 List of automobile manufacturers considered CHAPTER 2.4 Brief history of the automobile manufacturers CHAPTER 2.5 Strategic and design aspect of each logo

CHAPTER 2.6 Listing the important considerations while arriving at a logo

CHAPTER 3 : Bibliography

CHAPTER 1 : Introduction

A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. Logos are either purely graphic (symbols/icons) or are composed of the name of the organization. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication or simply in the high street a company's logo is today often synonymous with its trademark or brand

CHAPTER 2 : PROJECT
Objectives of the project

Scope and Limitations of the project

Objectives of the project

Defining the scope and limitations of the word Logo A brief study of origin of logos in various businesses List of logo designers Study the history of logos in the international automobile industry Identify and distinguish the strategic and design aspect of various existing logos. Listing the important considerations to arrive at a new logo. Designing a logo making use of those considerations.

Scope & limitations of the project

The logos considered for the project consist of imagery and typography only.

It may be purely graphic or composed of both the image as well as the name of the organization It does not include any other aspect such as mascot, brand identity, jingle, etc It however includes the slogans, taglines, colour combination etc used in the actual logo itself This includes ideograms (icons, signs, emblems) as well as logotypes (written name)

CHAPTER 2.1 :
History of logos

History of logos
Logos from the past

Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, which are as follows: cylinder seals (c.2300 BCE),

coins (c.600 BCE), trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, watermarks, silver hallmarks Development of printing technology.

After the industrial revolution

As the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries, photography and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.

Simultaneously, typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purposefrom expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were growing and organizing; by 1890 the US had 700 lithographic printing firms employing more than 8,000 people. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists.

Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic processsuch as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, and Jules Chret of France in the 1870sdeveloped an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful childrens books, authoritative newspapers, and conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences. As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, and visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts lead to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century, partially in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality also provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks.

After the industrial revolution

By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere.

The visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied "Less is more."

Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, and digital innovations.

Logos today

The current era of logo design began in the 1950s.

Today there are many corporations, products, brands, services, agencies and other entities using an ideogram (sign, icon) or an emblem (symbol) or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo.

As a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms people see are recognized without a name.

It is sensible to use an ideogram as a logo, even with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Currently, the usage of both images (ideograms) and the company name (logotype) to emphasize the name instead of the supporting graphic portion and making it unique, by it non-formulaic construction via the desiginal use of its letters, colors and any additional graphic elements.

Ideograms (icons, signs, emblems) may be more effective than a written name (logotype), especially for logos being translated into many alphabets.

CHAPTER 2.2 List of Logo designers

List of Logo designers


Three designers are widely considered the pioneers of modern era logo design:

1.

Chermayeff & Geismar Chase Bank (1964) Mobil Oil (1965) NBC (1984), PBS (1986) National Geographic(2003)

2.

Paul Rand IBM UPS ABC

3.

Saul Bass AT&T, Continental Airlines (1968), Dixie (1969), United Way (1972)

CHAPTER 2.3 List of automobile manufacturers considered

The list of automobile manufacturers considered

CHAPTER 2.4 Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Alfa Romeo Automobiles is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910 in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars. The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group, and since February 2007 a part of Fiat Group Automobiles.

The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Societ Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and a new company was founded named A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili English: Lombard Automobile Factory, Public Company).

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Audi AG is a German manufacturer of a range of automobiles, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand, positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group. The company is headquartered in Ingolstadt, Germany, and has been a wholly owned (99.55%) subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1966, following a phased purchase of its predecessor, Auto Union, from its former owner, DaimlerBenz. Volkswagen relaunched the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series. The company name is based on the surname of the founder August Horch, his surname meaning listen in Germanwhich, when translated into Latin, becomes Audi. A. Horch & Cie (later to be known as Audi) was established in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne in 1899. August Horch church established the company and by the beginning of 1901 the first Audi car was completed.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), (literally English: Bavarian Motor Works) is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini brand, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands. BMW is known for its performance and luxury vehicles, and is a global leader in premium car sales.

BMW entered existence as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft engine manufacturing firm in 1917. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production in 1923 once the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted, followed by automobiles in 1928-29.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Ferrari is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles as Ferrari S.p.A. in 1947. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it has had great success.

Enzo Ferrari never intended to produce road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari (literally "Ferrari Stable", and usually used to mean "Team Ferrari", it is correctly pronounced in 1928 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena. Ferrari prepared, and successfully raced, various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to head their motor racing department.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, patented in January 1886 and Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine later that year. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company.

Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that later became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the most well-known and established automotive brands in the world, and is also the world's oldest automotive brand still in existence today.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars, based in Gaydon, Warwickshire. The company name is derived from the name of one of the company's founders, Lionel Martin, and from the Aston Hill speed hillclimb near Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire. It also designs and engineers cars which are manufactured by Magna Steyr in Austria.

From 1994 until 2007 Aston Martin was part of the Ford Motor Company, becoming part of the company's Premier Automotive Group in 2000. On 12 March 2007, it was purchased for 479 million by a joint venture company, headed by David Richards and co-owned by Investment Dar and Adeem Investment of Kuwait and English businessman John Sinders. Ford retained a US$77 million stake in Aston Martin, valuing the company at US$925 million.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Toyota Motor Corporation commonly known simply as Toyota and abbreviated as TMC, is a multinational automaker headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In 2009, Toyota Motor Corporation employed 71,116 people worldwide (total Toyota 320,808). TMC is the world's largest automobile manufacturer by sales and production.

The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation group companies are Toyota (including the Scion brand), Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino Motors, along with several "non-automotive" companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.Toyota Motor Corporation is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi and in Tokyo.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citron, the second largest carmaker based in Europe.

The family business that precedes the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810. On 20 November 1858, Emile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. The company produced its first automobile in 1891. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot in 1896 founded the Socit des Automobiles Peugeot.

Peugeot's roots go back to 19th-century coffee mill and bicycle manufacturing. The Peugeot Company and family is originally from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot Museum there. It also sponsors the Sochaux football club, founded in 1928 by a member of the Peugeot family.

Brief history of the automobile manufacturers

Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car, and from 1914, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Henry Royce on 15 March 1906 as the result of a partnership formed in 1904. In 1971, Rolls-Royce was crippled by the development of the advanced RB211 jet engine, resulting in the nationalisation of the company as Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited. In 1973, the car division was separated from the parent company as Rolls-Royce Motors. RollsRoyce (1971) Limited continued as a nationalised company until it was privatised in 1987 as Rolls-Royce plc.

Rolls-Royce Motor Cars is a British manufacturer of luxury automobiles based at the Goodwood plant in West Sussex, England. It is the current producer of Rolls-Royce branded automobiles, whose historical production dates back to 1904. The factory is located across from the historic Goodwood Circuit in Goodwood, West Sussex, and England. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the BMW Group.

CHAPTER 2.5 Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design aspect:

Alfa's badge incorporates emblems from fifth century Italy.It was designed in 1910 by an Italian draughtsman Romano Cattaneo who used two heraldic devices traditionally associated with Milan: on the right is the Biscione, the emblem of the House of Visconti, rulers of Milan in the 14th century; on the left is a red cross on a white field, the emblem of Milan, which Cattaneo had seen on the door of the Castello Sforzesco. In 1918, after the company was purchased by Nicola Romeo, the badge was redesigned with the help of Giuseppe Merosi.

A dark blue metallic ring was added, containing the inscription "ALFA ROMEO" and "MILANO" separated by two Savoy dynasty knots to honour the Kingdom of Italy. After the victory of the P2 in the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925, Alfa added a laurel wreath around the badge. In 1946, after the abolition of the monarchy, the Savoy knots were replaced with two curvy lines. The name "MILANO", the hyphen, and the lines were eliminated when Alfa Romeo opened its factory at Pomigliano d'Arco, Naples in the early 1970s.

Strategic aspect:
The symbols are the coat-of-arms of the city of Milan and related to the Crusades, hence the cross. The figure being eaten is a child or a Saracen, depending on who you listen to.

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design aspect:
The Audi emblem is four overlapping rings that represent the four marques of Auto Union. The Audi emblem symbolises the amalgamation of Audi with DKW, Horch and Wanderer: the first ring from the left represents Audi, the second represents DKW, third is Horch, and the fourth and last ring Wanderer. Its similarity to the Olympic rings caused the International Olympic Committee to sue Audi in Rochester, Minnesota small claims Court in 1995. After the war the Audi name - which is Latin for "Hear!" - disappeared, but was revived in 1965, using the four rings as a logo. Also, the name is sort of a pun on 'hoerch', German for 'hear', name of one of the founders. As part of Audi's centennial celebration in 2009, the company updated the logo, changing the font to left-aligned Audi Type, and altering the shading for the overlapping rings.

Strategic aspect:

Audi's corporate tagline is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Progress through Technology". The German-language tagline is used in many European countries, including the United Kingdom, and in other markets, such as Latin America, Oceania and parts of Asia including Japan. A few years ago, the North American tagline was "Innovation through technology", but in Canada the German tagline Vorsprung durch Technik was used in advertising. More recently, however, Audi has updated the tagline to "Truth in Engineering" in the U.S

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design aspect:
The logo comprised of four quadrants of alternating white and blue color. It is a stylized representation of an airplane propeller spinning against the clear blue sky. The logo represents a white propeller blade against a blue sky. It reflects the origins of BMW as a maker of military aircraft engines during WWI. Also, white and blue are the traditional colors of Bavaria.

Strategic aspect:
BMW stands for Bayerische Motoren Werke or Bavarian Motor Company. The company was established in 1913 and based in Munich, Germany. It started out as an aero engine manufacturer, hence the company logo.

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design aspect:
The famous symbol of Ferrari is a black prancing horse on yellow background, usually with the letters S F for Scuderia Ferrari. The horse was originally the symbol of Count Francesco Baracca, a legendary "asso" (ace) of the Italian air force during World War I, who painted it on the side of his planes. Baracca died very young on June 19, 1918, shot down after 34 victorious duels and many team victories. He soon became a national hero. Baracca had wanted the prancing horse on his planes because his squad, the "Battaglione Aviatori", was enrolled in a Cavalry regiment (air forces were at their first years of life and had no separate administration), and also because he himself was reputed to be the best cavaliere of his team.

Strategic aspect:
The Scuderia Ferrari logo Coat of Arms of the City of Stuttgart. It has been supposed that the choice of a horse was perhaps partly due to the fact that his noble family was known for having plenty of horses in their estates at Lugo di Romagna.

Another theory suggests Baracca copied the rampant horse design from a shot down German pilot having the emblem of the city of Stuttgart on his plane. Interestingly, German sports car manufacturer Porsche, from Stuttgart, borrowed its prancing horse logo from the city's emblem. Furthermore astonishing: Stuttgart is an over the centuries modified version of Stutengarten (an ancient german word for "Gestt", translated into english as mare garden or stud farm, into italian as "scuderia").

On June 17, 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna, and there he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Baracca. The Countess asked that he use the horse on his cars, suggesting that it would grant him good luck, but it the first race at which Alfa would let him use the horse on Scuderia cars was eleven years later, at SPA 24 Hours in 1932. Ferrari won. Ferrari left the horse black as it had been on Baracca's plane; however, he added a yellow background because it was the symbolic color of his birthplace, Modena. The prancing horse has not always identified the Ferrari brand only: Fabio Taglioni used it on his Ducati motorbikes. Taglioni's father was in fact a companion of Baracca's and fought with him in the 91st Air Squad, but as Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse; this may have been the result of a private agreement between the two brands. The prancing horse is now a trademark of Ferrari.

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design:
The Mercedes-Benz logo is one of the most famous brands in the world. The Benz logo is a simplistic three-pointed star. The famous three-pointed star was designed by Gottlieb Daimler.

Strategic:
The three-pointed star represents its domination of the land, the sea, and the air. It shows the ability of his motors for land, air and sea-usage. It was first seen on a Daimler in 1909, and was combined with the Benz laurel wreath in 1926 to signify the union of the two firms. Mercedes-Benz is the world's oldest automobile manufacturer. When the patented name "Mercedes" was registered in September 1902 Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft had a successful brand name but still lacked a characteristic trademark. Then Paul and Adolf Daimler - the company founders two sons, and now in charge of the business - remembered that their father had once used a star as a symbol.

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design:
In 1913, Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford founded a company that later would become Aston Martin. At the time, Martin & Bamford Limited produced Singers racing cars, but the duo wanted to create a more sophisticated model of their own. They named their first car Aston Martin after the founder Lionel Martin and the Aston Clinton hill climb racing course where their Singers car had won previously.

The emblem is currently composed by a pair of white wings, outlined by a black line, with the words Aston Martin in white over a green rectangle on top of the wings. In the logo, the rectangle is in plain white, instead of green, and the words Aston Martin are repeated and placed underneath the drawing. he first one, created in 1920, was basically a merging of the letters A and M in black, surrounded by a black double-line circle.

Strategic:

In 1932, Aston Martins symbol was completely reformulated, now consisting on the brands name written over a pair of wings that were inspired by Bentleys and meant to suggest speed. The drawing is in black over white. A few years later, the 1932 symbol was somewhat redesigned in order to keep up with contemporary tastes but the drawings elements remained the same. In 1947, after David Brown took over the automaker, the logo was improved yet again and now included the name David Brown above the words Aston Martin, which were now sustained by a black rectangle. The wings remained as the symbols background. The David Brown name would be removed in the 1970s when the company was no longer on this sirs hands.

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design:
In 1936, Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27,000 entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its monikor to "Toyota" from the family name "Toyoda." It was believed that the new name sounded better and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune.

The original logo no longer is found on its vehicles but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan. Since "Toyoda" literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also helped to distance the company from associations with old fashioned farming.

Still, there were no guidelines for the use of the brand name, "TOYOTA", which was used throughout most of the world, which led to inconsistencies in its worldwide marketing campaigns.

To remedy this, Toyota introduced a new worldwide logo in October 1989 to commemorate the 50th year of the company, and to differentiate it from the newly released luxury Lexus brand. The logo made its debut on the 1989 Toyota Celsior and quickly gained worldwide recognition. There are three ovals in the new logo that combine to form the letter "T", which stands for Toyota.

Strategic:
The overlapping of the two perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represent the mutually beneficial relationship and trust that is placed between the customer and the company while the larger oval that surrounds both of these inner ovals represent the "global expansion of Toyota's technology and unlimited potential for the future."

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design:
The Peugot lion logo is a strong visual brand for the Peugot car. The first lion is designed for marking saw blades and steel products. It symbolizes the three qualities of Peugeot saw blades: the toughness of the teeth, the flexibility of the blade, and the speed of the cut. In 1850 the lion image appeared for the first time on the 'Peugeot Bros' arrow. Initially put on saw blades, this logo was registered in 1858, and for many years would mark the tools manufactured by the brand.

Strategic: 1847
The first lion is designed for marking saw blades and steel products. It symbolizes the three qualities of Peugeot saw blades: the toughness of the teeth, the flexibility of the blade, and the speed of the cut. In 1850 the lion image appeared for the first time on the 'Peugeot Bros' arrow. Initially put on saw blades, this logo was registered in 1858, and for many years would mark the tools manufactured by the brand.

1889
1889 was a historic year for the make, with the launch of the first vehicle bearing the Peugeot name: a tricycle, the result of cooperation between Leon Serpollet, the steam expert, and Armand Peugeot. The lion is still shown on tools and cycles. On the other hand, it was missing from the first cars manufactured between 1890 and 1905. To mark these products, Armand Peugeot, who had founded the company Automobiles Peugeot made do with the words 'Automobiles Peugeot' on the radiators. Between 1905 and 1915, the profile of a lion on an arrow was, however, present on the 'Lion Peugeot' cars manufactured by Peugeot Bros.

1910
Following the merger in 1910 of the cycle and automobile activities, the company 'Automobiles et Cycles Peugeot' would just put the old PEUGEOT on its cars. On some models 'unofficial' lions made their appearance: the Baudichon lion (1923) and the Marx lion (1925), named after their sculptors, are true works of art. One

had to wait until 1933 for a more realistic lion to adorn the bonnets of models made at the plant.

1948
The heraldic lion made its appearance on the 203. It is rearing up on its hind legs, to adopt the familiar posture of the lion on the coat of arms of Franche-Comt, birthplace of the business.

1965
Having become a holding company under the name Peugeot S.A., the make changes the logo: just the lion's head is retained on a triangular shield. Three years later the lion head is framed in a square, making a brand sign as it is today. The cars' radiator grills in the meantime continue to sport the heraldic lion.

1976
In 1976 a new structure, the PSA Peugeot-Citroen holding company, brings together the two makes, Peugeot and Citroen. The Group then purchased Chrysler Corporation. There were so many happenings to disturb the identity of the Peugeot brand. To reinforce its image, Peugeot has come back to its heraldic lion, with a refined design: it's the so-called 'Lion fil'. The best ambassador of this new, visual identity would be the 205, sold successfully since 1983.

1998
The visual identity of Peugeot changes again: the paws, added in the same scale, reinforce the power and balance of this feline; the blue, piercing eye symbolizes the long-term vision of the make. The lion is now complete and metallized to apply to the brand's values (sure, dynamic, esthetic), and is included in the design of its latest models.

2002
Now called the 'Blue Brand', the logo changed again to better reflect the Peugeot brand's ambitions. Still complete and metallized, it has had black added to the blue to show the lion's shadow. Balanced in shape and proportions, the logo and the car Brand are by now indivisible: unity creates strength.

Strategic and design aspect of each logo

Design:
The Rolls Royce logo consisting of the two Rs or the double R clearly stands for the Rolls and Royce, the two founders of this car manufacturing company. There is nothing special about the design of the logo, but the brand name is so strong, the logo looks special.

Strategy:
In 1884 Frederick Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business. He made his first car, a "Royce", in his Manchester factory in 1904. He was introduced to Charles Stewart Rolls in a Manchester hotel on the May 4 that year, and the pair agreed a deal where Royce would manufacture cars, to be sold exclusively by Rolls. A clause was added to the contract, stipulating the cars would be called "Rolls-Royce".

CHAPTER 2.6 Listing the important considerations while arriving at a logo

Listing the important considerations while arriving at a logo


Logo design is an important area of graphic design, and one of the most difficult to perfect. The logo (ideogram) is the image embodying an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies' brands or corporate identities and foster their immediate customer recognition, it is counterproductive to frequently redesign logos. Color is considered important to brand recognition, but it should not be an integral component to the logo design, which could conflict with its functionality. Some colors are formed/associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey. For instance loud primary colors, such as red, are meant to attract the attention of drivers on highways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. In the United States red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with the health, hygiene and environment. More subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate reliability, quality, relaxation, or other traits.

CHAPTER 3 : Bibliography

Bibliography
Books:
Wheeler, Alina. Designing Brand Identity 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (page 4) Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 58. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 138159. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 126134. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 148155. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 159161.. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 162167. Bierut, Michael (1997). Steven Heller, Marie Finamore. ed. "Historic Preservation in Corporate Identity". Design culture: an anthology of writing from the AIGA journal of graphic design: 7779. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 369374. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 3734. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 369.. Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 375.

Websites:
http://www.dinesh.com/history_of_logos/car_logos_-_design_and_history.html http://car-logos.50webs.com/ford-car-logo.html http://www.rolls-roycemotorcars.com/ http://www.toyota.com/ http://www.astonmartin.com/ www.bmw.com/ www.audiusa.com/ www.peugeot.com/ http://www.ferrari.com/ www.mbusa.com/