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1.1.

1.1.1.
s, : girl girls.
1.1.2. -es :

c -s, -sh, -ss, -ch, -x, -z, : box


boxes, abbess abbesses, bunch bunches;

-, : hero heroes, tomato


tomatoes.
, ,

, , : zoo zoos, Romeo


Romeos, piano pianos, kilo kilos.

-s -es: archipelago archipelagos, archipelagoes; banjo


banjos, banjoes; cargo cargos, cargoes; flamingo flamingos, flamingoes; halo
halos, haloes; volcano volcanos, volcanoes.
1.1.3. -,
-y -i, : sky skies.
, 2
, ,
(, .),
: day days, Mary Marys, stand-by stand-bys.
1.1.4. , -f(e),
: -f(e)+s = -v(e)s:
calf calves
self selves
elf elves
sheaf sheaves
half halves
shelf shelves
knife knives
thief thieves
leaf leaves
wife wives
life lives
wolf wolves
loaf loaves
-f(e)
: cliff cliffs, gulf gulfs.
3

dwarf, handkerchief, hoof, scarf, wharf


:
dwarf dwarfs, dwarves

hoof hoofs, hooves

""
: still life still lifes.
1.1.5.
:
man men
ox oxen
woman women
child children
tooth teeth
brother brethren (
foot feet

,
goose geese

mouse mice
).
louse lice
1.1.6.
:
sheepsheep
series series
swine swine
species species
deer deer
corps corps
grouse grouse
works - works
antelope, reindeer, fish, herring, fruit
:
antelope - antelope, antelopes
reindeer - reindeer, reindeers
fish - fish, fishes
herring - herring, herrings
fruit fruit, fruits

,
; , -es.
1.1.7. ,
() ,
-s : passer-by passers-by.
,
( ),
-s : forget-me-not forget-menots; merry-go-round merry-go-rounds; pick-me-up pick-me-ups.
,
man/woman,
: man-doctor men-doctors, womanpoliceman women-policemen.
: woman-hater woman-haters, man-eater man-eaters,
,
.
1.1.8.
:

- IS

- ES

Analysis
Axis
Basis
Diagnosis
Hypothesis
Parenthesis
Thesis

analyses
axes
bases
diagnoses
hypotheses
parentheses
theses

-ON

-A

Automaton
Criterion
Phenomenon

automata
criteria
phenomena

-A

-ATA

Miasma

miasmata

-US

-I, -ORA, -ERA

Bacillus
Cactus
Corpus
Nucleus
Radius

bacilli
cacti or cactuses
corpora
nuclei
radii

Stimulus

stimuli

Terminus

termini

-A

-AE

Antenna
Formula
Vertebra

antennae
formulae or formulas
vertebrae

-UM

Aquarium
Bacterium
Curriculum
Datum
Erratum
Medium
Stratum

aquaria or aquariums
bacteria
curricula
data
errata
media or mediums
strata

-ES, -IX

-ICES

Appendix
Index
Matrix

appendices or appendixes
indices or indexes
matrices or matrixes

-EAU

-EAUX

Bureau
Tableau

bureaux or bureaus
tableaux

-O

-I

Tempo

tempi or tempos

1.
:
1. A man may catch as much fish in two hours as will serve six or seven people for
a whole week, such as cod, halibut, turbot, salmon, skate, haddock, herrings,

smelts and lobsters; and they lie as thick as stone in Cheapside, so that
Billingsgate is but a fish-stall in comparison with it.
2. Many of the recipes for the preparation of variety meats have become rare now
that the choice cuts are so readily available in our modern supermarkets.
Although tongue and sweetbreads have remained with us, the popularity of the
udder has waned considerably. Maybe it can be said that the lack of necessity
has robbed us of some of the most delectable foods, for few housewives of
today are willing to take the time and trouble involved in preparing some of
these intricate and time-consuming recipes. On the other hand, of the pampered
tummies may feel grateful that tomorrows dinner will not, of necessity, be a
Blood Pudding or a Roasted Udder.
3. Kohl Cannon is made in various ways. The Irish simply use mashed potatoes,
cooked cabbage and onion, while the Lunenburg Germans like to include turnip
and pork scraps, with the pork scraps, being removed before serving. The Scotts
added carrots. But no matter how it was made the eating of Kohl Cannon was a
common custom on Halloween. In it would be buried a penny, a match a ring
and a button, all well wrapped (it is hoped) in waxed paper. These favours
would signify marriage, spinsterhood, money or poverty, respectively, and
much excitement was aroused, especially among the young maidens who were
hopeful that the Kohl Cannon would foretell their future happiness.
4. For a long time tomatoes were thought to be poisonous. This belief, however,
must have been passed by 1860, for in a Godey's Lady's Book of that year it is
referred to as a "delicious and wholesome vegetable". It also states that
tomatoes should "always be cooked for three hours", so we assume that even
then, tomatoes were in the early stages of experimentation.
5. Candy was a very rare treat for the children of the early pioneers. Sugar was
scarce and "dear", pennies were too precious to be squandered and sweet treats
were something everyone could do without. So the children lived in
anticipation of the time when the sap would run again in the maple trees for
early spring was the time for Candy on the Snow. When the sap was collected

and in the process of being boiled into maple sugar, the older folks always
made sure that a little of the boiling liquid was poured on the snow where, it
hardened into a delicious candy. The sweet-starved youngsters pounced upon it
with glee and ate their fill, fully realizing that it might be a long time before
they could again enjoy the sweet taste.
2. ,
:
1.

This is a real datum of the last measurement.


2. Science has received valuable data on the reaction of the human organism to
space flights.

3.

This interesting phenomenon was discussed at the conference yesterday.

4.

The object of physics is to determine relations between physical phenomena.


5.

Neutron has no electrical charge and is bound together with the proton in the
nucleus of an atom.

6.

Man has learned to split the nuclei of billions of atoms.

7.

Do you know the radius of the Earth?

8.

Here is the formula you need. It is only a hypothesis, but you may try.

9.

The bodies are rotating around the axes.


10.

He could not understand these phenomena as he did not know nuclear physics,
but he did his best to master it.

11.

Do you know the radii of these circles?

12.

These data are very important for solving our problem.

13.

He remembers all these formulae which we have studied.

14.

They arrived daily from various termini.

15.

He caught only some fish yesterday.


3. :
1. My hair is/are clean.
2. Can I borrow your scissors? Mine is/are not sharp enough.
3. Bad news dont/doesnt make people happy.
4. There is/is a hair in my soup.

5. I dont want advices/advice or help.


6. Ive seen some comedies this month. Each was/were funny than the last.
7. Wed like three dozen/dozens eggs.
8.

Knowledge is/are power.

9.

Everybody is/are ready.

10.I need my glasses. Where is/are the glasses?


11.In summer we eat a lot of fruit/fruits.
12.There is/are a lot of sheep in the field.
13.

The police want/wants to interview Fred about the accident.

14.Money is/are not everything.


15.Last Saturday we went fishing, but we didnt catch many fish/fishes.
16.

Mathematics is/are as exact science.

17.

The sunlit rooves/roofs look wonderful.

18.

Julias clothes is/are in her wardrobe.

19.Our team is/are playing well.


20.

The United States have/has a violent history.

4. :
1. , .
2.

, , , .

3. ? .
4.

5. .
6. .
7.

8.

" " .. .

9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13.

14. .
15. .
16.

17.

18. .
19.

20.

,
.