Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6



Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, December 16-18,2003


H. H. El-Tamaly Ali M. El-Tamaly A. A. El-Baset Mohammed
Faculty of Engineering,
Elminia University, Elminia, Egypt.

Abstract almost triple by 2050. So, oil can only

This paper introduces a complete supply the world for up to 150 years [1].
simulation program for optimal design of a Using renewable energy is one way to meet
hybrid photovoltaic wind energy system, the future need. So, we can say that the
renewable energy is the fuel of the future.
PVWES, to be interconnected with utility
In [2] a CAD/CAA tool for design of
grid, UG. A computer program has been
integrated hybrid power system and in [3] a
designed to determine optimum number of
design of a hybrid wind/photovoltaic based
PV modules and optimum number of wind
on political and social conditions and use
turbine generator, WTG based on
trade-off /risk method. These researches
maximum power point by using neural
[2,3] didn't take into account the most
network for the system under study. Many
important technical parameters as
WTG and PV types have been introduced to
maximum power point, optimum output
computer program to chose the best type
voltage from PV and best coefficient of
and the penetration ratio for WTG and PV
performance for WTG, which have been
modules. The computer program can
deeply investigated in this paper.
completely design the hybrid system and
This paper presents a complete design of a
determine the hourly system parameters as
hybrid PVWES interconnected with UG.
power flow, frequency of output power
The design is based on energy balance,
form WTG, and DC output voltage from
minimum price of generated kWh from the
PV modules. The decision from the
computer program is based on minimum system under study and maximum power
point tracking for PV and WTG by using
price of the generated kWh from the
system. The system show the superiority of expert neural network. The design
using hybrid PVWES. methodology has been applied to
Al'Zafrana site in Egypt as a case study.

1- Introduction
2- System Configuration
As energy demands around the world
increase, the need for a renewable energy 2- 1 Modeling Photovoltaic Array
source that will not harm the environment The electrical power generated and terminal
has been increased. Some projections voltage of PV module depend on solar
indicate that the global energy demand will radiation and ambient temperature. The

equivalent electrical circuit describing the Rs I
solar cells array used in the analysis is
shown in Fig.1. The mathematical equation Iph Rsh V
describing the I-V characteristics of a PV
solar cells array is given by: [4]

I =I ph −Ioexp
( )
q V + I * R   v + I*R
s  −1 − s (1) Fig.1 Equvilant circuit of PV
AKT   R solar cells array.
    sh
where, I is the output current, Amp, V is the
output voltage, Volt, A is the ideality factor
for p-n junction, T is the temperature,
Kelvin, K is the Boltzman's constant in
Joules per Kelvin, and, q is the charge of
the electron in Coulombs.
Io is the reverse saturation current and the
generated current Iph of solar cell array vary Fig.2 Power-voltage characteristics of a PV
with temperature according to the following solar cells array
equations: [4] Radiation

( )
r  go I r
I = Ior T/T 3 expq*E / K 1/T −1/T (2)

) Temperature Calculate
Max. Power
where, Tr is the reference temperature, oK, Time
Ego is the band-gap energy of the
semiconductor used in solar cell array, KI is Bias
the short circuit current temperature
coefficient, and, Ior is the saturation current Bias
at Tr, Amp.
Fig. 3. Configuration of Neural Network
I = (I + K (T − 298)) * rad / 100 (3) used to determine the MPP
ph sc I
2-2 Modeling of Wind Turbine
The output of the solar cell can be
calculated by the following equation: The model used to calculate the output
power generated by WTG is shown in
Pout = V* I (4) Fig.4. Where Pw is the power in the wind,
Pm is the turbine output power, Pt is the
by applying a computer program the power- generated input power and Pe is the
voltage characteristics of a PV solar cells generator power output. Cp is the
array to the measured data was calculated coefficient of performance of the turbine,
as shown in Fig.2 . From this figure it is ηm is the transmission efficiency and ηg is
found that the maximum power point, MPP
the generator efficiency.ωm is the turbine
vary with the change of radiation. Therefore
angular velocity.
in order to track the MPP form PV solar
cell array at any solar radiation a three-layer
neural network as shown in Fig.3 is applied Pw Wind Turbine Transmission Pt generator Pe
Cp ηm ωt ηg ωg
[5]. ωm

Fig.4 Block diagram of wind electrical


From the block diagram shown in Fig.4, the
electrical power output can be written as,
P = C * η * η * 0 .5 * ρ * A * v 3 (5)
e p m g
The characteristic of power output from
WTG can be described by the following
formula [7].
0 : v<Vc 
 
C *η *η *0.5*ρ*A*v3 :V ≤ v ≤ V 
p m g c r  (6)
Pe(v) = 
3 Fig.6 shaft power output versus rotor speed
C *η *η *0.5*ρ*A*v : V ≤ v≤V 
 p m g r c
0 : v >V  2-3 Load Characteristics
 f 
It is assumed here that the load demand
where: ν is the wind speed; A : effective varies monthly. This means that each month
swept area in m2.The coefficient of has daily load curve different from other
performance is the ratio of the mechanical months. Therefore, there are twelve daily
power at the turbine shaft to wind power. load curves through the year. Fig. 7 shows
This factor is not constant, but varies with the load demand for January, April, July
tip speed ratio, λ as shown in Fig. 5 , where and October.
λ can be found as in Eqn. (7) [8,9].
rm *ω m
λ= (7)
where: rm is the radius of swept area in
in order to extract peak power, the rotor
must be held at its optimal tip speed ratio as
shown in Fig. 5, which means that the rotor
angular velocity must vary proportional to
wind speed. The relation between the
electrical power output from WTG and
rational speed, rpm for different wind speed
is shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 7 The hourly load demand for January,
April, July and October.
3- PV/Wind System Sizing
Cpm Fig. 8 shows the proposed integrated
PVWES interconnected to UG. The power
generated by PV solar cells array and WES
at any time t can be expressed as follow:
P ( t ) = α* N * P pv (t) * η
g pv pv
λop + (1 − α) * N * Pw (t) * η
w w
where; α is the penetration ratio, Npv is
number of photovoltaic module and Nw is
Fig. 5 Coefficient of performance Cp versus number of WTG.
In the case of power generated from
tip speed ratio. PVWES is greater than the load demand

then the surplus power will be transmitted Start
to UG. And in this case switch S1 and S3
shown in Fig. 8 will be ON and S2 will be Read Radiation, Wind speed,
PV modules parameters, WTG
OFF. In the case of the power generated parameters and laod demand
from PVWES is lower than the load
demand then the deficit power will be Modification of radiation on surfaces tilted by
supplied from UG. So in this case S1 and monthly best tilt angle and wind speed at WTG
hub height. Set Npv, Nw
S2 shown in Fig. 8 will be ON and S3 will
be OFF. For pen=0 : 1 : 0.1

Wind Speed
Calculate maximum power
Gear box Generator AC/AC
for one module based on

Radiation Energy balance for PV to

DC/DC DC/AC determine number of PV
Calculate maximum power
for one turbine based on

Energy balance for WTG to

determine optimum number
of WTG
Fig.8 PVWES connected with utility grid
Energy balance for Hybrid
case of Mode 1(Pg>PL). system to determine
optimum number PV
The program for calculating optimum
number of PV modules and optimum
number of wind turbines was written in
Take a decision to select
Matlab software. A flowchart of this optimum number of PV and
program is shown in Fig. 9. WTG for minimum cost
The input data of this program consists of :
1- Hourly radiation.
2- Hourly wind speed. Fig 9. Flowchart of the proposed
3- Characteristic of PV module computer program
4- Characteristic of wind turbine.
5- Hourly load demand.
The output of this program are :
1- Optimum number of PV modules.
2- Optimum number of wind turbines
3- Cost of kWh generated from the hybrid
4- Monthly surplus power.
Figs. 10a-10d show the daily load curve
and output power from PV solar cells array
and WTG for months January, April, July
and October respectively.


Table 1 surplus power and deficit power.

Month Power MW
January -14.00
Feb. 130.06
March 138.25
April 61.86
May 130.20
June -46.62
July -79.97
August -141.88
Sept. 59.06
(10-b) Oct. -1.70
Nov. -210.51
Dec. -24.74

The operation of the three switch shown in

Fig. 8 can be summarized as shown in
Table 2.

Table 2. Operational Modes of PVWTG

hybrid system.
power vs.
Mode S1 S2 S3
(10-c )
1 ON OFF ON P g > PL
2 ON ON OFF P g < PL

4- Conclusion

This paper presents a technique to design

and control a utility interfaced PV/WTG
hybrid system. This technique use energy
balance to reduce the cost of electricity
while meeting the load demand. A
controller that monitors the operation of
interfaced system is designed. This
(10-d) controller indicates the available energy
Fig. 10 The hourly generated power from from hybrid system and utility grid in order
PV/WTG, surplus power and load demand to meet the load demand.
(a)January. (b) April (c) July (d) Oct.
From the results obtained above, the
following are the salient conclusions that
Table 1 shows the power purchased and can be drawn from this paper:
sold from utility grid. Negative power
purchased and positive power sold to UG.

1- A simulation program for design and [4] Chihchiang Hua, Jongrong Lin and
control of operation for hybrid power Chihming Shen, " Implementation of a
system based on minimum cost per kWh. DSP-controlled photovoltaic system
2- Purchased and sold power from UG have with peak power tracking", IEEE Trans.
been calculated Industrial electronics, Vol. 45, No. 1,
pp.99-107, Feb. 1998.
3- Combination of wind turbine and [5] R. Kyoungsoo, Saifur Rahman,"Two-
photovoltaic perform better than either loop controller for maximum
wind or solar alone. performance of a grid-connected
4- Maximum power point for photovoltaic photovoltaic-fuel cell hybrid power
and wind are taken into account for plant", IEEE Trans. Energy conversion,
calculation of sizing hybrid system. Vol.13, pp.276-281, Sep. 1998.
5- control strategy of hybrid system have [6] T. Hiyama and K. Kitabayashi, " Neural
been studied. Network Based Estimation of Maximum
Power Generation From PV Module
REFERENCES Using Environmental Information",
[1] International Energy agency report " IEEE Trans. Energy conversion, vol.12,
Key Issues in Developing Renewables", pp.241-247, Sep. 1997.
1997. [7] Suresh H. Jangamshetti, and V.
[2] R. Chedid, and Saifur Rahman, "Unit Guruprasada Rau, " Site matching of
sizing and control of hybrid wind-solar wind turbine generator : A case study",
power systems", IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Energy conversion, Vol.
Energy conversion, Vol. 12, No. 1, 14, No. 4, pp.1537-1543, Dec. 1999.
pp.79-85, March 1997. [8] Gary L. Johnson, "Wind energy
[3] R. Chedid, and Saifur Rahman, " A systems", Book, Prentice-Hall.,1985
decision support technique for the design [9] A. M De Bore, S. Drouilhet, and V.
of hybrid solar-wind power systems", Gevorgian, "A peak power tracker for
IEEE Trans. Energy conversion, Vol. small wind turbines in battery charging
13, No. 1, pp.76-83, March 1998. applications", IEEE Trans. Energy
conversion, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.1630-
1635, Dec. 1999.